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please use this below as the introduction. for my feelings about epi and biostats; include that my current knowledge

please use this below as the introduction.

for my feelings about epi and biostats; include that my current knowledge is not a lot. most likely I use it daily without knowing it. Also, I am excited to start the class to start learning more about it and start using it more in everyday practice. lastly, please include a reference no older than 2018.

Hello, my name is Susana Ramirez. I would like to introduce myself and provide you with some of my nursing backgrounds. I have over eight years of experience in the nursing field. I became a registered nurse in 2014 and specialized in critical care until 2019. In pursuance of my goal to further my education, I completed the Master of Nursing Science at the University of Miami in August 2018 I have been practicing as an Advanced registered nurse practitioner at the University of Miami caring for gastrointestinal and liver disease patients. For the past year, I have been a clinical faculty member in the MSN program at Florida National University, and this new role opened my eyes to the world of education and was one of the driving factors to pursue my Doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) here at Frontier.

HISTORICAL PERFORMANCE PRACTICE 3 1 Historical Performance Practice Introduction Music is an

HISTORICAL PERFORMANCE PRACTICE 3

1

Historical Performance Practice

Introduction

Music is an art that involves producing sounds that express the emotions and ideas of the musicians through the elements of melody, rhythm, colour, and harmony. Music has always been used by different individuals to pass important information from one generation to the other (Acquisto, 2016). Due to its effectiveness in reaching its target audience, music has been used for teaching, entertaining, communicating, and worshiping, and creating the right mood for listeners to carry out their operations (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009). To satisfy the needs of different listeners in different parts of the world, musicians have diversified their singing styles, thus leading to the production of different types of music including Hip Hop, Rock Music, and Reggae amongst others (Bourne, 2016). The production of these different music types has been made possible by the available technologies and music production tools that make the process of producing different music beats and sounds possible (Acquisto, 2016). The message contained in the music is also considered important in determining the success of a musician in communicating to his or her audience (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, Music, chess, & School, 2010).

Music production technologies and tools have also brought about variations in the rhythms played in different parts of the world. Despite technology having contributed a lot in music differences, the culture of the musicians and their target audience has also been considered an important factor contributes towards the variations in music production (Acquisto, 2016). The evolution of music production and technologies has seen major changes in the industry, thus prompting the need for doing a detailed study in the main elements of different music produced in different time periods (Barolsky, 2018). Additionally, the performance of any an individual musician also dictates the perception of different individuals to the message being passed by the musicians. As such, the purpose of this paper is to critique the performances of Beethoven, who happened to be one of the leading German composers and pianist.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Beethoven is considered as one of the best music composers and pianists of his era. Beethoven contributions to the music industry were experienced during the late classical period where his first orchestration seemed to be a conservative classical practice continuation, but with a significant parts doubling (Acquisto, 2016). He however focused his attention in the use of winds, with the application of wind in his symphony being considered as a theatricality adjoining the operatic (Tilman, 2010). His approach to music and specifically his radically thrilling approach to wind scoring in nominal music significantly influenced the works of composers who came after him (Benzon, 2008).

The wind instrument however underwent a series of improvements that resulted to the diversification and expansion of the brass and woodwind orchestra sections. His contributions in to the music industry made him to be considered an important figure between the Romantic and the Classical era in the Western Classical music (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009). He is considered one of the greatest contributors of classical music, with his key contributions being in the structure form and performances of symphony and sonata (Charles, 2002). Additionally, most of his music products reflected the development as well as the construction of the western music, a trait he mastered perfectly (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, Music, chess, & School, 2010).

Influence of historical evidence in informing Beethoven’s performance

A close look at Beethoven’s concert performance clearly indicates how tempo and ornamentation made his performances lively and unique when compared to the performances of the other musicians. The meaning of this is that, these two characteristics made his music special and unique as opposed to all the other performances that were being carried out during his time, thus making tempo an important character in his music recordings (Acquisto, 2016). Some of the reasons why his works maintained the same tempo include the need to keep his performance time constant while at the same time keeping his audience highly entertained (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, Music, chess, & School, 2010). As an addition to the contribution of tempo in his music, Beethoven applied a special type of ornamentation that was played in a clear, fast, and legato mode (Clive, 1999). He had learned a lot on the importance of ornamentation application in his music from Appassionato, something that made his performances lively and highly admirable by the attendees (Denora, 1991).

However, his family interactions were not happy, something that contributed significantly towards changing his public performances. His earlier interactions were considered important because they made him learn on the most effective ways to make his performances better and more energetic despite having led a dark life that made him poor in his social interactions (David, 2007). He was however considered one of the most mature performing artists of his era because his performances were organized and his style and content was determined by the crowd and his theme of interest (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009). He was also very good in combining different themes and making a perfect piece for his audience. During most of his theme combination themes, his works were characterized by having a middle movement play for purposes of bringing about tranquillity and reconciliation in his final records (Friedmann, 2016). He had also perfected the act of mixing his themes when recording

During his growth and interactions, Beethoven’s had learned how to incorporate his feelings and emotions in to his performance, something that was later adopted by other artists who wanted to copy most of his works (Graf, 2016). Some of the feelings that he incorporated in his work included excitement, sad, passion, and peace, something that contributed significantly attracted the interest of his audiences to listen to his recordings (Kaida, 2006). He had also learned how to use the sonata, thus making the Appassionato to play at a very high speed, and this helped him to maintain his performance tempo in a very significant way while at the same time helping his to express his mood, emotions, and feelings to his listeners (Micznik, 2001).

