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Please summarize and evaluate a social psychology research article (2 to 2.5 pages in length. Please also include a

Please summarize and evaluate a social psychology research article (2 to 2.5 pages in length. Please also include a reference page. Also include the reference for, and a link to, the article.
Make sure to adequately summarize the study including:
• What were the authors’ research questions/hypotheses?
• What theories did the authors mention as informing the study?
• What methods were employed: sample, experiment vs non-experimental design (if experiment, what are the IVs

Community Pharmacy Practice Question 1 (5 points) _______ have a slightly greasy

Community Pharmacy Practice

Question 1 (5 points)

 

_______ have a slightly greasy feel and will typically be compounded by adding powders or solutions to a base and then mixing them.

Question 1 options:

a) 

Creams

b) 

Lotions

c) 

Gels

d) 

Ointments

Question 2 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription, how many teaspoons will the patient take in one dose?

Question 2 options:

a) 

1.5 tsp

b) 

7 ml

c) 

3.5 tsp

d) 

0.75 tsp

Question 3 (5 points)

 

Based on the information provided in the prescription, how long should the Lasix prescription last before a refill is needed?

Question 3 options:

a) 

Two months

b) 

One month

c) 

Three months

d) 

One week

Question 4 (5 points)

 

The sig SL is an abbreviation for which of the following?

Question 4 options:

a) 

Immediately

b) 

Until all taken

c) 

Subcutaneous

d) 

Under tongue

Question 5 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription, how many tsp will the patient take in one day?

Question 5 options:

a) 

0.75 tsp

b) 

1.5 tsp

c) 

7 ml

d) 

3.5 tsp

Question 6 (5 points)

 

When dispensing reconstituted and/or flavored pediatric medications, pharmacy technicians must communicate proper storage and dispensing instructions to the

Question 6 options:

a) 

pharmacy.

b) 

lab.

c) 

parents.

d) 

doctor.

Question 7 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription shown here, what medication is being prescribed?

Question 7 options:

a) 

Edema

b) 

Asthma

c) 

Lasix

d) 

Scleroderma

Question 8 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription, Tamiflu is a

Question 8 options:

a) 

tablet.

b) 

suspension.

c) 

ointment.

d) 

elixir.

Question 9 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription, how many mg per mL is this Tamiflu suspension?

Question 9 options:

a) 

5

b) 

45

c) 

60

d) 

12

Question 10 (5 points)

 

According to the prescription, how many milliliters will the patient take with each dose?

Question 10 options:

a) 

.75 mL

b) 

1.5 mL

c) 

3.75 mL

d) 

7.25 mL

Question 11 (5 points)

 

Which of the following tasks are performed by pharmacy technicians in the community practice setting?

Question 11 options:

a) 

Inventory control and insurance

b) 

Addressing customers’ questions about prescription medication

c) 

Reporting, returns, and recall

d) 

Data entry and maintenance of electronic patient profiles

Question 12 (5 points)

 

Use the prescription to match the milligrams prescribed to the correct medication.

Question 12 options:

123

Inderal

123

Glucophage

123

Zyloprin

1.

500 mg

2.

40 mg

3.

300 mg

Question 13 (5 points)

 

Use the prescription to match the following information to the correct answer.
 
 

Question 13 options:

123

Ambien 5mg

123

Prilosec 30 mg

123

Flomax 0.4 mg

1.

One capsule every day

2.

As needed

3.

Every day with a meal

Question 14 (5 points)

 

When typing directions for pediatric medications which of the following are examples of how to write the dose?

Question 14 options:

a) 

Give 1 tablespoon tid.

b) 

Give 2 teaspoons (10 mL) two times a day.

c) 

Give 2 teaspoon 3x a day.

d) 

Give 10 mL 2 times a day.

Question 15 (5 points)

 

Use the prescription label to match the following with the correct answers.

Question 15 options:

1234

Rx#

1234

Authorization number

1234

Days’ supply

1234

Qty

1.

186555

2.

30.0 mL

3.

54B0WJ6UP

4.

5

Question 16 (5 points)

 

Which of the following are included on a compounding record (CR)?

Question 16 options:

a) 

Each ingredient’s information

b) 

Who made the compound

c) 

Suggested compounding procedure

d) 

Prescription number

e) 

Who checked the compound

Question 17 (5 points)

 

Refer to the prescription to match each of the following sigs to the correct meaning.
 
 
 

Question 17 options:

1234

bid

1234

ou

1234

gtt

1234

po

1.

Drops

2.

Each eye

3.

By mouth

4.

Twice a day

Question 18 (5 points)

 

Which of the following are common issues associated with patient noncompliance with taking prescribed medication?

Question 18 options:

a) 

It costs billions of dollars each year.

b) 

It can lead to death.

c) 

It can lead to excessive hospital visits.

d) 

It decreases healthcare costs.

Question 19 (5 points)

 

In the Visual SuperScript program, what are the three tabs on the top half of the Drugs form?

