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Purpose: Create paper or digital wireframes based on the provided scenario. Scenario: The leadership team at Fast Readers, Inc.

Purpose: Create paper or digital wireframes based on the provided scenario.

Scenario: The leadership team at Fast Readers, Inc. is interested in seeing an initial set of wireframes. As a reminder, the company wants to offer the ability for people to link to online content and have the app read the content at user-selected, variable speeds. Based on this scenario, draft four wireframes, each for a different screen. Provide an explanation for each wireframe.


Cover page
Introduction (include mention of the tool/methodology you used)
Wireframe 1
Wireframe 2
Wireframe 3
Wireframe 4

Your document should be formatted using current APA style and consist of 4 pages, not including the cover page.

6 Juveniles Who Commit Homicide Student’s Name Department, Institutional Affiliation Course Code:


Juveniles Who Commit Homicide

Student’s Name

Department, Institutional Affiliation

Course Code: Course Name

Instructor’s Name

Due Date

Juveniles Who Commit Homicide

Heide (2020) argues that murders caused by juvenile have been a problematic matter in the U.S. for decades. In the event that kids are involved in murder, reactions from the public are often many with many people asking why these youngsters engage in such behaviors and what must be done to put an end to the problem. These concerns are mostly acute where the murderers are from respected and well to do families and the crimes are dreadful or they involve multiple and vulnerable victims. Heide (2020) adds that in the past 50 years, the U.S. has had two phases when homicides committed by teenagers have climbed exceedingly. The first period is 1960-1975 where convictions for juveniles who have committed murders rose by 200%. The second period that had a worrying uptrend is 1984-1993 where the arrests for juveniles that had been involved with murder crimes increased from 1004 to 3284. During the second phase, the apprehensions involving teenagers went from 7.3% to 16.2%. Interestingly, this upsurge in juvenile participation in crimes of murder was happening at a time when the juvenile populace was falling. Most experts at the time forecasted that the U.S. should be prepared for continued increase in the homicides caused by teenagers in the following years when the numbers of teenagers was expected to increase. This essay will examine the population of juveniles who commit homicides, the relevant treatment interventions and crime control strategies.

Nature and Type of Offender Population-Current Demographical Characteristics and Crime Statistics

Berryessa (2021) argues that in the last 50 years the population in the prisons in the U.S. has climbed by over 500%. This increase represents the largest incarceration rate globally (Cullen et al., 2012). Even though a decrease of 17% was witnessed in 2019, the reduction cannot address the problem of extreme reliance on long term prison sentences. The presence of draconian rules supported by a philosophy of total incapacitation has contributed a lot to the long lengths of prison stay for vicious and non- vicious crimes (Austin et al., 2016). As views change regarding the high incarceration rates, considerations are being rechanneled to correcting the excessive, unjust sentencing practices. According to the Office of Population Affairs, in 2019 there were over 42 million adolescents in the U.S between the ages 10-19. Adolescents made close to 12.8% of the total population (OPA, n.d.). The violence that had been predicted by experts involving juveniles in the early 90s did not come to pass. The juveniles that have been arrested for homicide related cases have had a decreasing trend. In 1994, only 16.7% of all murder related arrests involved juveniles. From 2001-2010 arrests involving juvenile homicides were only 8-10% of all murder cases. From 2011-2018, juveniles were less than 8% in the records of homicide related cases. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), in 2019, the law enforcement officers arrested approximately 696, 620 persons under the age of 18 (Puzzanchera, 2020). This number was the lowest almost four decades. Juvenile arrests for crimes such as robbery and murder are much higher for black youth compared to those of a white descent. However arrests that involve liquor law violations are higher in white youth compared to the black youths. The juvenile murder rate in 2019 decreased by over 80% compared to rates in the peak years of early 1990s.