Additionally, his prior interactions had contributed significantly towards improving his emotion control methods during his performance. By learning how to control his emotions, Beethoven mastered the art of keeping his audience highly entertained without his emotions been known by the audience (Michael, 2010). On listening to his piano skills keenly, I easily noticed that he always connected his piano codes perfectly that noting his transition point was not easy to a common listener (Vladimir Horowitz, 2012). From this therefore, it is clear that Beethoven’s music was perfectly presented and blended with all his attendees (Maynard, 2003). Perfecting his piano notes was also a result of unrelenting practice that took him time to learn everything that a pianist needed to perfect his piano playing skills. His tempo and ornamentation playing skills combined with the right speed were unmatched and this made his performances perfect for his listeners and audience (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009).

He was also in a position to switch his speeds when playing his favourite instrument as a way of communicating his emotions and feelings to the audience in the best way possible (Virkaryates, 2017). From this discussion therefore, it is clear that Beethoven perfected most of his skills and performance experiences from his previous interactions with his audience and close friends (Mckay, 2016). He also perfected how he reached out to the audience, bearing in mind that different people had different priorities and their emotions were aroused differently. The meaning of this is that, whatever thing that made him emotional in his songs had the likelihood of not arousing the feelings of his audience. He learned to blend his themes perfectly, leading to the development of songs that communicated perfectly to the audience. He generally learned how to communicate with those close to him in the most appropriate way possible.

Evidence of performance practices

Beethoven’s concert performance practices were characterized by a number of elements that made the performance of his songs unique from his counterparts. As such, some of the key elements that characterized Beethoven’s classical performance included introducing a doctrine of affections, using a gallant style, Sturm und Drang, and Empfindsamkeit. A close look at his performances indicates that his musical aesthetic and style was unique from that of other singers. His performances were full of different emotional states and affections that offered the audience with the right musical content (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009). The use of a Galant style during his performances was used as an indicator for a new instrumental style that entailed using music to express the subjective emotions of the composer in a more detailed way. The use of the gallant style was characterized by a series of modifications in the feelings of the performer. He had learned this performance style from the works of Mozart and Haydn who were some amongst the earliest classical composers (Ronyak, 2016). It is however very important to understand that his affections were slowly replaced by more subjective emotions that were directed towards making the performers to make romantic self expressions (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, Music, chess, & School, 2010).

His performance practices were also characterized by the use of heighted feelings expressions and freedom in how he used different, changing elements, expressive harmonies and leaps, and melodic and rhythmic unpredictability (Paul, 2014). Additionally, his performances were also characterized by syncopation use, minor and chromaticism keys, theatrical layout, dramatic, and recitative sections. French Baroque dances were also a key practice in Beethoven’s performance. Some of these dances included Sarabande, Allemande, Courante, Gigue, Gavotte, Minuet, Passepied, Contredance, the March rhythms and the French Ouventure
(Ronyak, 2016). He integrated all these moves in his music performance but not in a detailed way as most of the movements were not included in his performance.

Having been brought up in the German rhetoric tradition, he had been exposed to the ancient Greek and Roman orators, thus being exposed to rhetoric writings and music at an early age. He had also listened to a series of ancient performers who applied the rhetoric style in their performance, and this influenced his performance in a very significant way (Bandurski, & Cox, 2011). He had engaged in music writing to a point where it became very difficult for listeners to interpret his music, something that has remained controversial to date. He had learned a lot about writing music from the Greeks to a point that his works and their works could not be easily differentiated (Arthur Rubinsten, 2009). The issue on the interpretation of his works is still being debated as different individuals have made a lot of interpretations on his work. Based on this, the message in his performance was not easily interpretable as it appeared (Salzbrunn, 2016).

The other performance practice that was common in Beethoven’s performance was that of creating unlikely pedal impacts using the damper pedal just like it had happened in op. 31/2/I, op.109/iii, op 110/ii. It was evident that he used pedal in all his performance, meaning that the subtle pedal was to be carefully whenever it was applied (Agawu, 2004). More importantly, there was a lot of dynamism in fortepiano that was experienced between mf and mp of the contemporary piano. When expressing himself, Beethoven concentrated his attention in the application of extremes in ranges, dynamic, and characters that brought about some sharp contrasts in all his performances (Bandurski, & Cox, 2011). He was a fan of hearing vocal or instrumental effects because the themes were to be played by either a string or wind instrument. It is also important to understand that his performance lacked some dynamism, with cases of repetition being highly experienced in his performances (Sun, 2009). The main reason for his repetition was linked to the fact that he wanted his listeners to get the best out of the performances (Bathia, 2008). His accent was also amongst the key issues that affected his performance, though not in a significant way. Failing to device a good strategy to deal with his accent issue was amongst the major things that affected hi concert performances (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, Music, chess, & School, 2010).

Concerning the ornaments, there was not concrete agreement on how he was supposed to notate or perform the ornaments. His notes during performance were also highly varied, thus leading to a significant different in how he articulated issues (Zhang, 2013). Slurs were also very notable in his performances, a clear indication that his contributions were highly influenced by the initial works of other composers who had come before him (Agawu, 2004). It is therefore very clear that his performance practices were highly influenced by different issues and factors including his accent and tempo amongst other factors that made his works stand out from the works of his close friends or composers (Bandurski, & Cox, 2011). He had learned and perfected the act of producing quality music from those who had come before him.