Question 19 options:

a) 

Pricing and Stock

b) 

Drugs and Packaging

c) 

Welfare and Misc.

d) 

Compound Drug Ingredients

Question 20 (5 points)

 

Each ingredient used during compounding has specific indicators provided by the FDA. These include

Question 20 options:

a) 

lot numbers

b) 

bar codes

c) 

generic drug prices

d) 

expiration dates

Question 1 (5 points) A patient is taking amoxicillin 500 mg by

Please summarize and evaluate a social psychology research article (2 to 2.5 pages in length. Please also include a Psychology Assignment Help Question 1 (5 points)

 

A patient is taking amoxicillin 500 mg by mouth three times a day for seven days. How many capsules of 500 mg of amoxicillin will you dispense for the whole supply?

Question 1 options:

A) 

28

B) 

21

C) 

35

D) 

42

Question 2 (5 points)

 

The abbreviation qid denotes a medication frequency of

Question 2 options:

A) 

every twelve hours.

B) 

four times a day.

C) 

twice a day.

D) 

once a day.

Question 3 (5 points)

 

Which of the following is a main responsibility unique to the pharmacy technician working in an outpatient environment?

Question 3 options:

A) 

Chemotherapy medication preparation

B) 

Third-party billing

C) 

Preparation of IV fluids

D) 

Repackaging bulk products

Question 4 (5 points)

 

How many milliliters are in one tablespoon?

Question 4 options:

A) 

5

B) 

10

C) 

15

D) 

20

Question 5 (5 points)

 

What’s the best definition of a financial identification number?

Question 5 options:

A) 

The reference number used by the pharmacy technician when a claim is submitted

B) 

A number used to identify a medication

C) 

A unique identification number used to identify a prescription order

D) 

A unique identification number used to identify an inpatient

Question 6 (5 points)

 

Emergency prescriptions that must be filled immediately are classified as _______ orders.

Question 6 options:

A) 

ER

B) 

emergency

C) 

ASAP

D) 

STAT

Question 7 (5 points)

 

Which of the following are computerized devices that facilitate dispensing of medication directly by the nurse to the patient?

Question 7 options:

A) 

Automated nursing stations (ANSs)

B) 

Crash carts

C) 

STAT orders

D) 

Automated dispensing machines (ADMs)

Question 8 (5 points)

 

The abbreviation qam means

Question 8 options:

A) 

with every meal.

B) 

every morning.

C) 

every other day.

D) 

every day.

Question 9 (5 points)

 

What’s the system ADVantage™ used for?

Question 9 options:

A) 

To dispense controlled substances

B) 

To dispense IV medication

C) 

To systemize and store the dispensing history of each patient

D) 

To calculate complicated dosages correctly

Question 10 (5 points)

 

If a medication is prescribed to be administered qd, what is the standard administration time?

Question 10 options:

A) 

12 P.M.

B) 

6 A.M.

C) 

10 P.M.

D) 

10 A.M

Question 11 (5 points)

 

What’s the frequency abbreviation for three times a day?

Question 11 options:

A) 

tid

B) 

qd

C) 

bid

D) 

qid

Question 12 (5 points)

 

Which of the following pharmacy technician roles assists pharmacists in achieving the most efficient healthcare at the lowest cost?

Question 12 options:

A) 

Managed care pharmacy technician

B) 

Pharmacy informatics technician

C) 

Pharmaceutical sales representative

D) 

Pharmacy technician educator

Question 13 (5 points)

 

Which of the following healthcare workers is not legally authorized to grant a medication prescription to a patient?

Question 13 options:

A) 

Physician

B) 

Dentist

C) 

Physician assistant (PA)

D) 

Pharmacy technician

Question 14 (5 points)

 

A patient’s prescription calls for “1 drop in each eye bid for 10 days.” How much medication should be dispensed to this patient?

Question 14 options:

A) 

5 ml

B) 

1 ml

C) 

3 ml

D) 

2 ml

Question 15 (5 points)

 

What does the pharmacy abbreviation qmwf stand for?

Question 15 options:

A) 

Every weekday from Monday to Friday

B) 

Every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday

C) 

Every weekend

D) 

Every day except Monday, Wednesday, Friday

Question 16 (5 points)

 

Which of the following is an example of a community pharmacy?

Question 16 options:

A) 

Chain pharmacy

B) 

Inpatient pharmacy

C) 

Mail-order pharmacy

D) 

Hospital pharmacy

Question 17 (5 points)

 

Which of the following DAW codes indicates that a generic substitution isn’t allowed by the prescriber?

Question 17 options:

A) 

DAW Code 0

B) 

DAW Code 3

C) 

DAW Code 1

D) 

DAW Code 2

Question 18 (5 points)

 

A prescription reads i oz po bid X 14 days. How many ounces of medication will you dispense?

Question 18 options:

A) 

21

B) 

14

C) 

30

D) 

28

Question 19 (5 points)

 

What’s the main role of a pharmacy technician educator?

