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Princess Alexandria Hospital Presentation Ap Art History Homework Help

Presentation Script

Hello everyone, this presentation is on Princess Alexandria Hospital Covid-19 general ward and the patients costing structure report. The report is an ABC analysis that uses Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC) to estimate the total cost of the stay for level 1, level 2 and level 3 types of patients. The report further recommends whether the hospital should adopt a 20% markup to cover any unexpected cost. The report concludes by outlining the limitations of TDABC faced during the cost estimation process. The report assumes a structuring approach involving an introduction, discussion and a conclusion. The aim of the analysis was to estimate the total cost for each type of patient. Determining these costs is relevant since it provides the hospital with the appropriate amount to charge different patients.

The costing approach makes various assumptions in determining the cost driver and cost driver quantity relating to each cost pool (overhead cost activity). One of the assumptions made is all organization employees are working equal hours and are entitled to all benefits. In analyzing the hospital’s billing structure, the analysis assumes a top-down approach where it first determines the total overhead cost, followed by capacity cost rate, followed by daily hours spent on each type of patient, then finally determining the daily treatment cost. In determining the cost of stay for each type of patient, the analysis multiples the number of hours stayed by the capacity cost rate. According to the analysis, level 3 patients will pay the highest, followed by level 2 and level 1, who will pay the least amount.

Although introducing a 20% markup cost to cover the unexpected costs is a good idea, it is inappropriate considering the cost of the stay for each type of patient. Therefore, the markup would drive patients to look for an alternative; thus, the hospital would lose market share. The limiting factors for the TDABC application, in this case, are its application complexity, the inclusion of indirect overhead costs, and its inappropriate degree of variability.

That is all for the report, and thank you very much for your time.

THE MAJOR EFFECTS OF CONFLICT history assignment help writing services: history assignment help writing services

# 1.  Conflict is a state of disagreement, or struggle between two or more parties as they pursue incompatible goals. Conflict is inevitable in any social construct and it affects an individual or groups either positively or negatively.  In the human society, conflict arises from different reasons as hold different motivations, goals, and perceptions. Workplace conflicts often escalate impending team productivity. Conflict could occur at different levels such as interpersonally, interpersonal, group level, and at managerial levels. Intrapersonal conflict also referred to “man against self” is implosion of an individual’s state of mind which is largely dictated by circumstances around them. Examples of factors affecting an individual could be depression, frustration, confusion, and addictions which create mind battles within one self. Interpersonal conflict is a direct struggle between two or more persons and could involve exchange of words, physical exchanges, or gunfights. This conflict makes it hard to achieve goals set by mainly when the roles of parties in conflict overlap. Intergroup conflicts occur between two parties with conflicting ideologies such as religious or ethnic interests. For instance, in the workplace setting, a group of employees with disability could feel overshadowed.

Workplace conflicts are fueled by causes and reasons such as the leadership style where employees do not agree with the managerial decisions. This mainly occurs with introduction of new leaders who create confusion from the previously adapted norms. Personality conflicts also occur when there’s misunderstanding on the motives, character and actions. This is due to mistaken perceptions among employees. For example, an introverted employee could be mistaken as a snobby or rude team player creating unnecessary conflict. Resistance to change is a fear that commonly leads to conflict with management. Naturally emotions of anger, denial, and confusion to embracing change create hostility. Poor communication is one of the major causes of conflict where messages are interpreted in the wrong way leading to miscommunication. Toxic work environments or culture in the organizational could be negative for progress and achievement of the defined goals. Other causes are unclear roles, inadequate training, and unequal opportunities.

Conflict management is the implementation of approaches and techniques by a leader in attempt to handle conflicts among staff members. There are five approaches to management of conflict which are avoiding, an approach of withdrawal which occurs when none of the parties wants to engage in confrontation, hence do not engage. Competing involves a plan to win and has no room for diverse perceptions hence no cooperation from the members. Accommodating is a strategy where one party gives in to the demands of the other for cooperation and harmony, and not due to resolved matters. Collaboration involves cooperative engagements with participation and creation of a shared solution. Lastly, compromise is a win-win strategy with partial contributions and nobody gets the full package but a tease to ease the conflict.

