Nurse Practitioners must be aware of polices and regulations which impact their ability to deliver care at the highest level of their scope and license
read article provided
Identify barriers to full scope of practice identified in article
Write about importance of taking a position against practice restrictions which limit APN’s ability to advance population health outcomes
Identify New York State regulations/ laws or polices that create barriers that limit scope of practice for APN’s
Once barrier identified, provide a solution to remove or overcome the barrier
RESEARCH PROPOSAL 10 Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL CHILD LEARNING Name: Course: Tutor:
RESEARCH PROPOSAL 10
Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Part A: Ethics in childhood research
Researchers do have several things to think about and consider in their research practices besides the effectiveness and accuracy of their research outcomes. Among the things to take into account during the research is ethics. Ethics in research, especially in social sciences entails observing various ethical codes set out to protect the wellbeing of the human subjects or the research participants. Research involving children, particularly below seven years, requires the researcher to be extra careful because there is so much to comply with. In order to carry out reliable research, an important quality that a researcher would require is upholding and abiding by the ethical codes and principles. The governments and other agencies have set out ethical standards for the researcher dealing with children, and a research would only be reliable if these are not violated.
A reliable research calls for the observance of the welfare of the children. This implies that the researcher have to respect the rights of the children at all times. The children’s rights simply human rights and they hold that the child is entitled to protection from exposure to circumstances that may be risking its wellbeing. More so, the child has the right to make its own views and opinions, and guidance on their output during research should always make this assumption. In this case, the researcher will not construct views or opinions for the child. More so, a researcher handling children will also be required to observe issues of privacy and confidentiality.
A researcher will need to get familiar with the various principles that include the principle of informed consent. This principle implies that the researcher will need to gain consent at the level of the participant’s comprehension. In this case, it is the level of comprehension of the child. However, as a researcher, I find this often challenging because of the low ability of the children below the age of seven to give consent, and this has in most cases be obtained from the guardians on their behalf. This is done on the assumption that the parents or guardians will be acting in the best interest of the children. The researcher will also ensure that no harm comes to the research subjects. Voluntary participation is another thing to observe. The children are not to be forced to take part in the research process if they are not willing to take part. All in all, important qualities needed by researcher include ethics and respect for children’s right, non-violation of privacy and other principles guiding research.
Among the lessons that I have learned about research, especially in social sciences, is that the researcher has responsibilities towards the human subjects, and this is all about respecting them and upholding ethics. More so, research is about the observance of the various principles guiding research. The researcher is also to be held accountable for all the actions taken during the research process. As such, my next steps are to make myself familiar with the various principles and guidelines before I undertake to conduct the research.
Research topic: Effect of parental involvement and support on student achievements
It is a common practice by teachers at various grades to give the learners homework which they take home, handle it and then submit it later. The parents and the family, perhaps due to the desire to know what the children are learning will often get involved in the homework. In most cases, the parents will give a hand whenever needed, and help the children complete the tasks and get the best results possible. This homework has been viewed differently by different people, with experts taking it as a powerful tool for not only letting the parents know what the children are learning, but also giving the teachers a chance to obtain feedback from the parents on matters of the children’s learning. My research topic, however, focuses on the impacts the parents make on the achievement of the students because of their involvement in the students’ homework. Does their involvement improve the achievements of the children or does it does it reduce. The topic becomes interesting because one can argue that helping the children with their homework will make the lazy and this will negatively affect their achievements. Other arguments may be that helping the children with their homework will aid their learning and hence positively affecting their achievements. The baseline in these arguments, however, is the fact that children are given tasks to take home purposefully to give them a reason to study other than spend their time on other unproductive activities like watching television.
Literature has is that the parental involvement in child education affects positively the child’s educational achievements. A research by Erlendsdóttir (2010) concluded that family members who were involved in their children’s education had high hopes in their children’s success in education, and that their efforts did bear positive fruits. The findings of this research confirms previous researches by various researcher who have also come to the same conclusions. For example, Huang and Manson (2008) studied the involvement of parents in the learning of children in the urban African American families. The results were positive in that the parents did make a positive contribution to the academic success of their children. As such, this becomes an interesting topic because several target groups are used in these studies and all seem to bear similar results. The involvement in education is, however, a general topic, and my research aims at narrowing this down to focus specifically on homework. The study questions are as follows:
What is the level of parental contribution in the children’s homework?
What do the children say about their parent’s involvement in their homework?
What is the parents’ stand about their involvement in their children’s homework?
What do the teachers say about the parental involvement in the children’s homework?
Is there a correlation between the parental involvement in children’s homework and the academic achievement of the children?