Question 19 options:

A) 

To promote certain drugs in relevant communities, such as clinics and pharmacies

B) 

To assist pharmacists in research and record keeping of new drugs

C) 

To provide students with hands-on skills in activities that will one day be part of their job

D) 

To fill prescription orders for compound medications

Question 20 (5 points)

 

What’s the standard administration time for a medication prescribed to be dispensed qhs?

Question 20 options:

A) 

10 A.M.

B) 

6 P.M.

C) 

10 P.M.

D) 

6 A.M.

Assessment 5 Instructions: Comparing Politics, Law, Policy, and Power Top of Form

Assessment 5 Instructions: Comparing Politics, Law, Policy, and Power

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Write a 6-8-page essay comparing two U.S. states’ approaches to issues of same-sex marriage or immigration policy.

Introduction

Note: You must complete Assessment 4 before beginning this assessment.

How can sociological research help us understand how laws and policies are made and how they change over time? How might we use the sociological perspective to develop more effective solutions to political and social issues or create policies that are effective and based on sound research? These are questions to consider as you explore the connection between political and economic power and legislative decision making.

In this final assessment, you study how our culture’s beliefs about diversity are reflected in the law-making and policy-making process, including laws and policies that pertain to immigration and same-sex marriage. As you compare and contrast how two specific states have approached immigration or same-sex marriage, reflect on which sociological theories (such as power elite theory, state autonomy theory, or pluralism) best apply to the policy decisions that have been made in your states. Something to think about, too, is whether the policies and positions maintained by those in power actually reflect the research and data on the topic or issue they address. The research you do for this final assessment should show you how power and politics, as well as population demographics, influence policy making.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Describe theoretical ideas of power in relation to policy.

Discuss contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue, using theoretical ideas of power.

Competency 2: Identify historical and contemporary influences of discrimination in U.S. culture.

Discuss law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue.

Competency 3: Analyze the effects of social policy using aggregated data.

Analyze data to project how state policies might affect population migration.

Competency 4: Analyze how laws are applied or created based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, and social class.

Discuss contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue.

Competency 5: Apply diversity strategies in professional, educational, and personal contexts.

Apply historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law.

Competency 6: Communicate effectively.

Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format and with few errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

 

Instructions

Building on your research and analysis of the immigration policy or same-sex marriage debates, this assessment asks you to more closely examine the connection between power, policy, and law making by comparing and contrasting how two states have handled these issues.

In order to understand the link between power and political and legal decision making, you will place this process in each state in the appropriate context. That means that you need to assess the historical, demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that have influenced each state’s different approach to immigration policy or same-sex marriage. You will also reflect on the consequences of state-to-state discrepancies in policies and laws regarding controversial social and political issues like these.

This assessment combines the key components of studying cultural diversity from a sociological perspective—placing current social issues in historical context, understanding how demographic and cultural trends influence public opinion, and applying sociological theories to determine the role of power in shaping policy-making decisions.

Write an essay addressing each of the following three parts:

Part 1 – Complete the following:

Discuss one of the following for each of the two states you have chosen as it relates to your chosen topic:

Law (rules and standards enforced by a particular institution).

Politics (the key political players in the policy-making and law-making processes).

Policy (principles or methods used to achieve a particular goal or make decisions about political or social issues).

Discuss theories of power that might explain the differences between how each state has handled your issue.

Examples of theories of power include power elite theory, the four networks theory of power, pluralism, Marxist theory, and state autonomy theory.

Discuss other possible explanations for the differences in how each state’s government has approached your topic. Address at least three of the following potential factors, and come up with another of your own that might explain the divergent approaches you have identified:

Demographics of the state population, including age, race/ethnicity, gender, and percentage of the population in urban versus rural areas.

Geography.

Religion.

History.

Socioeconomic standing, including median or average income and education levels of the population, as well as the overall economic well-being of each state.

Part 2 – Answer the following, incorporating data to support your answers:

To what extent have these states’ existing policies and laws affected past or recent migration patterns of the groups affected (immigrants or those seeking same-sex marriage rights)?

How might future migration patterns be affected?

Part 3 – Complete the following:

Reflect on a historical precedent in which a state has had to alter its laws as a result of inconsistencies with federal law.

Why and how did the state change its laws?

What lessons might be learned from this precedent, and how can those lessons be applied to your topic?

Additional Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.

Length: 6–8 pages, not including the title and reference pages.

Format: Include a title page and reference page, and format the essay and your citations according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.

Sources: Cite at least four credible, scholarly sources to support your points.

Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.

Portfolio Prompt: Save this assessment to your ePortfolio.

SCORING GUIDE

Use the scoring guide to understand how your assessment will be evaluated.

VIEW SCORING GUIDE

Comparing Politics, Law, Policy, and Power Scoring Guide

CRITERIA

NON-PERFORMANCE

BASIC

PROFICIENT

DISTINGUISHED

Discuss contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue, using theoretical ideas of power.

