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Performing the Pearson MyOMLab Quality Management Simulation, and examining the results, and identifying lessons learned. Please adhere to the detailed instructions contained in the Common Instructions for Options #1 and #2: Operations Quality Management above.
A written operations management quality paper.
Your report will require a structure that includes a strong title, followed by an introductory paragraph, which generates interest and includes a thesis and mapping of what is to come.
Each of the sections should use appropriate APA headings including a conclusion section.
Make sure that the body sections address each of the previous bullets.

Introduction to Cinema 1 Final Essay Requirement The movie “Slumdog millionaire” is

Introduction to Cinema 1

Final Essay Requirement

The movie “Slumdog millionaire” is a British movie with an Indian setting. The movie’s title slumdog is an oxymoron that points out to the movie’s storyline. The term slumdog is an Indian term that is used to refer to slum dwellers who were often considered very poor hence lived through hand to mouth. The movie is about an Indian boy Jamal Malik who despite coming from the slums is able to transform his life by winning millions. The movie depicts Jamal’s rags to riches story in which despite lacking knowledge about the happenings of the movie due to his slum background world is able to correctly answer questions in a popular TV show thus enabling him to win the grand prize of 20 million rupees and become a millionaire. In the television show “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, Jamal is able to use his life experiences to arrive at each answer through the use of flashbacks which started from as early as the age of five. Each flashback in the movie leads Jamal to establishing the correct answer and nearing the grand prize which he uses cues from his childhood sweetheart Latika to answer it correctly thus changing his life from a poor slumdog to a rich millionaire.

The purpose of this research paper is to analyse the movie “Slumdog Millionaire” and provide a report based on the movie from the topics covered in the coursework textbook. As a result, this research paper shall analyse and evaluate various aspects of the movie such as form and meaning, genre, narrative elements and cinematography among others. The research paper’s structure shall be made up of three main parts, the introduction, main body and conclusion.

Film Form and Meaning

The meaning of the film slumdog millionaire can be described as explicit since the title and the content of the movie both point to the movie’s theme of poverty and overcoming poverty. The name slumdog millionaire is an oxymoron that brings about the image of a very poor person and a very rich person hence when Jamal’s life changes from abject poverty into a millionaire, the explicit meaning of the movie is attained. The arrangement of the movie’s title slumdog millionaire is also explicit since Jamal’s life starts off as a very poor child living in the Juhu slums of Mumbai hence a slumdog who finally ends up as rich millionaire thanks to the TV program “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”. The meaning of the movie slumdog millionaire is also evidenced during the introductory and climax parts of the movie. In the introductory part of the film, Jamal’s life as a slumdog is exhibited when and his family live in the slums and lack basic social needs such as food, and clothing. Jamal and his brother Salim are forced to survive in the slums through doing menial chores and an example is exhibited when Jamal despite being covered in excrete manages to get an autograph from film star Amitabh Bachchan which would later be sold for a few rupees. The millionaire theme is evidenced in the film towards the movie’s climax when both Salim and Jamal end up as millionaire. Jamal becomes a millionaire when he wins the grand prize in the TV show “Who wants to be a millionaire” while Salim becomes a millionaire after killing his drug lord master Javed.

The film can is also seen as possessing cultural prejudices about developing countries since India as a country has been known to have high levels of disparity between the rich and the poor which is evidenced with Amitabh Bachchan who lands in the slums of Jehu from a chartered chopper yet his biggest fans who come to see him including Jamal are extremely poor to the extent of coming to see him while covered in human excrete. Slum dwellers in any part of the world have also been known to suffer from various forms of social injustices such as extrajudicial killings, lack of basic needs such as education and child labour among others. The various forms of social injustices are exhibited in the movie when Jamal and Salim’s mother dies in a Mumbai street riot leaving the two orphaned at a very early age. The two are then forced to fend for themselves resulting in their moving from place to place as pickpockets, hawkers and tour guides in the Taj Mahal despite being of school going age hence making them lack basic education. Police brutality is also another form of social injustice experienced in developing countries and is evidenced when Jamal is tortured by the police for being smart and getting the questions correctly. This is because it was expected that due to his slum background he would lack the knowledge about popular movies. Forced labour is also exhibited in the film when Maman captures young children and uses them to beg in the streets of Mumbai after blinding them. Maman has also preserved Latika to use her in prostitution since he is sure her virginity would fetch a good price.


