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Prompt: A researcher was doing research to determine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)/ radiations was associated with breast

Prompt: A researcher was doing research to determine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)/ radiations was associated with breast cancer in women. By reviewing the county disease database collected within a single year in a U.S. metropolitan city the researcher discovered 16 women with breast cancer. A total of 544 other women were randomly selected from the county disease database. Women were given surveys with specific questions regarding exposure to EMF. Among women with breast cancer 5 reported no exposure to EMF; a total of 436 control women were never exposed to EMF.

1. Construct the required 2 x 2 table with numeric values indicating cases and controls.
2. Calculate the measure of association
3. Discuss and interpret the results obtained
4. If you (as a researcher) were to investigate a rare cancer in Chicago, where might you look for data?
5. What would be necessary, legally, and ethically, to be able to utilize this data set(s) obtained, as a researcher?

Cite at least two or more references to support the information you present. Needs to be in APA format.

To what extent can the institutional design of planning systems help to

To what extent can the institutional design of planning systems help to ensure that all interested parties can engage effectively in planning? Draw on theories of power to underpin your answer.

Institutional design plays an important role in contemporary planning considerations that is critically modified for effective planning. In that regard, institutions are defined as humanly devised rules that stipulate the form of political, social, and economic interaction. Consequently, the concept of institutional design has been defined as the choice of rules that determine the course of collective decision-making (Colomer, 2008). Effective policy enforcement often requires a shared acceptance of the consequences and outcomes of implementing particular policies or plans. In addition, Baldwin (2019) describes the institutional design as instrumental in bridging the gap between realized and potential advantages of participatory approaches.

A primary theory that comprehensively delineates the operation of institutional designs is the Actor-Network theory (ANT). The concept perceives stakeholders as actants capable of association or disassociation to the engagement, facilitating a distinction in the inherent interest to contribute. The idea of conforming engagement to such a theory is embedded in the notion that the actant joining the network gives them identity and accords them substance, intention, and subjectivity. Institutional designs adopt such theoretical approaches to distinguish proper interaction methods and connect stakeholders to the planning structure in suitable ways. This portrays the potential of developing a common goal or consensus in planning among stakeholders and engagement with the institution. Through the ANT Theory network, the stakeholders establish a common goal that is essential for effective planning. Therefore, the networks between stakeholders and the institutions strengthen the planning process by establishing coherence and stability. The outcome of such incorporations and ideologies is establishing resilient plans and policies that are effective in meeting the particular local goals.

Subsequently, the concept of institutional design revolves around determining the eligibility of parties in decision-making and what role they play. According to Jianqiang and Qingwen (2021), it is common for planning and policy-making to distinguish stakeholders into the lay and the technical groups. The lay group, in this case, is presented as unlearned whereas the professional has the technical capacity. Tendency to engage with this form of engagement results in a bias towards the lay disassociated with the engagement process. This informs the setup of institutions with rules in determining who participates based on such criteria. However, such approaches are flawed in engaging all stakeholders. The bias presented is unsuitable for effective planning and serves as concepts to be avoided.

Therefore, institutional systems require adjustment ad modification to adequately include lay groups. The less knowledgeable are not to be disregarded, but rather require platforms and opportunities to express themselves. The system calls for active governance adapting institutional change to its structure. Borrowing the concept of social governance plays a significant role in such an instance. This establishes a degree of social responsibility of the institution to the stakeholders ensuring equitable presentation and engagement. As presented in () the policy becomes relevant and accountable, enhancing the effectiveness of the plan and policy-making process. Social governance, in this case, allows the institution to negate the need for technical capacities and absorb all contributions. Contemporary planning accomplishes engagement through innovative ways such as focused group discussions and workshops that seek to stimulate stakeholder creativity and enhance the communication of priorities in policy-making and plan preparation.

Additionally, a key theory that underpins effective planning through institutional design is the concept of duality in governance. Duality in this perception presents the capability of two forms of institutional structures in institutional development. Bolan (2015) reveals that a formal institution can exist that is accepted as the legitimate form of the institution; however, a second form exists in an informal capacity. The idea in this theory is that the two balance each other out to ensure effective workflow. Hence, when the formal system is rigid and controlling, the informal segment gains more power to strike a balance. Therefore, in planning, rules and norms can be set up to empower the informal institutions in planning to play a role in actively monitoring the formal institutions. The concept provides a sense of monitoring and auditing that necessitates accountability. This way, the stakeholders in planning actively monitor each other, which improves the planning process.