Does not discuss contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue.

Discusses contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue but does not include appropriate theoretical ideas of power.

Discusses contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue, using theoretical ideas of power.

Discuss contrasts in how states approach a diversity issue, using theoretical ideas of power, and includes supporting citations from scholarly sources.

Discuss law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue.

Does not list differences in law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue

Lists differences in law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue.

Discusses differences in law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue.

Discusses differences in law, policy, or politics in states with varying approaches to a diversity issue and cites specific examples of their application.

Analyze data to project how state policies might affect population migration.

Does not analyze data to project how state policies might affect population migration.

Analyzes data but does not project a reasonable assessment of how state policies might affect population migration.

Analyzes data to project how state policies might affect population migration.

Analyzes data to project how state policies might affect population migration, including a discussion of past migrations for context and citations for scholarly sources.

Discuss contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue.

Does not list contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue.

Lists contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue.

Discusses contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue.

Discusses contrasts between two states in areas of law, politics, or policy as they apply to a diversity issue, including real-world examples of their application.

Apply historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law.

Does not list historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law.

Lists historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law.

Applies historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law.

Applies historical solutions to an issue where there are discrepancies between state and federal diversity law, and points out areas where the lessons learned might not be applicable.

Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format and with few errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Does not write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format. Does not use correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Writes to support an idea. Format is inconsistent and contains major errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Writes coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format and with few errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Writes coherently, using evidence to support a central idea in a consistently appropriate format with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Resources: Theoretical Sources

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This assessment requires application of a specific sociological theory to your analysis of same-sex marriage or immigration policy. Below are resources that discuss appropriate theories.

Domhoff, W. (2015). Theories of power. Who Rules America? http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/theory/

This resource discusses several sociological theories of power, including the four network theory, pluralism, and state autonomy theory.

Schatz, P. (2017). Theoretical perspectives on government and power. http://philschatz.com/sociology-book/contents/m42918.html

This chapter from a sociology text examines how the major theories approach power in relation to government and policy-making.

Resources: Policy Issues

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Below are resources that cover policy and legal issues related to same-sex marriage and immigration.

Alvarez, P. (2017, February 19). A brief history of America’s ‘love-hate relationship’ with immigration. Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/02/donald-trump-immigration/517119/

This article traces the history of social and policy responses to immigration.

Healey, J. F., Stepnick, A., & O’Brien, E. (2019). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change (8th ed.). Sage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

Chapters 10, 12, 13, and 14 deal with political issues and policy concerns relevant to same-sex marriage and immigration.

Mitchell, J. L., & Petray, E. (2016). The march toward marriage equality: Reexamining the diffusion of same-sex marriage among states. Public Policy and Administration, 31(4), 283–302. 

This article reviews state marriage policies in the context of the federal legalization of same-sex marriage.

Pew Research Center. (June 26, 2015). Same-sex marriage, State by state. https://www.pewforum.org/2015/06/26/same-sex-marriage-state-by-state/

This resource provides an overview of same-sex marriage laws prior to the 2015 Supreme Court ruling that legalized gay marriage nationwide.

Orrenius, P. M., & Zavodny, M. (2017). Creating cohesive, coherent immigration policy. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(1), 180–193. 

This article reviews problems and limitations with U.S. immigration policy and ways to develop a more cohesive, effective policy.

10 1 Competency 1 Assessment Process Evaluation One of the crucial services

10

1

Competency 1 Assessment

Process Evaluation

One of the crucial services that Shopify provide to its merchants and vendors is order fulfillment. This process is necessary, particularly where these stakeholders are incapable of effectively executing this process on their own (Shopify, 2022). One of the key processes of performing this activity is order consolidation and shipment, where the organization will aid its merchant(s) fill large orders by consolidating all the available inventory into a single order fulfillment center and then dispatching it to its intended origin/consumer. This process can be tedious for Shopify, especially given that most vendors are new at running their organizations (United States Securities Exchange Commission, 2021). As such, the firm encounters various challenges that may lead to potential errors or defects in its order consolidation process. Thus, driven by the need to further understand the challenges that affect the process within Shopify, the assessment sought data from one of the company’s employees.

Online retailers on the Shopify platform face various challenges relating to order consolidate. First, they have to deal with many orders due to the rapid growth in the global e-retail. Another challenge is the low number of demanded items on the platform compared to other e-commerce giants such as Amazon. Further, these online retailers on the Shopify platform deal with much larger assortments in comparison to the brick-and-mortar stores. Finally, workers at the retail work under great time pressure to ensure timely deliveries for the constant customer orders. The online retailers employ bathing and zoning of the customer products as the primary response to the challenges arising from order fulfillment processing. Instead of relying on the central depot, batching enables the retailers to unify orders for pick-up. As such, the quantity per picker tour is increased to improve efficiency and reduce the frequency of trips. Similarly, zoning is adopted to aid the picking effort where pickers only attend to orders within their designated zones.

