Get help from the best in academic writing.

Read and review the selected case study from the required text, and answer the analysis questions. After reviewing the Essay

Read and review the selected case study from the required text, and answer the analysis questions.

After reviewing the background section of the Swisscom AG in your textbook, provide answers to the following questions:

1. Use the information in Note 27 to restate Swisscom’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Begin by constructing debit/credit entries for each reconciliation item, and then post these entries to columns 2 and 3 using the worksheets provided in the textbook.

2. Calculate each of the following ratios under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP, and determine the percentage differences between them, using IFRS ratios as the base:

Net income / Net revenues
Operating income / Net revenues
Operating income / Total assets
Net income / Total shareholders’ equity
Operating income / Total shareholders’ equity
Current assets / Current liabilities
Total liabilities / Total shareholders’ equity
3. Which of these ratios is most (least) affected by the accounting standards used?

From: Doupnik, T.,

2 Name: G#: Date: Course name: Course CRN: World War II Interview

2

Name:

G#:

Date:

Course name:

Course CRN:

World War II Interview

The name of the person I interviewed is Gloria Hatfield who is my grandmother. I interviewed about her relationship to World War II. The following are the questions and the responses that I got from her.

1. When did you first hear about World War II?

My grandmother heard about WWII when she was around 13 years old. Her older brother was drafted into the Navy and she remembers her mother being very worried about him.

2. What do you remember about how the war affected your daily life?

She remembered rationing during the war. She said that sugar, coffee, and meat were all rationed. She also remembered that her family would grow their own vegetables to help supplement their food supply.

3. Do you have any personal stories or memories about the war?

My grandmother’s father worked in a shipyard during the war and she remembers going to visit him there. She also remembers her brother coming home on leave and how excited the family was to see him.

4. What do you think was the most significant event of the war?

My grandmother believes that the most significant event of WWII was the bombing of Pearl Harbor. She said that it really brought the war home for people and made them realize how real the threat was.

5. How do you think the war affected your family?

My grandmother’s brother was killed in the war and she said that it had a profound effect on her family. They were all very close to him and his death was a real loss for them.

6. Do you think that the war had a lasting impact on you personally?

She said that the war definitely had a lasting impact on her. She said that it made her more aware of the world and the different cultures in it. It also made her more appreciate of what she had.

7. What do you think was the most important lesson that you learned from the war?

My grandmother said that the most important lesson she learned from the war was the importance of family. She said that during the war, she realized how much her family meant to her and how much they had sacrificed for her.

Name:

G#:

Date:

Course name:

Course CRN:

World War II Reflective Essay

I learned a lot while completing this project. I had never really thought about the impact of WWII on my family before. My grandmother’s stories really brought the war home for me and made me realize how much it affected my family. The war had a profound effect on the family member interviewed and on my family’s history. It was interesting to learn about the different ways that people coped with the war. My grandmother’s story about her father working in the shipyard was particularly interesting to me. I had never heard that story before. It made me realize how real the threat was and how much my family sacrificed during the war. The most important lesson I learned from the war was the importance of family. I realized how much my family meant to her and how much they had sacrificed for me. The war had a lasting impact on my grandmother and on my family’s history.

While completing the project I also learned that there is more to history than what we learn in school. I also learned that history is not always black and white. There are many different stories and perspectives. I also think that the war had distinct impact on different families. While my grandmother’s family was affected by the death of her brother, other families were affected in different ways. The war was a complex and difficult time for everyone involved. People need to understand that wars are not just about the fighting, but about the people and their stories. Also it is essential to note that nothing good comes from wars and countries need to invest in more peaceful measures of dealing with disagreements. The most important lesson I learned from this project was the importance of listening to different perspectives and stories. We can learn a lot from hearing other people’s experiences. Although not everyone is involved in the actual fights and struggles in a war, everyone is affected in some way. Like my grandmother she was not in the fight but the war still had a lasting effect on her. It is important for us to remember and honor all of the stories from the different people who were involved in the war. My family history is important to me and I am grateful to have had the opportunity to learn more about it.

The study of the impact of customer service quality on customer satisfaction

Read and review the selected case study from the required text, and answer the analysis questions. After reviewing the Essay Writing Assignment Help The study of the impact of customer service quality on customer satisfaction in the Hong Kong banking industry. Case study in Hang Seng Bank Limited.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction at Hang Seng Bank. The study was guided by the following research questions: 1What level of importance do Hang Seng bank customers attach to reliability? 2What level of importance does Hang Seng bank customers attach to responsiveness? 3What level of importance does Hang Seng bank customers attach to empathy? The SERVQUAL modelwas employed for gathering and assessing consumer expectations and perceptions about a service.

The research employed a descriptive design. This research approach is suited for this study because it aims to offer an overview of how service quality variables impact customer satisfaction at Hang Seng Bank. The study’s target audience was clients of Hang Seng Bank Hong Kong, from which a sample size of 400 respondents was drawn. A rigorous random sample approach was used to identify the respondents. Data collection was accomplished by the distribution of questionnaires, of which only 291 were returned. Following that, the data were examined using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Analyses and presentations of the findings were made in response to the research questions.

The study established that reliability and customer satisfaction had a favourable link. Customer satisfaction variation was linked to the reliability component at 56.6 percent. Additionally, it indicated a substantial positive correlation between bank response to consumers and customer happiness. The responsiveness factor accounted for 35.5 percent of the difference in customer satisfaction. Finally, the study discovered a substantial positive correlation between empathy and consumer satisfaction. The empathy factor was shown to account for 29.8% of the difference in customer satisfaction.

The study shows that banks’ service quality is critical factor in determining customer satisfaction. The study indicates that the ultimate effectiveness of any bank-implemented service quality program is determined only by the development and retention of pleased customers. Customer contact professionals play a critical role in achieving these objectives. Banks should not overlook the unique demands of their customer service representatives in their attempts to provide high-quality services to their consumers. The report suggests that commercial banks in Hong Kong constantly maintain a high level of client reliability if they wish to remain competitive in the market by supplying backup services. Additionally, it proposes that banks invent new methods to improve their response to client requirements and implement systems that foster customer confidence.

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT 2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 5

1.1 Background to this research 5

1.2 Research aims and purpose 6

1.3 Problem statement 6

1.4 Research objectives 9

1.5 Research questions 9

1.6 Scope of research 9

1.7 Significance and justification for research 10

1.8 Overview of the structure of the research 11

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 13

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Service Quality 13

2. 3 Customer Satisfaction Measures 15

2.4 Theories of service quality 18

2.5 Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction 20

2.5.1 Empathy on customer satisfaction 20

2.5.2 Assurance and Customer Satisfaction 21

2.5.3 Tangibility and customer satisfaction 22

2.5.4 Responsiveness and customer satisfaction 22

2.5.5 Communication and customer satisfaction 26

2.5.6 Reliability and customer satisfaction 28

2.6 Conceptual framework 31

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Research philosophy 35

3.3 Research approach 36

3.4 Research strategy 37

3.5 Research design 38

3.6 Research instrument 39

3.7 Data collection methods 40

3.8 Data analysis methods 42

3.9 Research ethics 43

3.10 Summary 45

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 46

4.1 Introduction 46

4.3 Descriptive Statistics Analysis 48

4.3.1 Analysis of Service Quality Dimensions items 48

4.4 Analysis of Customer Satisfaction Items 51

4.4.2 Multiple Regression Analysis 54

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION 58

5.1 Introduction 58

5.2 Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction 58

5.2.1 Reliability and Customer Satisfaction 58

5.3.2 Responsiveness and Customer Satisfaction 61

5.3.3 Empathy and Customer Satisfaction 63

5.3.4 Tangibility and Customer Satisfaction 66

5.3.5 Assurance and Customer Satisfaction 67

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 69

6.0 Introduction 69

6.1 Conclusion 69

6.2 Recommendations 71

6.4 Limitation and Areas of further research 73

References 75

APPENDEXIS 82

Questionnaire 82

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Demographic Information 50

Table 2 Frequency, Mean and SD Score for Service Quality Dimensions 53

Table 3 Frequency, Mean and SD Score for Customer Satisfaction Item 56

Table 4 MRA 58

Table 5 Regression results of each SQ dimensions and CS 58

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Conceptual framework: Source: Selvakumar (2015) 36

LIST OF ACRONYMS

ATM – Automated teller machine

CS- Customer Satisfaction

EQ – Emotional intelligence

HKMA – Hong Kong Monetary Authority

SQ- Service Quality

USA- United States of America

WOM- Word-of-Mouth

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background to this research

Over the years, organisations have recognised service quality as a strategic tool for positioning amongst customers. According to Khan and Fasih (2014), service quality is a means of realising operational efficiency and business performance. In the same vein, Grant and Yeo (2018) believe that service quality dimensions are critical for the success of any organisation. This is influenced by the close link with customer satisfaction. Paul, Mittal, and Srivastav (2016) contend that a wide variety of empirical studies indicate that service quality is an antecedent of customer satisfaction within the service industry. The rationale for this is that service quality provides direct and indirect effects on behaviour interventions that ultimately positively influence customer satisfaction (Rao and Sahu, 2013). Consequently, companies are increasingly striving to deliver high service quality as a way of realising competitive advantage.

However, most banks, especially in the Hong Kong industry, face significant challenges in satisfying customers, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic (HKMA, 2021). Due to a decline in demand for banking services, a huge strain on profits has also contributed to lax procedures when it comes to satisfying customers. Hence, these inefficiencies threaten to cast aspersions on the effectiveness of the Hong Kong banking industry to effectively deliver on customer satisfaction. In the process, this provides the rationale for this study.

1.2 Research aims and purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between customer service quality and customer satisfaction in the Hong Kong banking sector. By achieving this objective, this study will have contributed to the establishment of a relationship between customer service quality and customer satisfaction in the Hong Kong banking business.

1.3 Problem statement

The primary challenge faced by the Hong Kong banking sector is being able to keep a hold of its customers. As the economic downturn depends on the global outbreak of COVID-19, HKMA (2021) contends that retail banks in Hong Kong have recorded thinner profits. This has also coincided with a decline in asset quality over the year 2020 and 2021. The occurrence of these misfortunes is juxtaposed with a period whereby there are declining numbers of international customers preferring Hong Kong banks over banks in other regions.

Nevertheless, KPMG (2021) believes that the Hong Kong bank banking sector remains resilient owing to robust capital and ability positions in relation to international standards. However, despite a strong position, the Hong Kong banking sector faces significant challenges in keeping its customer base due to increased cash flow pressure on borrowers. Borrowers are considering turning to other banks that can help reduce cash flow pressure (Berger and Demirgüç-Kunt, 2021). Hence, the collusion of detrimental conditions appears likely to threaten the ability of the Hong Kong banking sector to be competitive.

Quality is defined by Shankar and Jebarajakirthy (2019) as compliance to requirements. According to Sagib and Zapan (2014), providing great service entails consistently satisfying consumer expectations. According to Oni et al. (2016), service quality is defined as the degree and direction of disagreement between consumers’ perceptions and expectations in terms of many but relatively relevant elements of service quality, which might influence future purchasing behavior. Quality in the eyes of the client entails suitability for use and achieving customer pleasure. Service quality is an essential factor that influences a company’s competitiveness. Banks should always improve the quality of service since there is no guarantee that the current excellent service will continue to be acceptable in the future. As a result, banks need “create new strategies” to please their customers and deliver high-quality service to set themselves apart from competitors (Oni et al., 2016).

Other scholars believe that the other challenge of the Hong Kong banking sector is poor customer service quality (Demirgüç-Kunt, Pedraza and Ruiz Ortega, 2020). The Hong Kong banking sector is tailored to wealthy clients and, as a result, lacks flexible and versatile customer relationship management to accommodate all types of customers. This limitation is primarily influenced by a lack of adequate knowledge on the customer service quality amongst the Hong Kong banking sector (Camilleri, 2021). In this regard, there is a need to upgrade the customer service quality of Hong Kong Banks simply because it would help facilitate greater customer satisfaction. Service quality dimensions are likely to support the idea that an improvement in service quality would contribute to greater customer satisfaction (Wu and Olson, 2020). By being able to achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction, the Hong Kong banking sector would significantly become an attractive banking destination for wealthy clients seeking a unique customer experience characterised by improved service quality.

1.4 Research objectives

This research will utilise four research objectives in seeking to fulfil the research aim.