The specific objective for this study is to analyze the effect of the aid given by the parents to their children with their homework. Aid in homework is just one way of their involvement in the education of the children, and its correlation to the academic achievements is the key focus in this study.
Desforges, C. & Abouchaar, A., 2003. The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievements and Adjustment: A Literature Review. Research Report RR433.
Erlendsdóttir, G., 2010. Effects of Parental Involvement in Education: A Case Study in Namibia. M.Ed. Thesis University of Iceland School of Education , pp. 1-92.
Gurney-Read, J., 2014. Do you help your children with homework? Don’t, says study. [Online]
Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10719067/Do-you-help-your-children-with-homework-Dont-says-study.html
[Accessed 15 June 2016].
Huang, H.-C. & Mason, K., 2008. Motivations of parental involvement in children’s learning: Voices from urban African American families of preschoolers. Multicultural Education, pp. 20-27.
Pate, E. & Andrews, G., 2006. Research Summary: Parent Involvement. [Online]
Available at: http://www.amle.org/TabId/270/ArtMID/888/ArticleID/328/Research-Summary-Parent-Involvement.aspx
[Accessed 15 June 2016].
Patrikakou, E., 2008. The Power of Parent Involvement: Evidence, Ideas, and Tools for Student Success. Academic Development Institute, pp. 1-12.
Shumow, L., 1998. Promoting parental attunement to children’s mathematical reasoning through parent education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(1), pp. 109-127.
Simon, B., 2004. High school outreach and family involvement. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 7, pp. 185-209.
Tam, V. & Chan, R., 2009. Parental Involvement in Primary Children’s Homework in Hong Kong. The School Community Journal, 19(2), pp. 81-100.
Walker, J., Hoover-Dempsey, K., Whetsel, D. & Green, C., 2004. Parental Involvement in Homework: A Review of Current Research and Its Implications for Teachers, After School Program Staff, and Parent Leaders. Harvard Family Research Project, pp. 1-9.
Rationale for Literature List
The rationale for the selection of the above literature list is basically the relevance to the topic to be studied in my research. Simply put, my research entails finding out what are the impacts of the parents assisting children with their homework on the students’ success and achievements in education. This would not be the first research to evaluate the impact of the parental input into the children’s homework, rather, it will be establishing other studies were right or wrong. In that perspective, the previous researches form a basis for this study and they will be referred to by my study. In every research, literature must be consulted in order to give insight into the topic being studied. This applies for my study, and he literature list presented above serves this purpose. These journals and other forms will be read to establish what other researcher had to say pertaining to the same or similar issue. Their stands and arguments do for the background to my research.
In the same way, a review at literature serves to expose gaps in previous studies, and the selected literature list will be analyzed for these gaps. In essence, the researchers will always leave something for future studies, and even though this may not be the reason for the selection of the list above, the gaps that the researchers have left will appear here. For instance, a researcher may have found out that his or her topic was too broad and that it would be a good idea to narrow it down and the various components studied autonomously. In my case, most studies focus on the general parental involvement and I do feel that homework is just a component of this involvement. In other words, parental involvement takes many forms and not just in homework. As such, homework is to be studied autonomously.
Also, the literature list is selected for the purpose of justifying my research. The list selected is a combination of various views and research outcomes, which means the researcher has to make a stand. For example, Gurney-Read seems to go against the notion that parental involvement is desirable by quoting research that warns parents to keep off the children’s homework. Most of the other works hold the contrary opinion and indeed suggest that parents should be more involved and even goes further to suggest tools and ideas for better and meaningful parental involvement. In that case, my research is justified because there still is a disagreement as to whether the parental involvement is desirable or not. Lastly, the relatedness of the topics in the selected list will be helpful in the sense that the methods and approaches used in the previous studies will be obtained. This is because there are different approaches and methods and these often bear different results. There others that pose challenges and limitations, and all this information will be helpful in deciding which approach to take, and which methods to use. Methods that failed will not be used, and the challenges will be known prior to research so that handling them will be included in the planning for the research. In essence, these sources will introduce me to the various theories of child learning and other concepts. Each of them will contribute to my dissertation in its own way or collectively with others. For example, the Gurney-Read will help assess the arguments against while Huang & Mansion, Pate & Andrews, Desforges and Abouchaar, Erlendsdóttir, Patrikakou, and Simon, talks about the geneal parental involvement in child learning. Tam & Chan and Walker, Hoover-Dempsey, Whetsel, & Green looks specifically at the homework isse while Shumow adresses the mathematical reasoning. All in all, they all form the bachground to my dissertation.