Consequently, the proposed improvement plan involves a consolidation process with put walls. It will require the online retailers to adopt the put walls in three distinct steps such as picking up the order within the designated zones, intermediate storage of the bins and the consolidation of order and packaging process. This process refers to the picker-to-parts that relies on zoning and batching arrangement. The stock keeping units (SKUs) will be adopted to enhance the zoning and the batching system. In addition, the SKUs will be attached to the respective picker locations. The pickers will access the respective orders from the set bins arranged in parallel set up to allow for convenient access by multiple customers. The proposed schematic layout allows for the successive arrival of the different batches of products into the store. It allows for the removal of the items from the individual bins to the put wall to enhance efficient operation of the stores.

Upon acquiring the data, I used a control chart, and a select intervention, namely the Pareto analysis, to further understand the key causes of the errors experienced, and help this organization establish the appropriate solutions/remedies to the problem. As such, this paper focuses on improving Shopify’s order consolidation process to enable customers to combine more than one order. The limitation was that every order on the platform has a specific order number that defines it, and consolidating them would mix internal data and reference details. Therefore, Shopify customers had to work around the challenges. However, the improvement procedure involves developing a dashboard with the following tabs; Orders (available), Draft Orders and Create Order. This platform will allow customers to consolidate their purchases.

Evaluation of Control Chart and Process Metrics

The evaluation of this process was guided by a control chart and the process metrics. First, the data captured provided the number of incorrect products per the consolidated orders from 15th to 21st May 2022. Second, the order consolidation process for the sampled shipment provides detailed information regarding the number of correct and incorrect orders. Third, the order timeline provides information on the time it took customers to process particular orders. Thus, the analysis includes the total number of processed orders in the 7-day period. Below is the table summary of the correct and incorrect consolidated orders from May 15 to 21, 2022.

Days

15th

16th

17th

18th

19th

20th

21st

Total

Correct Consolidated Orders

227

213

199

223

248

175

215

1500

Incorrect Consolidated Orders

22

25

18

29

20

17

19

150

Table 1: 7-day data on the number of correct and incorrect orders as per the consolidation.

From the above data, it was possible to establish the key process controls for this period, such as the lower and upper limits of the number of correct and incorrect products.

Figure 1: 7-day data on the number of correct and incorrect products per the consolidation.

The provided data source also contained further information concerning the sources of order consolidation errors and defects, which enables a further evaluation of this process. For instance, from the data set, five causes of order consolidation were identified and the specific number of defects attributed to each was also provided.

Table 2: Data analysis for the control limits

The Pareto chart serves as a crucial tool for Spotify to achieve process improvements since it relates to establishing some of key activities within this process that contribute to the highlighted outcomes (Nicolae, Nedelcu & Dumitrascu, 2015). After analyzing the data, this chart was developed to have a clear understanding of what each defect source contributed to the overall number of defects experienced in the distribution center. From the analysis of the chart findings, it was evident that the “already defective product” aspect constituted the main contributor to the number of defects experienced in the consolidation, and delivery/shipment processes. This information implies that the majority of the errors experienced are emanating from the merchants’ side, whereby they are unable to ensure the complete absence of already defective products. The implications can be dire to the merchants, Shopify platform, and the consumers if defective products are delivered. Therefore, the organization should be aware of the issue and look for interventions that may help address the problem. Numerous approaches could be used to encourage the merchants to lower defective products within their respective inventories. For instance, increasing inspection rates, especially before product dispatch from vendor warehouse to consolidation centers. There is also the approach of placing high-quality checks and standards on the merchants currently utilizing this platform. Overall, the vendors and the platform itself can significantly gain from addressing the challenges identified with order consolidation.

Executive Summary

Process Evaluation (SPC)

Organizations, such as Shopify, that perform large-scale logistics and supply chain-based activities for their merchants/vendors, encounter numerous challenges. One of them is order consolidation. In this assessment, Shopify through its order fulfillment centers, helps its respective merchants fulfill large orders, primarily through order consolidation. However, the process has encountered numerous obstacles, which ultimately lead to a presence of incorrect orders. A key approach has been that of data collection directed at the issue, and this initiative has uncovered the specific origins or causes of defective orders and their level of contribution to overall total defects within such an order. The evaluation process relies on the SPC control method that shows the upper and lower control limits. Thus, R chart, the x-bar, p chart and the c chart demonstrates the reliable control measures that demonstrates the existing trends throughout the 7-day period.

The process evaluation begins with the identification of the existing variables, the determination of measurable attributed to the process, and development of the sub-groups. Further analysis involves the description of the natural variables attributed to the registered defects by use of the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). Finally, the process variation indicates the changes in the number of incorrect consolidated orders as per the control pattern. The trends allows for the identification of the assigned causes of defects and addressing the underlying concerns. Therefore, the existing statistical control process for the designed variables includes the UCL and LCL.