To identify the level of importance that customers attach to reliability

To identify the level of importance that customers attach to responsiveness

To identify the level of importance that customers attach to empathy

To study the link between service quality provided by the bank and customer satisfaction

1.5 Research questions

Based on the background to this research, problem statement, and research objective, this research will pursue the following four research questions.

What level of importance do Hang Seng bank customers attach to reliability?

What level of importance does Hang Seng bank customers attach to responsiveness?

What level of importance do Hang Seng bank customers attach to empathy?

What is the link between the service quality and customer satisfaction?

1.6 Scope of research

This study is about the impact of SQ on customer satisfaction in bank in Hong Kong. However, it will not be possible to cover all the banks within Hong Kong that have improved service quality. It would simply not be feasible enough for this study to focus on many banks owing to budgetary and time constraints. Therefore, this research will cover the specific Hong Kong bank of Hang Seng. It will also seek to identify six banking employees from Hang Seng who have privileged information regarding the improvement in service quality and how it has impacted customer satisfaction. The time period in which the study will be conducted will cover the past two years of Hang Seng bank operations in Hong Kong. The theory of focus in the completion of this study is the SERVQUAL dimensions. Its choice is informed in its inclusion of the factors that measure service quality. These include reliability, responsiveness, communication, access, and security.

1.7 Significance and justification for research

Based on a theoretical standpoint, there are gaps manifested in research. Focusing on the Hong Kong banking sector, there are limited theoretical and empirical studies focusing on the impact of SQ on CS. Based on the study conducted by Fida et al. (2020), it was established that service quality has a positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction and customer delight in the Sultanese of Oman. Similarly, Supriyanto, Wiyono, and Burhanuddin’s (2021) study established that SQ and CS were factors that influenced consumer loyalty towards banking services amongst Indian customers. This research is being conducted because it will help establish how service quality improvement can be used to improve CS within the Hong Kong banking industry. Presently, there is limited theoretical and scholarly focus on the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction amongst Hong Kong banks. Hence, this research will be useful in explaining this relationship through the adding of more scholarly and theoretical perspectives.

From a practical standpoint, this research will be important in revealing how customers perceive the service quality on offer and how it influences their degree of satisfaction in banking products. Because of the intimate ties to the Hang Seng Bank, this issue is of particular interest to me. In Hong Kong, I maintain a personal savings account with the Hang Seng Bank. I’m curious to hear what other customers have to say about the bank’s customer service quality. With this in mind, the bank’s focus on the quality of customer service will be a key indicator of how happy consumers are with the bank’s services.

1.8 Overview of the structure of the research

Chapter 1 landscapes a brief overview of what this research is all about. Hence, it features the background to this research and the research aim, problem statement, research objectives, and questions posed by this study.

Chapter 2 features the literature that informs the framework for this research. Hence, it structures existing empirical and theoretical perspectives on the research topic whilst also seeking to point out the deficiencies of existing literature with regards to providing answers to this research. Consequently, this culminates in the identifying of gaps in research.

Chapter 3 characters the research methods of this study. Hence, it not only focuses on the path taken to complete this research but also the justification of the methods chosen and justification of the methods not chosen. Consequently, it provides an effective understanding of the thinking and foresight of the researcher in choosing an effective and appropriate path in collecting data for this research.

Chapter 4 topographies the findings and analysis of this research. Hence, it focuses on answering the questions posed by this study using the findings of the study.

Chapter 5 of this study entails the discussion of the findings. This is achieved by comparing literature review findings and primary findings to identify consistencies and inconsistencies in the data.

Chapter 6 of this study concludes the study and makes recommendations. This is achieved by reiterating the main findings and also identifying the limitations of the present study and how future studies can avoid similar challenges. .

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The structure of this chapter covers review of literature on the following; impact of reliability on CS; impact of responsiveness on CS; impact of communication on CS; impact of access on customer satisfaction; summary

2.2 Service Quality

According to Rahman et al. (2012), quality is determined by an individual’s assessment of the service. According to Rahman and colleagues, CS should be targeted, revealed, and adjusted in order to improve long-term quality. When customers evaluate a service, they contrast their expectations to what they believe they have gotten from similar service providers; if those expectations are met, if not exceeded, the customer believes the service is of high quality (Camilleri, 2021). The sort of business with which the service is affiliated affects the CS. Expectations can differ depending on the positioning strategies used by various service providers. Ghotbabadi (2012) suggested a method for assessing perceived service quality in terms of technical and functional characteristics. The term “technical quality” refers to the content of the service given to the consumer. The term “functional quality” refers to the ways by which services are delivered: the treatments reserved for customers by staff, the personnel’s behavior, and so forth; in other words, how the service is delivered. According to Ghotbabadi, quality must be defined as the gap between consumer expectations and perceived performance. The consumer makes a comparison between his expectations and his experience with the service, as filtered via the image of the institution. Accordingly, the customer’s appraisal of service quality is based on a comparison, or confirmation, rather than a denial, of some comparative word existing in the customer’s mind before to the service.

Theodorakis et al. (2013) reaffirmed Ghotbabadi’s perspective that consumers evaluate the expected SQ against what they actually receive; that is, SQ expectation and perception. SQ, according to Theodorakis et al. (2013), is reliant on two variables: the actual services received by the customer from the company and the expected services based on the customer’s past experience or overall impression of the service. Service is considered to be of low quality when expected service surpasses perceived service; it is said to be of good quality when expected service exceeds perceived service. The sort of business with which the service is linked affects customer expectations. Expectations can differ depending on the placement tactics used by different service providers. Expectations are affected by the service provider’s past experiences, competing services in the same industry, and equivalent services in different sectors, according to Theodorakis et al. (2013). If the customer has no past experience, word of mouth, news reports, or the company’s marketing activities are more likely to shape their expectations.

The literature has identified a variety of variables or drivers for assessing service quality. For example, Dabholkar (2015) quantifies SQ in terms of consumer perception, expectation, satisfaction, and attitude. Despite the proliferation of models for quantifying SQ, Arora and Narula (2018) acknowledge that the SERVQUAL model remains the most comprehensive attempt to conceptualize and quantify SQ. Parasuraman 1985 and 1988 provide a more detailed rationale for the functional quality. According to Parasuranam’s SERVQUAL approach, SQ is measured on five dimensions: tangibles, dependability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy.

2. 3 Customer Satisfaction Measures

According to Hill and Alexander (2017), customer satisfaction (CS) is a judgment about whether a particular feature of a product or service, delivers joyful consumption-related fulfillment. Based on report by Hasyim, and Fauzi, (2021) satisfaction is not an evaluative state, but a process that spans the duration of consumption. According to the CS paradigm, confirmed expectations result in moderate satisfaction, while positively disconfirmed expectations result in high satisfaction (exceeded standards result in high satisfaction). On the other hand, negatively disconfirmed expectations result in dissatisfaction. According to Alexander (2017), contentment can be explained difference between expectations and perceptions. That is, customer perceptions that contrast pre- and post-purchase expectations. According to Rahim et al. (2012), there are five distinct categories of satisfaction: pleasure, relief, novelty, and surprise. The degree of satisfaction or the intensity of the pleasure experienced is contingent upon one’s choices, pricing, and performance (Arora, and Narula, 2018).

According to Rahim et al. (2012), expectations are deformed whether the gratification modality is pleasure, relief, or surprise. That is, the performance of a product or service meets the purchaser’s expectations. Satisfaction, according to Arora and Narula (2018), is a predictor of attitudinal brand loyalty, with improvements in satisfaction resulting in increases in attitudinal brand loyalty. The writers discovered that pleased clients become repeat purchasers and spread favorable word of mouth about a product or service.

From the customer’s perspective, SQ is the difference between what they anticipate from the service provider and what they seem to be receiving. This distinction results in discrepancies between expectations and the actual service received. Five inconsistencies have been discovered. The first discrepancy is between consumer expectations and management’s perception of those expectations. The second gap refers to the discrepancy between management’s perceptions of CE and how those expectations are manifested in SQ standards. Gap 3 refers to the gap between SQ objectives and the actual delivery of those criteria to the consumer in question. The mismatch between the service provided to clients and the service’s external communications is referred to as Gap 4. Ultimately, Gap 5 consist the gap between consumers’ perceptions of their actual service experience and their ideal service expectations that constitutes (Chen, 2012).

While each of the five gaps may impede an organization’s ability to provide high-quality service, the fifth gap serves as the foundation for a customer-centric definition of SQ that evaluates the incongruence between CE for perfection and their perceived service conveyed. The Gaps model acknowledges the subjective nature of expectations, which are neither static nor predictable. When perceptions surpass expectations, CS is excellent; when perceptions and expectations are equal, CS is excellent; but when expectations exceed perceptions, CS is less than desirable. Hence, judgments of SQ are contingent on how customers perceive actual service performance in relation to what they expect (Yi, and Nataraajan, 2018).

2.4 Theories of service quality

The SERVQUAL model is a research technique that is used to gather and analyze consumer expectations and perceptions about a product or service. Valarie, Parasuraman, and Leonard Berry, three marketing gurus from the United States, conceptualized and implemented the SERVQUAL Model in 1988 (Selvakumar) (2015). A method of recording and evaluating the degree of service that consumers get is described here in detail. Initially, the emphasis was on building quality processes to ensure the consistency of field product quality. With the passage of time, improving the quality of linked services becomes more and more important. Businesses may gain a competitive edge by improving the quality of their services. Furthermore, service has become increasingly important in general, and as a result, the SERVQUAL Model has had a considerable impact on the industry since the 1980s. Back then, measuring service was a nebulous concept that was impossible to measure. This complicated strategy contributes to bridging the gap between client expectations and actual requirements in the marketplace. SQ is measured using the SERVQUAL model’s current five dimensions, which are as follows: At first, it was evaluated based on factors such as timeliness, dependability, competence, accessibility, politeness, communication, trustworthiness, security, customer comprehension, and tangibles (Haming et al., 2019). Following that, all of these components were incorporated into the SERVQUAL model (Haming et al., 2019). As a result, it is referred to as the RATER model informally.

These aspects aids in developing an item scale for evaluating service quality. They also help with consumer identity, which is why they’re important in service marketing. The first dimension is dependability. According to (Yousapronpaiboon, 2014), dependability refers to a business’s capacity to fulfill a task successfully and precisely. Moreover, it establishes if an organization as kept its commitments to customers or not. The second axis is assurance. The staffs of the company define this dimension. It’s their capacity to build confidence and credibility in the minds of their customers. It needs a certain level of competence and dedication. The third dimension is tangibles. This dimension encompasses physical infrastructure, equipment, staff, and communication materials. Empathy is the fourth dimension. According to (Yousapronpaiboon, 2014), this factor relates to the organization’s attention and priority given to the expectations and aspirations of its customers. The fifth axis is responsiveness. This aspect is concerned with the company’s ability and willingness to serve customers and provide promised services.

Due to the fact that it is founded on consumer interactions, a sample survey is undertaken to ascertain customer demand for a certain product or service. SERVQUAL was originally comprised of 22 questions. Following the debate, these questions were approved with revisions based on user feedback. The first four service businesses examined were banking, credit cards, repair and maintenance, and telephone firms.

2.5 Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction

2.5.1 Empathy on customer satisfaction

Empathy, as captured by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985), refers to the capacity to show alertness of the purchaser’s consideration in an individual manner and in the process, provide service to customers. Founded on investigation steered by Selvakumar (2015), one understands that the expectations of the customer in a much better way than the competition contribute to a high level of customer satisfaction. Likewise, Kasiri et al. (2017) believe that having convenient working hours, providing individualised attention, and showing an improved thoughtfulness of the client’s particular requirements are likely to positively impact customer satisfaction. Overall, the above literature reviews suggest that showing empathy strongly influences customer satisfaction.

Empathy is associated with an employee’s capacity to comprehend the client’s perspective and sentiments during service contacts (Dewi et al., 2011), resulting in good consumer attitudes about the service brand (Chakravarty, 2011. pp.221-224.). According to Wilson, Keni, and Tan, (2019), affective commitment is one of three forms of organizational commitment (the others being continuation and normative) (2019). CAC refers to a customer’s emotional attachment to a certain brand as demonstrated by their recognition of that brand (Alaan, 2016). Due to the relationship nature of the brand, committed consumers place a lower premium on pricing differences relative to rivals and ascribe service failures to extrinsic factors rather than brand inadequacy (Chakravarty, 2011).