The movie slumdog millionaire can be categorised under the drama genre. This is because from the very beginning, the film’s main characters Jamal, his brother Salim and her lover Latika finds themsleves in conflicting situations that shows their best and worst situations. During the start of the movie, Jamal was locked inside a public latrine by his brother Salim in order to prevent him from getting to see the movie star Amitabh Bachchan. However, Jamal managed to get out of the toilet by dropping into the pit latrine and coming out through the opening on the ground and was covered in human excrete. Despite the unfortunate incident that got him covered in human excrete, Jamal used it to his advantage by gaining access to Amitabh since everyone gave way for him to pass in fear of getting smeared with human excrete. On the other hand, the visit by Amitaph to the slum brought about Salim’s selfish nature when he locks Jamal in the toilet to prevent him from seeing the movie star Amitabh and proceeds to sell Jamal’s autograph which he struggled very much to get.

The drama genre is also brought out when Jamal and Salim’s mother gets killed during the Bombay riots and Salim and Jamal meet a girl from the slums by the name Lanika. Salim is reluctant to take her in but only accepts after persuasion by Jamal. When the three get captured by Maman, Salim discovered that the children are being blinded to make them effective beggars and gets the three to escape. However Salim purposefully releases Lanika to be captured by Maman as revenge for playing a prank on him then got him embarrassed. Later on the two return to save Latika from Maman and when Salim gets job with a Javed a drug lord he threatens Jamal into leaving Latika for him. This portrays Salim as a selfish self-centred individual who short-changes his brother of his love despite the fact that he never wanted her in with them in the first place and purposefully left him behind to be recaptured by Maman.

The drama genre is also exhibited in the film when Jamal uses his past experiences in getting correct answers that would enable him to win the grand prize in the “Who wants to be a millionaire?” TV show. As many of the audiences including the show’s host had expected that Jamal would fail the questions due to his slum background, he instead utilises his childhood experiences in getting the answers to the questions asked. During the show, Jamal is unable to answer the last question and given a chance to call one person who would give him the answer, however he only knew Salim’s number which he calls and gets Latika on the line who answers him that she is safe. Out of relief Jamal arbitrary picks Aramis which is the correct answer and he wins the grand prize of 20 million Rupees. In the TV show, Jamal uses both his situations to become a millionaire.

Narrative Elements

There are various narrative elements utilised in the film slumdog millionaire. The first narrative element that was utilised was the plot that depicted life as both as a slumdog and as a millionaire. As a slumdog, the movie highlights the various problems slumdogs undergo on a daily basis such as lack of better toileting, lack of basic education and child labour among others. Life as a millionaire is depicted in the film through Salim’s life after rising in the rank at Javed’s crime organisation which makes him to go and live with Javed in his luxurious apartment with all the luxuries.

Story was also used as a narrative element in the film and focuses on the difficult life endured by people in the slum with a focus on Jamal and Salim. From the story, it is clear that slum life was not conducive for anyone else as a result of overcrowding, lack of basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing and education among others. The story also shows the various dangers faced by children in slums such as forced labour, child abuse, violence and misuse by drug kartels. However, the story ends by showing that despite coming from the slums, slum children also have a chance of making it in life. The story was narrated in first person singular form through the life of Jamal.

The characters are also another narrative element used in the film to depict the various perspectives of slum life. Salim for instance was a selfish and evil hearted boy from the slum who believes in violence and revenge as a way of life. His selfishness made him think less about others and in most cases put the lives of others at risk. An example of this is evidenced when he locks 5 year old Jamal at a public toilet despite the many hazards that were involved. Salim also purposefully left out Latika’s hand after they had escaped thus making Raman recapture Latika. When Salim got a job at Javed’s crime organisation, he forcefully took Latika for himself by threatening his brother despite the many sacrifices Jamal had made for Latika. His role in the movie is to show the negative influence of slum life on children.

Jamal on the other hand is a good hearted boy from the slums who believes in doing good and helping others. Jamal persuades Salim to let Latika into their circle and helps her escape from Raman when she is captured for the second time. After breaking with Salim, Jamal seeks a simple but ethical job at a call centre something that helps him reunite with both Latika and Jamal again. The role of Jamal in the movie is depict the character of a morally upright slum boy.