Evaluation of Control Chart and Process Metrics Based on SPC Methods

The control table and SPC tool utilized aided in uncovering the primary contributors to the process metric namely defects within consolidated orders, and their respective rate of contribution in terms of the number of defects. From both tools, it became clear that Shopify was experiencing defects within vendor consolidated orders due to several causes as seen in table 2 and the largest cause of defects within such orders, was orders products that already arrived from vendor supply chain networks already defective.

Figure 2: x-bar Chart

According to Figure 2, the UCL is 250 units while the LCL is 175 units. The average x-bar is 212.5 units. Thus, the number of correct consolidated orders reflects a uniform trend with the maximum value recorded at the 5th day. Similarly, the least value is recorded at the 6th day of sampling. The average amount is evidenced within the first three days of sampling. Therefore, the control nature of variables depicts a steady trend with a slight deflection within the last two days of sampling.

Figure 3: Range Chart

The range chart demonstrates the range between the UCL and the LCL of the incorrect consolidated orders. According to the figures, the range is 11 units. This is recorded between the first and the third day of sampling. The range chart describes the existing trend of the incorrect consolidated orders across the seven days of sampling. The first three days indicate unstable trend that relate to existence of a problem unlike the last four days with a predictable trend.

Evaluation of Whether the Process Would Benefit from the SPC Tool

The process would benefit from the use of SPC tools, given that there were multiple causes identified for the analyzed problem. The tools carry out problem analysis and help in better understanding the issue from a quantitative perspective. The control charts contains the quality characteristics such as the UCL, LCL and the center lines denoting the x-chart value. These quality characteristics define the trend in the average value and allows for the predictions on the future values. Therefore, the vendors can assess the rate of flow of products in and out of the warehouse. Generally, the SPC Tool provides an insight on the relation between the correct and incorrect consolidated orders. As such, the warehouse operation managers can rely on the data analysis outlook to develop an efficient and reliable pick-up protocol.

A Description of the SPC Project

The SPC project involved the use of a Pareto Chart to help understand the level of contribution that each cause had to the total number of defects within Vendor consolidated orders. The pareto Chart helped as seen in Figure 2 helped point out this, identifying already defective products as the leading cause of product defects within vendor consolidated orders. In addition, the SPC Process outlines the control limits such as the UCL and the LCL that define the trend among the variables. It separates the correct consolidated orders from the incorrect ones as shown in the x-chart and range chart respectively.

Recommendations for Improvement

Shopify should work closely with their merchants/vendors to identify the reason why some of their products arrive at their order fulfillment centers already defective and establish key solutions to revert this trend. Further, there is need to improve the put walls that the online retailers to adopt the three distinct steps such as picking up the order within the designated zones, intermediate storage of the bins and the consolidation of order and packaging process.

Conclusion

This assessment is about process improvement for a select organization, Shopify, that is currently experiencing challenges, and could benefit from existing tools and interventions related to process improvements. The processes selected entailed the order consolidation and dispatch aspects, with key details about its process metrics also provided. Order consolidation observed in the platform supports the merchants receiving large orders and lacked the desired stocks to realize this demand. The assessment created a control chart for all activities and/or contributors of product defects within this process. Using a Pareto chart, I identified some of the major contributors that would facilitate Shopify to improve understanding and response to the issue of order consolidation.

References

Nicolae (Mănescu), R., Nedelcu, A., & Dumitraşcu, A. (2015). Improvement the quality of industrial products by applying the Pareto Chart. Review of the Air Force Academy, 13(3), 169-172. DOI: 10.19062/1842-9238.2015.13.3.29

Shopify. (2022). Shopify Fulfillment Network: Grow Your Business with Two-Day Delivery. Shopify.com. https://www.shopify.com/fulfillment?itcat=blog&itterm=60645957

United States Securities and Exchange Commission. (2021). Registration Statement Pursuant to Section 12, and Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13(A) or 15(D) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: Shopify Inc. (p. 3-172). Ottawa, ON, CA: Price Waterhouse Coopers. https://s27.q4cdn.com/572064924/files/doc_financials/2020/ar/40-F.pdf

Competency 3 Assessment A Visual Depiction of the Supply Chain Diagram Supply

Competency 3 Assessment

A Visual Depiction of the Supply Chain Diagram

Supply Chain Plan

The above visual representation of Shopify’s supply chain involves products sourced from manufacturers, domestically or internationally, especially from China. The products that reach the vendors are manufactured in companies around the world. The raw materials are either sourced domestically or from international third parties. For instance, raw materials for the manufacturing of steel and steel products are sourced from countries like South Africa and Australia. In addition, those used for the production of electronic devices, such as mobile phones and computers, come from Ukraine, Russia and Brazil. Nonetheless, China remains a significant player in the global manufacturing sector and a primary supplier for the products sold through the Shopify platforms. Both Chinese companies and international corporations, such as Nike, Apple, H&M, and Huawei, are instrumental in the supply chain.