Additionally, EE toward consumers plays a critical role in connecting the customer service experience with the evaluation of SQ (Loke, et al., 2011 Jandavath and Byram, 2016). PSQ has been identified as a crucial component affecting consumer adoption of services since it has an impact on the client’s perceptions and intentions about the service brand or organization (Ghotbabadi, Feiz, and Baharun, 2015). Lau et al. (2013) concluded in their study that SQ is contingent on an employee’s ability to perceive and address client demands. According to Lau et al. (2013), EE toward consumers is most often favourably rated by customers, which has a significant impact on the service brand’s PSQ.

2.5.2 Assurance and Customer Satisfaction

As defined by Van Iwaarden et al. (2003), assurance refers to the knowledge and respectable etiquettes that originate from the workforces. In the context of the banking sector, Khan and Fasih (2014) indicate that assurance meant offering fiscal services in a good-mannered and sociable routine to the customers. This implies easing how customers access services, providing comfort when accessing services, and providing clear explanations can positively influence customer satisfaction. Similarly, Zameer et al. (2015) indicate that assurance enables customers to rely on trust and confidence when interacting with customers and, in the process, positively influence customer satisfaction. Overall, the above literature reviews suggest that demonstrating assurance is likely to positively influence customer satisfaction.

2.5.3 Tangibility and customer satisfaction

Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) define tangibility as the material amenities, apparatus, and form of the workers and administration of a service provider. Paul, Mittal, and Srivastav (2016) believe that modern looking and sophisticated equipment provide a visual appeal and attractive ambience that positively impacts tangibility and customer satisfaction. In the same vein, Farooq et al. (2018) indicate that tangibility refers to the discernibility of possessions essential for the provision of services to clienteles. Hence, when customers encounter well-turned-out workforces and have effortlessness in retrieving transcribed supplies, it has an approving outcome on the level of consumer contentment. Overall, the arguments brought forth by the literature reviews above indicate that tangibility has a weighty impression on shopper happiness.

2.5.4 Responsiveness and customer satisfaction

There is a dearth of literature on customer responsiveness, while Iberahim et al. (2016) advocated for a more nuanced view of the topic. Customer responsiveness has been defined by some authors (e.g. Pham and Ahammad, 2017; Al-Azzam, 2015; Al-Mhasnah et al., 2018) as the action taken in response to market intelligence regarding the individual needs of target customers and as a market orientation activity that has been established as a significant predictor of performance. Where market orientation is defined as the organizational activities associated with the development and transmission of market intelligence by a business, as well as the firm’s response to market intelligence (Kant, and Jaiswal, 2017), implying continual evaluations of consumer demands (Ragavan, and Mageh, 2013; Bhatta, and Durgapal, 2016).

According to Ismail et al., (2009) and Munusamy, Chelliah, and Mun, (2010), customer responsiveness is meeting customer requirements through market intelligence, which entails reacting to or anticipating customer desires. This becomes an externally focused tool used by firms to improve customer relations and overall service/quality appropriate and substantial goals in order to achieve efficiency. Customer responsiveness is a significant predictor of SQ (Al-Azzam, 2015) and a driver of customer satisfaction (e.g., WHDP, 2014; Agbor, 2011; Naqvi, Asim, and Manzoor, 2020. ; Tiedemann et al., 2009), resulting in good performance (e.g. Bhatta, and Durgapal, 2016; Munusamy, Chelliah, and Mun, 2010; Chen,et al., 2021).

In light of this, this study takes the position that customer responsiveness has a beneficial effect on customer satisfaction, as mediated by service performance from the customer’s perspective. Conforming a service’s performance to the customers’ perceptions and expectations results in a good appraisal of the service process, and hence in overall satisfaction with the service transaction. Clearly, there is a correlation between service performance and satisfaction, as measured satisfaction with service performance indicates an overall level of happiness with service performance (Wang, and Shieh, 2006; Munusamy, Chelliah, and Mun, 2010; Shah, 2010). Most significantly, clients will be happy if performance is satisfactory (Al-Hawary, and Al-Smeran, 2016). Fida et al. (2020) defined satisfaction as a customer’s assessment that the consumption of a product or service meets their requirements, desires, and objectives in a joyful manner. Customers’ views of quality are influenced by the systems and physical resources deployed, as well as the attitudes and actions of contact staff (Mengi, 2009; Tan et al., 2016). More precisely, service performance is defined as the behavioral outcomes of both customers and employees in carrying out their assigned roles in the transaction.

Customer satisfaction is defined as a result of consumers’ views of service excellence (Hu et al., 2009; Udo 2010). Numerous scholars claim that there is a difference between customer pleasure with tangible objects and consumer satisfaction with service experiences. This is because services are intrinsically intangible and perishable, as well as because production and consumption cannot be separated (Wang, and Shieh, 2006). Because assessment of a service offered is hampered by intangibility and unpredictability, performance of that service is used to grade service providers’ services rather than their use.

Zeithaml et al. (1990) describe responsiveness as the concentrations demonstrated in offering services to consumers when necessary. In research conducted by Paul, Mittal, and Srivastav (2016), the preparedness and willingness of workforces to afford the expected customer service deprived of any inopportuneness at any time stalwartly impact purchaser fulfilment. Similarly, Zameer et al. (2015) believe that clienteles get satisfaction when service providers offer consideration, and the workers show devotion to the challenges faced by clienteles when it comes to safe transactions. In the context of the above literature reviews, one observes that responsiveness is expected to significantly impact customer satisfaction.

Responsiveness is described as the capacity to respond quickly and flexibly to client expectations. The information technology revolution, according to Naqvi et al. (2020), has brought about significant changes in the corporate environment, and no other industry has been touched by technical improvements to the same extent as the banking and financial services business. In order to increase service delivery while simultaneously cutting costs through the provision of value-added services for consumers, financial institutions must embrace technology (Finn, 2011). Banks must improve their understanding of evolving client requirements and embrace cutting-edge information technology systems in order to compete more successfully with multinational corporations (Ha, and Jang, 2010). In response to consumer demands, banks can now execute consistently and quickly, resulting in increased customer satisfaction. The authors of Chang, Wang, and Yang (2009) asserted that customers prefer ATM services over internet banking as a result of the adoption of new technology that needs users to be guaranteed of their security before using it. Next, the quality or practice of coming on time or being punctual might be defined as follows: timeliness The term “timeliness” refers to occurrences that take place at an acceptable time, whether they are seasonal, opportune, or well-timed. A quick operating speed that reduces wait times is crucial to the overall quality of ATM services (Chang, Wang, and Yang, 2009). Finn (2011) identified the following elements as contributing to the timeliness of banking services: speed, high uptime, errors, cash backup, and high-quality service at a reasonable cost, among other things.

2.5.5 Communication and customer satisfaction

This research has revealed that there is no universal definition of communication; rather, it differs according on the researchers and the way the idea appeals to them. With the help of several experts, such as Webster and Sundaram, (2009), Talukder (2012), and WA, (2018), described below. It is obvious that there is no unanimity among the scholars. Camgöz-Akda et al. (2016) defined communication as the verbal and nonverbal exchange of information between someone wishing to communicate an idea and another who is anticipated or expecting to receive that concept. Effective communication, as described by Komunda & Osarenkhoe (2012), is “The conversion of concepts, directives, orders, or guidelines into spoken or written words or actions. This is done in such a way that the concepts are transferred from the communicator’s mind to the receiver’s mind, with the goal of the receiver reacting in the manner intended by the communicator “‘.

Despite its length, the above definition demonstrates that effective communication is a two-way streetAdditionally, Wagenheim and Rood (2010) note that communication can be defined as an interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with associated measurements. In any communication, there is a sender, receiver, and a medium through which the message is communicated.

Effective communication is defined as “essentially messages sent and received and confirmation of their receipt and interpretation returned from a sender, to ensure a two-way process.” Talukder, (2012) defined effective communication as “essentially messages sent and received and confirmation of their receipt and interpretation returned from a sender.” According to Webster and Sundaram (2009), communication is the act of developing, transferring, and interpreting ideas, facts, views, and feelings. It is a collaborative process, involving the exchange of information between two or more individuals. According to Ha and Jang (2010), communication is effective when people communicate information and all parties involved have a common understanding of the material.

According to Ofosu-Boateng and Agyei (2020), communication refers to the act of sending and receiving communications. However, it is claimed to be successful only when the message is comprehended and when it prompts action or inspires the listener to think differently. Camgöz-Akda et al. (2017) defined communication as the process of transmitting an idea or message to another person in order for it to be understood and acted upon. Talukder (2012) defines communication as the interchange of verbal and nonverbal signals between two or more individuals. According to Aka et al. (2016), communication is the exchange of information between people, creatures, or points.

In accordance with all of the preceding definitions, this research will concentrate on the definition of communication provided by Kärnä et al., (2009), who defined it as the process of sending and receiving messages and the belief that communication is effective only when the message is understood and stimulates action or encourages the receiver to think in new ways.

2.5.6 Reliability and customer satisfaction

Reliability was described as the capability to implement the necessary service to clienteles’ expectations (Korda, and Snoj, 2010). In an analysis shepherded by Iberahim et al. (2016), dealing with the problems in service, contacting my customers, and doing it right the first time strongly influences customer satisfaction. Similarly, Munusamy, Chelliah, S. and Mun, (2010) content that maintaining a precise record, accuracy in building and maintaining promised service’s manifest reliability and is an significant issue in persuading consumers to keep the services of a given provider. Based on the above literature reviews, it is observed that reliability in service delivery and improvement is expected to strongly influence customer satisfaction.

In the study by Famiyeh (2018) seeking to establish the relationship between reliability and customer satisfaction, the findings, based on the US lodging industry revealed that the guests of the US hotels were thoroughly satisfied with the overall quality of the hotel experience. The findings also suggested that reliability factors were significant. The goal of the study of Ibrahim et al. (2016) was to investigate the relationship between reliability and responsiveness on customer satisfaction within the ATM service points. The data sourced from questionnaires suggested that the relationships of the three elements of consistency, dependability and timeliness were vital in the intensification of shopper satisfaction.

In the US hotel sector, this study explores the link between consumers’ views of reliability, customization, overall quality, and CS. The secondary data for this study comes from the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The findings indicate that US hotel visitors are generally happy with their hotel experiences. Simultaneously, overall quality, customizability, and dependability all have a favorable effect on CS. Additionally, this study verifies the discriminating validity of customisation and reliability views on total CS and gives wide support for the claim that customization has a greater influence on CS in the US hotel industry than dependability.

The ability of an organization to continuously fulfill anticipated standards, how it manages customer service concerns, executing the proper services the first time, providing services on time, and maintaining an error-free record are all factors that contribute to its reliability and dependability. (2010) discovered that the dependability of machine components or product parts may be characterized as a continuous high degree of quality or performance that can be treated at any moment, according to Munusamy, Chelliah, and Mun (2010). For ATMs, environmental conditions and technological reliability are synonymous with functionally dependable design. Korda and Snoj (2010) identified dependability as a critical factor for determining the higher quality of electronic services. According to Kärnä et al., (2009), The term “reliability” refers to the accuracy of an order’s fulfillment, an accurate record, a precise quote, a precise invoicing, and a precise commission calculation; all of these factors contribute to the service’s ability to deliver on its promise to the customer. Consistency and dependability are two essential elements that have an impact on the banking service.

To begin, consistency refers to the similarity or compatibility of objects or pieces. This ensures consistent quality by conducting business in the same manner and adhering to the same standards. The consistency of service output around an ideal goal value established by the client, according to Webster and Sundaram (2009), should be considered to be a key component of service quality. Customer needs change over time, and banks must be able to adjust in a predictable and consistent manner. Second, dependability refers to the confidence that services will be delivered in the manner that has been anticipated. Another important factor influencing the popularity of various kinds of electronic banking services is the level of confidence that customers have in the institution (Hu et al., 2009). As a result, financial institutions have recognized ATM security as a high priority in their risk management strategies. While ATMs are the most common type of machine-to-customer interaction, the risk of mistakes happening during employee-to-customer engagement on bank premises may be lowered by following a few simple steps. The consequence is that ATMs should provide trustworthy transaction data such as correct client identification, normal transaction records, and receipt printing. Another important part of providing a high-quality online service is the accuracy of the information and orders (Udo et al., 2010).

2.6 Conceptual framework

Figure 1 below shows the summarised conceptual framework. It establishes the results of the five fundamental forecasters of service quality on customer satisfaction.