Latika is a goodhearted slum girl who believes in love and was Jamal’s lover. Although her character is not clear in the film, her role was to show the disparities between the two brothers, Jamal and Salim.

The host of the show “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?” is a prejudiced evil man who believes that nothing good can come out of the show thus resulting in his accusing Jamal of cheating and calling the police to torture him. The role of the show host was to show the world’s perception of people from the slum and the stereotypes and prejudices held against them.

Mise en Scene

The mise en scene of the film slum dog millionaire has got different influencing aspects which change with regard to the scene’s content.


The general sound of the slum’s hustle and bustle is used to depict a relaxed atmosphere with everything running normally. During the Bombay riots that led to the death of Salim and Jamal’s mother’s, death is portrayed in slow motion to enable the audience connect with Jamal’s emotions upon seeing her mother struck to death. Slow motion ensures that the audience fully absorbs the situation and adopt the screen’s emotion. During the Bombay riots that saw Jamal’s mother get killed, there is a bustle then silence followed by the sound of falling bodies and screams. The bustle is used to indicate the manner in which people are trying to scamper away to safety and puts the audience in the actor’s situation. Silence is used to develop tension and anticipation from the soon to happen violence actions. The sound of falling bodies and screams is used to depict pain, anguish and death in the scene.


The colours and visual effects in the film slumdog millionaire were enhanced in post-production to capture the vibrancy of India’s culture on aspects such Sari dressing. Th clear skies and bright surroundings around the slums is used to show that life in the slums is always cheerful despite the slum dwellers being faced with various problems. Transitions between bright to dark colours are used to indicate dark phases in the scene such as the death of Jamal’s mother. The transition quickly changed from a bright colourless sky to a dark and pale environment to indicate a sad point in the movie. In close-up situations such as the interview, the colour and lighting were very bright to indicate Jamal’s high expectations from the interview process.

Visual texture

Visual texture in the movie slumdog millionaire is used in a number of situations to add significant detail to the storyline. The dirty water, dirt, poor brick housing and mud develops a feeling of a slum and goes ahead to show the lifestyle of slum dwellers. The blurred vision seen when Raman blinds captured children shows that the futures of the children have been blurred eternally. In the build up to the first answer, Jamal as a child is in rugged clothes, messy hair and covered in dirt and barefoot. The flashback provides the audience a chance to see how Jamal’s childhood was like with the challenges that he faced as a kid. High levels of poverty that link him to a slumdog are visible through his clothes, hair, barefoot and his playing in dirty slum water with his friends.

Movement and Rhythm

Throughout the movie slumdog millionaire, there is both fast and slow movement followed by both fast and slow rhythm. The movement is fast during escapes such as running away from the Mumbai riots and Raman. The fast movement is used to show the tension and the danger lurking behind the actors hence the need to get away. Rhythm in the movie is used to dictate the flow of events in the movie. Faced paced drumming beats in the film are also used to indicate danger and unexpected occurrences such as when Salim discovered that Raman was making the kids blind as a way of making them effective beggars.


In the film slum dog millionaire, the main characters Jamal, Salim, Latika and the show host were excellent in their acting. Jamal’s character and attitude are depicted during the introductory phase of the movie when he finds a way out of the toilet after being locked in by his elder brother Salim to prevent him from seeing the movie star Amitabh Bachchan. He took the risks of jumping into human excrement and went to meet the movie star while covered in excrement. Jamal’s sense of determination is also seen when he is out on his own after the death of his mother whereby he manages to survive in the brutal streets despite being a child. Jamal is the real hero in the film since he was able to win the TV show’s prize of 20 million rupees and turn around his fortunes from a poor person to a rich millionaire. His perseverance, determination and hope are some of the aspects that make him outstanding since he was able to correctly answer the questions despite lacking education and exposure. Secondly the manner in which the show was concluded to hand him the prize is also notable. This is because straight from torture by the police and the host’s tactics to sway his answer, he managed to give the correct answer.

Salim is also noted to have provided the movie with very brilliant and creative acting to cover the various roles assigned to him. Salim for instance clearly depicts the picture of natural selection in the streets when he easily short-changes those close to him for personal gain. His character is evidenced early in the movie when he locks his younger brother in the toilet then proceeds to sell the autograph attained from a very challenging situation by Jamal. Salim also gives fails to help Latika while escaping from Raman due to a personal issue and forcefully takes Latika from Jamal and marries her then proceeds to put her under confinement. In the storyline, Salim is seen as the villain whose resourcefulness is only evidenced when faced with life and death situations such as killing Raman and and Jadez hence making him a hero. In this film, Salim creatively manages to bring out the character of Jamal as well as saving the lives of Latika and Jamal.