Recidivism Levels among Juvenile Homicide Offenders

The biggest challenges that face the legislative authorities is determining the juvenile offenders that can be safely released to the communities and those whose offenses show lasting incorrigibility and are thus beyond help. In a study that investigated recidivism that compared 20 male juvenile homicide offenders and 20 male juvenile offenders convicted of cases that did not involve murder, recidivism was almost the same for these two groups. 60% of the juvenile homicide offenders and 65% of those convicted for non-homicide were charged with another crime after release (Heide, 2020). Even though seven of the twelve individuals convicted of homicide did not commit another murder, they were arrested for crimes against persons. Other research works show that gang related homicide lawbreakers and gang related persons are more inclined to get rearrested for other felonies when related to other violent lawbreakers (Trulson et al., 2012). In another study that involved 221 juvenile homicide offenders in facilities in Texas, 58% were convicted for a felony (Caudill & Trulson, 2016). Three elements contributed to higher rates of recidivism in this case including shorter times of incarceration, assaultive behaviors towards prison staff and elevated disruptions of observed programs. In another study involving 1400 persons that had been freed from Texas Youth Commission of the 238 youths that had been convicted for homicide offenses, close to 58% were returned to the prison system within five years (Trulson et al., 2016). Those individuals that had participated in assaultive behaviors, had a significantly higher rate of recidivism compared to those that did not have record of assaultive behaviors.

Effective Treatment Modalities

Berryessa (2021) argues that the reliance on long term incarceration is not necessary and is not only unjust but ineffective to the community. Long term incarceration has affected the communities of color indiscriminately and has high monetary and human costs. Also, it has not yet been proven that the long term sentences have to a larger extent reduced the rates of crime and increased public safety effectively. According to OJJDP effective intervention is necessary in diminishing juvenile delinquency rates. Interventions are necessary for the treatment of serious offenders that have the capability of having harmful criminal careers and without intervention have high chances of recidivism at the ages of peak offending. For institutionalized juveniles the best interventions include community residential programs, skill oriented initiatives and counseling. For juveniles in correctional institutions, the treatments that have shown much effect include interpersonal skills initiatives that deal with training in social skills and anger management. Youth in the juvenile system have varied adversities including economic disadvantages, exposures to alcohol and drugs, unstable families and mental diseases. White (2019) argues that 65-70% of all youth in the various juvenile justice facilities and correctional facilities have mental disorders. Race and ethnicity are good predictors of unmet needs since whites have higher chances of receiving mental health services when compared to minorities. A risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) model is needed to reduce the chances of future delinquencies and combat recidivism. This model has been successful in assessing and rehabilitating offenders. It involves matching the services to the risk to reoffend and assessing the criminogenic needs and targeting them during treatment. Also, it encompasses the creation of maximum opportunities for offenders to learn from the interventions by offering cognitive behavioral treatment and ensuring the interventions are customized to suit the motivation, strengths and abilities of offenders (Hovey et al., 2017) . The risk is all about the individuals to be targeted. Needs address what must be done while responsivity is all about the way the task should be delivered. General responsivity endorses the use of cognitive methods to manipulate behavior. Specific responsivity suggests that the identified intervention should focus on the strong points of the offenders. By attending to the criminogenic needs there is the benefit of improving the treatment and prediction of offenders.

Ineffective Treatment Modalities

Owing to the past programs evaluation, it is now clear that some intervention strategies relating to juvenile offenders are not effective. One of the programs that have failed is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) initiative. It is the most used curriculum targeting drug abuse in the U.S. Even with the available empirical evidence that it is not effective, the program is still in place. Some positive effects have been noted but these gains dissipate over time. The biggest failure of D.A.R.E has been its principle of giving youngsters instructions through policemen that stress on the consequences believing that it will deter them from drug use. Programs that stress common sense rather than scientific data often fail. Zero tolerance policies are also not effective and were applied to youngsters to deter them from participating in delinquent behaviors. These policies call for severe punishment of all infractions of rules and as such are not realistic. Punishment is never effective when meant for rehabilitation. It only serves the purpose of getting justice from persons that have wronged society. More severe programs perform poorly since they provoke aggressions and increase the behaviors that are punished. Deterrence programs and vocational initiatives that lack educational elements increase recidivism. The milieu therapy that incorporates day to day interactions in discussions has also proven to be a weak intervention. The use of peer leaders in prevention approaches; wilderness challenge programs and electronic monitoring have also proven to be ineffective.