Once the products, like apparel, household items, building materials, and electronics, are assembled in China, they are shipped through sea and air to respective countries including Australia. The vendors move the products to the central warehouse awaiting their distribution to different station centres and finally to the distribution centres. Thus, the distributions from the central warehouse to the distribution centres are conducted using trucks. Finally, products move to the parcel delivery point and to the pickup station through small vans and medium-sized trucks.

The forward and reverse logistics for Shopify allows the customers to order products, return any faulty items to stores and receive refunds. They also detail how Shopify ships their customers’ orders, receive faulty products and process refunds. The delivery point, collection point, and customs home are at the end of the supply chain (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). The plan has developed an efficient and effective supply chain that offers these Shopify customers a reliable platform to order quality products. Generally, Shopify supply chain focuses on safe access of their e-commerce platform and the quality of products.

Value Chain and Flow of Structure

The value chain adopted by the Shopify stores involves inbound logistics, operations, and outbound logistics. First, inbound logistics entail sourcing products from manufacturers, either domestically or internationally. Inbound logistics ensures the sourcing of high-quality products (Wang et al., 2018). The suppliers for these manufacturing companies should look for quality raw materials that meet the consumer preference for quality products. Moreover, the sourcing operations must consider a quality and competent workforce that turns the raw materials into the quality and valuable finished products (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). The other consideration by the inbound logistics teams is the effective handling of products to ensure safety from physical damage. 

Marketing and sales are also part of the value chain that involves product branding and packaging design to improve the relationship between the suppliers and the consumers. Notably, marketing and sales strategies should focus on enhancing communication with the customers to develop customer loyalty (Kawa & Maryniak, 2018). Similarly, advertisement strategies focus on promoting brand awareness and product reputation. It improves market access and effective coordination between the suppliers and the customers. Lastly, certain services are involved in the supply chain, such as technical assistance and maintenance.

Inputs

The input operations in this supply chain reflect the activities of the manufacturers, wholesalers, and the shipping team. For instance, manufacturers should commit to building quality products that appeal to Shopify’s customer needs. Such operations must demonstrate high competency and use quality materials to create quality products (Lu & Reardon, 2018). Further, wholesalers obtain the products from the manufacturers, store them and move them to the suppliers, like Shopify, before being delivered to consumers. Store management skills are essential to the success of entities that operate under Spotify e-commerce (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). Lastly, Shopify’s shipment team moves the products from their warehouses to their consumers. They must handle the products with much caution to avoid physical damage. The deliveries are conducted through trucks and vans, depending on the destination and the amount or size of the products.

Outputs, including Customer Service Structure

Outputs outline the quality of products from the manufacturers and their branding for advertisements and sales. In addition, outputs reflect the flexibility of consumers to order the products and get them delivered to their doorstep (Kawa & Maryniak, 2018). Output operations can be summarized through the customer service structure that handles the process of acquiring both the raw materials and finished goods. It also addresses purchasing activities through various channels. Also, the customer service structure prevents possible unauthorized activities that might compromise information security and the privacy of customers (Wang et al., 2018). Shopify’s customer service structure focuses on making it easy for their customers to access its e-commerce platforms, which facilitate the faster shipment of ordered products to these clients.

In addition, the Shopify platform allows customers to place their orders through the company’s website or apps on smartphones. The developed user interface enables customers to access the product features and choose from a variety of options. Moreover, the customers use the platform to make payment for the item ordered including the shipment fee. The order management team receives the ordered product on the platform and confirms its availability from the local warehouse. The duration for the delivery of the item ordered depends on whether or not it can be sourced locally or will be shipped from abroad. Notably, the product management team coordinates with the warehouse managers to source the product, which is shipped to the customer. Besides, the management team handles the packaging and records the product shipment details to help with the tracking purposes during the shipment.

Once the product is packed, based on the ordering details, it is moved from the local warehouse to the delivery station for customer pick up. Sometimes, the products are shipped to the customer’s doorstep. Products like electronic devices are packed with the user manual to provide safety instructions and possible maintenance measures. In case of faulty products, wrongly packed item or incomplete package, the customers send their feedbacks through the Shopify customer portal. Similarly, products that require technical attention during use can be taken to the nearest repair shops. In addition, other products such as electronics with technical problems can be handled by their respective brand technical team.

Inventory Points and Forecasting

Inventory control and management remains the greatest asset at Shopify. It improves customer service through an accurate stock account, supports inventory decisions, eliminates write-offs and ensures fulfilment of orders on time. Shopify relies on inventory management for quality assurance by assessing the stockouts, spoilages, and dead stocks (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). To improve the inventory management, Shopify relies on the ConnectPOS, as part of the Stock Keeping Unit (SKU), to synchronize data and assess products’ inflow and outflow from the warehouse. The ConnectPOS app allows for data update to minimize the chances of order delay or dead stocks (Kawa & Maryniak, 2018). This data collection method is suitable, as it scans active stock to determine the rate of Shopify’s inflow and outflow, which helps in improving customer service.