Figure 1 Conceptual framework: Source: Selvakumar (2015)

Acording to the conceptual model, perceived service is the consequence of a firm’s service quality delivery. The CS level is determined by the customer’s perception of service quality based on their service expectations. Customers are happy when their perceptions match their expectations. Clients are highly satisfied when their perceptions exceed their expectations. On the other hand, clients get disappointed when perceptions fall short of expectations. However, service expectations, are formed from a company’s external communication with its consumers regarding its services.

The designs of business representatives, buildings, goods, and equipment, as well as communication materials, are all tangibles. The physical environment is regarded as tangible evidence of the service provider’s care and attention to detail (Hill, and Alexander, 2017).

In order to increase service quality, reliability must be improved. This is due to the fact that when a company is unreliable, it communicates a lack of interest in what customers care about. Customers may create a poor impression of the company and will quickly move to a rival.

The quickness and timeliness with which a service is delivered is referred to as responsiveness. This includes throughput speed as well as the service’s ability to respond swiftly to customer support inquiries while reducing waiting and queue time for the consumer. Hill and Alexander (2017) feel that holding a client waiting for no apparent reason results in undeserved negative quality perceptions that are detrimental to the business. When service fails, the bank’s ability to quickly recover and exhibit professionalism can, on the other hand, lead to extremely positive perceptions of the bank’s quality.

All of these aspects, as well as employees’ knowledge and politeness, as well as their capacity to convey trust and confidence, are considered in Assurance. The assurance dimension includes characteristics such as competence to perform the service, civility and respect for the client, effective communication with the customer, and a general attitude that the server has the customer’s best interests at heart (Hill, and Alexander, 2017).

Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined as the provision of caring, tailored attention to customers or clients. According to Hill and Alexander (2017), empathy is comprised of approachability, sensitivity, and an endeavor to comprehend the customer’s requirements and expectations.

.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to describe the path charted by this research in the completion of the research objectives. It involves the identification, analysis and justification of the research methods that were applied by this research in the completion of the research objectives.

3.2 Research philosophy

This research considered the research philosophies of interpretivism and positivism research philosophies. However, the determination of the most appropriate research method was largely driven by the nature of the research objectives.

Focusing on the research objectives of this study, one observes that there is a specific and contextualized environment from which different realities can emerge. There is a likelihood that different research participants contribute different ideas that are consistent with their own subjective world view. With this in mind, it appears that the interpretivism philosophy is the most appropriate for this research.

The differences between the positivism and interpretivism philosophy is captured on the basis of relationship between society and the individual. In the context of positivism, whereas the society is shaped by the individual, in the context of interpretivism, the individuals have a consciousness and are not easily manipulated by reacting to external sources (Bell, Bryman and Harley, 2018). Similarly, in the context of positivism philosophy, society consists of social facts that coerce control over individuals whilst individuals are intricate and complex as different people experience and understand objective reality (Gravetter and Forzano, 2018). Furthermore, the general focus of social research is also divergent across positivism and interpretivism philosophy. Whereas the positivism philosophy is anchored on uncovering the laws that influence human behaviour, the interpretivist point of view is anchored on the generation of insight into the lives of the research participants.

Based on the differences manifested between the positivism and interpretivism philosophy, the ontology and epistemology of the interpretivism philosophy is more consistent to the research objectives of this research.

3.3 Research approach

The research approaches considered by this research include the deductive research approach and the inductive research approaches. However, in the determination of the most appropriate research approach, the nature of the research questions of this study heavily influenced the choice.

The research objectives of this study have assumed the role of exploratory perspective. On the basis of the exploratory nature of the research objectives, one can argue that the inductive research approach is the most appropriate. Whereas the inductive reasoning is aimed at theory development, deductive reasoning is aimed at existing theory testing (Bell, Bryman and Harley, 2018). Similarly, the inductive reasoning shifts from specific observations to broad generalizations whilst the deductive reasoning shifts the other way round (Hansen and Machin, 2018). With this in mind, the inductive reasoning provided the most value towards theory development by creating an opportunity for theory build-up around the research objectives. Therefore, on account of these perspectives, the inductive research approach was the most appropriate for this study.

3.4 Research strategy

This research considered the research strategies of case study, survey, experiment and ethnography. The above research strategies detail the step by step plan of action that offers direction of the thoughts and efforts of the researcher (Gravetter and Forzano, 2018). In this regard, it enables the researcher to conduct systematic research and on schedule produce quality results. Based om the extensive analysis of the research strategies conducted in the above section, this research settled on the case study research strategy (Tracy, 2019).

The rationale for the choice of the case study research strategy is the in-depth investigations done on a single company (Sekaran and Bougie, 2019). Typically, the data gathered from a variety of sources and used by different sources of data is a key characteristic of the case study strategy. In addition, the choice of case study is informed by the consistency to the questions of ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ nature (Hennink, Hutter and Bailey, 2020). The nature of the research questions of this study follows the ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ nature thereby making it consistent and appropriate for the case study strategy. The focus on what, why and how nature of the research objectives played an important role in the extensive analysis and collection of data of this research. The wide variety of research perspectives would vastly be explored by this research by focusing on the research objectives.

3.5 Research design

This research considered the choice of research designs based on the choice of qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research design. Whereas qualitative research deals with words and meanings, Bell, Bryman and Harley (2018) aver that quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics. Likewise, whereas quantitative methods allow the systematic measure of variables and testing of hypotheses, Patten and Newhart (2017) believes that qualitative research enables one to explore concepts and experiences in more detail. Mixed methods research involves the combined usage of both words and meanings as well as numbers and statistics. Based on this consideration, the research design that was chosen for this research is the qualitative research design. The choice of the qualitative research design is influenced by the nature of the research objectives that appear to suggest an attempt to explore the nature of the research questions. For instance, scrutinizing the research question of what are the noticeable health and safety problems of employees in the warehouse at present, one observes that this research would benefit from the understanding of the feelings, values and perceptions that underlie and influence the behaviour. This is consistent with the perspective of the qualitative research design that seeks to understand feelings, values and perceptions that underlie and influence behaviour (Sekaran and Bougie, 2016). Similarly, by using the qualitative research design, it would help in the identification of the needs of the research participants. Consequently, on this basis, the most appropriate research design of this study was the qualitative research design.

3.6 Research instrument

Primary data were acquired for the study. Primary data were collected using questionnaires because they provide secrecy; participants engage without fear or humiliation, unlike in an interview. The questionnaires allowed the researcher to create a list of questions in advance, which aided in guiding the study participants’ approach and direction of conversation.

The questionnaires were created with the research purpose in mind. The first component of the questionnaire elicited information about the respondents’ general characteristics. These included the age of the participant, the type of account they had at Hang Seng bank and number of years they had saved with the bank.

The next sections discussed the factors that contribute to consumer happiness, as stated by Dabholkar (2015). Indicators such as tangibility, dependability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy were used to assess SQ. Customer opinion on whether their expectations are confirmed, affirmed, or disconfirmed was used to determine the service perception and expectation gap (Hill, and Alexander, 2017).

The last part of the questionnaire identified aspects of customer satisfaction. CS was quantified by recommendations and loyalty; enjoyment was also quantified (Yi, and Nataraajan, 2018). Customers were surveyed using a Likert scale and semantic rating to express their opinions on the aforementioned dimensions or indicators..

3.7 Data collection methods

In the process of data collection, this research considered a number of data collection methods that included semi-structured interviews, observations and questionnaires. In the final result, it settled on the use of the semi-structured interview for the process of completing this research.

The questionnaires made it possible for the researcher to have a set of questions prepared beforehand that played an important role in guiding the approach and direction of conversation taken by the research participants (Turner, Cardinal and Burton, 2017). By embracing this approach to the data collection process, the researcher was able to keep the respondents in topic whenever there was a sign of deviation from the topic towards engagement in small talk. Moreover, the semi-structured interview is also advantageous because it allows for open-ended responses from research participants thereby allowing for more in-depth information to be collected (Veal, 2017). The allowance of open-ended questions was particularly useful to this research because it indicated that the researcher was able to pose additional questions to the research participants in the process of seeking to gain extra clarification on points and ideas that lacked clarity. Furthermore, the semi-structured interview encouraged the propagation of a two-way communication approach (Patten and Newhart, 2017). The reliance on two-way communication was important because it meant the researcher could engage the research participants in a conversational approach that would in many instances, build confidence and make them comfortable in the tone the conversation was taking.

Following on from this realization, this research settled on a two week period upon which all the interviews would be conducted. The two week period also provided a good framework upon which potential reschedules of the interviews could be done thereby ensuring that the research proceeded on with limited drama. Furthermore, the researcher also communicated that individual interviews were expected to take a maximum of 30 minutes to complete each. This was perceived as a reasonable timeframe upon which the research could be completed and did not extensively inconvenience the research participants. The interview exercise proceeded on well and eventually the six interview records from the research participants were used in the analysis of the research questions posed by this study.

3.8 Data analysis methods

When it came to the analysis of data, thematic analysis was utilized. Thematic analysis is a qualitative data analysis method that involves the reading through a given data set and the identification of patterns in meaning across the data (Sekaran and Bougie, 2016). The main advantage of thematic analysis is in the flexibility in the interpretation of data. as such, this makes it possible for a large data set to be more easily identifiable by way of sorting it out into broader themes (Nowell et al., 2017).

In the application of thematic analysis, there are six steps that were followed. Firstly, this research sought to familiarize with the data. this involved the re-reading of the interview records as a way of being able to capture what was said by different interviewees. Secondly, the researcher focused on generating initial codes. This was informed by the determination of codes that played an important role in determination of the themes of the study. Thirdly, it involved the review of themes to establish if they were consistent with the research objectives. Fourthly, the definition of themes was done as a way of establishing which data was consistent to the various themes identified. Lastly, this research involved the complete writeup of the research and in the process reinforce the research’s ability to answer the research questions.

However, by relying on thematic analysis, there is a likelihood of missing out nuances in the data. this can be especially problematic when dealing with textual data that is also mostly phrase based. With this research depending on interview records, the researcher was keen to ensure that the research questions were consistent with the structuring of the research objectives of this research.

3.9 Research ethics

On the basis of the reliance on human participants, this research complied with all ethical guidelines associated with business research. Research ethics provide the guidelines for responsible conduct in the process of research execution. With this in mind, the first ethical guideline observed by this study was that of honesty. This implied that the research to its utmost capability, assured the readers that it could be conducted in an honest manner. This implied that an honest approach to reporting of data, results, methods and procedures would be adopted. This also meant that there would be zero fabrication, falsification and misrepresentation of data. The second ethical guideline was that of objectivity. This implied that this research would strive to avoid potential bias in the analysis, data, analysis and data misrepresentation and other aspects of the study. The third ethical guideline was that of confidentiality. This research assured the research participants that their confidentiality would be protected and the use of personal names or titles that could easily lead to their identification would be avoided. The fourth ethical guideline was that of informed consent. This involved the seeking of permission from the research participants for the conduction of the study. Upon a written confirmation from the research participants being obtained confirming their consent and willingness to take part in this study, it is when this research finally confirmed the participation of the six research participants. Finally, this research was committed towards protecting the health of the research participants. As such, in the COVID-19 pandemic climate, this research avoided one-on-one interviews with the research participants and instead prioritized the telephone interview that guaranteed the protection of the research participant from potentially contracting COVID-19 as far as this research was concerned.

3.10 Summary

This chapter has emphasized its focus on the qualitative research design. This has been justified by the explorative nature of the research objectives that have justified and considered the qualitative research design as the most appropriate. In addition, other research methods that have been considered by this study on account of the reliance on the qualitative research design include: interpretivism research philosophy; inductive research approach; case study research strategy; qualitative research design; purposive sampling method; semi-structured interview and thematic analysis. On account of these research methods, there is a clear path that is outlined for the progression of this research.

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings from primary data obtained using questionnaires and interview guides. The data was gathered from clients who used Hang Seng Bank Hong Kong’s services. The findings are arranged by goal. The respondents’ demographic information is supplied first, followed by information on each of the specified objectives.

4.2 Demographic Information

The research expected 400 responders but received only 291 responded, resulting in a response rate of 86.09 percent, which was sufficient for analysis.