Here is a look of how his Appassionato was played, a clear evidence of the transition that he made when playing this important instrument during his performances,

Figure 1: The first movement of Appassionato which bar number is 1-5

(Source: Surhone, et al. 2010)

Figure 2: the first movement of Appassionato which bar number is 36-42

(Source: Surhone, et al. 2010)

Figure 3: The first movement of Appassionato which bar number is 134-138

(Source: Surhone, et al. 2010)

Figure 4: The second movement of Appassionato which bar number is 345-353

(Source: Surhone, et al. 2010)

Figure 5: The third movement of Appassionato which bar number is 371-377

(Source: Vladimir Horowitz, 2012)

Figure 6: The third movement of Appassionato which bar number is 538-545

(Source:Arthur Rubinsten, 2009)

Figure 7: The third movement of Appassionato which bar number is 686-694

(Source: Vladimir Horowitz, 2012)

Critique of Beethoven’s performances

A look at the composition and performance of Beethoven proves that his works were influenced by most of the interactions that he had made in his early years. By living and being brought up in Germany for a good part of his young life, most of his work was influenced by the works of previous composers who came from this region. His prior adjustments therefore affected how he composed his works ranging from the composition to the structure of the same. He learned how to include his feelings and emotions into his composition, something that was very instrumental in helping him communicate with his audience. By learning how to incorporate and control his feelings, his interactions with the audience got easy and better with time. His performance experience was very instrumental in helping him connect successfully with the crowd without experiencing any issues.

His experience in composing and playing the piano was excellent, with the shifts between the notes going unnoticed due to his prowess in playing this music tool. His performances were also characterized by different dance moves that made his audience well entertained and engaged during the performance. The tempo in which he performed also formed part of the important practices that made it easy for his to communicate with the audience. His performance speed was also high, thus making most of his listeners to join his music and dance with the tempo. It was however unfortunate for them because they failed to understand that the intention for his high tempo was to take the shortest time possible in his performances.

Looking at everything that he did, very little can be said about what he did not do well. First, his health condition deteriorated with time, something that made it difficult for him to deal with his clients. Most of those who he interacted with during these tough times concluded that he was rude and dismissed any claim that he was amongst the top music composers and pianist of his era. Additionally, his intentions of performing at a high tempo was misinformed because it misled people to dancing alongside the tempo when he knew perfectly knew that his performance tempo was to shorten his performing period. Despite it being a performance trick for him, it was just sickening to have so much people live a lie by dancing to a tune that was probably made to make them tire fast and revert to their normal duties.

In addition to the above-mentioned, his performance instruments were well mastered to do away with any form of confusion that would affect his impact to the population. He incorporated a series of dance moves that were not complete in his performances. The dance moves were done to help the audience enjoy the performances better compared to when the performance was done without. Importantly, he did not complete some of the moves that had been developed for purposes of improving the morale of those who attended his performances. Generally, the contributions of Beethoven in the music industry cannot be overlooked due to the impact that he left in the industry. Most of all his music compositions were characterized by different themes that needed the attendees to think for purposes of getting the right interpretation.

Conclusion

To conclude, the purpose of this paper was to give a critique of Beethoven’s performance that had was considered to be a result of his experiences from the interactions that he had done throughout his life. It is important to note that most of what he had in terms of music was a result of the cumulative lessons that he had since his childhood. The environment that he was born and raised in gave him some important characters that shaped his music career. He was in a position to write about anything and play his favourite instruments without any faults. It was a result of the experiences that he had while growing that he learned how to integrate his piano skills with some dance moves that were used during his performances. Additionally, the discussion has found out that most of the interactions that he had while growing up made him to learn how to play at a higher tempo, thus mastering the whole skill and methods of performance in the best way possible.

References

Acquisto, J. (2016). Modern listening: Proust, Beethoven, and the music of silence. Partial Answers Journal of Literature & the History of Ideas,14(2), pp.237-253.

Arthur Rubinsten, B. (2009) BEETHOVEN, L. van: Piano Sonatas Nos. 23 in F Minor, Op.57.[CD] (Naxos 8.57365467)

Agawu, K. (2004). Interpreting musical gestures, topics, and tropes: Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert. by Robert s. hatten. Musical Meaning & Interpretation, 88(2), pp.353-355.

Bandurski, N. F., & Cox, S. (2011). Bonn, 30 august to 2 September 2010: 4th Beethoven-study program: Beethoven’s music in contemporary music editions. bibliographic and printing aspects of the tradition. , 64(2), pp.158-159.

Bathia, C. (2008) Transcendent mastery: studies in the music of Beethoven, NY: Pendragon press.

Barolsky, D. (2018). Beethoven’s 32 piano sonatas: a handbook for performers by Stewart Gordon (review). Notes, 74.

Bourne, J. (2016). Perceiving irony in music: the problem in Beethoven’s string quartets. Music Theory Online, 22.

Benzon, W. L. (2008). Beethoven’s anvil: music in mind and culture. Religion Brain & Behavior, 1(2), pp.154-167.

Charles, R. (2002) Beethoven’s piano sonatas: a short companion. New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press.

Clive, B. (1999) Classical and Romantic performing practice 1750-1900. Oxford University Press.

David, A. (2007). Beethoven’s influence on modern musical thought, Journal of music, pp.40-45.

Denora, T. (1991) Musical patronage and social change in Beethoven’s Vienna. American Journal of Sociology, 97(2), pp.310-346.