Social governance structures influence establishing effective stakeholder engagement. Social governance calls for devolution of power into an institutional platform that no particular stakeholder can claim dominance of decision making. This facilitates an environment that appropriately accommodates a free relay of interaction with stakeholders. In planning, the planner plays an important role in such situations to ensure mediation of interaction. This way the process becomes productive, ensuring the opinions of all stakeholder groups are registered.

Further, deliberative democracy designs and approaches are identified as key factors determining the extent of decision-making. Karp and Marinova (2020) associate the concept with decision-making as the discussion is focused on establishing solutions to important matters. As the name suggests, the power structure allows parties a chance to be represented, negotiate, and participate in decision-making. The ideological benefits of this system are overarching, as the process acknowledges the diverging and conflicting views and ambitions stakeholders naturally have. The concept presented is that the stakeholders are accorded a role to negotiate and influence policy. In this instance, the power focus is not on approving or disapproving but rather on establishing a unified front to tackle the issues undermining planning, especially at local levels.

Conclusively, effective planning and facilitating stakeholder engagement are intricate, multidimensional tasks. The concept of institutional designs is instrumental in this discourse, establishing the potential approaches to enhance collective growth. Thus, the engagement of all stakeholders for collective growth is a vast discourse, varying in scope and design that they can take up. The theories of governance and power and the extents of democratic rights present the notion that planning is dynamic, allowing flexibility of institutions and leadership structures toward sustainable planning and development. Through such ideologies, the current and future development is anticipated to be prosperous with effective planning as stakeholders operate in environments that they manipulate to conform to their needs.

2 The ADA’s 2022 Standards of Medical Care in Type 2 Diabetes

Prompt: A researcher was doing research to determine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)/ radiations was associated with breast Writing Assignment Help 2

The ADA’s 2022 Standards of Medical Care in Type 2 Diabetes

As new research, technology, and therapies that might enhance the health and well-being of

individuals with diabetes emerge, the area of diabetes care is fast changing. The American

Diabetes Association (ADA) has been a pioneer in generating recommendations that represent

the most current state of the field since 1989, with yearly revisions. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has updated on the clinical practice guidelines for diabetes this year. The standards of medical care inform the health care professionals on the latest evidence of diagnosing and managing diabetes.

One of the recommendations made is based on the screening for diabetes. Adults who do not have the risk factors need to be screened for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes from the age of 35 instead of 45. It emphasizes screening with a fasting glucose test for undiagnosed diabetes for women planning to be pregnant especially those with risk factors. For those who have unplanned pregnancies, they need to be tested on the first prenatal visit. Screening gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks remain unchanged

The second recommendation basis on care for patients with overweight or obesity. Lifestyle behavior-change program is recommended to obese patients to prevent diabetes and complications related to it. The recommendation emphasizes on guidance on health meal planning based on quality of food and nutritional levels. The standards of care have shared information about the medicines approved by FDA such as semaglutide and hydrogel that help manage obesity. The new standards have offered recommendations and guidance about vaccines including flu and COVID-19 vaccines for diabetic patients. Diabetes and obesity are important risk factors for severe COVID-19.

Cognitive impairment has been reported to increase the risks of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia increases the risks of dementia especially in older patients. The new standards have a new section that recommends monitoring od the cognitive capacity of the patient. If necessary, the patients need to be referred for formal assessment especially for child patients, older patients and those with hypoglycemia. Another guideline related to this is improving hypoglycemia awareness. Hypoglycemia unawareness is described as urgent medical issue for patients with type 2 diabetes with severe insulin deficiency. The latest standards shows that relaxing glucose target for a few weeks can improve awareness of hypoglycemia.

Another standard shows that caregivers and patients need to be trained in technologies. The new standards underscore the relevance of caregivers and patient in selection of selecting ongoing training and education, devices and being evaluated on their skills of using the devices and reading data in those devices. The guidelines recommend that people using continuous glucose monitoring devices-scanners to be able to measure glucose levels overtime. The devices are usually inserted in the upper arm and abdomen must always have access to blood glucose monitoring devices, which are often accurate devices but require finger prick.

The last recommendation is managing risks of comorbidities and complications. The comorbidities and risks of complications are current elements of treatment decisions. Even though metformin has been the first choice of managing diabetes, the care providers can also use GLP-1 receptor agonists or SGLT2 inhibitors in addition to or in place of metformin. The medications above can be prescribed to diabetic patients with risks for heart failure, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce disease progression and cardiovascular events. Healthcare providers can also use nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in cases where SGLT2 cannot be used.