#2. Job performance is primarily tied to the employee motivation to accomplish the organizational goals. Achievement of productivity is influenced by working conditions and culture of an organization.  Organizational performance could however be affected by factors such as work-life balance where the two compete over an individual’s attention, time and energy and could lead to conflict and later poor performance.  Work overload leads to burnouts and reduced motivation. Organizations need to find flexibility for their employees for them to accommodate their own needs and be more productive. Healthy relationships are a major concern as how employees relate with each other and their leaders is a measure of their engagement to achieving their goals. Strong bonds allow collaborations allowing them to reap more outcomes. Lack of connections could be disadvantageous as communication becomes harder as well achievement of objectives. The attitudes portrayed have the potential to impact the reactions of others and affect their performance. An employee tasked with collaborative duties showing a negative attitude will affect the whole group. Managers should encourage positive work environments to ensure employees have free space for thought. Work ethics play a great part in the moral principles and behavior of employees.  They define what is right and wrong, dictating the dos and don’ts in daily operations hence playing a major role in the reputation, quality of productivity and organizational culture.

#3. Social responsibility is the obligation of a firm to maintain welfare balance between itself and the society around it so as to create equilibrium in the ecosystem. Organizations have both internal and external stakeholders such as employees, clients, society and investors among others. Organizations show responsibility by acting on the interests of others especially the society by donating funds, sponsoring events, and being open to other people. They create a conducive environment for motivations and incentives among their stakeholders. Social responsibility allows growth, accountability, and transparency while creating long-term connections.

#4. Communication in any organization is essential either internally to employees or externally. It reduces misinformation by clearly stating the goals, mission and roles of all employees. Communication should be clear, conscience, complete, consistent, relevant, and objective. It could either be vertical from managers to subordinates or horizontal between departments. The communication process model, is a cycle of events which start from a sender who encodes a message that travels through a medium of communication, to the receiver who decodes and sends back feedback to the sender. The process involves interchanging roles between the receiver and sender to pass information. Organization communication is done via use of memos, emails, written, or oral. Communication is essential for effective feedback, to overcome organizational barriers, and reduce perception biases.

#5. The control process is a management function that ensures all activities are conducted as planned.  The process involves implementation of these steps; setting standards and goals that are attainable, measurable, and clear. Measuring the actual performance against the goals to monitor the workability of the set goals is the next step. Compare the actual performance to the goals allow continuance or rejection. Analyzing deviations to found out why certain goals did not work. Take corrective actions to rectify the defects realized on the plans. For effective control, managers implement the different types of control including output control that involves more on measurable results such as the number of sold products. Feedback is a review of already achieved activities to determine their success or fail. Proactive control involves preparation for outcomes and possible remedies to prevent problems. Co-current control are done during the process following the codes of conduct, polices sand laws. They ensure keen monitoring of all operations and early detection of problems and possible solutions.




Product Retailing

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Professor’s Name



Product Retailing

Product retailing refers to a process that consumers get their products from suppliers or organizations for personal use. It is estimated that the United States of America made $4.87 trillion in sales in 2015. The retail business in the United States employs more than one out of ten workers. Generally, retail practices are different in various parts of the world (Solomon, Greg, and Elnora, 2018).

Retailing Evolution

Over time, the retailing business has taken many forms due to economic, social, and climatic changes. Modern stores replace different retail types that edge out ancient and outdated models are introduced as peddler hawking.

Businesses go through a life cycle, a theory known as the Wheel of Retailing, which makes businesses to upscale through this cycle. The wheel of retailing theory consists of three phases. The first phase is the entry phase. According to Solomon, Greg, and Elnora, (2018), this phase is categorized by new entrants in the market who come with goods that have low prices. These goods also offer little or no additional services.

The second one is the trading up phase. This phase consists of retailers who come with slightly superior products with increased products. Facilities here are of better quality and well-assorted.