Friedmann, J. L. (2016). Groping for the greats: the strange musical claims of Nathan amusable. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, 15(3), pp.1-15.

Graf, B. S. (2016). An analytical study of paradox and structural dualism in the music of Ludwig van Beethoven. Unt Theses & Dissertations, pp.40-45.

Kaida, L. (2006) ‘El “largo appassionato” de Ludwig Beethoven en “la pulsar de granite” de cupric’. Anne-Marie Reboul, pp. 361-366.

Micznik, V. (2001). Music and narrative revisited: degrees of narratively in Beethoven and Mahler. Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 126(2), pp.193-249.

Michael, K. (2010) BEETHOVEN, L. van: Piano Sonatas Nos. 23 in F Minor, Op.57.[CD] (Naxos OC661)

Maynard, S. (2003) Late Beethoven: music, thought, imagination, London: University of California Press.

Mckay, B. (2016). ‘Beethoven by bus’: Nancy weir and Queensland music. Queensland Review, 2(2), pp.27-38.

Paul, M. (2014) The key to Beethoven: connecting tonality and meaning in his music, NY: Pendragon press.

Ronyak, J. (2016). Beethoven within grasp: the nineteenth-century reception of ‘Adelaide’. Music & Letters, 97(2), pp.249-276.

Salzbrunn, M. (2016). When the mosque goes Beethoven: expressing religious belongings through music. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology & Sociology, 7.

Sun, Y. D. (2009). Contacting modern piano music of the twentieth century closely——a brief analysis of the two pieces of piano music named microcosms. Journal of Zuni Normal College, pp.30-32.

Surhone, L. M., Timpledon, M. T., Marseken, S. F., Music, E. C., chess, & School, L. M., et al. (2010). Valentina Lisitsa. NY: Pendragon press.

Tilman, S. (2010) Beethoven the pianist, Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Vladimir Horowitz (2012) BEETHOVEN, L. van: Piano Sonatas Nos. 23 in F Minor, Op.57.[CD] (Naxos OC567)

Virkaryates, A. (2017). Absolute music and the death of desire: Beethoven, Schopenhauer, Wagner and Eliot’s four quartets. Journal of Modern Literature, 40.

Zhang, W. S. (2013) Analysis of modern music teaching and management trend. Journal of Jiamusi Education Institute, pp.40-50.

RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY Introduction The type of research philosophy applied by a researcher

please use this below as the introduction. for my feelings about epi and biostats; include that my current knowledge Writing Assignment Help RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

Introduction

The type of research philosophy applied by a researcher contributes significantly towards determining the success if their research. It is therefore important for researchers to pick the most appropriate philosophy that will help them achieve their research goals. As a result of this, the main purpose of this reflective paper is to give a detailed discussion of the philosophical approach that I will use in my dissertation. My reflection will be based on the knowledge that I have acquired throughout the module “Research Methods and Practice”. My main aim in this discussion will be to identify the most appropriate philosophical approach that I will use in my research based on how it perfectly fits to my probable research methodology. I will then give an explanation of the approach in a clear and more detailed way.

Identifying the philosophical approach

My work will be guided by both my epistemological and ontological beliefs. The type of beliefs that I have concerning the world as well as the methods that I can use to understand these beliefs contribute significantly towards determining the type of methodology that I will adopt in my study (Bhaskar, 1978). The process of picking the most appropriate research philosophy for my research is imperative because it will inform the kind of data to use and the most appropriate methods that will successfully lead me towards getting this data (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). Philosophy in this context is defined as the process of developing both knowledge and the nature of knowledge. Research philosophy therefore refers to a specific method of knowledge development that is used by researchers to define their philosophical paradigm (Hardy, 2014). The existing knowledge development and understanding is depended on a number of assumptions that are based on our world perspective.

A researcher may decide to focus on the quality of his or her products while others may focus their attention on the methods applied for purposes of achieving their research objectives (Neuman, 1997). The adoption of the right philosophical approach will give me an opportunity to decide the kind of approach to adopt and for what reasons. It therefore gets important for me to determine the most appropriate philosophical approach that will guide me towards getting to my set goals.

By considering the epistemological approach, I will consider positivism, realism, and interpretivism. The choice of positivism is based on the fact that it will enable me to generalize some of my findings just like natural scientists do their work. On adopting this approach, I will be prompted to get facts about the research instead of working with projections that could lead to inappropriate results being attained (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). Concerning interpretivism, I will base my research on the process of understanding how humans behave based on their different roles as social influencers (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). My main concern when taking this option will be focused on interpreting the social roles of the research subjects based on their personal perspectives or meanings.

Taking this specific action will be based on the fact that my research is based on the feelings that I will have concerning the study topic presented. Adopting this philosophy will be instrumental in helping me learn the reaction of the study population based on my personal feelings and perception on the issues presented for study. Additionally, if this approach is picked for the study, some of the research methods that will be adopted include interviews, text analysis, and personal observations, all that happen to be very instrumental in getting first hand data that will enable me get all the required data without having to worry about any data distortions (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). The fact that this approach calls for the adoption of the qualitative approach will lead to effectiveness and efficiency in the data collection and analysis process.

The adoption of realism focuses on the process of making scientific inquiry based on the reality projected by the researchers’ perception as truth (Stanley, and Wise, 1983). The adoption of this approach is based on the fact that everything should independently exist from humans. The application of this approach is closely linked to positivism but fairly contrasts with both the critical and direct realist (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). Determining the kind of perception that I will adopt will be important because it will help me determine the research methods that I will apply in my research. The approach adopted will contribute significantly towards helping me pick the best and the most appropriate research method for the study.