Latika was a good actor in her role as a supporting actor in the film and is used to bring the theme of romance as well as show the characters of the brothers. Latika effectively played her role in the movie as the lady who came between the two brothers but succeeded in standing by Jamal’s side.

The host to the show “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?” is an average actor since he doesn’t clearly bring out the theme of slum prejudice by the outside world. His trying to influence Jamal’s answer was not effective since he did not use more astute tactics to sway him.


The film slumdog millionaire is an excellent drama genre movie since the various aspects of film such as form and meaning, genre, narrative elements, cinematography and acting among others have been excellently done. Other than the entertainment, the movie can also be used to serve other purposes such as literature and inspiration due to its rich content.


Running head: JOB AD SYNTHESIS JOB AD SYNTHESIS 3 Job ad synthesis



Job ad synthesis

Name of author

Institutional Affiliation


A health practitioner is a qualified personnel who provides health care services such as curative, preventive, promotional or rehabilitative in a systematic manner to people, the society or families. Health profession is a requirement in almost all companies; therefore, an advertisement for this position should be highly efficient to ensure an appropriate candidate is acquired. Health care employment includes the following occupations from the Us bureau of labor statistics; Medical and Health Services Managers, Healthcare Providers and Technical Occupations, Healthcare Support Occupations, and Community Health Workers. This report is a synthesis of various job advertisements for ten different firms. This report integration will enable the head of human resource department to generate a similar ad for the company.


The tables below shows ten different job advertisements by firms for the same position of health science

Dow university of health science



Associate professor

Letter of experience recognition issued by PM&DC is prequiste

PM&DC level II b& level III qualification in respective subjects

Applicants are required to post updates resumes with experience certificates from PMDC

Human resource department

Email address: [email protected]

Link road, Lahore

Shalamar Hospital

Shalamar Institute of health science is ready to recruit qualified and experienced personnel

Job opportunity for a professor in health sciences

Job opportunity for demonstrators in all basic science subjects

Follow our website for more information


Sahiwal Institute requires an associate professor with experience and the following qualifications


Equivalent qualification with at least four years teaching practices

Rawal Institute of health science

Applications are invited for the position of an expert in the field of health science

Qualified candidates to post their CVs with completed documents at the institutes

Email: [email protected]

Liaqut University.

Vacancies of teaching staff in basic medical science

For details please visit our website www.

Exxon Corporation

Vacancy for the position of medical health science manager

Interested candidates to upload their credentials

Email: [email protected]

Margalla Institute of Science

Vacancy for the position of medical health science manager

Interested candidates to upload their credentials

Email: [email protected]


Letter of experience recognition issued by PM&DC is prerequisite

PM&DC level II b& level III qualification in respective subjects

Walmart Inc.

Vacancy for the position of medical health science manager

Interested candidates to upload their credentials

Email: [email protected]

Salary and benefits only offered to commensurate with qualifications and salary

Kindly send CV by December 15th

Kindly carry original documents

Email [email protected]

Alabama Institute

A challenging vacancy exists f or the position of medical health science manager

Interested candidates to upload their credentials

Kindly sent your credentials latest on 20th December on the companies email address

Human resource department

Email: [email protected]

The results of the report were based on ten different companies namely Walmart Inc. Kris corporation, Shalamar Hospital, Dow University of health Science, Rawal institute of health science, Sahiwal institute of health science, Exxon Corporation, Margalla Institute of science research and Liaquat University of Medical and health science and Alabama Institute of the deaf. Every job advertisement of the ten institutions included their address such email, phone number, and location. All the ads from the ten firms required that aspirants post their resume with complete documents on the institution’s website or email. Only three companies specified vacant posts and the needed qualification (Barrington, 2012). All the firms require aspirants to have some experience. Desirous candidates are advised to carry their original documents for a walk in interviews. Unlike all the other companies Dow and Liaquat University of Medical and health science requires that applicants to attach PM and DC experience for the separate polls they have shown interest and applied. Candidates who do not adhere to this instruction will have lower chances of getting the jobs because their applications will hardly be considered. The U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics states that the occupation for healthcare administrators is high and it has chances of growing by 23% through the year 2022 (United States., & United States, 2008).