The last phase of the wheel of retailing is the vulnerability phase. Here, retailers work with high-end strategies. Facilities here are of great superior characteristics, great services like the free gift-wrapping facilities. High prices characterize facilities here, and they offer an endless list of services.

Merchants are motivated by four factors that affect the way they carry out their businesses. The first factor is the changing economy. The economic downturn was first witnessed in 2008, and it had a huge impact on all product retailers. Consumers ended up spending up less due to reduced confidence. Upscale store sales became vulnerable and witnessed empty shelves. Private label brands found their way to the shelves, and a move made by most retailers to cushion them on the losses.

The next factor is the changing preferences of the product users and changes in demographics. Families that both parents earn money demand convenience. This pushes the retailers to work for longer hours and open stores in different locations to cover the demand. The ethnic population also affects the retail mix to take care of all. In this factor, merchandisers have moved shopping from a passive to an active tact. Customers are engaged in a much better way. Here, firms also enjoy consumer loyalty.

Technology comes in third. The impact of technology on product retailing can never be over-emphasized. Technology has revolutionized the entire retail business. Retail stores have invested in the Point of Sale systems, which helps the business expensing items from the stores, maintains the stock levels, and helps businesses in proper stock-taking. Technology has also helped consumers to shop for items online and be delivered at their convenience. Technology also allows consumers to have digital wallets, making payments for purchases using mobile phones.

The last factor motivating merchants is globalization. This has allowed many people to move their business operations to other countries across the globe. Here, differences in culture, regulations, and policies are different (Solomon, Greg, and Elnora, 2018).



Ethical Retailing Problems

Businesses are affected by ethical issues both from customers and their employees. These ethical issues include but are not limited to theft at retail stores. Some consumers walk into retail stores intending to shop lift and leave the store without paying for the products. Closely related to this is product theft. Some employees propagate this ethical problem. Stores end up losing huge revenue due to product theft.

Some retail stores also suffer from borrowing. This behavior is common with loyal customers who walk into the stores with insufficient cash. They, therefore, end up taking items on credit to be paid later. Some of them end up defaulting payments pushing retail stores into financial problems.

Some stores also sell harmful products to their consumers. These products may be either expired or of inferior quality. Most retail outlets will put items that have either expired or just about to expire on promotion. Usually, buy one, get one free promotion. Unsuspecting consumers end up buying these products without checking the expiry sticker. Such stores risk entering into legal tussles with their customers or losing their loyalty (Solomon, Greg, and Elnora, 2018).

B2C E-commerce

This refers to an online engagement between business entities and individuals. It is estimated that in 2016, over 373 billion goods were purchased by consumers in the United States of America. In 2017, web sales increased to 1.8 billion dollars.

Shoppers are engaged online by consumers by using gift wraps, use of videos, and online contests, use of different colors and games. One of the limitations of B2C E-Commerce is that most consumers exit the online site with items on their cart that they have not paid for. In the future, retail stores must go through an evolution that will charm most consumers to stay away from their computers and walk into the stores. Greater customer service will drive huge numbers of consumers into a retail store even with the booming online business.

Product layers

The first one is the core product. This is a type of product that is meant to satisfy the most basic need of the consumer. The core product is based on individual preferences, forcing the marketer to have strong knowledge about their target markets, which is termed very complex.

The tangible layer allows products to be touched and felt. These features directly affect the buyer’s decision, and the buyer uses those features to make choices between different products serving the same purpose.

The third layer is the augmented product. This involves product use information that guides the user on how to use the product, delivery of the product, if the product has any credit terms, warranty of the product especially for electronics, and customer support information.

Last but not least is the promised product. This is what the customer hopes to derive from the product’s use. This may be financial or aspirational. The promised product is as personal as the core product.

In conclusion, chapter eight talks about product innovations, different layers of product concepts, how marketers classify products to influence how the buyers make their buying decisions, different types of product innovations, the detailed seven steps of product innovation developed from a mere idea up to the screening, developing the product, marketing the product, testing the effectiveness of the market, and eventually sell new products through a concept known as the adoption pyramid (Solomon, Greg, and Elnora, 2018).