The other option that I would choose for the research is that of opting to adopt an ontology approach that will entail choosing between subjectivism and objectivism. The application of subjectivism as an approach is based on its ability to place its focus in creating different social phenomenon from the both the perceptions and the resulting action of the involved social factors. The application of the ontological approach is constantly being review via continuous social interactions that have happened between different parties (Stanley, and Wise, 1983). The application of the interpretivist approach can best be applied by researchers developing psychological strategies for purposes of luring customers into their research.

Subjectivists on the other hand strongly believe their customers as social actors who tend to interpret a specific situation based on their personal perception on the world as well as through their interactions with their immediate environment (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). As such, for any researcher to make the right strategies that significantly affect the psychology of their customers, he or she should perfectly understand their customer’s subjective reality as well as their goals in the best way possible (Juma´h, 2006). In this case therefore, the application of qualitative methodology when this approach is adopted in research is inevitable.

Objectivists on the other hand strongly believe that the existence of different social entities in reality happens externally to the social actors. A perfect example in this case is that of the supply chain management process remaining unchanged irrespective of the change that happen to different actors like the logistic providers, producers, manufacturers, consumers and suppliers who jointly form the social actors (Stake, 1995). The approach also holds on to the fact that organizations and their social entity usually remain unchanged irrespective of the change in their social actors. For researchers who adopt this approach, the use of either the quantitative or the mixed methods is always preferred over the other means.

The application of the pragmatic approach entails having the researcher focus on utilizing both the interpretivist and positivist philosophies while at the same time viewing the two as continuum instead of viewing them as contradictions (Juma´h, 2006). The adoption of the pragmatist approach is always characterized by the researcher avoiding to make any argument concerning reality and truth. Instead, the researchers focus their attention on learning their issues of value and interest as well as how they apply varied techniques that help bring out positive results. The adoption of this approach is also considered important because it focuses on studying all the issues of value and interest while at the same time using different methods to bring out positive results (Juma´h, 2006). It has been considered very effective in helping researchers to improve their level of satisfaction in anything that they engage in because it considers the role of all the different individuals. It also embraces the application of both the qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Based on the discussions provided above, I would definitely go for the pragmatist approach because it offers everything that I will need for my research to be successful. The application of this approach will also give me freedom to apply both the qualitative and quantitative research techniques, thus attaining the expected results without imposing any restrictions to my research work. I will generally work towards improving how best I will attain my research results in the best and most appropriate way possible. The philosophy will also help me reach to the study results better and in a more effective way possible. The methods to be adopted during the study will be purely based on the provisions of this philosophy.

Aligning pragmatist and methodology

In line with the identified pragmatist, this section seeks to give a detailed discussion of case studies, qualitative and quantitative research method and state the method that I am likely to apply in my research. The application of quantitative methods in research has been linked to positivist philosophy while qualitative research methods are linked to the subjectivist researchers (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The main function of this is linked to the fact that varied scientific goals can be attained based on the selected techniques while the goals can be used to reflect the mentioned research philosophy. The main aim quantitative technique is to produce knowledge that can be generalized on the basis of the replicative, comparative, and systematic measurements and observation (Long, White, Friedman, and Brazael, 2000). This method is applied in descriptive statistics because of its ability to analyze some of the variations in the study populations via abstract explanations.

The other reasons why quantitative data is applied in different researches is based on its ability to test hypothesis while at the same time examining the correlations between the study variables (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The use of quantitative techniques gives the researcher an opportunity to handle large volumes of data while at the same time examining the variations within the broader study populations. It has also been termed as one of the cheapest ways of acquiring information study information when compared to the other data collection methods like in-depth qualitative techniques. Its application also aims at meeting the scientific standards of validity, reliability, objectivity and replicability (Kumar, 2011). It should be understood that quantitative techniques and its objectives are not compatible with the pragmatist approach identified.

On the other hand, qualitative methods focus their attention in the process of understanding the processes and the phenomena being studied. The scientific requirements of qualitative methods are always aim at achieving different research goals like meeting credibility criteria, dependability, transferability, and a high level of conformability (Long, White, Friedman, and Brazael, 2000). The application of these methods is considered very strong in terms of internal validity that makes the data to match its theoretical proposition (Kumar, 2011). The application of qualitative techniques also gives the researcher the opportunity to gather in-depth data and information about their research, thus offering them with a wider exploration scope.

Case studies are also considered to be important in the research process due to its ability to help researchers answer the question Why and How during the research process (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The researcher is always equipped with important information on when their phenomenon of interest happened and how it happened. The researcher does not always have control over the events being studied in their research (Mason, 2002). When applying this research method, the researcher always states categorically that it is always possible to transfer their findings of a broader case to their population through analytical generalization process (Hardy, 2014).

When using this approach, I will adopt three different steps that will enable me capture the required study information. The first step that I will take in this study will therefore be either identifying a group of cases that are similar or describing any of the single case in question (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). The process of identifying the groups of similar cases will be for purposes of incorporating multiple case-studies in to a single case. The other step will be carrying out a research to determine what is known and what is not known about the research to be conducted. This type of research will be done from different secondary sources like grey literature, common literature, and reports amongst other secondary data sources (Sapsford, 2007). The research will be directed towards answering a set of questions that are developed by researchers to purposely guide them get the right information from the mentioned literature sources (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). It is important to understand that data in case studies is not always supposed to be exclusively qualitative in nature because quantitative type of data could also be used in this type of study to clarify the issues raised by the researcher (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). I will also be required to develop different study themes based on the nature of data that I propose to get. It is however important to understand that case studies do not only focus on generalization, but it also focuses on the uniqueness of the case presented in their specific context.