This dissertation will be a study of various groups of people all involved in the issue of homework. As mentioned earlier on, among the study questions in on the stand of the parents regarding their involvement in their children’s homework, the children’s stand on their parents’ involvement in their homework, and the teachers’ stand on parental involvement on their students’ homework. In that case, it implies that three groups of people are to be studied. The research participants will be parents, students and teachers. The study will focus on both sides of the arguments, and aims at establishing the differences between the cases for parents who do not get involved in children’s homework and for those who do get involved. The focus will be the performance of the children after some period of parental involvement or lack thereof.
The study is, as such, divided into two with one part seeking the stands on the parental involvement, and the other seeking the correlation between the involvement and student performance. In the first part, the researcher will administer questionnaires and conduct interviews from the three groups of people. The second part will involve some experiment with the children whereby the students will be divided into two groups, one group aided by parents with their homework and other not aided. Before the experiment, the student will undertake three tests to determine their average performance. After the experiment, the students will then undertake three other tests to determine their average performance after the experiments. A comparison will then be made between the test results before experiment and test results after experiment. The outcome of this comparison will be used to make this study’s stand on the impact of parental involvement in students’ homework on the student’s performance or academic achievements.
The ideal sample size for this study will be three hundred (300) with a hundred participants for each of the three groups. This means 100 students, 100 parents, and 100 teachers. As such, the sample group comprises of three subgroups that each will be assessed for their view on parental involvement a further experiment. The data collected for the first case will be qualitative containing of the views and opinions of the various participants. For the second part, the data will be quantitative whereby the student performance will be assessed in quantitative basis. The performance will be given by the marks or grades gotten from the various tests.
The reliability of this data will be determined by comparing the data to a previous similar experiment whereby reliability will be in terms of the level of conformance to past data. Under similar conditions, the results generated for this research must be similar to those generated by a previous study. The validity of the data will be established by is ability to serve the intended purpose of the study- that is, used to establish the correlation between parental involvements and academic achievement.
This research will have to be ethical in practice for it to be reliable. The main reason for ethical considerations in this research is that there are children involved. This means that the child rights will have to be put into practice. The rights of the children are as contained in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention defined the child as anyone below the age of 18 years. In this study, the lower grade children form part of the research participants, and this simply implies careful approach in order not to violate their rights. Another ethical consideration is voluntary participation where all the participants will voluntarily offer to be part of the study. No one will be forced, and the children will not have parents making the entire decisions for them. The Convention on the Rights of the child holds that the parent will assume that the child is capable of making own decisions, views and expressions.
In general, research ethics call for respect of human rights irrespective of whether they are children or adults. This means that the researcher will have to observe issues of privacy and confidentiality. The participants’ details are not to be disclosed under whatever the circumstance and privacy of the participants is not to be invaded. The researcher is also to ensure that the participants, especially the children, are not exposed to situations that might cause harm to them. This is because the children are always vulnerable and they can get hurt easily. All harmful exposures are to be avoided at all times. He researcher is to be responsible throughout the entire research period. More so, accountability will have to be observed at all times. All in all, it implies that the researcher will adopt the rights based approach in this study. The rights based approach is one that holds that the children’s right are to be put into practice. In this case, not only the rights of the children that are to be considered, but also for the adult teachers and parents. The handling of the participants will be courteous and polite.
FIRST ITERATION 6 Running head: FIRST ITERATION First Iteration Responsive Web Design
Purpose of Paper: Nurse Practitioners must be aware of polices and regulations which impact their ability to deliver care Nursing Assignment Help FIRST ITERATION 6
Running head: FIRST ITERATION
Responsive Web Design
Table of contents
Iteration 1: Adjusting Screen Resolution
Plan. A plan is simply a list of activities or steps with their timing and resources to be used in achieving a particular objective. In action research, the first phase of each iteration is the planning phase. The planning phase in each iteration lists the events to be undertaken and the resources and timing associated with the activities of the iteration. It is sometimes considered to be the most challenging phase of the iteration because of its abstract nature and entails visualizing things that will happen without them happening in the present.
There are various activities that are to be undertaken in the planning phase of the iteration. The first activity is defining the objectives and the scope of the iteration. The first iteration entails discussing a concept in responsive web design known as adjusting the screen resolution. In this case, the ultimate objective is defined as to establish what adjusting screen resolution is, and how it is done. As per the scope, the iteration will offer a discussion on the concepts surrounding adjustment of screen resolution, including its definition, steps, and outcomes.
The second activity in the planning phase is the determination of the resources to be used in undertaking the activities of the iteration. For this iteration, the resources needed include the information pertaining to the concept, and this means that the action researcher needs to plan on how to obtain the information. Resources for data collection pertaining to the concept include internet and databases, as well as computers. Lastly, the planning also involves allocating time to various activity. The entire action research is anticipated to take more than 40 hours.