Solomon, Michael R., Greg Marshall and Elnora W. Stuart (2018), Marketing: Real People, Real Choices, 10th Ed, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


THE OUT BREAK OF THE COVID 19 PANDEMIC history assignment help is it legit: history assignment help is it legit





The Name of the Class (Course)

Professor (Tutor)

The Name of the School (University)

The City and State where it is located

The Date



Part 1: summary of the findings

After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, different sectors were affected in the United Kingdom more, so the SMEs and the government did not develop the best strategy that could be used to support the SMEs most effectively. The SMEs play a major role in the development of the economy of the United Kingdom through the creation of jobs and generation of revenues in the form of taxes; thus, the government could have laid a better foundation that could be used in the reviving of the affected SMEs by conducting research and consulting the owner of the SMEs before implementing their strategies in controlling the pandemic. From the survey conducted in the United Kingdom based on the government response towards reviving the SMEs, the results show that the support was not quite enough since the SMEs believe that the government did not deal with the pandemic in the most effective way, most of them applied for grants from the government, but they were not supported; also the implementation of the curfews and house lockdown made the SMEs change the work station to home, and this was done without consulting the owners of the SMEs thus affecting their route process. The findings also show that most SMEs are affected by insolvency risk due to the lack of service to loan debts. The implementations also affected consumerism because the sales reduced due to lockdowns and social distancing restrictions that were put in place by the government. Also, the owners of the SMEs responded that they did not receive adequate support from the government as they expected since before the pandemic, they had depended on the bank loans and other means without a clear budget that could be followed, thus the government should have conducted a survey in understanding the needs of the owners of the SMEs and sensitize them on how best they could have applied for the government relief in the form of grants in the reviving the and boosting the SMEs.

Part 2 interpretations

Consumer shopping habits during and after COVID-19

Consumer shopping habits study how individual customers, groups, or organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods and services to satisfy their needs and wants. Due to the pandemic of COVID-19, there were different disruptions of consumer habits due to the United Kingdom government’s implementations to control the virus’s spread. The implementations are lockdown and social distancing, which disrupted the routine shopping channels on the small business enterprises (Charles, 2021,61). From the survey conducted, 31% of the customers are shopping from the SMEs in the same amount, there is a 21% reduction of the shopping amount from the SMEs, and finally, there is 41% more shopping from the SMEs, which confirms that the government did not adequately help SMEs since they could have included their views in the decision-making process to control the pandemic. There is a reduction in shopping from the SMEs due to the lockdowns since the consumers cannot go to the store; thus, the stores go to their homes, leading to an increase in the expense in the whole supply chain process (Milk, 2020, 189). After the pandemic, the consumer habits will be modified due to the new regulations and procedures in a way they shop for the SMEs’ products and services. There will be an emergency of new habits due to technology advancement, changing demographics, and innovative ways consumers have learned to cope with blurring the work, leisure, and education boundaries. Also, from the survey conducted, the consumers of the goods and services are spending more since the pandemic outbreak because, according to the study, 40% of the consumers spend more, 39% of the consumers pay less.

In comparison, 32% spend the same amount. According to different theories that have been conducted on consumer shopping habits, various factors affect the consumer habits that are social psychological and others that should be considered controlling them (Roll et al., 2021, 187). The pandemic affected both the social, psychological, and personal ways of the people; hence, the government should have helped sensitize the SMEs owners about the factors while giving grants. Due to the process, they will be able to know how they will tackle the situation.