Based on the explanation provided above on qualitative research methods, it is very clear that I can apply this method in my dissertation. Because my work can precisely work perfectly through qualitative methods, the application of case study will also be considered effective for the study. The reason for choosing a case study is linked to the fact that it will give me an opportunity to look into my research topic by doing interviews and recording the interviews, thus making it a qualitative type of study (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). I will also seek for other complementary data sources that will improve the quality of my data significantly.

Despite the applications of these methods being considered effective and of absolute importance to my study, the course has taught us that every approach and method applied has its own advantages and disadvantages (Sayer, 1992). The course also equipped me with the right knowledge on how to pick the right research method that has more benefits than disadvantages (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). The adoption of the methods discussed above has been done after carefully looking at both their advantages and disadvantages. I have looked at their disadvantages in a detailed way for purposes of understanding the kind of trouble that each of the methods offer, and this made me take the method that will bring me less trouble.

Ethical considerations

However, even after looking at these effects, there are still a number of ethical considerations that I need to make for purposes of making sure that everything will happen as planned as without going against the set research ethics (Bond, 2000). Considering all the ethical provisions of a scientific research will be the most effective thing to do because it will help me to do my discussions without having to worry about anything or without the fear that my work could be plagiarized or is not as per the set standards (University of Leeds, 2013). The equipment used to record information and data during the research will also need to be checked for purposes of making sure that the information captured is of high quality.

Additionally, based on the fact that the study will be qualitative in nature makes it will be important for me to develop the right trust that will enable me to get the right data and information for the study while at the same time helping the interviewees to be comfortable during the entire research process (Bond, 2000). The reason for doing this is based on the fact that failure to make the researchers comfortable will lead to biased information being offered by the interviewees (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). It is also important to understand that the privacy and the security of the researcher will have to be assured. It is important to understand that the privacy of the study participants need to be perfectly developed for purposes of making them comfortable and protecting everything that they say because if not well protected, it could be accessed by unscrupulous individuals to expose issues that are not supposed to be known by the public.

Research Proposal

My dissertation will be on “Employee Empowerment in the Workplace”, and my main focus will be identifying the strategies that have been developed by the organization where I work to keep the employees empowered while at the same time assessing the impact of the strategies on the organization’s productivity. To collect the right data on the impact of employee empowerment, I will interview a good number of the employees in different departments in the organization. I will carry out the interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire that will only act as a guide to getting the right information and data from the research participants.

Previous studies have indicated that the type of employee empowerment methods that are used in different organizations always determine the amount of efforts applied for purposes of making these employees perform exceptionally well (Boxall, and Purcell, 2003). While different methods have been identified as being instrumental in improving employee empowerment, the issue of how effective the efforts adopted are in helping organizations meet their development goal has been widely debated over the last few years (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). The impact of the empowerment approach employment in an organization can be directly traced from the efforts that employees make towards improving their productivity in the organization, with the main method being determining the productivity of the individual employees before and after adopting a specific empowerment method. Additionally, looking at the number of production errors in the organization before and after the introduction of the empowerment method indicated (Sayer, 1992). It will also be important to find out the applicability of a single empowerment method to all the employees working in one organization. The management has also been considered as one of the main players on issues that affect the morale and capacity of employee in their organizations.

The study will enable me to use both qualitative and quantitative research methods in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the employee empowerment methods that have been applied in my workplace. I will therefore need to make a number of ethical considerations that are aimed at making sure that everything works perfectly towards making the study ethical. In line with ensuring that the ethical considerations for the study are kept, I will make sure that I acquire all the necessary documentations and permissions for the research. Additionally, each of my interviews will be accompanied by a detailed explanation of a consent that will clearly explain to the interviewees the main reason for the research as well as the dos and the don’ts. I will also concentrate my efforts in making sure that the study does not affect the privacy of the study population in any way.

Conclusion

The purpose of this paper was to give a detailed discussion of the research philosophy and methods that I would take in my study as well as a detailed description of all the ethical concerns that I will adopt for purposes of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of my dissertation. The paper has highlighted a number of philosophies that I considered to be highly effective in my study, with my main focus being in explaining the approach that I am more likely to adopt into my dissertation. Secondly, I discussed the linkages between the research philosophy picked and different study methods like qualitative, quantitative, and case studies methods amongst others. The paper has also discussed a number of ethical considerations that are supposed to be followed in my study include that of ensuring the privacy of the interviewees while at the same time meeting all the important research requirements like getting the right documentations in terms of research approvals and working towards making sure that the research in question is in line with all the ethical considerations put forth for the study. The adoption of this philosophy and research methods will definitely make the project easy. The data collection and analysis parts of the organization will be easy due to the step-by-step guide linked to these methods.

References

Bhaskar, R. (1978) `A realist theory of science´, 2nd Edition, Hassocks: Harvester Press.

Bond, T. (2000) `Standards and ethics in counselling in action´ 2nd edition. London: Sage.

Boxall, P. and Purcell, J. (2003) `Strategy and Human Resource Management´. Palgrave Macmillan, Basinstoke.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011) `Business Research Methods´, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hardy, Kate (2014) `Sex worker trade union organising in Argentina: A methodology case study´, University of Leeds August 2014.