Act. Action phase is the second phase of the iterations in action research. It is in this phase that the plans are put into practice, whereby the various activities outlined in the plans are undertaken in order to accomplish the objectives of the iteration. It is the most important phase owing to the fact that it is the phase where the researcher undertakes actual action after planning. There are various activities in their proper sequence that were undertaken in this phase and that took about 40 hours. They are as discussed in the paragraphs that follow.
The first activity in this phase was to gather information about the concept of adjustment of screen resolution in relation to responsive web design. Using various tools and resources made available in the previous phase, the researcher searched websites, databases and other sources for data related to this concept. The tools and resources used herein include computers and the internet, as well as other tools or resources for taking notes and recording data collected. The second action was to analyse the data collected using various data analysis tools. Using content analysis, the relevant information was extracted. All sources with relevant data were retained while those with irrelevant or insignificant data were discarded. The third action was to define and describe the concept of resolution. The content obtained was used to give insight into what is adjusting screen resolution and how it is done with respect to the overall concept of responsive web design. Related concepts were also discussed in line with the scope of this iteration. Other things discussed herein include the importance of adjusting screen resolution and the procedures and methods for doing so.
Observe. The observation phase is the third phase of the iterations of the action research. It is in this phase where the researcher gets to take note of the happenings of the actions undertaken so far. As far as the first iteration is concerned, there are several things that were observed. Firstly, the concept of adjusting screen resolution was defined. This was defined as designing the screen resolutions such that a web application can be opened in the various devices with varying sizes, color, and even functionality. It was also observed that the screens may be in portrait or landscape, while others are completely square. The modern devices have the capability of switching between these orientations.
It was also observed that to make this possible, the designer needs to design for all these and by possibly grouping them into categories. The designer also needs to make each of the designs as flexible as possible. Another observation that the researcher made in this iteration is the fact that there does not exist adequate literature relating to this topic, and only pieces of data were collected from scattered sources. However, with the scattered information, the researcher was able to achieve the goals and objectives of the iteration. Lastly, it is possible to make flexible images and texts alongside the layout. Just as it is possible to design for all layouts or orientations, the same can be made possible with the texts and images such that the web applications can open and adjust the text and the images with respect to the type of device opening the web application.
Reflect. This is the last phase of the iteration, and it entails an analysis of the iteration outcomes. It is also in this last iteration where the researcher get to offer explanations to various phenomena, as well as problems and challenges and also the successes of the iteration.
Almost everything went well, including data gathering and analysis. Using the data searching resources, adequate data was obtained and used to adequately define and describe the concept. Also, the phase was completed within the allocated time. The allocated resources during the planning phase were adequate.
Among the things that did not go well included the availability of literature on the topic, something that would have given the researcher a chance to offer detailed information pertaining to the concept. This issue was also among the key restriction and limitation encountered during the first iteration. Another key restriction or limitation was the time allocated for the action phase, as 40 hours of action may have not been adequate. Among the things that can be improved include the search strategies in order to enable the researcher access more data more efficiently. This is because the current strategy offered the researcher with scattered pieces of data that had to be aggregated to give a complete set of information. There is also some risks involved with this iteration. Among the greatest risk is shallow definitions and discussion of the concept resulting to the little data obtained. Secondly, 40 hours of activity may not be adequate for the various phases especially the action phase and the reflection phase. However, this is catered for because the 40 hours is just the minimum time allocated, meaning extensions can be made. Trying to restrict the action phase to 40 hours could compromise the quality of the entire iteration.
PROJECT ORGANISATION ANALYSIS M7: Benchmark internal analysis, Management & Organization. Table of
PROJECT ORGANISATION ANALYSIS
M7: Benchmark internal analysis, Management & Organization.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. Holland Casino 4
Shared values 5
3. British Museum 6
Shared Values 7
4. TwentseWelle 8
Shared values 9
5. Recommendations 10
6. Bibliography 12
7. Appendix 14
As a part of our benchmark report, we will compare the management and organisation of Holland Casino, TwentseWelle, and the British Museum. The McKinsey model – also known as the 7S model – will be utilised in this milestone to analyse the current situation and the proposed situation of each company, and identify the gaps and inconsistencies between them. (Mind Tools, 2016)
The model is composed of:
Strategy – the plan formulated to maintain and build advantage over competitors
Structure – the division and hierarchal structure of the organisation, and also the reporting mechanisms
Systems – the main systems that support and drive the business, or in other words, the processes that enable employees to accomplish their jobs
Shared values – the ‘internal culture’ or the corporate values of the organisation and how it aligns with every other element
Style – the style of leadership adopted, and whether the leadership is participative or autocratic
Staff – the employees and their general capabilities and/or proficiencies
Skills – the actual skills and competencies of the staff, and if there are gaps and/or inconsistencies in line with strategy and operation
(Educational Business Articles, 2016)
Following the analysis of the internal situations of each company will be the conclusion and recommendations on how Holland Casino and TwentseWelle can learn from each other’s, and also the British Museum’s, best practices.