Budgeting before the pandemic

A budget is a financial plan for a defined period, often on an annual basis. It includes the planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, cost and expenses, assets, liabilities, and cash flows. From the survey conducted, most of the SMEs did not have a monthly and weekly budget in that 67% did not have a business budget before the COVID-19 pandemic while 33% did have a budget before the pandemic. According to the research, a budget plays a big role in every business, more so in the SMEs, since it helps in budget estimates in revenue, planned expenditure and restricts any spending which was not planned, also the budget helps in money allocation based on the objectives which support in achieving the strategic goals of the business and finally a well-communicated budget helps everyone understand the priorities of the company (Ericks, 2020, 221). The government should have communicated the importance of the budget during the pandemic and insist on the SMEs using them to revive the business.  The grants that the government gave out should have been based on the business’s size and how the owner of the business had budgeted on the reviving of the business. According to the research conducted based on the importance of budgeting on SMEs during a given business crisis, it shows that the budget plays a critical role by limiting unnecessary expenditure within the business, it creates a financial road map to the recovery of the business in consideration to different factor in the market, also through their budget they can bring new partners on board who have the same vision on business reviving and finally they can attract new investors (Phaup, 2020, 440). The study results based on budgeting met my expectation because most of the SMEs in the United Kingdom are make and shift, and they are mostly based on the number of consumers at a given place. Thus when there are no sales and lack of profitability at a given financial year, the SMEs’ owners tend to shift to another good location.

Effect of the pandemic on the SMEs

According to the study conducted, the SMEs were the most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to closing some businesses and laying off some employees to control the expenses rate. According to the study SMEs are the source of jobs and incomes for many families, thus playing a major role in the economy. According to the survey, 56% of the SMEs are single owned while 33% of the SMEs employs 2-50 employees, while 11% of the SMEs employs more between 51-100 employees, and finally 0% of the SMEs employees more than 100 employees (Prohorovs, 2020, 122). The result above met my expectation since most of the businesses in the U.K. are SMEs which play a vital role in the revenue income than the large businesses. The owners of the SMEs received support from the government, which was inadequate; hence, they could not revive their business at the rate which was being expected. The results of the study show that 21% of the business owners believe the United Kingdom government granted them adequate support, 32% of the SMEs owners are unsure whether the support was sufficient, 36% of the SMEs owners believe the support was not adequate while 11% of the SMEs owners said that they did not require any approval (Zimon and Dankiewicz, 2020, 217). The result was expected since the distribution of the grants did not follow a given strategy, and the owners were no sensitized on how they could use the grants so that they could revive the business. Thus the result confirmed the hypothesis that the government did not provide adequate support to the SMEs.

Changes in the turnover

Turnover is the total sales made by the business in a certain period; it is also called gross revenue. Every company calculates the turnover to determine if they managed to make a profit or a loss at a given period. During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, different businesses were affected due to the restrictions which were implemented by the government so that to control the spread of the disease. According to the study which was conducted, the results shows that 29% of the SMEs turnover decreased by more than 50%, 14% of the SMEs turnover decreased by between 25%-50%, 25% of the SMEs turnover decreased by 25%, 7% of the SMEs were not affected in their turnover, 7% of the SMEs had increased their turnover by 25%, 11% of the SMEs increased their turnover between 25%-50% and finally 7% of the SMEs had an increase of turn over more than 50%. The results confirmed my expectation because a large percentage which 43%, experienced losses in their turnover during the pandemic, while 25% of the SMEs did experience an increase or decrease in their turnover (Fitriyanti, Romli, and Zamzam, 2021, 348). According to the other studies, based on the turnover increase or decrease on the SMEs, several factors affect it: social, political, and others. Thus, the government should have considered those factors before giving the owners of the SMEs’ grant.

SME risk of insolvency

The risk of insolvency is a state where there is the likelihood that a given business will be unable to pay debt obligations. This state’s cause is the company’s inability to service its debt as required, and there are external causes like a change in the market demand of the goods and services offered by the business. The SMEs in the United Kingdom are facing the risk of insolvency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the study I conducted, 7% are at severe risk of insolvency, 30% are at moderate risk, 33% are in a low risk, 19% are at no risk, while 11% are unsure of the risk. The result met my expectations since, due to the pandemic, there were reduced sales in general due to the government restrictions (Kaya, 2021, 367). There was also a change in consumer habits, which affected the total sales negatively, leading to losses. Due to these losses, the SMEs could not service their debts which may they were given by the banks. The major source of capital for SMEs is bank loans, and if they are not serviced accordingly, they may affect future borrowing, according to the research conducted.