Challenges Faced by Treatment Providers

Youth with mental health disorders are often underserved and the same issue is true in the teenagers that are in the criminal justice system. Children in the criminal justice system are more neglected compared their peers in the general population. Experts that offer mental health services are often faced with the problem of identifying the symptoms of disorderly behavior and the age appropriate ones and a lack of evidence based data that can offer effective direction. The persons that rehabilitate juveniles through mental health treatment strategies have to provide educational instructions guided by an elaborate understanding of the unique needs and practices that are evidence based and associated with the population of juvenile homicide lawbreakers. For example, the utilization of comprehensive and reliable screening instruments is a step in the right direction. Also, behavioral interventions and adequate training on cultural competence are also needed. Aspects such as understanding culture and behavior can improve the outcomes of mental health and rehabilitation services towards juvenile homicide offenders. Without adequate information and literature supporting the adequate treatment of juveniles, treatment providers in most cases are hampered in their strategies.

Challenges Facing the Offenders-(Juvenile and Adult Offenders)

The Current Rehabilitation Needs within the Criminal Justice System

Even though the justice system has the mandate of providing treatment services, it has not met the various needs adequately. White (2019) adds that service needs have always been unmet in the juvenile criminal system and that only close to 20% of the teens that have been diagnosed with mental illnesses receive the necessary treatment. The justice system has the difficult role of distinguishing needs that target risk factors from the treatment services that focus on mental wellness. Since there are limited resources and pieces of training, some of the needs area prioritized over others. Also, there is a lack of matching the treatment programs with the risk factors through evidence based initiatives that target individual capacities. Even with a risk-needs-responsivity approach, the implementation gap is huge thus reducing the chances for positive results.

Legal Cases That Have Helped Shape Legislation-(Prosecution and Sentencing)

In response to the increasing murder crimes by juveniles, legislations were passed in the late 80s and 1990s to ease the process of transferring juveniles that were involved in serious crimes to the adult courts. In this period, juveniles that joined the adult criminal justice system and their adult counterparts had to serve long sentences that had no parole and faced capital punishment. However in the following 30 years, many challenges to the legislations ensued to challenge the treatment of juveniles as adults. These challenges were particularly targeted to the death sentences relating to juveniles and attracted varying reactions from the U.S. In the 21st century, the Supreme Court has deliberated on 5 major cases regarding teenagers that have been sentenced in the adult systems and offered relief to the individuals sentenced to life without parole and even death. In the deliberations it was found that science proves that juveniles have not fully developed mentally and are thus not equipped to evaluate situations from a critical perspective (Kennedy et al., 2020). The reasoning in this regard is that youths under the age of 18 are developmentally dissimilar from adults. Youths are easily influenced through peer pressure and cannot disengage themselves from unfavorable neighborhoods (Heide, 2020). In 2005, in Roper v. Simmons the Supreme Court held that juveniles held for murder cannot be punished to death under the eighth amendment which bans unusual and cruel punishment (JUSTIA, n.d.). Five years later in 2010, in the matter of Graham v. Florida the court through the guidance of the eighth amendment forbade the sentencing of teenagers to life without conditional release for crimes such as robbery and kidnapping (JUSTIA, n.d.). Two years later in 2012, in Miller v. Alabama the court came to the conclusion that life without parole for juveniles charged with murder is cruel and unusual and recommended reviews to such sentencing (Supreme, n.d.). Four years later in 2016, in Montgomery v. Louisiana the court was guided by the Miller v. Alabama ruling retroactively and the decision implied that the more than 2000 inmates that were sentenced to life without parole had the opportunity for resentencing (Supreme, n,d.). The rulings in Miller v. Alabama did not wholly impede trials that sentence teenagers convicted of murder to life without conditional release. Even so, the court was cognizant of the diminished culpability of juveniles and their ability to change and believed that life without parole for juveniles would be uncommon. However the biggest challenges in cases where juveniles have committed homicides is distinguishing between the crimes that are caused by a lack of maturity and those that involve individuals that cannot be assisted by rehabilitation and growth. In 2016, in Tatum v. Arizona the court reaffirmed that life without parole sentencing is only possible where the crimes depict permanent incapability of correction and reform (Supreme, n.d.). Even though the cases involving juveniles have been decreasing over the years, lawmakers and courts in the U.S. have continuously struggled regarding the appropriate sentence for youths under the age of 18 that commit murder.