Hughes, J. and Sharrock, W. (1997) `The philosophy of social research´ 3rd edition. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Juma´h, A.H. (2006) `Empirical and realistic approaches of research´, Inter Metro Business journal 2(1), pp. 88-108.

Kumar, R. (2011) `Research methodology. A step-by-step guide for beginners´. London: Sage. 3rd edition.

Lee, S.K.J. (1992) `Quantitative versus qualitative research methods — Two approaches to organisation studies´, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 9(1), pp 87-94.

Long, R.G., White, M.C., Friedman, W.H. and V. Brazael, D. (2000) `The `Qualitative´ versus `Quantitative´ research debate: A question of metaphorical assumptions?´´, International Journal of Value-Based Management, 13, pp. 189- 197.

Mason, J. (2002) `Qualitative Researching´. London: Sage. 2nd edition.

Neuman, W. L. (1997) `Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches´, 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Rose, G. (1997) ` Situating knowledges: positionality, reflexivities and other tactics´, Progress in Human Geography 21(3), pp. 305-320.

Sapsford, R. (2007) `Survey research´. London: Sage. 2nd edition.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) `Research methods for business students´. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited. 5th edition.

Sayer, A. (1992) `Method in social science. A realist approach´ 2nd edition. London and New York: Routledge.

Shenton, A.K. (2003) `Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects´, Education for Information 22(2004), pp. 63-75.

Stake, R. (1995) `The Art of case study Research´. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

Stanley, L. and Wise, S. (1983) `Breaking out again. Feminist Ontology and Epistemlogoy´ 2nd edition. London: Routledge.

Tomlinson, J., Muzio, D., Sommerlad, H., Webley, L. and Duff, L. (2013) “Structure, agency and career strategies of white women and black and minority ethnic individuals in the legal profession” Human Relations 66(2), 245-269.

University of Leeds (2013) `University of Leeds Research Ethics Policy´.

Weber, M. (1981) ` Some Categories of Interpretive Sociology´. The Sociological Quarterly 22(2), pp. 151-180.

Yin, R. (2009) `Case Study Research: Design and Method´, 4th edition. London: Sage.

8 Curriculum Vitae and Cover letter Introduction The graduate level job that

8

Curriculum Vitae and Cover letter

Introduction

The graduate level job that fits my career aspirations is management analyst. Management analysts suggest new and better ways of improving organizational efficiency and advise managers on the best ways of making their firm more profitable. In this case, management analysts propose ways for reducing costs and increasing revenues in the long-term by collecting and analysing data about current practices at the firm and the changes likely to enhance efficiency (Potocan, 2006).

My choice for a management analyst job is because of its projected growth in the coming years compared to other business and management jobs. This means that the demand for management analysts is increasing due to organizations’ commitment to lower their costs of operations and maximise profits. My choice is also driven by the fact that a management analyst has the chance to work in multiple industries and there are also opportunities for self-employment. The insightful nature of the job also makes it more appropriate since it entails observing processes and procedures then using the data to understand effectiveness and efficiency of operations and issues affecting them (Anna, 2015). There is also the chance to use various data analysis tools to understand issues and deliver appropriate recommendations for improvement.

The skills needed include critical thinking such that one is able to learn and understand unfamiliar issues. The management analyst job also requires flexible thinking because of client’s desire for professionals likely to look issues up and provide the right recommendations (Kocziszky & Somosi, 2017). Analysts should also have excellent interpersonal and communication skills to enable them interact well with different stakeholders within and outside the workplace. Positive relationship with other parties is critical for identification of issues related to efficiency and profitability. The analysts should also deliver output within tight schedules. My strength is that I communicate well and I am therefore in the position to engage various parties on the issues and recommendations suggested to make a firm more profitable. The other strength is that I think critically and analyse issues from a more objective point of view.

Curriculum Vitae

Name: ……………….Address: ……………………….Phone: ………………………….

Work Experience

Junior Analyst, Risk Management Unit

12/2017 – 12/2018

Assisted in developing risk indicators and reporting frameworks.

Was part of the taskforce for providing oversight of the effectiveness of operations

Worked with the senior analysts to produce reports that support organizational operational goals.

Actively involved in delivering objective and value driven risk analysis and relaying the information to colleagues.

Assisted with preparing of presentations on risk factors, assessment, prevention and mitigation measures.

Was part of the team tasked with preparing prevention and mitigation plans for strengthening organizational resilience to external and internal shocks

Trainee Change Management Analyst

09/2015-11/2017

Involved in identifying critical issues and reporting to the supervisor

Assist in maintaining database

Ensure changes are updated in the inventory management database.

Maintain data quality and integrity

Assisting with analysing budget deviations.

Arrange materials for training and group facilitation

Collect relevant information as requested by the supervisor.

Education Institution Bachelor’s Degree in Business

Skills

Ability to conduct analysis of cost data

Ability to engage colleagues collaboratively and cohesively.

Focus on technical details

Ability to follow through on tasks

Strong organizational skills

Critical evaluation skills for ascertaining efficiency of operations.

Cover Letter

Name

123 Main Street, City, Code 94122

Phone contact

email

Dear Sir,

I am responding to a recent advert for a Management Analyst position at your firm. As an aspiring Management Analyst, I have a keen interest for detailed communication of ideas and solutions to operational issues at all levels of the firm.