Part three discussing the interpretation

            According to the findings, consumer habits were being affected negatively during and after the pandemic because of the government implementations to control the spread of the virus, which are lockdowns and various restrictions. Due to these restrictions, the SMEs’ consumers and services could not shop as they used before, which led to online ordering, and the goods were being delivered to their homes. The change affected the supply chain process negatively since the SMEs will incur extra expenses to ensure the customer Is delivered the goods. According to the other research conducted on consumer change off habits, consumer habits are mostly affected by social factors, psychological factors, political factors, and the market shift in demand and supply. I agree with them since the consumer shopping habits changed after the outbreak of COVID-19, which led to changes that affected the supplier and customer relationship (Herziger and Hoelzl, 2020, 789). My findings based on consumer habits were different from the other studies because the consumer’s shopping habits were being affected by the government’s restrictions and the lack of income of most people. Lack of income is caused by most companies laying off employees to reduce expenses, leading to people shopping only essential items on a restricted budget.

Budgeting plays a crucial role in every business since it determines and plans the business’s goals and lays a map that could be used in meeting the goals. From the findings above, most of the SMEs did not operate in a given budget before the virus’s out brake. Hence most of the SMEs owners did not have a plan which they could use to revive the business during the pandemic process after given the grants by the government like bounce back loan schemes. Due to the lack of budget and strategies which could be used in reviving the SMEs, the owners divert the grants to their upkeep and family, which leads to more crisis in SMEs. The results agree with the previous research, which concluded that most SMEs in the United Kingdom are making and shift since they tend to look where they can thrive and make profits in a short span of time so that they can service their bank debts; hence that is why they do not have a specific financial budget which can be used in setting goals and plans for the whole year (Heriyati, 2020). The government also tries to improve the SMEs’ performance by ensuring they have a specific plan that can be used in the reviving of the business. Also, it involves other banks like BBB, which evaluates the SMEs before granting them loans. The results also show the challenges facing SMEs, like lack of clear goals, objectives, and plans, which can be the core of any investment. Also, most SMEs lack a clear budget that can guide their financial expenditure in a given period. Budgeting should be the center of every SMEs to ensure profits after a given financial time.

The pandemic had a negative impact on most of the SMEs due to the government restrictions put in place to control the spread of the virus. From the findings of the study I conducted, most SMEs are the source of most families’ livelihood and a major income of revenue for the government through taxes. COVID-19 led to the closing of many SMEs due to reduced sales and lack of loans from the banks, which are the major pillar of their performance. Since the SMEs were experiencing the losses, they had to lay off some of the employees they believed were not essential to reduce the cost. Also, due to restrictions of movement, most of the businesses were conducted online. The SMEs were to deliver the goods to the customers’ homes which also increased the supply chain process and reduced general revenue (Zimon and Dankiewicz, 2020, 2389). The government had to set up to revive the SMEs to avoid more deterioration of the economy through the coronavirus future fund, self-employment income support scheme, and other methods like tax retentions to regain their performance. The SMEs feel that the government did support them quite enough since they believe the government should have dealt with the virus better than implementing restrictions. This study confirms the existing theories that pandemics and other factors may negatively affect SMEs if there are no strategies to control them.

Turnover is the gross revenue that a business makes in a given period of time. According to the finding, a large percentage of the SMEs experienced a reduced turnover in six months during the coronavirus pandemic due to the reduction of the number of sales of the SMEs’ goods and services. The drop in sales is caused by the change of shopping habits by the consumers and the government restrictions that are being put in place to reduce the spread of the virus. The government contributed to the reduced turnover from the study even though they helped by giving grants that did not support them quite enough (AMANDA, 2019, 234). My findings confirmed with other theories in that most of the turnovers of a given business are mostly affected by the supply and demand forces in the market. There is an increase in sales when there are more customers, leading to a rise in turnover and vice versa.