2. Holland Casino
Holland Casino is the only casino in the Netherlands receiving the license for casino gaming facilities from government. They operate as a regular company and also semi-governmental company. Therefore, when an operating year end (around April), the Executive Board of Holland Casino and Minister of Finance will have a conference about the strategy and plan for the next year. The Articles of Association of Holland Casino will set the responsibilities, tasks and procedures of the Executive Board. With the approval of the Minister of Finance and Justice, the Supervisory Board appoints two members of Executive Board who are CEO, CFO. Before 2014, the Executive Board also consisted of COO, however the role of COO has been obsolete since 1 April 2014. The Board has the responsibility to be the representative of Holland Casino and complete the tasks set by the Articles of Association. (Annual report 2014, 2015)
Under the Board is a department which completes the tasks and orders from their CEO. Holland Casino’s structure is bureaucratic structure because it has the hierarchical structure with clearly ordered levels of management where lower levels are subordinate and answerable to higher levels. (Grimsley, 2015) However it also can be seen that Holland Casino have 14 locations and each of them can be considered as a smaller organization within the big one. For that reason we could conclude that Holland Casino is operating with matrix structure as well. (Writing & Media, n.d). The structure has benefits like flexibility and more balanced decision-making. Its cons are that it is complex and can cause confusions.
As can be seen above, Holland Casino have bureaucratic and matrix structure so the leadership style can be participative. With this style of leadership, works are divided and implemented by departments in the casino such as Human Resource, Marketing and Sales, Gaming and Services.
Holland Casino primary strategy is to create close relationships with their regular customers. They also have secondary strategy is using the power of local entrepreneurship and organize the business efficiently and effectively. As Holland Casino offers their guests many kinds of product that they cannot find in any casino in the Netherlands, they are grabbing the most effective differential advantage to compete with their competitors. If Holland Casino continue to develop their product for example applied the smoking zone in the rest 13 locations and keep their employees’ professional hospitality, we believe that they will maintain their position as the dominant in casino market in the Netherlands.
At the moment, people can find various job vacancies in Holland Casino. According to them, they have to use staff from other casinos to make sure that the casino is working well. Some of the vacancies they are having now are online trafficker, manager marketing and sales, digital campaign, shift leader food and beverage, etc. The requirements for each position are different and depend on how high the position is and how customers expect them to be. (WERKEN BIJ HOLLAND CASINO, n.d). In total, Holland Casino has employed 3306 people, 1905 men and 1401 women. Rehired and newly hired employees amount to 754. This is to meet the average of 3609 employees (Holland Casino, 2014).
In a presentation of the Director of Holland Casino Enschede, he said that the essence of Holland Casino is to maintain their position as the market leader and totally focus on offering their customers with the best experience. Their employees need to have some certain skills to help the company reach their mission, vision and essence. The first one which almost everyone working in a casino must have is hospitality. For instance, a croupier not only needs skills to meet the demand of the game but he also needs to have hospitality skills to provide customers with a professional and comfortable game. And the second, and the third?
Casino Activities in Holland are based on the systems including Finance and Control. Some directors and leaders have demonstrated that the financial management instrument does provide a tool to help solving all the problems as well as designing and building a strategic plan to fit the future needs. Among the ICT systems used in Holland casinos include duress alarms, automatic re-arm, and anti-passback among others.
Firstly, Holland Casino want to totally focus on their guests so everyone working in the casino has the same target is to gain customer’s satisfaction. It is the truest way to access the quality of Holland Casino service and also the most effective way to earn the loyalty of the casino. Moreover, the casino also aims at diversity in gamble machine to gain the differential advantage. They also want to meet the ethical standard so that the employees can work in a friendly, professional and comfortable environment. The shared values of Holland Casino include the following:
Holland Casino is the biggest and the most famous casino in the Netherlands. Their organizational structure and strict management style, the headquarter have been doing really well to control 14 locations in Holland. Moreover, Holland Casino have employees and managers with certain skills that not only can bring out opportunities to the casino but also can offer customers with the most comfortable and luxury place to gamble. However, besides developing technology, services and products, they also need to think of expand their reputation to other nations, other continents. Under the management of current Board, with current structure and management style, they will be known as one of the most famous casino in the world.