A job advertisement should communicate a lot about the job opportunity, requirements and the firm’s expectations as discussed in the findings. The job announcement should provide a set of standards they expect from interested candidates. Most of the firms also require applicants to present their original documents and not certified copies. The company’s job advertisements have also not excluded their contact information to ease the communication between aspirants.


The head of the human resource department preparing to generate job ad for its firm should consider researching the percentage of health care employment to total employment. The job ad should also contain accurate job description and key qualification; it should also include how the candidates should respond to the firm (Lesse, 1981). The job ad should also refer the candidates to the institution’s website for more information about the company. The head of human resource should also indicate that pre-employment background is a requirement.


The employment of health care providers requires adequate attention regarding the service offered by these experts. The department of human resources should, therefore, derive the right metric tool to ensure that its job ad communicates accurately on its expectations. Hiring a qualified health profession increase chances of success of an institution; therefore, it should be done appropriately without mistakes. Based on the report’s findings it is clear that the US Bureau of Labor projects growth of this occupation in the coming years, therefore, firms should hire as soon as possible.


Barrington, G. V. (2012). Consulting start-up and management: A guide for evaluators and applied researchers. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.

Lesse, S. (1981). The future of the health sciences: Anticipating tomorrow. New York: Irvington Publishers.

United States., & United States. (2008). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2009. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.




A Social History of Coffee



As a class, we were privileged to take part in a prepared lecture presented by one of the best coffee experts in the region. Jenny Cohen, a director at the Flemming museum offered the speaker, Don Holly, the platform to enlighten us on the social history of the coffee industry. Don Holly, has an exceptional background in the coffee industry; his brilliant work in the coffee sector is estimated to be over thirty years of working experience, whilst operating under different corporations. His vocation, up to date typically entailed working as a retailer, a barrister, wholesaler, a roaster, educational trainer and an entrepreneurial leader. Don Holly currently works as the director of technical services at the Rhino Foods.

Don worked as the head of quality planning and purchasing at the Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. The company was recognized globally by Forbes to be among the best 200 companies in the American region, producing quality Arabica coffee and over 60 other blends that were either flavored, organic or proprietary. His general responsibilities involved the operational services, quality control, and product sourcing, purchasing and product distribution. His career started early as a partner in a family business with the Diedrich. He took part in the extensive growth of the company; Holly spearheaded the wholesale and retail departments which accrued a total of 7.5 million dollars in sales. The company later on transformed into the Diedrich Roasters. In the year 1995, Don Holly worked part-time in an electoral post in the (Specialty association for coffee) SCAA’s board of directors, where he served as the secretary and treasurer to the board before becoming a full time administration director. As a full time director, Don participated in the management of training programs, he also worked as a liaison in technical standards, environment and training committees. His experiences over the years are documented in his numerous publications on business related concepts and coffee science. He meticulously designed a coffee auction system that is globally used to grade the standards of coffee.

Don Holly’s presentation was enchanting, as a charismatic speaker, he enlightened as on the political, social and economic factors that shape the coffee industry globally. He addressed the coffee dynamics that influence the social landscape, and how it affects civilization. As is typically known, coffee is a plant, but most specifically, a shrub. It was interesting to find out that coffee has a variety of strains; close to over 70 species, other than the two varieties that we commonly know; Arabica and Robusta. Coffee originated in Africa, with the common specie being the Robusta coffee, sprouting in the western parts of the continent. The eugoneides specie is also a dominant strain found in the southern part of the continent. The eugoneides and the Robusta species both have twenty four chromosomes. The two later combined to form the Arabica coffee strain which has a total of forty eight chromosomes. Arabica forms 70% of the global coffee. Culturally, some indigenous societies in the Ethiopian country, actively participate in coffee rituals. Across the globe, several techniques were employed to prepare the coffee bean; the process included: roasting, boiling, grinding, among other techniques. The ancient methodologies of brewing coffee such as the vacuum technique, are still used today, of course with significant advances and other crafted techniques.