During this period of the pandemic, most of the SMEs in the United Kingdom are at the risk of insolvency due to the lack of servicing of their loans. Most of the SMEs depend on bank loans and other forms of grantees to run their daily business, and they usually service these debts according to the bank’s agreement. COVID-19 affected the business market where that SMEs were most affected by poor sales and increased losses because of the reduction rate of consumption of the goods, thus leading to a lack of servicing of the loans which were being given by the banks (Kaya, 2021, 677). Due to the lack of servicing of the loans, SMEs cannot get capital to boost their business from the banks, leading to insolvency and closure of the company. The result confirms other theories that bankruptcy is usually caused by the lack of servicing of the loans and other factors which affect the market, like lack of customers.

Part 4 limitations of the study

            The findings of this study have to be seen in the light of some limitations; some of the limitations are an issue with sample selection where that most of the information which was being used was based on the university students who were in school and some of the SMEs owners which seems a bias selection. The sample size should have covered a wide range from the consumers of the goods, the suppliers of the products, the banks, and even some government officials so that adequate information is gotten (Ice, 2019, 564). Future research on the same topic should venture into a wide range of sample selections to use adequate details.

There was a lack of previous research studies on how the government supports SMEs in a given crisis like a financial crisis, leading to a lack of theoretical foundation for my research questions. Due to this, I developed an entirely new research typology, which I used in my study. Future research on the same topic should have more information used as a reference during the survey (Ice, 2019, 342). Lack of other theories on SMEs prompted me to make conclusions based on findings and other related topics.

The data collection and analysis were not adequate since it was conducted online and also through surveys. Not all people have the accessibility to online platforms, more so during the pandemic period. Hence, not all targeted people responded to the study and gave their responses based on the topic (Ice, 2019,342). Also, the analysis of the results did not meet the required standard since it is time-consuming. It has exposure to errors more so in qualitative while in quantitative it is difficult to understand the phenomenon’s context. Thus during future research, different data collection methods should be used, like interviews, so that all the data is collected according to the people’s views.




Charles, D., 2021. IMPACT OF COVID -19 PANDEMIC ON CONSUMER SHOPPING PATTERN. Adalya Journal, 10(1).

Ericks, V., 2020. Moving Forward During COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Oral & Dental Health, 4(4).

fitriyanti, s., romli, h. and zamzam, f., 2021. pengaruh cash turn over, account receivable turn over dan inventory turnover terhadap profitabilitas perusahaan pertambangan yang terdaftar di bei tahun 2014-2017. integritas jurnal manajemen profesional (ijmpro), 2(1), pp.97-108.

Herziger, A. and Hoelzl, E., 2020. Underestimated Habits: Hypothetical Choice Design in Consumer Research. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2(3), pp.359-370.

Kaya, O., 2021. Insolvency Risk of European SMEs during Pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal,.

Milk, D., 2020. Covid-19: Tracking Changes In Consumer Shopping Behavior Post Lockdown. Adalya Journal, 9(10).

Phaup, M., 2020. Budgeting for Mandatory Spending: Prologue to Reform. Public Budgeting & Finance, 39(1), pp.24-44.

Prohorovs, A., 2020. Getting Ready for Recession: How SMEs Prepared for Covid-19 Pandemic and Economic Recession. SSRN Electronic Journal,

Roll, S., Chun, Y., Kondratjeva, O., Despard, M. and Grinstein-Weiss, M., 2021. Household Spending Patterns and Hardships during COVID-19: A Comparative Study of the U.S. and United Kingdom. SSRN Electronic Journal,.

Zimon, G. and Dankiewicz, R., 2020. Trade Credit Management Strategies in SMEs and the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Case of Poland. Sustainability, 12(15), p.6114.

AMANDA, R., 2019. The Impact Of Cash Turnover, Receivable Turnover, Inventory Turnover, Current Ratio, And Debt To Equity Ratio On Profitability. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT, 2(2).