Traditional Policing Modalities Used in Apprehension

Alternative Policing Methods and Community Policing Methods

Approaches in Crime Control That could be Implemented by Households, Schools, and the Community


Juveniles are more likely to be swayed by their friends and are largely affected by their environs. Juveniles from neighborhoods that are crime ridden should get adequate adult supervision and have safe areas such as recreational centers and sports centers. Schools, churches and the different community organizations should help youths to become responsible and offer drug education initiatives. Identifying the needs of juvenile homicide offenders and providing treatment services that can meet those need is an uphill task. However, the consequences of ignoring such problems can result into negative effects that affect not only the youth but the larger community. Juvenile homicide offenders must be discouraged from going back to their old homes especially if these communities are crime infested. Alternative housing in areas that have less incidents of crime can help these youths start afresh. With the right environment to come to, juvenile homicide offenders can succeed and become productive members of the community.


Austin, J., Eisen, L., Cullen, J., & Frank, J. (2016). How many Americans are unnecessarily incarcerated?. The Brennan Center for Justice. New York: New York University

Berryessa, C. M. (2021). A tale of “second chances”: an experimental examination of popular support for early release mechanisms that reconsider long-term prison sentences. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1-42.

Caudill, J. W., & Trulson, C. R. (2016). The hazards of premature release: Recidivism outcomes of blended-sentenced juvenile homicide offenders. Journal of criminal justice, 46, 219-227.

Cullen, F. T., Jonson, C. L., & Eck, J. E. (2012). The accountable prison. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(1), 77-95.

Heide, K. M. (2020). Juvenile homicide offenders look back 35 years later: Reasons they were involved in murder. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11), 3932.

doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113932

Hovey, K. A., Zolkoski, S. M., & Bullock, L. M. (2017). Mental Health and the Juvenile Justice System: Issues Related to Treatment and Rehabilitation. World Journal of Education, 7(3), 1-13.

JUSTIA. (n.d.). Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551.

JUSTIA. (n.d.). Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. 48.

Kennedy, T. D., Detullio, D., & Millen, D. H. (2020). Juvenile Delinquency.​. Springer.

Office of Population Affairs. (n.d.). America’s Diverse Adolescents.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Effective Intervention for Serious Juvenile Offenders.

Puzzanchera, C. (2020). The decline in arrests of juveniles continued through 2019. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Supreme (n.d.). Miller v. Alabama, 132 S. Ct. 2455.

Supreme (n.d.). Montgomery v. Alabama, 136 S. Ct. 718.

Supreme (n.d.). Tatum v. Arizona, 580 U.S.

Trulson, C. R., Haerle, D. R., Caudill, J. W., & DeLisi, M. (2016). Lost causes: Blended sentencing, second chances, and the Texas youth commission. University of Texas Press.

Trulson, C. R., Caudill, J. W., Haerle, D. R., & DeLisi, M. (2012). Cliqued up: The postincarceration recidivism of young gang-related homicide offenders. Criminal Justice Review, 37(2), 174-190.

White, C. (2019). Treatment services in the juvenile justice system: Examining the use and funding of services by youth on probation. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 17(1), 62-87.

1.2 Research problem Sound credit management is crucial in ensuring the optimal

Purpose: Create paper or digital wireframes based on the provided scenario. Scenario: The leadership team at Fast Readers, Inc. Information Technology Assignment Help 1.2 Research problem

Sound credit management is crucial in ensuring the optimal and sustained financial performance of commercial banks among other financial institutions. Locally, Ngare (2008) studied credit risk management practices by commercial banks and found that credit risk management has an impact on the performance of commercial banks. Wanja (2013) investigated the effects of credit policy used by commercial banks on their performance. The study found that the nature of loan terms and conditions has a large effect on the bank’s competitiveness. Despite the significant role played by credit risk management practices on loan portfolio performance in commercial banks. Muasya (2009) broke down the effect of non-performing credits on the budgetary execution of the keeping money division in Kenya in the season of a worldwide monetary emergency. The discoveries affirmed that non-performing credits do influence business banks in Kenya. Wanjira (2010) likewise examined the relationship between administration practices of nonperforming advances and the money-related execution of business banks in Kenya. The study reasoned that there is a requirement for banks to receive administration hones for nonperforming credits and that there was a positive relationship between non-performing advances administration hones and the budgetary execution of business banks in Kenya which infers that the appropriation of non-performing advances administration hones prompts to enhanced money related execution of business banks in Kenya There have been endeavors in the past to evaluate the effect of credit management procedures on the monetary execution of business banks in Kenya yet much center has been on microfinance and credit risk. Little has been done to explore the effect of strategies used to manage credit strategies on the financial performance of bank business in Kenya, and henceforth this exploration addressed that research gap by answering the question; which is the impact of credit management techniques on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya?