The adopted inventory management system enables customers to name their products, attach the pictures and price. Further, the shipped products are tagged with individual weight alongside the relevant barcodes that allow for product identification at the ports. Shopify also allows customers to group products based on their category, season, sale and type, and apply smart collection to sort the product by the vendors. Such inventory system allows for various options, including the use of material, colours, and different sizes to sort out the products. In doing so, Shopify’s inventory management team can monitor the flow of the products in and out of the warehouses, easing the fulfilling of customer orders.

Tracking stocks is the most essential part of the SKU adopted by Shopify. As part of the inventory management system, it addresses the issue of over-ordering and missing orders due to running out of stocks. Thus, the primary role of the stock keeping unit is to truck stock counts and to trigger an automatic reminder when they hit a certain number. The system also updates the inventory’s numbers in cases of new shipments. Shopify’s inventory management system is suitable for both small and medium stores as it tracks the customer demands and the inventory numbers to enhance effective and efficient supply.

Sourcing Activities

Sourcing depends on the consumer needs. For example, people moving to new homes can order curtains, carpet, and lighting systems from Shopify. Similarly, new mums can order baby products, like clothing, beddings and other necessary items on the platform. Further, the market demand depends on different seasons like valentine celebrations, Christmas festivities and thanksgiving events. Such celebrations often trigger a spike in the demand for consumer products related to the events. Therefore, the inventory management team must source the associated products on time to ensure adequate and timely supply. Sourcing activities also depend of trendy products, like new phones in the market. As such, inventory management team must acquire these products on time to enable customer access (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). The sourcing operation team must have fast responses to market dynamics to meet customer needs. One of the sourcing strategies is to order the products from the manufacturers on time especially those on high demand. The quick and strategic response among different players is essential in ensuring improved customer satisfaction (Kawa & Maryniak, 2018). Notably, the products can be sourced from both local manufacturers or from different countries, especially China. Some of the factors that impact Shopify’s sourcing strategy include international trade policies, existing trade tariffs and quality of products. Therefore, governments have different policies to ensure that local manufacturers and consumers are protected from cheap and low-quality products sourced from abroad. You need to state the process of sourcing….When sourcing, you must 1) identify potential sources, (How is this done?) 2) engage with the sources, (How is this done?) and 3) select the sources you will buy from. (How is this done?) What is the process of sourcing (How is this done?) ? What is working? What is not working? What can be done to improve sourcing? NM

Risks

Some of the risks involved in the supply chain include global crises, such as natural calamities, wars, and health pandemics like COVID-19, that disrupt industrial activities (Lu & Reardon, 2018). Similarly, there are risks associated with products’ shipment due to risky shipping routes, high shipment costs, and an overwhelming demand for services. Consumers are often forced to wait longer for the product orders because of shipping delays (Wang et al., 2018). As a result, the customers are forced to pay higher prices for their products to cater for the shipping costs. Another risk in the supply chain is possible cybercrimes that might lead to defrauding consumers of their money.

Location

The locations within the supply chain include the manufacturers who can be sourced, domestically or internationally, in other countries, mostly China. The warehouses are located in different regions, closer to the clients, to save time during the outflow logistical operations. Shopify moves the products from the warehouses to local stations, where delivery agents pick them and deliver to the customers. You must discuss how the locations are determined? What is the process? How does the location flow with the supply chain? What works? What does not work? What needs to be changed? All in all, are there improvements that need to be made when deciding on locations? NM

Logistics

Inbound logistics involves sourcing the products from the manufacturers or suppliers, ensuring they are of high quality, and storing them in warehouses (Lim, Jin & Srai, 2018). As such, the suppliers to the manufacturing companies must look for raw materials that meet the Shopify consumer preferences regarding the quality of products. On the other hand, outbound logistical operations involve an efficient and effective handling of products from their storage in warehouses to local stations, and finally safely shipping them to customers (Lu & Reardon, 2018). Therefore, Shopify’s outbound logistical operations should be effective and flexible to reach customers from different locations on time.

References

Kawa, A., & Maryniak, A. (2018). Lean and Agile Supply Chains of E-commerce in Terms of Customer Value Creation. In A. Sieminski, A. Kozierkiewicz, M. Nunez & Q. Ha, Modern approaches for intelligent information and database systems (1st ed., pp. 317–327). New York, NY: Springer Cham.

Lim, S., Jin, X., & Srai, J. (2018). Consumer-driven e-commerce: A literature review, design framework, and research agenda on last-mile logistics models. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 48(3), 308-332. DOI: 10.1108/ijpdlm-02-2017-0081

Lu, L., & Reardon, T. (2018). An economic model of the evolution of food retail and supply chains from traditional shops to supermarkets to e‐commerce. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(5), 1320-1335. DOI: 10.1093/ajae/aay056

Wang, Y., Jia, F., Schoenherr, T., & Gong, Y. (2018). Supply chain-based business model innovation: The case of a cross-border e-commerce company. Sustainability, 10(12), 4362. DOI: 10.3390/su10124362