In my current position as a Junior Management analyst, I am responsible for various activities including delivering objective and value driven risk analysis and relaying the information to colleagues then preparing of presentations on risk factors, assessment, prevention and mitigation measures. I use my strong analytical skills and organizational abilities to identify gaps in efficiency that would prepare the organization for more informed decisions on how to cut costs and increase profits.

The strong analytical skills allow me to spot issues in real time that others may miss or take time before noticing. Your company’s reputation and its recent expansion ambitions are the motivations behind the decision to apply for the position. My skills will be important for future growth of your company since I will use my skills to make desired contributions toward coordination of projects. I am also able to manage teams in an efficient way thus aligning with your organization’s mission to use cultural diversity to fuel creativity and innovation.

I also have the educational background that would be fit for the Management Analyst position. I am available for further discussions with you on my qualifications at your earliest convenience.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely

Name.

Practice Interview Questions

Why do you want this job

I believe that this job is key to building my professional and personal traits and expanding my contribution toward helping your company achieve its goals of minimising wastes and maximising profits.

How can you personally contribute to the success of this company?

I will be flexible enough to assist my colleagues and other managers to identify inefficiencies within their units and contribute ideas for mitigating against future inefficiencies. I will also use my strong interpersonal and communication skills to create a friendly working atmosphere that encourages team working and sustains the creative and innovative culture of the firm.

Tell us about a time in the last year where you have proved that you have good management skills and potential.

It was a time when I was appointed the team leader for a risks analysis project. I was then part of an organization that had culturally diverse staff. I had to create a cohesive environment that empowered everyone to make meaningful contributions to the discussions. In the end, we managed to present a report that was widely acknowledged by the management including consultants hired to ascertain accuracy of the report.

Reflection

My personal and academic development have changed greatly over the past year. I am now more creative and have better interpersonal skills for inspiring colleagues towards shared objectives. The class lessons have equipped me with essential analytical skills needed to go deep on a problem and apply the best tools for diagnosis and solution. I have also acquired more knowledge and skills on the best ways for improving efficiency and increasing profits in an organization. I understand that analytical skills require individuals to have an in-depth look into issues and make informed recommendations for long-term stability of an organization (Mihaiu, et al., 2010). The changes indicated were facilitated by my commitment to reading extensively and asking questions in class to understand the factors that make companies to perform better. I also consulted widely to improve personal and professional qualifications thus the reason for my ability to make independent decisions easily. However, I feel that I still need to improve my writing skills to enhance the way I present findings and solutions. I also want to be proficient in more analytical tools specifically the ones that involve quantitative analysis. Lastly, I will also strive to boost my speaking and presentation skills since much of my work entails engaging various parties and informing them about the progress of the company. Building stronger speaking and presentation skills will also boost my confidence in making meaningful contributions in seminars, conferences and meetings.

References

Anna, A. (2015). Strategic Management Tools and Techniques and Organizational Performance: Findings from the Czech Republic. Journal of Competitiveness, 7(3), 19-35.

Kocziszky, G., & Somosi, V. M. (2017). Opportunities for Increasing Efficiency by Public Utility Organizations. European Journal of Economics and Business Studies, 3(1), 136-143.

Mihaiu, M. D., Opreana, A., & Cristescu, P. M. (2010). Efficiency and effectiveness and performance of the public sector. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, 4, 132-144.

Potocan, V. (2006). Business operations between efficiency and effectiveness. Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences, 252-262.

BU3033 Assignment 3 (assessment weighting 50%) Produce a short portfolio of documents

BU3033 Assignment 3 (assessment weighting 50%)

Produce a short portfolio of documents and exercises suitable for applications for graduate-level Business and Management jobs or company graduate schemes.

Please ensure you include the original job advert, either in the appendices or electronically within the submitted document.

The portfolio must contain:

A 500 word introduction, which describes what graduate-level job or graduate scheme you have chosen, why you chose this and what skills and strengths you have which would make you a strong candidate.

For the above, use the substantive document you developed in semester one (Assessment 1a)

A Curriculum Vitae [2 pages A4] aimed at the specific job or scheme.

1 Cover letter for the specific job/ company or scheme [ ½ -1 page A4]

One completed Standard Application Form (SAF) See Blackboard

Three practice interview questions with prepared model answers. (See the list below of question choices)*

A 500 word overview of your personal/academic development in year three of your studies.

Appendices: including supporting documentation: job specifications, company research, older versions of CVs or cover letters, proof of feedback and progress on any documents.

* Choose three out of the following standard interview questions, and prepare model answers to each:

Why do you want this job (or a place on this graduate scheme)?

What particular strengths do you have that would make us want to employ you (or offer you a place on this scheme)?

Tell us about any weaknesses you have and what you have done to try to overcome them?

Where would you like to be in five years and what would you have liked to have achieved?

Tell us about a time when you have overcome a problem in your life and managed to reach a successful conclusion.

What achievements in the past 2 years have made you most proud?

How can you personally contribute to the success of this company?

Tell us about a time in the last year where you have proved that you have good management skills and potential.

Submit through turnitin with (where necessary) Appendices as hard copy to my assignment box

Assessment Criteria

Your application documents should show consideration and be good enough to promote you to be successful in gaining a graduate job or a place on a graduate scheme.

You need to specify the job you intend to aim for and the application documents must be relevant to the job/ scheme and company.

The Portfolio should identify your strengths and demonstrate evidence of progress and improvement since the start of your final year here at University.