The caffettiere technique, which was developed in the mid-1800s is used today by close to 70% of the Italians, in their residential homes. The percolator technique on the other hand was extremely popular in The United States of America during the early 1960s, the technique was used especially in social gathering for purposes of aromatizing the room; the coffee itself was bitter and therefore palatable only to those who preferred the strong taste. The invention of the popular chemex technique promoted feasible coffee brewing in the common households. Coffee professionals often prefer to use the French Press because it is easier to control the specific variables of coffee brewing. Drip brewing is another typical method of brewing considered to be convenient and efficient. The espresso machines were developed in the year 1906. The machine is essentially a pressurized kettle, capable of producing coffee in only thirty seconds. Constant modifications where done on the espresso machine such that it evolved over time producing the best quality cup of coffee. Coffee barristers ideally crafted their unique methodologies of presenting the brewed coffee. Over the ages, more advanced techniques where established, such as the single-serve systems which enable the consumer to brew their coffee by a simple push button. Don further illuminated an interesting aspect concerning the brewing of coffee; he demonstrated how the variant brewing techniques are dependent on cultural backgrounds. The prevalent brewing machines are mostly used by developed countries, which often have a high affinity for technological advancement. Soluble coffee on the other hand is categorically used by developing countries which often depict coffee as cash crop; generally, such states rarely drink the beverage, but see it as an economic crop.

The coffee plant is considered a natural depressant; it replaces the adenosine chemical in the brain. Unlike the other plants which only possess hundreds of compounds, coffee is known to comprise of over 1000 compound elements which greatly contribute to its unique aromatic properties. The diverse set of elements are what enables the coffee bean to be rated globally under different standards. Economically, the coffee plant generally yields lump sum returns. Traditionally however, there were some states that considered it as an economic threat; the Germans, headed by Fredrick the Great at the time, thought that the imports paused a financial threat on the state. Coffee was domesticated as a crop in the 1900AD, since then, the plant was colonized and it found its way in the extents of the world. Given its tedious agricultural requirements, the plant was considered a slavery tool in early history, when the colonialists took advantage of the slaves. The coffee plant has also contributed to numerous health accounts as researchers study its benefits, effects and impacts in the society. Historically, the plant also shaped the dynamics of some revolutions such as the caffe procope, of the French revolution. Another important point to note is that, the first public musical was played in a coffee house; coffee houses provided avenues for social interaction.

Don Holly emphasized on the environmental awareness surrounding the growth of the coffee plant. The plant occasionally faces agricultural challenges such as pests, and environmental hazards which threaten the growth. It is important that farmers device means of tackling these issues if they wish to address the matter. Several organizations and regulations were effected to control the distribution, supply, and compensation for the local famers; initiatives like the Fair Trade ensure that the famers who toil on the coffee farms are appropriately compensated. Essentially, the lecture illuminated a lot on the dynamics of coffee. Instinctively, I was aware of only two major varieties, but the complexity of its compounds and strains made me more interested in having a test of the variant flavors of the coffee presented to us by Mother Nature. Don Holly’s lecture was informative and extensive, he allowed us to engage in discussions, which further broadened our awareness on the coffee bean.


Surname 5 Name Course Tutor Date Theories of international relations International theories

Surname 5





Theories of international relations

International theories comprise of a set of ideas that identifies and explains the functioning of the international system backed by reliable facts. Most of these theories are formed from the idea that states or nations always give priority to the national interests such as economic prosperity, political dominance over other states, military security and self-protection. There exist many elements of international relations hence each theory addresses specific areas. This paper will critically evaluate the constituent of the four major theories that include liberalism, constructivism, realism, and radicalism.

Realism exhibits polarity (Bipolarity, Multipolarity, Hegemony) and hence influences the management and stability of the system. While this theory was mainly prominent in the 18th and 19th centuries as well as the beginning of World War 1, it traces far back as it is highly associated with the principles and traditions of ancient Greece (Walt 29). The theory is perfect in the context of conceptualizing state related activities, conflict and power affairs. Moral behavior is discouraged for it is perceived as risky because it can manipulate the states; capability to protect itself. Leaders may portray moral aspects but they are not allowed to let the moral standings to guide the policies that are associated with foreign governments.

Main assumptions in realism include:

States are considered as the most significant actors

All states focus on survival as the primary concern e.g. formation of militaries.

All states act in unitary but in a rational manner, hence creating the need to concentrate on self –attention and striving to accumulate as much income as possible

This system is anarchic, the state is the ultimate actor and there can never be a higher controlling entity over all states.