Mureithi, E. (2016). The effect of credit management techniques on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Wanja, Y. (2013). The Effects of Credit Policy used by Commercial Banks on their Performance. Unpublished MBA Project, University of Nairobi.

Surname 1 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Entangled in Fear The

Surname 1

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Entangled in Fear

The arguments in this essay are based on the quote, “the horrors of the inquisition are nothing compared to the fates your mind can imagine for your loved ones.” The quote describes fear as demonstrated in the book The Mist by Stephen King. The author explains that a violent storm accompanied by a heavy mist covers a store where locals and weekenders shop. The shoppers are astonished by what they see in the mist that hammers on doors and windows that are almost invisible. The scary things that emerge instill horror, including something with tentacles and other creatures that resemble a cross placed between a dinosaur and a praying mantis. Stephen King further explains that Mrs. Carmody and David become leaders designing plans to protect themselves and their beloved ones from the horror. Man-eating bugs are seen patrolling the parking lot from the store, suggesting that moving out is risky. In the book, The Mist by Stephen King, the theme of horror is evident: inquisitions among the characters concealed in the supermarket arise as they explore options to protect themselves and their beloved ones. 

           The theme of horror is evident in The Mist by Stephen King after a thunderstorm accompanied by a thick supernatural fog encloses Maine. Shoppers, including David Drayton, his son Billy, and Brent Norton are inside the supermarket and shortly realize darkness and that the mist covering the store harbors dangerous predators. This situation throws them into panic (Stephen 33). Fear causes panic that aggravates mixed reactions among individuals. The quote “the myth of modern science monsters, touches strongly on these feelings of fear” in the essay “Between monsters, goddesses and cyborgs: feminist confrontations with science” by Nina Lykke supports the theme of fear (Lykke, 76). Communication breakdown occurs due to the strong earthquakes, after which darkness is evident in the supermarket. While Norm repaired a blocked vent in a generator, the scary monsters approached, “his head whipped back and forth and his eyes bulged with terror” (Stephen 48). Norm is pulled by frightening creatures in the mist that cause his death.

Inquisitions commence among Ollie Weeks and David as they observe the unexpected demise of Norm. Stephen explains that the two keep on convincing the remaining survivors in the supermarket to stay calm and not to leave the store. The survivors inquire about what has happened, and after being informed by David and Ollie about what had transpired, Norton and a few individuals accuse David of being untruthful. Due to panic, Norton and his friends decide to go outside to seek assistance, only to be struck by a huge creature (King 50). Weird creatures fly into the supermarket, and through inquiries amongst the survivors, the predators are killed using improvised means.

David and his friends explore options to protect themselves and their beloved ones from fear. David, Amanda, Billy, Ollie, and other survivors try to escape from the store, but their efforts are suddenly frustrated by Mrs. Carmody, who convinces the group to sacrifice Amanda and Billy. Ollie, later on, shoots Mrs. Carmody and scatters her supporters, and on their way to David’s car, Ollie and another survivor are killed (King 38-39). When David is informed about Hartford, a safe haven, he drives off, hoping to escape the mist to safety.   

           In summary, the book The Mist by Stephen King revolves around horror. Characters such as David unexpectedly experience a growing threat owing to the horrifying mist that challenges his rationality boundaries while in a supermarket with his son Billy and neighbor Norton. In the store, David advises everyone to remain indoors and stay calm. Driven by curiosity, some individuals still go out into the mist and are attacked by horrible creatures. The author paints a picture of fear that pushes David and his friends towards making inquiries and deliberations amongst themselves on ways to escape from the horrifying situation to safety.

Works Cited

King, Stephen. The Mist. Penguin, 2007. (pp. 1-125)

Lykke, Nina. Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist Confrontations with Science. Taylor & Francis Group, 1999. (pp. 74-86)