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Ice, G., 2019. Technological Advances in Observational Data Collection: The Advantages and LImitations of Computer-Assisted Data Collection. Field Methods, 16(3), pp.352-375.

Zimon, G. and Dankiewicz, R., 2020. Trade Credit Management Strategies in SMEs and the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Case of Poland. Sustainability, 12(15), p.6114.



How to Promote Your Child’s Digestive Health help me with my history homework

How to Promote Your Child’s Digestive Health?

Every parent’s dream to watch their kids grow into healthy adults regardless of their socio-economic status. When your child develops constipation, diarrhea, or any other stomach problems, it is customary to blame it on the diet you choose for them. What you feed your child now determines how they’ll turn out in later stages of life. The following tips can help you decide which type of meal to provide your child aged between three and eleven years old:

Form the habit of giving foods with beneficial bacteria

The digestive system contains bacteria known as the microbiome. It helps synthesize food to benefit metabolic activities. Unfortunately, most parents have no idea what types of food include beneficial bacteria. To promote your child’s gut health, make it a habit to feed them with live and active bacteria from a fermented diet like plain yogurt and kefir. Alternatively, you can give non-dairy products such as sauerkraut or kimchi.

Tone down on processed foods

As a parent, your child’s eating habits might be so unhealthy that your only option is to feed them whatever they want. Most kids enjoy processed foods such as French fries, hamburgers, and other canned products because they are tastier. Over time, your child might develop digestive problems such as constipation, cramps, and diarrhea due to processed oils. While you may want to please your child’s heart desires by giving in to their cravings, the health implications should convince you otherwise. If you have to buy it, do it in moderation.

Adopt a furry friend

Most studies suggest that kids exposed to cats or dogs in early stages cope better as adults than their counterparts who didn’t get that opportunity. Unless your kid is allergic to cat or dog fur, it would be best to get one to benefit from beneficial bacteria. Some dieticians also encourage parents to allow their kids to cuddle more with pets.

Don’t rush to medicate through antibiotic

Kids below the age of 10 develop a wide range of infections due to their immature immune systems. Consequently, pediatricians may prescribe antibiotics to treat these infections. However, too many antibiotics disrupt good strains of bacteria necessary for gut health. The more you administer these drugs, the higher your kid’s chances of developing harmful bacteria. Over time, their immune systems mutate, leading to complicated health issues.

Dirt is good

Companies selling disinfectants and sanitizing products encourage parents to embrace hygiene to reduce infections. However, you have no control over what your kids eat or play with while out there. Making your child stay indoors or denying your child the chance to play outdoors can be the worst form of punishment. Cleanliness is good, but too much of it prevents your child’s gut health from developing immunity. A child who’s exposed to bacteria develops strong immunity for future complications including asthma and eczema.

Include probiotic supplements in your child’s diet

Cow milk can cause constipation, diarrhea and other stomach complications. Your child could be tolerant to lactose, which means their stomach enzymes aren’t strong enough to digest milk sugar. Since you wouldn’t want to deny your growing champion essential nutrients, getting supplements with probiotic and gut health for kids properties can help. Please don’t just buy any supplement without consulting your child’s pediatricians. Some of those products could be containing ingredients that your child’s metabolic system won’t accept.

Encourage high-fiber intake

Whole grains, fruits rich in vitamin C, and some vegetables are rich in high fiber. Your child needs foods with high fiber to promote their gut health. Encourage your young one to take fruits including apples, blueberries, strawberries, and avocados to avoid gut health diseases in the future. Vegetables including carrots, broccoli, spinach and kales are also rich sources of high-fiber.

Promoting your child’s digestive health doesn’t call for spending thousands of dollars. We have many affordable foods and natural products that can be obtained from the market to boost your child’s gut health. Should your child develop digestive problems, talk with your pediatrician and dietician to recommend the best treatment plan instead of administering too many antibiotics that might affect your child’s gut bacteria. Your child might not appreciate the dietary changes now, but they will be grateful knowing you were looking out for their future.