3. British Museum
A board of 25 trustees governs the Museum according to the British Museum Act of 1963 and the Museums and Galleries Act of 1992. The Board is responsible for the general control and management of the Museum through the adoption of its Annual Plan and the all-encompassing strategy. They are also responsible for the appointment of the Director. The Director – also known as the Accounting Officer – is in charge of reporting to the Government and the general administration of the Museum. (British Museum, n.d.)
Organisations can be structured in three different ways: simple (little formalisation), functional (according to specialties), or divisional (limited autonomy). (Robbins & Coulter, 2012) However, the Museum is both bureaucratic and autocratic, in a way that curators (or professionals and experts) are responsible for making decisions individually in regards to exhibitions and collections, whilst there is a need for a top-down management to implement overarching strategies for the whole of the organisation and its public. (Penn, Martinez, & Lemlij, 2007) Therefore, the organisation structure of the British Museum is complex and not comparable to that of more conventional corporate organisations, and decision making is both centralised and decentralised.
As said about structure, the British Museum does not have a particular leadership style. It is a combination of autocratic where there is centralised decision making, and democratic where there is freedom, involvement, and participation of subordinates in managing the exhibitions and collections.
The strategic direction of the British Museum includes some key objectives in relation to its core values:
Scholarship – to British Museum, the value for education is very immense therefore one of the strategic goals is improve the generation of knowledge and understanding, and the exploration of the past through archaeology, anthropology, art history, and scientific examination. Collaboration with other institutions over great distances can also be achieved by developing the digital support necessary for international co-operative research. (British Museum, 2012)
Being the Museum of the World – this relates to their shared value of diversity. Thanks to the changes in transport and technology, the Museum can now prioritise in extending its services across the globe. The Museum also intend to develop and expand its global community of curators, conservators, scientists, and museum professionals through training and skill-sharing programmes. (British Museum, 2012)
Staff is an important aspect of the British Museum. Currently, according to an email we received from the company, they have about 900 employees, with diverse professions ranging from Museum assistant to curators, Marketing and Public Relations professionals, scientists and conservators, security warders, visitor services personnel, locksmiths and so on.
Currently the Museum is looking for three audio/visual support technicians for Information Services, curators for the Middle East and Ancient Egypt and Sudan departments. Furthermore, the Development department is in need of a database assistant and a gifts and donor support manager; Exhibition department, a senior administrator and a senior graphic designer. (British Museum, 2016) In spite of this, there are no evident competency gaps that are needed to be filled. We have come to this conclusion as BM-led courses have proved a great success at sharing skills across the globe. (British Museum, 2015)
Skills such as museum leadership and advocacy, strategy and decision making, stakeholder management, communication techniques and tailoring project management techniques, collection management and display and interpretation are some of the essential proficiencies needed to support the other element.
The Museum’s employees achieve the skills described above through the Leadership Training Programme in three different modules. Among these skills include creative and cultural skills. Evaluation is done a month after the completion of each module using a questionnaire focusing on their progress implementing the skills developed. The Museum also keeps in contact to provide further support and monitor progress after the programme. (British Museum, n.d.)
Some of the systems that support and drive the business are human resources management, information systems, retail, events and conferencing; these are administered by the BM Management Group which is part of the Executive Committee (British Museum, 2014). Among the systems employed at the British Museum include the security systems like personal identification and verification, online booking, and EDI.
One of the British Museum’s core values is diversity – a shared value that is evident in its staff and governance, curation, education, and audiences. The Museum endeavours to recruit from the diverse communities in London and nationally. Furthermore, employees are hired based on merit, regardless of their age, gender, disability, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion/belief or any protected characteristic. (British Museum, 2013)
Furthermore, the Museum strives to be a representation of excellence – for the quality of its scholarship and for the brilliance of its collections. (British Museum, 2014) Education is another core value that the Museum considers important. The Museum stands as the world centre of scholarship; its purpose to maintain its outstanding collection and find new ways to use it to engage the public in the UK and across the world.
In summary, the Museum values of diversity and education are evident in the culture and work ethic especially in staff, governance, and its curation. Moreover, the organisation is structured in both bureaucratic and autocratic way. Their leadership style includes both centralised and decentralised decision making. The core values can be seen in its strategic goals. Employees are generally capable, if not outstanding, at getting their jobs done and there are no gaps in terms of competency. There are no inconsistencies evident between the elements that are analysed through this model, hence the British Museum is doing excellently.
TwentseWelle uses a line-staff organization structure. This means that there is one CEO supported by two staff departments, and three head departments that directly report to the CEO.
The role of the staff sections is to assist and to advice the CEO, however they have no decision making power. The staff consists of two departments ‘Secretary CEO & Human Resource’ and ‘Accounting’. There are three departments who report directly to the CEO within the organization, these departments are:
Facility Management & Tech Support
Public & Marketing
Collection & Project Management
In the organizational hierarchy there are several teams that report to the above mentioned sections, divided by their category of function. E.g. ICT reports to the main department ‘Facility Management & Tech Support’.