Characteristic

Frequency

Percentage

Gender

Male

189

64.95

Female

102

35.05

Total

291

100

Age

18-25

37

12.71

26 -35

52

17.87

36-45

71

24.40

46- 55

69

23.71

56 and above

62

21.31

Total

291

100

Education Level

Primary School

0

0.00

High school

29

9.96

Certificate

88

30.24

Diploma

111

38.144

First degree and above

63

21.65

Total

291

100

Account type

Current account

89

30.58

Savings account

140

48.11

Fixed account

62

21.30

Total

291

100

Table 1 Demographic Information

As stated in Table 1, 35.05 percent of 291 respondents were female, while 64.95percent were male. Additionally, the table displays the respondent’s age; it’s clear that the majority of them were economically engaged. The greatest group of respondents, 24.40 percent, were between the ages of 36 and 45, while the smallest group, percent, 12.71within the age of 18. In terms of educational attainment, majority of the respondent were diploma holders with 111 (38.144 percent), while the least were primary school holders with 9.96 percent. In terms of account type, the majority of respondents utilize savings accounts, accounting for 140 (48.11 percent) of clients, while fixed and current deposit accounts account for 89 (30.58 percent) and 62 (21.30 percent) of clients, respectively. This suggests that the majority of clients are interest earning, while the minority are non-interest earners. Over a third of clients had current accounts, which enabled them to issue checks to third parties and withdraw substantial sums of money at a more convenient period than saving account holders.

4.3 Descriptive Statistics Analysis

4.3.1 Analysis of Service Quality Dimensions items

Dimensions of service quality

Strongly disagree.

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Mean

S.D

Tangibility

The branch has up to date equipment

19

36

60

79

97

2.224

1.20

The facilities at Hang Seng are visually attractive

20

93

11

93

74

2.40

1.227

The Hang Seng Bank has office at convenient location to its

customer

27

88

3

130

43

2.46

1.247

Employees of the Hang Seng at the front line position is well

dressed and appears neat

12

17

2

87

173

2.40

1.279

Reliability

Employees at Hang Seng keep customer record correctly

4

11

55

75

146

2.18

1.161

The workers provide service at the designed and promised time

11

44

88

91

57

2.26

1.145

the branch inform any failure ahead of time

10

47

99

55

80

2.2

1.122

Responsiveness

Employees provide punctual service

7

14

29

92

148

2.58

1.407

Employees willingness to help customers

6

48

9

106

122

2.75

1.371

Staff are never busy to respond to customer

8

148

6

107

22

2.84

1.393

request

Employees give quick response when ether is

8

100

8

107

68

3.08

1.52

problem

Assurance

personal behavior of the staffs are excellent that

2

176

3

88

22

2.34

1.22

the customer Can trust

staffs are polite

1

194

4

75

17

2.25

1.145

Employee have qualified skills and knowledge to serve customer

1

190

2

81

17

2.27

1.164

Empathy

The staff know what customers’ needs are

7

177

2

80

25

2.27

1.21

staffs are give customers individual attention

12

162

2

105

10

2.63

1.33

The bank and its employees give do consideration

9

190

1

95

4

2.54

1.255

for customers property

staffs give orientation about the new service and

7

190

8

77

9

2.47

1.262

the cost related with the service

The bank has convenient working hours to all its

2

162

3

81

43

2.22

1.215

customers

Table 2 Frequency, Mean and SD Score for Service Quality Dimensions

The majority of respondents disagree on the tangibility items, as shown in Table 2, the Hang Seng’s features modern equipment (4.71 percent), attractive facilities (4.01 percent), a convenient location (4.11 percent), and well-dressed employees (4.11 percent) (4.71 percent). As can be seen, dependability was the most often answered to item, with a mean value of 2.26, and was shown in keeping correct customer records (4.2 percent), delivering service on schedule (47.15 percent), and advising the branch of any failure in advance (47.15 percent) (5.75 percent). This indicates that the majority of the items labelled as trustworthy were unsatisfactory to customers. The mean score for responsiveness for this aspet is 2.44, suggesting that people agree (2.16 percent). However, this does not imply that clients are satisfied with the Hang Seng bank.

The majority of responders expressed their discontent, as shown by the other item component. The third dimension is assurance items, on which the majority of respondents disagree, with mean values of 3.25 and 3.27 for personal behavior of personnel, politeness, and enough expertise to help customers for personal behavior of personnel, politeness, and enough expertise to help customers, respectively. As a consequence, the average is two. Empathy is the last component of service excellence, and it is also valued. The mean value of 2 confirms that all of the supplied qualities are ranked in disagreement.

4.4 Analysis of Customer Satisfaction Items

Dimensions of Customer satisfaction

Strongly disagree.

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Mean

S.D

Tangibility

I am satisfied with the banks modern equipment

16

63

60

79

73

4.31

1.14

I am satisfied with the facilities at Hang Seng since they are visually attractive

29

83

18

80

81

4.11

1.229

I am satisfied with the Hang Seng location

27

88

3

130

43

3.97

1.393

I am satisfied with how employees at Hang Seng are dressed and appears neat

12

17

2

87

173

3.52

1.38

Reliability

I am satisfied with the bank’s response time to my demands.

4

11

55

75

146

2.37

1.374

I am satisfied with the personnel’ responsiveness to my problems.

11

44

88

91

57

3.64

0.79

When I run into difficulties, I am comfortable that the staff is kind and reassuring.

10

47

99

55

80

3.97

1.43

Responsiveness

I am satisfied that I am always notified when services will be conducted.

7

14

29

92

148

4.12

1.362

I am satisfied that I am always notified when services will be conducted

6

48

9

106

122

3.68

1.371

I am satisfied with the personnel’ genuine interest in and willingness to serve consumers.

8

148

6

107

22

4.84

1.393

I am satisfied that the

employees are genuinely

interested and ready in

assisting customers

8

100

8

107

68

4.08

1.52

Assurance

I am satisfied that the bank’s employees are trustworthy

2

176

3

88

22

3.34

1.22

I am satisfied that my transactions and personal information are kept confidential

1

194

4

75

17

4.25

1.145

I am satisfied that the employees are knowledgeable and have the required skills

1

190

2

81

17

4.27

1.164

I am satisfied that the banks employees are courteous

Empathy

I am satisfied that am

given individual attention

by the bank’s employees

7

177

2

80

25

3.91

1.417

I am satisfied with how the employees deal with me in a polite and caring fashion

12

162

2

105

10

4.63

1.33

I am satisfied with the employees having my best interest at heart

9

190

1

95

4

2.54

1.255

I am satisfied that the employees understand my specific needs

7

190

8

77

9

2.47

1.262

I am satisfied with the

bank’s operating hours as

they are convenient to me

2

162

3

81

43

3.52

1.317

Table 3 Frequency, Mean and SD Score for Customer Satisfaction Item

As seen in Table 3, the mean value is between 1.48 and 1.74, which falls between the two extremes. With the exception of item number four, every feature of frequency demonstrates that the vast majority of respondents disagree with the mode value of two. In order to dissuade the most commonly occurring answer, utilizing the mean value will be more realistic in cases where the standard deviation is larger than normal. Thus, the large number of respondents from the sample assigned low ratings to security of bank services (68.22 percent), respectful of bank employees (62.43 percent), communicative ability and various levels of service (64.21 percent) and (48.16 percent), respectively, indicating their dissatisfaction with the services. A significant proportion of respondents (52.47 percent) had a mode value of 1, which indicates a higher frequency of responses indicating strongly disagree.

4.4.2 Multiple Regression Analysis

There is a statistically significant positive relationship between the five dimensions of service quality (SQ) and customer satisfaction (CS) The highest correlation (0.788) is found between responsiveness and CS, followed by reliability (0.768), empathy (0.699), and the remaining dimensions of tangibility and assurance (0.673 and (0.659). The relationship between assurance and CS is the smallest, whereas the relationship between responsiveness and CS is the strongest. A positive correlation between two or more variables, for example, when SQ dimensions and CS are positively associated, means that providing greater service quality will result in higher customer satisfaction in general. CS levels are significantly increased when a SQ dimension such as responsiveness is improved, followed by reliability. This indicates that improvements in fast service and reliable service have a significant impact on CS levels, and that improvements in staff knowledge, over all behavior, and the manner in which services are delivered also have a significant impact on CS levels. However, even though tangibility and assurance are only weakly associated, increasing these dimensions has a positive impact on overall CS.

Model Summary

Table 4 MRA

Results of MRA as provided in Table 4 above indicated that the SQ characteristics (tangibility, dependability, responsiveness and assurance) when considered together have a substantial impact on the CS. Table 5: Results of MRA According to the modified R2 of 0.8, the SQ supplied by Hang Seng Bank can forecast 81.7 percent of the volatility in CS in the market. As a result, SQ has a positive and statistically significant influence on CS.

Table 5 Regression results of each SQ dimensions and CS

CS = 1.602 + 0.035Tang. + 0.048Rel. + 0.021Resp. + 0.020 Assur. +0.002Emp.

Where;

CS – Customer Satisfaction

Tang. – Tangibility

Rel. – Reliability

Resp. – Responsiveness

Assur. – Assurance

Emp. – Empathy

With a significant p-value (p<0.05), implies that tangibility, reliability assurance, responsiveness and empathy dimensions had a significant influence on CS.

The linear regression model findings indicated that the bank’s service quality had an effect on CS. Additionally, the study discovered that with all other variables being constant, a unit increase in customer perceptions on the tangibility dimension substantially increased CS by 0.035 points. Additionally, a unit increase in judgments of dependability increases CS by 0.048 points. A unit improvement in responsiveness significantly increases CS by 0.021 points when all other variables are maintained constant. This is true for assurance, where a unit increase has a considerable influence on CS by boosting perceptions by 0.020 points when all other variables remain constant. Additionally, with all other variables held constant, a one-point increase in empathy perceptions would result in a 0.002 point rise in CS perceptions, as indicated in Table 5.

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the discussions, conclusion and recommendations from the study. Further areas of research are also highlighted.

5.2 Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction

5.2.1 Reliability and Customer Satisfaction

The research found a positive link between reliability and CS with a beta value of 0.048 and a p-value of 0.000, which was less than 0.05. The results accord with Fatima and Razzaque (2014), who suggested that dependability, reflects the service provider’s capacity to deliver services reliable and correct. Furthermore, it entails executing tasks perfectly the first time, and it is one of the most critical service components for consumers (Nisha 2016). Trustworthiness is an extraordinarily significant trait, particularly in the banking business (Shankar and Jebarajakirthy, 2019). Reliability improvements are crucial in SQ enhancement activities. This is because when a corporation is unreliable, they express less regard for what consumers care about. Customers may acquire a negative image of the business and move to a rival without second thoughts (Korda and Snoj, 2010).

Additionally, the findings of theis study showed that most of the participants had great expectations for ideal institutions. Particularly 96.7 percent of those surveyed believed that when Hang Seng Bank promised to accomplish something by a specific time, they did. These findings are consistent with Munusamy, Chelliah, and Mun’s (2010) study, which pointed out that delivering services as promised is one of the main aspects of CS. A perfect approach to impressing consumers is by accomplishing what you promised and doing it perfectly at the first time experience. This will encourage repeat business. Research has revealed that delivery is the most crucial aspect for consumers and is one of the key reasons for account abandonment if not accomplished (Nisha 2016). Providing service as promised is consequently crucial in every company. This helps create a company’s reputation, and a strong reputation increases the likelihood of repeat business. Additionally, word-of-mouth (WOM) differentiates a new business from its rivals. They may offer comparable items, but their organization may not deliver on their promises (Ibrahim et al. 2016).

At the same time, respondents agreed that Hang Seng bank is interested in resolving a customer’s issue, and 96.7 percent agreed that the bank provided the service correctly the first time. The results corroborate Kärnä et al. (2009) argument that banks are vying on all fronts to keep existing accounts and sign up new ones in order to demonstrate their dependability. There is no business where effective advertising and corporate social responsibility can gain clients in today’s market. A business must demonstrate to consumers why they should remain loyal and avoid switching to a rival at all costs. Consumers now have a plethora of alternatives, and most businesses will want these customers on their side (Gürbüz 2018). Generally, customers’ impressions of the services they will get from banks exceed their expectations. Bank consumers typically search for indicators of trustworthiness. Customers may judge banks’ services and workers (Udo et al., 2010).

Finally, 88.9 percent of respondents agreed that Hang Seng bank provides error-free records. The results confirm that acquiring and maintaining consumers is a critical component of a business’s capacity to inspire trust. This demonstrates trustworthiness, that their representatives and agents are available to assist them when necessary, and that their customer records are error-free (Kärnä et al. 2009). According to Hu et al. (2009), maintaining accurate records allows a business to operate more effectively. This may result in profitability. Maintaining correct records enables businesses to maintain an up-to-date account of their revenue, spending, assets, and obligations. Banks may use this data to determine their operational strengths and weaknesses (Korda and Snoj, 2010). Banks are required by law to maintain error-free records. Therefore, it is essential for banks to maintain accurate records professionally and conform to banking legal norms (Ibrahim et al. (2016).