Liberalism is best suited in addressing and provision of conditions for peace and the emergence of international institutions. Developed in 1970’s liberalism stress on enhancing broad ties among states hence weakening the aspect of national interest and diminishing the importance of military power. Factors such as globalization, diversification of technology and communications and improved international trade deem realism as an outdated theory as states could no longer depend on political powers to decide matters. Liberalism also serves as the foundation of the League of Nations (UN)

Assumptions associated with liberalism’s include:

International standards, rules, and organizations can form a basis of global trust, prosperity, and cooperation.

The repercussions of using military force outweighs its benefits and hence it is better to maintain cooperation for the best interest of every nation

There exist other forms of power such as social and economic, hence disregarding the military as the only effective power.

Various states have different main interests

Radicalism assumes economic concept in explaining almost all phenomena and hence try to explain the connection between power, social relations, and production. New relationship patterns are created in the process of evolution of feudalism and capitalism. The theory heavily borrows from the writings of Karl Marx. For example, in Eastern Europe, Marxist approach have benefitted from a new beginning since the disintegration of communism (Mingst 55).

Assumptions by radicalisms include;

Hierarchical capitalist arrangement is an exploitative method

Multinational entities such as banks exert control in developing countries and are given lots of significance

Developing countries are controlled by the activities of the developed states.

Under constructivism, the behavior of the state is defined by social standards, identities, and influential beliefs. The theory is founded on the belief that global politics is formed by consistent values, culture, ideas and social identities. In an example, the theory influenced the Eastern Europe communities shortly after the fall of Berlin wall (Mérand 6). Individuals can alter culture and social norms by coming up with new ideas and practices. Additionally, the theory creates a structure for understanding politics of the world. Constructivism has no aspects of ontology. From a far perspective, Constructivism combines both realism and liberalism but portrays some limitations. The In international system, the theory borrows on realistic thoughts of anarchy but instead; replace the reserved and egotistic nature of humanity with a more positive liberal and altruistic perception. The steady interaction that is advocated by this theory ensures that various interests at all levels are socially created.

Assumptions of Constructivism

Steady traditional international assumptions are of no importance as compared to global relations that are formed through social construction

Ideas are vital in shaping international relations as compared to political power or economic power.

Anarchy is a variable basis of international system

In conclusion, liberalism seems to be the best theory that explains international relations since it encourages rationality and understanding of the fundamental of human society and laws of nature hence enabling individuals’ capacity to create a just society by improving living conditions Unlike liberalism, realism is not well equipped to address phenomenon of international institutions as it indirectly advocates for antagonism (constant competition between the states) which may lead to security dilemma. Additionally, the theory advocates for power as the only certain aspect in the world hence leading to the emergence of more powerful nations. Radicalism can be dismissed as a theory that best explains international relations as it fails to explain the collaboration between socialist and capitalist nations in some global events such as the cold war (including the downfall of the Soviet Union) and the reason as to why some developing states are independent. Marxism fails by assuming that International reality is formed socially by recognized structures hence giving importance to a materialistic world.

Works cited

Mérand, Frédéric. European security since the fall of the Berlin Wall. University of Toronto Press, 2011.1-14

Mingst, Karen A. “Contending Perspectives: How to Think about International Relations Theoretically.” Essentials of International Relations (2004): 55-82.

Walt, Stephen M. “International relations: one world, many theories.” Foreign policy (1998): 29-46.

For this assignment, you will be expected to attend and write on

For this assignment, you will be expected to attend and write on a special campus lecture event on a subject ‘generally relevant’ to our course themes (politics, environment, economics, etc.).

Please address the following in your paper:

1. Background: The idea here is to provide your reader with basic information about the featured speaker. Who was the featured speaker? What are their qualifications? What is their institutional affiliation?

2. Summary & Context: The idea here is to provide a good summary of the talk, so that even if your reader did not attend the event, s/he would have a good idea of what it was about. Some questions to consider: What was the central theme of the talk? What are some of the key points? Did the speaker situate their talk in broader concerns, contexts, and/or debates?

3. Evaluation: The idea here is to offer your own opinion. Did you find the talk compelling? In what ways? Did you disagree with the talk or find that it was not informative? (It’s okay to be critical in your discussion.) Does the talk make an important contribution to ongoing debates? If so, how? If not, why not? (This link is the campus lecture event that you will write. This is the theme of this paper. You must watch the video before start writing).