Line-staff organizations are considered a bureaucratic organization. Decision making responsibilities are centralized by the CEO at TwentseWelle, in which he may or may not follow up advice from his management team. (Bureaucratic vs Matrix Organizational Structures) Appendices 1*
As mentioned above the CEO is fully responsible and makes the final decision. The staff however is involved in the decision making process. This kind of leadership is a democratic leadership style. The advantage is that creativity is encouraged, which is positive in an organization like TwentseWelle, however the employees can’t proactively take risks, or challenge the norms without permission. In a department there are multiple teams, these teams can work together easily and there is enough communication between the departments. (Leadership Styles)
TwentseWelle its strategy contains three core aspects: Innovation, to be and remain unique.
Education, to provide the visitors with knowledge, and recreation, to entertain visitors.
These three aspects are most important to achieve the objectives of the organization. TwentseWelle has the objective to work together with everyone who is willing and capable to inspire the organization. By applying this TwentseWelle wants to bring the society, innovation, entrepreneurship and the public together to inspire their visitors. (Annual Report 2014)
What is striking is that the organization focuses on the public and cooperation, but does not have a team that is specialized in networking and publicity. Networking is important for TwentseWelle due to their cooperation with the government and organizations. A team of only two persons, which could be volunteers, is enough to maintain and improve the organizations’ network. By networking new opportunities, trends and threats can be recognized and reported.
The training and skills are monitored and evaluated by the staff department Human Resources. This department is responsible for hiring and controlling employees and volunteers. This can be very difficult as there are lots of volunteers active at TwentseWelle who need to be trained by the museum teachers.
The core competencies of TwentseWelle is their imago, ambition for its collection, stimulate education, to be attractive for the public, and to broaden its operating base as a cultural enterprise
(Annual Report 2014).
The main systems that support and drive the business are the CEO’s staff departments. Human Resources department supports and drives the employees and volunteers. The Accounting department supports and drives the inventory, costs and income. Managers of the three main departments control teams that are related to their department. The staff sections and the managers of the main departments report to the CEO. The feedbacks and feed forwards are available within the annual reports (Annual Report 2012). The key systems include security systems and customer support systems.
The corporate values of the organization are the employees and inventories of TwentseWelle. The strongest skill of the organization is the collection as its unique and the competitive selling point of the museum. The employees are responsible for the hospitality, maintenance and innovation of the organization, providers of knowledge to the visitors and to make sure the museum stays accessible. The combination of employees and volunteers causes a positive internal culture as volunteers are not forced, but willing and motivated to work for TwentseWelle. Human Resources must control the volunteers and employees to make sure that they are varied, e.g. not only elderly volunteers.
TwentseWelle is looking for volunteers to fill the following functions: Guests supervisor, shop assistant, desk assistant, observatory, working group of the regional language, publisher, administrator, technical assistant, gardener, collection management assistant, photography and research assistant.
In 2014 the personal of TwentseWelle totalled to 32 employees and 105 volunteers.
TwentseWelle has a line-staff organization structure, which is bureaucratic. The CEO’s staff departments that support and drive employees and the accountancy can advise and support the CEO, but have no decision making power for themselves. Managers of the three main departments control the teams related to their section and report directly to the CEO, who is responsible for the final decision. This is a democratic style of leadership which fits the organization. TwentseWelle could add a team specialized in networking to maintain and develop its network, as the organization cooperates with multiple organizations. With possessing a big network opportunities, threats and trends can be recognized more easily. It would be better if the volunteer vacancies could be filled by trainees who already study something related to the organizations’ activities, for example history, archaeology, art etc.
The table below summarizes the benchmarking standards derived from the British Museum.
Scholarships helps develop talents
Continuum of leadership styles
Offers flexibility and reduces the downs associated with any one style.
Better decisions, employee morale
Training and development
Update employee skills and develop talents
The two organizations, Holland and TwentseWelle, have various similarities and differences. Among the similarities is that they both have a hierarchical and bureaucratic structure. In Holland casino, there is an executive board comprising of the CEO and CFO. All other departments are responsible to this board. In TwentseWelle, there is a CEO who is supported by some staff. All departments are answerable to the top organ in both cases. Departments are headed by personnel under whom further junior work. Another similarity between the two is that the decision making process is participative whereby the top organs engage their subordinates on decision making. Though the leadership styles displayed by the two casinos may differ, they have a commonality on how decisions are made. The juniors take part in discussing the various issues, but the final decision ultimately comes from the CEO (for TwentseWelle) and CEO and CFO, or the executive board (for Holland). Another similarity is that the two both have survival strategies, and each aims at being the best casino in their respective regions. These strategies may, however, differ.