5.3.2 Responsiveness and Customer Satisfaction

The study discovered a significantly positive link between bank responsiveness and CS, with a beta of 0.021 and a p-value of 0.00. These studies demonstrate that customers value prompt service. Effective service providers are aware of this (Pham and Ahammad, 2017). Additionally, organizations that emphasize efficiency place a premium on their services and leverage this advantage to ward off competitors (Al-Azzam, 2015). Bank consumers want institutions that are eager to assist them with their financial transactions. In the banking industry, CS may be accomplished when the service provider is willing to assist its consumers when necessary. Moreover, Al-Mhasnah et al. (2018) noted that “responsiveness is positively associated with customer happiness, and happy consumers would recommend others.” As a result, banks rely heavily on WOM advertising. Key parts of responsiveness include informing consumers when services will be performed, providing quick service to customers, being eager to assist customers, and being prepared to respond to customer requests (Pham and Ahammad, 2017).

Similarly, descriptive findings indicate that 84.6 percent of respondents think Hang Seng bank personnel precisely informs consumers when services will be done. The findings corroborate Pakurár et al. (2019) .’s argument that the efforts taken to keep consumers informed about issues can either enhance or damage the relationship. Keeping clients aware of developments might have a long-lasting impact on the connection. By allowing consumers to resolve their own issues and failing to take proactive measures, businesses pass up an opportunity to improve client connections (Al-Mhasnah et al., 2018). If the consumer perceives that a business is working diligently to resolve the issue, the client will feel well taken care of and will believe he is receiving his money’s worth (Al-Azzam, 2015).

On the other side, 12.4% of respondents believed that Hang Seng workers are never too busy to react to consumer demands. Additionally, 94.8 percent of respondents agreed that Hang Seng’s bank personnel communicate to consumers about service modifications. The findings corroborate Ragavan and Mageh’s (2013) argument that employing and recruiting people willing to help customers is necessary for delivering the kind of service that a corporation expects. In a competitive recruiting climate, a business must compete with comparable firms to attract the top candidates with this approach. Using body language and eye contact to demonstrate that the employee is listening. This demonstrates to a consumer that the employee is paying attention and willing to assist them. Willingness to assist the consumer creates a sense of understanding and appreciation. Customers expect businesses to prioritize their needs (Bhatta and Durgapal, 2016). In comparison to aptitude, attitude will always have the upper hand. When recruiting, most organizations will favor those ready to go the additional mile or make a sacrifice over those with superior technical abilities. It is sometimes easier to improve an employee’s technical skills than to modify their unwilling conduct. Employees who excel in the service business are naturally inclined to serve and are willing to do so while interacting with consumers. This is because their independent attitude and willingness to assist clients enable them to retain and attract new customers (Chen et al., 2021).

Finally, 87.8 percent of respondents agreed that Hang Seng staff offers relevant products or services to consumers, while 98.9 percent agreed that the bank’s personnel promptly notify customers of important news. These data confirm that customers indeed place a premium on businesses’ preparedness to react to their requests based on past precedent. If a business routinely answers promptly to customer inquiries, customers have a reasonable expectation that their subsequent requests would be addressed as well. It costs five times to acquire a new customer as it does to retain an existing one (Fida et al., 2020). Customers are made to feel welcome when you answer quickly to their inquiries. This is a critical aspect of delivering a great client experience (Bhatta and Durgapal, 2016).

5.3.3 Empathy and Customer Satisfaction

The study established a significant positive link between empathy and CS, with a beta of 0.002 and a p-value of 0.000. This research confirms that the empathy factor is represented in employee and customer interactions (Selvakumar 2015). Customers of services expect the service provider to understand and care about their unique requirements and desires. As a service provider, attempting to comprehend the situation from the customer’s perspective provides a complete picture of what is occurring (Kasiri et al., 2017). Demonstrating comprehension of clients’ concerns and possessing the information necessary to resolve them are critical components in the banking sector.

Empathy encompasses several critical components, including providing personalized attention to consumers, workers who interact with customers in a caring manner, and employees who understand their customers’ requirements (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985). Additionally, it was shown that the majority of respondents felt that Hang Seng bank provides personalized service to each customer (94.8 percent). The findings corroborate Alaan’s (2016) argument that CS rises when customers perceive that their requirements have been met. When providing customer service, businesses typically deal with many seemingly identical consumers, but it is critical to remember that each customer is unique. Anything that can be done to ensure that each client receives the firm’s undivided attention and is treated individually boosts their level of pleasure (Chakravarty, 2011). By establishing two-way contact between consumers and businesses, tracking customer behavior, and delivering personalized information to them, you can instill a sense of belonging.

Ultimately, it was established that Hang Seng bank has its customers’ best interests at heart (100 percent), offers a diverse range of banking alternatives (98.1 percent), communicates effectively with them (100 percent), and has strong customer administration (98.1 percent). These findings demonstrate that staff at this bank is adaptable. According to (Kasiri et al., 2017), working in a stress-free environment enables employees to interact with clients cost-effectively without jeopardizing the firm’s brand or driving away consumers. This conclusion is consistent with Loke et al. (2011), who state that material compatibility enhances overall staff productivity and mission performance. This may be accomplished by employing current technology to meet client needs in the workplace. Banks’ dedication to knowing their customers’ requirements is critical, as clients may save a significant amount of money in banks. Employees must truly grasp their clients’ demands, and 48 offer a clear explanation of each product to consumers while dealing with sophisticated items such as insurance, finances, and margins. When these clients receive the services they desire, they develop a sense of belonging, resulting in their loyalty to a specific business.

5.3.4 Tangibility and Customer Satisfaction

The study also revealed a significant positive relationship between tangibility and CS with a beta value of 0.035 and a p-value of 0.000. Customers of Hang Seng Bank placed a high premium on tangibles as a measure of service excellence in this respect. Consistency in the look of physical facilities was a critical feature of tangibility since Hang Seng Bank clients highly valued it. This conclusion corroborates Fatima and Razzaque’s (2014) observation that the look of employees and physical facilities explains a great deal about the level of professionalism practiced in a business. The equipment and physical facilities that a business uses communicate volumes to the client and either increase or decrease the consumer’s degree of trust in the services given far before the service is delivered.

Further study found that 88.3 percent of clients at Hang Seng Bank placed a higher premium on the tangibility dimension. This finding corroborates Nisha’s (2016) observation that the “tangibles” dimension significantly affects the intangible dimensions of service quality. The cumulative effect of tangibles on perceived service quality is significantly greater than the direct effect, implying that intangibles facilitate tangibles. Additionally, the finding is consistent with Shankar and Jebarajakirthy’s (2019) assertion that tangibility can be added to services by ensuring that the equipment used, such as computers, is of the highest quality, the chairs that customers sit in a while waiting for services or while receiving services are of high quality, and that employees treat customers well in order to increase the tangibility of the services delivered

5.3.5 Assurance and Customer Satisfaction

Lastly, the study revealed a significant positive relationship between tangibility and CS with a beta value of 0.002 and a p-value of 0.000. This aspect focused on staff trustworthiness, information confidentiality, employee civility, and employee knowledge and abilities. Customers of Hang Seng Bank placed a higher premium on personnel being informed and possessing the necessary abilities about the bank’s procedures (93.04%) in this survey. This was followed by bank workers being pleasant (83.01%) and trustworthy (84.09%), while transactions and personal information were kept secret by the bank and received the lowest rating (84.82%). As Fatima and Razzaque (2014) noted, assurance ensures that the firm will continue to provide the same quality services and increase consumer trust. Employees must thus assess client demands, comprehend their input, and then solve any issues that may have arisen during service delivery. Customers are happy when they are confident that the quality they got was not transient but that the business is committed to providing the same level of service. The opinions of Hang Seng Bank clients about the assurance dimension were not notably different. This finding contradicted Pakurár et al. (2019)’s findings in Malaysia, where they compared service quality and concluded that the assurance dimension scored the highest average mean in the perception.

The researchers also analyzed the behavior of banking personnel in interacting with clients in a pleasant and caring manner, workers acting in the best interests of consumers, and the convenience of the bank’s operating hours. On this front, Hang Seng Bank customers placed a premium on the bank’s operating hours being convenient (93.21%), believing that employees have the customer’s best interests at heart (93.03%), and employees comprehend the customer’s unique needs (93.95%). Employees interact with customers in a polite and caring manner (3.84). This data corroborates Sakhaei et al. (2014) .’s assertion that staff who pay attention to their clients create a favorable image in the customer’s mind. This corroborates Famiyeh et al.’s (2018) conclusion that empathy is critical for attaining customer happiness. Employees must be taught to guarantee that they can communicate effectively with clients. One must empathize with their emotions and frustrations and tell them that things will improve. This also supports Sagib and Zapan’s (2014) conclusion that for banks to thrive, both product and service delivery must be properly aligned with client desires: achieving customer loyalty and dependability is critical for long-term survival (Pakurár et al., 2019).

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

6.0 Introduction

The major goal of the study was to assess the influence of service quality on customer satisfaction at Hong Kong Commercial Bank. The study was guided by the following research questions: How does different component of service quality effect customer satisfaction? The study utilized a survey research strategy targeting clients of Hang Seng in Hong Kong from which a sample size of 400 respondents was selected. Systematic random sampling was employed to choose the sample size. Primary data was acquired through a questionnaire where only 291 of the questionnaires were returned. The study revealed that there was a positive relationship between service qualities (reliability, assurance, empathy, tangibility and responsiveness) with a significant p-value (p<0.05). This implies that tangibility, reliability assurance, responsiveness and empathy dimensions had a significant influence on CS.

6.1 Conclusion

The study’s findings indicate that banks’ reliability in providing services to their clients is a critical factor in determining CS. Additionally, it may be stated that clients have high expectations, as Hang Seng banks always deliver on their promises. Similarly, the banks demonstrates a genuine interest in resolving hurdles, delivers the service correctly the first time, and nsist on error-free records.

The study shows that there is a significant correlation between bank responsiveness and CS, implying that bank responsiveness is also a significant contribution to CS in the Hong Kong banking business. Additionally, the study indicates that Hang Seng bank personnel informs consumers precisely when services will be conducted and that the bank provides quick service to customers. Similarly, Hang Seng bank personnel are always is eager to assist consumers.

Similarly, this study determined that workers of Hang Seng bank propose appropriate goods or services to consumers and promptly notify them of essential information. Finally, the study suggests that empathy has a significant role in CS in the banking business. This is due to the fact that empathy and client happiness are inextricably linked. Additionally, the study indicates that Hang Seng provide personalized service to each client and maintain convenient working hours for all consumers. The bank also employs workers who provide personalized service to each customer.

Service quality has been praised by corporate researchers all over the world as a strategic edge that distinguishes a firm from its competitors in a positive way by allowing service organizations to impress customers on a consistent basis by providing premium QS, thereby increasing their satisfaction and loyalty to the organization. Customers in today’s market-driven economy have shown that they are not loyal to a single financial institution. All they require now is high-quality products and services that successfully meet their needs. As a result, one of the most pressing needs of today’s financial institutions is to figure out how to develop a fulfilled and happy customer base. As a result, these financial institutions must evaluate the antecedents of customer happiness outlined above in order to have a satisfied client base, which improves their financial performance and profitability.

6.2 Recommendations

Recommendations for Improvement

The report suggests that commercial banks in Hong Kong constantly maintain a high level of client reliability if they wish to remain competitive in the market. This is because clients appear to be concerned about the trustworthiness of the services given by various banks in Hong Kong. Banks may easily accomplish this by implementing backup services in the case of service interruptions in the business process.

The report proposes that banks develop innovative methods for boosting their response to client requests in order to minimize service disruptions. This is entirely possible through new modes of communication such as the Internet or mobile telecommunications. This will contribute significantly to increasing client loyalty to their products and, consequently, customer pleasure.

Banks must view empathy as strength when it comes to increasing client happiness. This may easily be accomplished by establishing a dedicated department inside banks to deal with such concerns in order to foster client confidence in the bank, which would go a long way toward increasing CS.