The American Disability Act The ADA requires employers to accommodate employees with

The American Disability Act

The ADA requires employers to accommodate employees with disabilities. Employers have to use the interactive process which involves working with the employee to come up with favorable accommodations. This essay is going to use the interactive process to analyze the case of Michael Philips vs Oakdale County. The plaintiff Michael Phillips is suing Oakdale country for discriminating against him on the basis of disability which goes against ADA.

The first step in the interactive process is to analyze the particular requirements of the position and determining the essential functions and purpose of the job. In this case, the position is that of a lifeguard at Oakdale county’s wave pool. Based on the lifeguard training Phillip received, the essential functions of this job include: entering the water and scanning for distressed swimmers, executing basic saves, responding to spinal injuries and performing CPR. The qualifications of this job include: being at least sixteen years old, having water safety test and life guard training certificate. Phillip was qualified for the position and got the offer of employment.

The second step is to consult with the disabled individual to verify limitations related to the job that are imposed by his or her disability. Oakdale County fulfilled this step. Katherine Travale, the recreation specialist stated that the only limitation Phillip stated was not being able to communicate with his co-workers during classroom instructions and staff meetings.

The third step is to consult with the individual and identify potential accommodations and choosing one that is suitable for both employer and employees. Travale and Phillips agreed that the best solution to this problem is to have an ASL interpreter present during the staff and classroom meeting. This accommodation was accepted by the supervisors.

The fourth and fifth steps involve implementing and assessing the effectiveness of the accommodation. Unfortunately, Oakdale country failed in this part because Phillip was not approved by the county-appointed physician. The doctor failed him because he was deaf. Phillip has the right to sue the county for discrimination because according to his health status, if he wears his external sound transmitter which of course he was planning to do during the job he can hear whistles, alarms and people calling him which is part of the job.

Oakdale county put Phillip’s job position on hold because they could not determine reasonable accommodations that would also suit both Phillip and the employer. All the members who were involved in determining whether Phillip could do the job did not possess any prior knowledge or conduct any research to ascertain whether a deaf person can become a life guard. Because there have been several qualified deaf life guards the doctor’s assessment should not have disqualified Phillip from the position. Oakdale county did not meet all the requirements of the interactive process therefore they are guilty of discrimination.

Employee privacy, monitoring and personal information management policy

Policy brief & Purpose

Our company privacy policy outlines our commitment to treating information of stakeholders, employees and other interested parties with the greatest care and confidentiality.

We recognize that personal information is confidential in nature and the company is accountable for protecting this information. We will use this policy to make sure that the company gathers, stores, and handles data in a fair and transparent way, respecting individual rights.


This policy refers to three parties, TechnoPalooza Inc., its employees and the stakeholders.

The policy considers to personal information to include but not limited to: name, email address, phone number, home address, social security number, identity verification code, salary, education, gender, age, medical history, employment history, resume contents, performance review details and emergency contact information.

Our organization gathers this information in an open and transparent manner, with the full collaboration and awareness of those who are interested. Following are the regulations that apply after we get this information.

Policy elements

TechnoPalooxa and all its staff will handle with respect the confidential personal information placed in their care.

The company will ensure that all actions involving collecting, storing, and disclosing information are done with respect to confidentiality.

The company will collect, use and disclose personal information only for purposes that pertain to the individual’s employment relationship to the company.

The purpose for requesting and collecting personal information must be documented by the members involved.

The members should use the personal information strictly for the stated purpose given for collecting the information.

The stated purpose for personal information collection should be given to the individual involved either orally or in writing. And the individual should be able to understand and explain the purpose before the information is collected.

Knowledge and consent

The affected individual must give consent before the personal information is collected, used or disclosed.

Consent obtained through misrepresentation or deception is null and void.

The use or disclosure of personal information should be able to meet the individual’s reasonable expectations.

An individual is permitted to withdraw consent on reasonable notice subject to contractual and reasonable obligations.


We are committed to upholding the following guidelines when it comes to data protection:

Access to sensitive data should be restricted and monitored.

Develop procedures for collecting data that are transparent.

Employees should be educated about online privacy and security.

To safeguard internet data from hackers, create secure networks.

Establish explicit protocols for reporting data abuse or privacy violations.

Establish data protection policies by including contract terms or communicating information about how we handle data (document shredding, secure locks, data encryption, frequent backups, access authorization etc.)

Disciplinary consequences

All of the policies’ principles must be followed to the letter. A violation of the company’s data protection policies will result in disciplinary and possibly legal action.