There are several differences between the casinos that might seem to outdo the similarities. In almost every aspect of each organization, there are some differences that can be noted. In the structure, Holland casino is different from TwentseWelle in the sense that Holland casino has one person at the top- that is the CEO. On the other hand, Holland casino has two people at the top- that is, the CEO and the CFO. Holland casino has an executive board while TwentseWelle has a single person overseeing the operations of the entire organization. Another key difference on the nature of the two casinos whereby Holland casino is partly owned and ran the government. On the other hand, there is no mention of TwentseWelle being owned partly by the government. In that case, it follows that the former is closely monitored by the government than the latter.
In their hiring practices, the difference emergence from the fact that Holland prefers to hire people who have worked for other casinos, while TwentseWelle hires people who have skills, not necessarily having worked in other casinos. TwentseWelle prefers people who have acquired skills through appropriate training programs. In terms of the strategies, the two differ in the sense that Holland employs the strategy of offering variety to guest customers and prevailing customers in a bid to retain them. In the case of TwentseWelle, it employs a strategy with three components- that is, innovation, education, and recreation.
There are some things that the two casinos can learn from each other. Key among these pertains to the hiring strategies. Since they use different strategies, they need to learn the effectiveness of each other’s and see how they can build on their individual strategies. The two strategies obviously yield different results. The composition of the top-most organ of the organization also has some lessons to offer. Since Holland has two people ate the top while TwentseWelle has only one, Holland can learn from TwentseWelle the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of having one person at the top. Conversely, TwentseWelle can learn from Holland casino the effectiveness of ineffectiveness of having a board of two people at the top. All in all, the areas of differences offer something for the other to learn.
One recommendation for these two organizations is to emulate some of the strategies used by British Museum, the key among these being the scholarships. They should invest in education because it is through education that they can acquire employees with the necessary skills needed to run the organizations. They should sponsor talented people who will later work for them. Secondly, the two organizations should not confine themselves within a particular leadership style. Instead, they should try to adopt various styles because each style has ups and downs. Like British Museum, they should embrace democracy, involvement and participation at greater levels. This is because the lower level employees may be in a better position to understand processes and systems better because they are the ones who interact with them on a daily basis. Lastly, they should emulate British Museum on issues of human resource development through establishing training and development programs for the current employees. With this strategy, the British Museum has managed to maintain the standards of employment or employee usefulness in the organization.
Annual Report 2012. (n.d.). Retrieved May, 29, 2016, from TwentseWelle: http://images.twentsewelle.nl/Downloads/Jaarverslag2012.pdf
Annual Report 2014. (n.d.). Retrieved May, 29, 2016, from TwentseWelle: http://images.twentsewelle.nl/Downloads/Jaarverslag2014.pdf
Annual report 2014. (2015, March 30). Retrieved from Holland Casino: https://www.hollandcasino.nl/sites/default/files/hc-annualreport-2014.pdf
British Museum. (2012). Towards 2020 – The British Museum’s Strategy. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from www.britishmuseum.org: https://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Towards_2020-The_British_Museum_Strategy.pdf
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Penn, A., Martinez, M., & Lemlij, M. (2007). Structure, Agency and Space in the Emergence of the Organisational Culture. London. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.spacesyntaxistanbul.itu.edu.tr/paperslongpapers073-PennMartinezLemlij.pdf
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Appendices 1* (TwentseWelle Introduction Presentation PowerPoint)
Deliverable feedback form
Group number: 4
s /i (sufficient, Insufficient) Comments
1/ Presentation and lay out
if not relevant fill in N/A (not applicable)
Businesslike (proper cover, bounded,..)
Clear and easy to read (spacing between paragraphs, text use fonts with consistency..)
Includes photos when relevant (to make the report attractive and pleasing to read..)
Text is correct (without spelling mistakes, inappropriate change of font size or type)
Take into consideration the assignment’s given constraints (maximum page of X…, one page per table, all graphics must be in color, report should be paper printed..)
Clear and well defined (reader can understand the structure right from the table of contents)
Follows recognized elements of a business report( an introduction always in chapter 1, a management summary (max 1 page), report’s purposes, problem definition..)
Uses paragraphs that aid the flow of information and analysis of the findings
Has headings and perhaps subheadings
Clear analysis of the data
Uses appropriate language and style for the
Report’s purposes , content and readers
Answers the assignment’s problematic
Take into consideration the given constraints
Recommendations, research are relevant and acceptable
All sources used are disclosed and referenced accurately