Suggestions for Managers

Managers should examine and enhance all channels via which products and services move on a regular basis. Capacity planning of personnel is required for this reason in order to avoid stressful circumstances. This may be accomplished by assigning daily objectives to staff in order to monitor their works over and under capacity. Capacity planning assists in defining goals and assessing performance by determining the amount of work that a person can complete each day. Thus, services may be improved by aligning the activities of all departments and coordinating cross-functional communication in a timely way.

Additionally, staff performance must be evaluated on a regular or quarterly basis. Monthly quality inspections and measurements can assist in raising quality standards. For this aim, mystery shopping is an effective approach for staying current on branch operations. Employee motivation is critical for organizations to fulfill their goals and objectives. To increase employee motivation, an incentive system should be implemented at work. Creating a framework for employees by giving an example of management behavior may be quite beneficial in this respect.

Policy Recommendations

The banking industry should have strong relationships with other stakeholders, such as the government, in order to enhance service delivery quality. The recommended SERVQUAL model may be used to guide actions aimed at enhancing customer satisfaction. CS will increase with the availability of high-quality service delivery. Although the model was developed for a specific purpose, it might be used to other comparable services to assist enhance the quality of financial services and consequently overall satisfaction.

6.4 Limitation and Areas of further research

Further research has been identified in the following areas: a similar study to be conducted in other sectors of service provision; a study on the customer satisfaction used in other sectors of service provision; and, finally, the challenges encountered in implementing Quality Management in other sectors of banking. Importantly, more study should be conducted to discover how customer happiness might contribute to organizational and financial success, as well as to what degree, if any, the advantages can be recognized by the various financial institutions.

Customers of Hang Seng Bank were the subject of the study. Further study, according to the researcher, should be conducted on clients of different banks in Hong Kong in order to determine the influence of service quality on overall customer satisfaction. This will be done in order to discover the differences between customers’ perceptions and expectations, with the goal of improving generalization and informed decision-making in the banking business as a result.

References

Agbor, J.M., 2011. The Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality: a study of three Service sectors in Umeå.

Aka, D., Kehinde, O. and Ogunnaike, O., 2016. Relationship marketing and customer satisfaction: A conceptual perspective. Binus Business Review, 7(2), pp.185-190.

Alaan, Y., 2016. Pengaruh Service Quality (Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness dan Assurance) terhadap Customer Satisfaction: Penelitian pada Hotel Serela Bandung. Jurnal Manajemen Maranatha, 15(2).

Al-Azzam, A.F.M., 2015. The impact of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction: A field study of Arab bank in Irbid city, Jordan. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(15), pp.45-53.

Al-Azzam, A.F.M., 2015. The impact of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction: A field study of Arab bank in Irbid city, Jordan. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(15), pp.45-53.

Aldasoro, I., Fender, I., Hardy, B., & Tarashev, N. (2020) ‘Effects of Covid-19 on the banking sector: the market’s assessment (No. 12)’, Bank for International Settlements.

Al-Hawary, S.I.S. and Al-Smeran, W.F., 2016. Impact of electronic service quality on customers satisfaction of Islamic banks in Jordan. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 7(1), pp.170-188.

Al-Mhasnah, A., Salleh, F., Afthanorhan, A. and Ghazali, P.J.M.S.L., 2018. The relationship between services quality and customer satisfaction among Jordanian healthcare sector. Management Science Letters, 8(12), pp.1413-1420.

Berger, A. N., & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. (2021) ‘Banking Research in the Time of COVID-19’, Journal of Financial Stability, 57, 100939.

Bhatta, K.R. and Durgapal, B.P., 2016. Service quality perceptions and customer satisfaction in Nepalese banking sector. Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies, 7(1), pp.17-23.

Camgöz-Akdağ, H., İmer, H.P. and Ergin, K.N., 2016. Internal customer satisfaction improvement with QFD technique. Business Process Management Journal.

Camilleri, M.A., 2021. Evaluating service quality and performance of higher education institutions: a systematic review and a post-COVID-19 outlook. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences.

Chakravarty, A., 2011. Evaluation of service quality of hospital outpatient department services. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, 67(3), pp.221-224.

Chang, H.H., Wang, Y.H. and Yang, W.Y., 2009. The impact of e-service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty on e-marketing: Moderating effect of perceived value. Total quality management, 20(4), pp.423-443.

Chen, J.S., Tran-Thien-Y, L. and Florence, D., 2021. Usability and responsiveness of artificial intelligence chatbot on online customer experience in e-retailing. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management.

Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Pedraza, A., & Ruiz Ortega, C. (2020) ‘Banking sector performance during the covid-19 crisis’, Demirguc-Kunt A, Pedraza A, Ruiz-Ortega C. Banking Sector Performance During the COVID-19 Crisis. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 9363.

Dewi, F.D., Sudjana, G. and Oesman, Y.M., 2011. Patient satisfaction analysis on service quality of dental health care based on empathy and responsiveness. Dental research journal, 8(4), p.172.

Famiyeh, S., Asante-Darko, D. and Kwarteng, A., 2018. Service quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty in the banking sector: The moderating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management.

Fida, B. A., Ahmed, U., Al-Balushi, Y., & Singh, D. (2020) ‘Impact of service quality on customer loyalty and customer satisfaction in islamic banks in the Sultanate of Oman’, Sage Open, 10(2), 2158244020919517.

Fida, B.A., Ahmed, U., Al-Balushi, Y. and Singh, D., 2020. Impact of service quality on customer loyalty and customer satisfaction in islamic banks in the Sultanate of Oman. Sage Open, 10(2), p.2158244020919517.

Finn, A., 2011. Investigating the non-linear effects of e-service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer services, 18(1), pp.27-37.

Ghotbabadi, A.R., Feiz, S. and Baharun, R., 2015. Service quality measurements: a review. International Journal of Academic Research in business and social sciences, 5(2), p.267.

Ha, J. and Jang, S.S., 2010. Effects of service quality and food quality: The moderating role of atmospherics in an ethnic restaurant segment. International journal of hospitality management, 29(3), pp.520-529.

Haming, M., Murdifin, I., Syaiful, A.Z. and Putra, A.H.P.K., 2019. The application of SERVQUAL distribution in measuring customer satisfaction of retails company. Journal of Distribution Science, 17(2), pp.25-34.

Hasyim, F. and Fauzi, A.N., 2021. Determinant of service quality to Islamic banking customer satisfaction during Covid-19. Journal of Management and Digital Business, 1(2), pp.90-104.

HKMA (2021) Banking sector performance. Available at: https://www.hkma.gov.hk/media/eng/publication-and-research/quarterly-bulletin/qb202009/Chapter5.pdf [Accessed: 14th Jan 2022]

Hu, H.H., Kandampully, J. and Juwaheer, T.D., 2009. Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and image: an empirical study. The service industries journal, 29(2), pp.111-125.

Iberahim, H., Taufik, N.M., Adzmir, A.M. and Saharuddin, H., 2016. Customer satisfaction on reliability and responsiveness of self service technology for retail banking services. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, pp.13-20.

Iberahim, H., Taufik, N.M., Adzmir, A.M. and Saharuddin, H., 2016. Customer satisfaction on reliability and responsiveness of self service technology for retail banking services. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, pp.13-20.

Ismail, A., Abdullah, M.M.B. and Francis, S.K., 2009. Exploring the relationships among service quality features, perceived value and customer satisfaction. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (JIEM), 2(1), pp.230-250.

Jandavath, R.K.N. and Byram, A., 2016. Healthcare service quality effect on patient satisfaction and behavioural intentions in corporate hospitals in India. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing.

Kant, R. and Jaiswal, D., 2017. The impact of perceived service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction: An empirical study on public sector banks in India. International Journal of Bank Marketing.

Kärnä, S., Junnonen, J.M. and Sorvala, V.M., 2009. Modelling structure of customer satisfaction with construction. Journal of Facilities Management.

Khan, M. M., & Fasih, M. (2014) ‘Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: Evidence from banking sector’, Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 8(2), pp. 331-354.

Komunda, M. and Osarenkhoe, A., 2012. Remedy or cure for service failure?: Effects of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Business Process Management Journal.

Korda, A.P. and Snoj, B., 2010. Development, validity and reliability of perceived service quality in retail banking and its relationship with perceived value and customer satisfaction. Managing Global Transitions, 8(2), p.187.

KPMG (2021) Adapting to a new reality. Available at: https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/cn/pdf/en/2020/06/adapting-to-a-new-reality.pdf [Accessed: 14th Jan 2022]

Lau, M.M., Cheung, R., Lam, A.Y. and Chu, Y.T., 2013. Measuring service quality in the banking industry: a Hong Kong based study. Contemporary management research, 9(3).

Loke, S.P., Taiwo, A.A., Salim, H.M., Downe, A.G. and PETRONAS, U.T., 2011. Service quality and customer satisfaction in a telecommunication service provider. In International conference on financial management and economics (Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 23-29).

Mengi, P., 2009. Customer satisfaction with service quality: An empirical study of public and private sector banks. IUP Journal of Management Research, 8(9).

Munusamy, J., Chelliah, S. and Mun, H.W., 2010. Service quality delivery and its impact on customer satisfaction in the banking sector in Malaysia. International journal of innovation, management and technology, 1(4), p.398.

Munusamy, J., Chelliah, S. and Mun, H.W., 2010. Service quality delivery and its impact on customer satisfaction in the banking sector in Malaysia. International journal of innovation, management and technology, 1(4), p.398.

Naqvi, M.H., Asim, D.M. And Manzoor, S., 2020. Analysing the impact of supply chain agility on customer satisfaction through responsiveness and innovation. CenRaPS Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1), pp.26-40.

Ofosu-Boateng, I. and Agyei, S.D., 2020. Effect Of Customer Satisfaction And Marketing Communication Mix On Customers’loyalty In The Ghanaian Banking Industry. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 5(4).

Paul, J., Mittal, A., & Srivastav, G. (2016) ‘Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in private and public sector banks’, International Journal of Bank Marketing.

Pham, T.S.H. and Ahammad, M.F., 2017. Antecedents and consequences of online customer satisfaction: A holistic process perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, pp.332-342.

Ragavan, N. and Mageh, R., 2013. A study on service quality perspectives and customer satisfaction in new private sector banks. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 7(2), pp.26-33.

Rao, P. S., & Sahu, P. C. (2013) ‘Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in hotel industry’, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 18(5), pp. 39-44.

Shah, A., 2010. E-banking and customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh: An analysis. International review of business research papers, 6(4), pp.145-156.

Supriyanto, A., Wiyono, B. B., & Burhanuddin, B. (2021) ‘Effects of service quality and customer satisfaction on loyalty of bank customers’, Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), 1937847.

Talukder, A.M.H., 2012. An Empirical Study of Supportive Communication Impacting Customer Satisfaction in Multinational Companys’ Service Industry of Bangladesh. Ege Academic Review, 12(4), pp.435-448.

Tan, L.H., Chew, B.C. and Hamid, S.R., 2016. Relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: a study of Malaysian banking industry. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 19(1), pp.38-50.

Udo, G.J., Bagchi, K.K. and Kirs, P.J., 2010. An assessment of customers’e-service quality perception, satisfaction and intention. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), pp.481-492.

WA, N.A., 2018. The Impact of Interpersonal Communication toward Customer Satisfaction: The Case of Customer Service of Sari Asih Hospital. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 150, p. 05087). EDP Sciences.

Wagenheim, M. and Rood, A.S., 2010. The relationship between employee satisfaction with organizational communication and customer orientation. Managing Leisure, 15(1-2), pp.83-95.

Wang, I.M. and Shieh, C.J., 2006. The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: the example of CJCU library. Journal of Information and optimization Sciences, 27(1), pp.193-209.

Webster, C. and Sundaram, D.S., 2009. Effect of service provider’s communication style on customer satisfaction in professional services setting: the moderating role of criticality and service nature. Journal of services marketing.

WHDP, U.G., 2014. Relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in Sri Lankan hotel industry. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4(11), pp.2250-3153.

Wilson, N., Keni, K. and Tan, P.H.P., 2019. The effect of website design quality and service quality on repurchase intention in the e-commerce industry: A cross-continental analysis. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 21(2), pp.187-222.

Wu, D. D., & Olson, D. L. (2020) ‘The effect of COVID-19 on the banking sector’, In Pandemic Risk Management in Operations and Finance (pp. 89-99). Springer, Cham.

Yousapronpaiboon, K., 2014. SERVQUAL: Measuring higher education service quality in Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, pp.1088-1095.

APPENDEXIS

Questionnaire

This questionnaire seeks information on customer satisfaction within the banking in Hong Kong. The study hopes to obtain the required data through filling out the questionnaire by ticking in the answer box that goes with your choice. For confidentiality, purposes do not indicate your name or that of the organization.

Thanking you for your cooperation

Section A: Demographic profile

Tick where appropriate

Gender (Please tick one)

Male [ ]

Female [ ]

Age (Please tick one)

18-30 years [ ]

31-40 years [ ]

41-50 years [ ]

51-60 years [ ]

Above 60 years [ ]

Employment status (Please tick one)

Employed [ ]

Unemployed [ ]

Self-employed [ ]

Others (please specify)

Section B: Bank Information

What type of account do you maintain with this Hang Seng Bank (Please tick any that is applicable)

Type of Account

Year opened

Is the account operational

Current account

Saving account

Fixed deposit account

Any other? If yes please specify

Any other (if any):

Please give a reason why you closed or changed your bank account before?

Do you have any account with other banks? If yes, please specify the bank/banks

Section C: Service quality

Tangibles

To what extent do you agree with the following statements related to tangibles at Hang Seng Bank? Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the statements. (Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

The bank’s equipment is up to date

The interior design of the bank is visually appealing

The physical appearance of the facilities are consistent with the overall banking industry

The employees are neat and smartly dressed

Any other (if any):

Reliability

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement related to reliability at Hang Seng Bank?

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

The bank meets their promised time frames for response

The employees are dependable in resolving my complaints

The employees are sympathetic and reassuring when I have a problem with the serviced offered

The employees are prompt in service delivery

The records and transactions performed are error-free

Any other (if any):

Responsiveness

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to reliability in Hang Seng Bank? (Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied with the time frame the bank takes to respond to my requests

I am satisfied with the employees’ dependability in resolving my complaints

I am satisfied that the employees are sympathetic and reassuring when I have a problem with the service offered

I am satisfied with the employees being prompt in service delivery

I am satisfied with the records and transactions performed being error-fee

Any other (if any):

Assurance

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to assurance Hang Seng Bank?(Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree).

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

The employees are trustworthy

My transactions and personal information are kept confidential by the bank

The banks employees courteous

The employees are knowledgeable and have the required skills about bank’s products and services

Any other (if any):

Empathy

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to empathy at Hang Seng Bank?(Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied that am given individual attention by the bank’s employees

I am satisfied with how the employees deal with me in a polite and caring fashion

I am satisfied with the employees having my best interest at heart

I am satisfied that the employees understand my specific needs

I am satisfied with the bank’s operating hours as they are convenient to me

Any other (if any):

Section D: Customer satisfaction with service quality

Tangibles

To what extent do you agree with the following statements related to tangibles in at Hang Seng Bank? Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the statements. (Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied with the bank’s equipment being up to date

I am satisfied with the banks interior design being visually appealing

I am satisfied with the appearance of the physical facilities being consistent with the overall banking industry

Any other (if any):

Reliability

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to reliability in Hang Seng Bank? (Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied with the time frame the bank takes to respond to my requests

I am satisfied with the employees’ dependability in resolving my complaints

I am satisfied that the employees are sympathetic and reassuring when I have a problem with the service offered

I am satisfied with the employees being prompt in service delivery

I am satisfied with the records and transactions performed being error-fee

Any other (if any):

Responsiveness

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to responsiveness Hang Seng Bank?(Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied that am always informed

about when services will be performed

I am satisfied that am given quick

service by the staff

I am satisfied that the employees are

willing to assist me whenever possible

I am satisfied that the employees are

genuinely interested and ready in assisting

me and resolving my complaints

Any other (if any):

Assurance

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to Hang Seng Bank? (Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied that the banks employees are trustworthy

I am satisfied that my transactions

and personal information are kept

confidential by the bank

I am satisfied that the banks

employees are courteous

I am satisfied that the employees are knowledgeable and have the required skills about bank’s products and services

Any other (if any):

Empathy

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements related to empathy at Hang Seng Bank?(Scale:1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5.Strongly agree)

Statement

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agreed (4)

Strongly agree (5)

I am satisfied that am given individual attention by the bank’s employees

I am satisfied with how the employees deal with me in a polite and caring fashion

I am satisfied with the employees having my best interest at heart

I am satisfied that the employees understand my specific needs

I am satisfied with the bank’s operating hours as they are convenient to me

Any other (if any):

Would you recommend this bank as a preferred banking choice to your colleagues/friends/family members?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

Feedback or suggestions of how the bank can improve on its service quality?

Thank You for your participation!

23

Surname 1 Surname Professor’s name 6222-ENGL-1301 Date Severed Relationships Some relationships endure

Surname 1

Surname

Professor’s name

6222-ENGL-1301

Date

Severed Relationships

Some relationships endure many trials, while others crumble and fall apart under the slightest stress. Partners in both short stories, “The Lie” by T.C. Boyle and “Fiesta 1980” by Junot Diaz, experience a range of issues and problems which ultimately lead to the deterioration and fracture of their relationship. Both couples have dealt with avoidance and denial, misplaced trust, painful secrets from the past, and broken communication. These couple’s distinct experiences are represented by varying degrees in the severity of the topics on communication, trust, respect, boundaries, and support.

Short Story Synopsis

THE LIE

The short story focuses on the hypocrisy of adults who promise themselves never to re-commit one particular lie but later break these promises. This tale portrays adults who cannot commit to what they believe in and turn their backs on the truth, even when confronted by the consequences of their actions.

FIESTA 1980

Fiesta 1980″ is a short story written by Junot Diaz who, through the use of flashbacks, he provides the readers with a comprehensible and touching look at the main character’s life. The paper takes place in the Dominican Republic when the main character visits that country from New Jersey. He visits his relatives whom he has not seen for a long time. The main character narrates it all using details about the complex history and culture of the Dominican Republic as well as his thoughts and feelings, which are directly affected by his surroundings.

Comparisons and Contrasts

COMMUNICATION

The short story “The Lie” by T.C. Boyle displays the miscommunication between a husband and wife as they attempt to deal with the situation of their maturing son. The husband states that he tells his son stories to encourage him and teach him things but is quickly contradicted by the wife, who suggests otherwise. Through the words assigned to the characters in this short story, the lack of communication is displayed through the unresponsiveness of each character towards another, particularly between the couple in their bedroom. “…he doesn’t care if I’m blind as long as we can keep going skiing” (Boyle 22). While telling a false story to their son, they are interrupted repeatedly by phone calls from friends and family who live on the hillside. One can perceive this by the frequent negations made by both characters and the discourse presented to us through the narrator: “She wanted to put that egg down” (Boyle 1). The narrator, who seems to be on her side, gives us evidence against his spouse by saying that she has not known his wife for years and does not understand her well enough to know her purpose for going on a trip like this alone.

In Junot Diaz’s short story “Fiesta 1980,” the relationship between father and mother is semi-detached; it consists mainly of silences, avoiding each other’s eyes when passing in the hallway, and a lack of dialogue, although they do talk to each other. This relationship is revealed through their conversations with others and with each other. The story reveals the problematic relationship between them, which brings about a severe misunderstanding that leads to an individual realization. The relationship between the father and the mother can be characterized as very deceiving (Diaz 6). For instance, when they get into a fight, they hide it from the children and pretend that everything is fine. This can be illustrated in the following quote from the story: “The noise goes on for a good half hour, but neither Mom nor Dad comes out to see what’s happening. My brother and I are like dogs after a meaty bone (Diaz 8).”

TRUST

Trust is essential for every relationship; if two people trust each other in a marriage relationship, their bond will be solid and impenetrable (Larzelere et al. 597). In the short story “The Lie,” a marriage ends due to the wife’s suspicion of her husband’s infidelity. Even though no one can hold the husband accountable for his actions, the wife decides to let him know how she feels about their marriage, ultimately leading to their separation. The story is filled with instances in which betrayal and distrust are illustrated through the characters’ dialogue and actions. This is demonstrated through the actions of both characters. The husband is first mentioned as a “guilty man with a guilty conscience” (Boyle 13). His wife stated that “she would not believe what he told her…because she knows he is a liar” (Boyle 15). They both seem to have never been honest with each other, which shows in their nonverbal behavior.

Junot Diaz’s short story “Fiesta 1980″ is a piece of literature that uses the power of persuasion to illustrate how trust can either build or destruct a person. Although this relationship was during the middle of a revolution, the writer points out throughout the story that the relationship had already been deteriorating for several years, which is further emphasized by his use of flashbacks, during which he briefly touches on events that occurred in the past. “…my abuelo had no use for him either” (Diaz 9). Its primary purpose was to explain how trust affected these characters and their lives through dialogue, action, and setting. One example of this distrust is when Diaz writes, “The father watches her jumping the conga line’s rhythm, lip-synching to a song only she knows, her ample body moving with so much fervor that the baby trapped inside it is growing already. His mind plays tricks on him–he imagines his wife’s belly like a big balloon under which small bodies are being held captive (Diaz 42).”

CONCLUSION

Good communication is essential when fostering a lasting relationship (Sillars et al. 321). It is always a good idea to say what one thinks or what they want the other person to understand when it comes to communication. Being direct and honest is the best way to communicate, although it may not always be easy. Open and honest communication is necessary for any relationship to be successful. Trust is another crucial aspect of any relationship. When there is trust between two people, their relationship will generally be more stressed with fewer arguments and disagreements because both parties worry less about betrayal, being played, or taking advantage of.

Works Cited

Boyle, T. C. “The Lie.” The New Yorker, 7 Apr. 2008, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/04/14/the-lie-3.

Diaz, J. “Drown “Fiesta, 1980” Summary and Analysis.” 9 Dec. 2017, www.gradesaver.com/drown/study-guide/summary-fiesta-1980.

Larzelere, Robert E., and Ted L. Huston. “The dyadic trust scale: Toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships.” Journal of Marriage and the Family (1980): 595-604.

Sillars, Alan L., et al. “Communication and understanding in marriage.” Human Communication Research 10.3 (1984): 317-350.

2 Sexual Dysfunction, Paraphilia, and Gender Dysphoria Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course

2

Sexual Dysfunction, Paraphilia, and Gender Dysphoria

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Code & Name

Instructors Name

Date

Sexual Dysfunction, Paraphilia, and Gender Dysphoria

Sexual dysfunction hinders a couple or a person from enjoying sexual intercourse. It can occur at any point in the sexual response cycle. It is characterized by a lack of pleasure from sexual activities. Excitement, plateau, climax, and resolution are the stages of the sexual response cycle. The excitement phase of the sexual response includes both desire and arousal (Cho et al.,2019). Even though evidence indicates that sexual dysfunction is rampant, many people avoid discussing it. There are treatment alternatives. Therefore, according to Lewis et al. (2010), people affected should discuss their concerns with their spouses and healthcare practitioner.

Gender dysphoria is a feeling of anxiety resulting from a mismatch between a person’s biological sex and gender identity(Dhejne et al.,2016). This discontent may be so intense that it causes sadness and anxiety and harms daily living. Few people with gender dysphoria may wish to express their gender identity through hormones and surgery. Although gender dysphoria is not a mental illness, it can cause mental health difficulties in some persons. People suffering from gender dysphoria may think of altering their looks, behavior, or interests.

Intense and persistent sexual interest other than genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with phenotypically usual, physically mature, consenting human partners is referred to as paraphilia(Frances & First,2011). It becomes a paraphilic disorder if a paraphilia causes the individual distress or disability. In addition, if the fulfillment of the desire involves personal injury or the danger of harm to others, it becomes paraphilia. A paraphilia that causes no distress, impairment, or potential or actual injury does not always necessitate medical treatment. A thorough history should be collected, including psychiatric and psychosexual histories. People with paraphilic illnesses can be difficult to interview because of their guilt and reluctance to give information openly to the interviewer.

References

Cho, J. W., & Duffy, J. F. (2019). Sleep, sleep disorders, and sexual dysfunction. The world journal of men’s health, 37(3), 261-275.

Dhejne, C., Van Vlerken, R., Heylens, G., & Arcelus, J. (2016). Mental health and gender dysphoria: A review of the literature. International review of psychiatry, 28(1), 44-57.

Frances, A., & First, M. B. (2011). Paraphilia NOS, nonconsent: Not ready for the courtroom. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 39(4), 555-561.

Lewis, R. W., Fugl-Meyer, K. S., Corona, G., Hayes, R. D., Laumann, E. O., Moreira Jr, E. D., … & Segraves, T. (2010). Definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunction. The journal of sexual medicine, 7(4), 1598-1607.