Get help from the best in academic writing.

Please read the documents carefuly then start the assignment Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Assignment Instructions Considering what you’ve learned Essay

Please read the documents carefuly then start the assignment

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Assignment Instructions

Considering what you’ve learned about the peripheral and central routes to attitude change( the document I attached below), go onto the Internet and find one clip of a television commercial that utilizes the peripheral route, the central route, or both.

Submit a link to the clip along with a brief explanation (several sentences) of which route(s) the commercial uses and your rationale as to why the commercial uses the route(s). You will receive full credit if you are correct about the ELM route and if your rationale is accurate; points will be deducted for being inaccurate. A large majority of students use the peripheral route for this assignment so grading will be more lenient for students who use an example of the central route or both routes.

Note that students may NOT use the Family Guy Raisin Bran clip for this assignment. Students who submit that clip will receive a zero (0).

6 6 Managing people Introduction This essay discusses a series of issues



Managing people


This essay discusses a series of issues pertaining to human resources management with reference to John Lewis Partnership. The essay first explains the scope, purpose and importance of human resources planning (HRP) and analyzes the impact internal and external factors have on HRP. Secondly, it discusses the issue of reward and points out the importance of tangible and intangible rewards. Then, it highlights the importance of employee training and development in an organization and points out the necessity of conducting training. Lastly, the essay discusses performance management and the use of KPI, pointing out that performance management is related to rewards, recognition and development.


A series of theories can explain why both tangible and intangible rewards are needed to inspire employees. Major theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory and Herzberg’s two-factor theory(Donovan,2001). According to Maslow, people’s needs are hierarchical, from lower physiological needs, like food and water to higher needs of self-actualization, like morality and creativity. When lower needs have been met, people begin pursue higher needs. As far as rewards is concerned, when employees’ needs are at a lower level, tangible rewards can play a motivating role in enhancing employee performance. However, when tangible rewards have met employees’ basic life need, tangible rewards can no longer be used as motivators(Yoon et al.,2015). Employees begin to have the desire to meet their higher needs and intangible rewards have a more effective impact on improving employee performance. If rewards do not transform from the tangible from to the intangible form, rewards may play a demotivating role in inspiring employees.

Human Resources Planning

Human resources planning is a set of processes regarding how to recruit, select, hire, manage and train employees as well as analyze current and future workforce requirements so as to ensure adequate short or long-term human resource supply.

HRP is based on the concept that people are the most valuable resources in an organization. HRP concentrates on suitable resources for organization needs in order for its short-term and long-term development. HRP focuses on the fundamental issues of how many people and what kind of people. Besides, HRP deals with the issues of how to employ and develop people to improve the effectiveness of an organization.

HRP plays an important role in an organization’s human resources management.HRP can improve the way human resources are utilized by helping the management to foresee the human resources needs in terms of the number of people and the types of skills required so that potential problems can be avoided or corrected before they become so serious that organization operations are disrupted (Reilly, 2003). HRP can also cut down the total costs of hiring and training people by reducing the costs of hiring mistake because it focuses the recruitment efforts on the most likely sources of supply. Besides, HRP can make preparations for replacement or backup staff in case of the occurrence of any emergencies because it makes the supply of human resources available wherever the need arises.

There are a number of internal and external factors which can have a crucial impact on human resources planning. Firstly, the availability of labor market is an important external factor influencing the ability to recruit qualified candidates because labor market is easy to be affected by the number of qualified candidates and unemployment rates. For example, when the whole industry is in need of the same skill sets, an organization will have difficulty attracting suitable candidates. Another external factor is state or local workplace laws and regulations. Human resources planning must take these factors into consideration to ensure it is in compliance with laws and regulations concerned. Level of growth is an internal factor that impacts human resources planning. An organization which is experiencing aggressive growth and rapid expansion is more likely to focus on recruitment and staffing. Conversely, a stagnant organization may have to may focus on employee retention by improving workplace environment and enhancing reward programs. Another internal factor is the use of technology. Whether an organization is willing to use technology in the process of production can impact how the organization allocates its human resources. For example, the introduction of technology may lead to the decrease in the number of employees.

In John Lewis Partnership, the department of management is responsible for recruiting, training and accessing its employees or its partners. Firstly, the management gathers the information regarding how many new employees are needed and what types of employees are needed throughout the enterprise and posts the recruitment information on the JLP Jobs website. Employees, as co-owners, they have a say in the company. This unique mode can attract a lot of qualified candidates. And then the management begins to choose the right people from all the applicants(John Lewis Partnership).

Recognize and reward employees

Employees need to be properly rewarded to perform better. Rewards are considered as the most important factor motivating employees, but rewards go beyond common basic pay (Greene, 2011). Totally, there are tangible rewards and intangible rewards. Tangible rewards include basic pay, performance-related pay, commission and bonuses. Intangible rewards include appreciation, gifts, opportunities for individual growth, provision of a positive work experience and recognition of the importance of work-life balance. Both of the rewards play a vital role in motivating employees and increasing employee performance and thereby enhancing organization performance. Usually, tangible rewards can produce extrinsic motivation and intangible rewards usually increase intrinsic motivation(Yoon et al.,2015).

As far as John Lewis Partnership is concerned, employees can receive a competitive pay for their good performance. In addition to pay, employees can receive a wide range of benefits, like an annual bonus, Partner discount and pension scheme. Apart from financial rewards, employees can receive non-financial rewards, like paid holiday, extended leave and the opportunity for working for a charity. Competitive pay and good benefits will motivate employees to put more time and efforts on work(John Lewis Partnership).

Training and development in organizations

One of the functions of human resources management is to assess employees skills and and abilities of current staff. When HRP finds there is a gap between employees’ current skills and abilities and require skills and abilities necessary for future needs, training and development are conducted to improve employees performance.

Training refers to a program provided by an organization aiming to furnish employees’ knowledge or skills so that they can carry out their current work duties effectively and efficiently (Torrington et al., 2009). Development refers to programs or experiences whose aim is to enable employees to become more efficient and professional in the future by equipping them with necessary knowledge and skills. In comparison with training, development focuses more on employee growth and future performance rather than a present job role.

It is extremely important for an organization to design good training and development programs because they help the organization to retain the right people and grow profits in the increasingly competitive battle for top talent(Zingheim and Schuster, 2000). Employee training and development programs have an considerable impact on employee retention and business growth because they can bring a series of benefits to organizations and individuals. For organizations, employee training and development can make profit grow substantially and remarkably reduce employee turnover. For individuals, employee training and development can increase employee motivation and Improve employee engagement. Also, employees’ competency and productivity will be greatly improved.

In order to conduct effective training and development, firstly, it is important to identify what types of training are needed in an organization. Usually training includes job training, orientation training,refresher training and promotional training. If employees are in need of specific training, on-the-job or off-the-job training methods can be implemented. Besides, appraisal systems can also be adopted to ensure the effectiveness of training.

In John Lewis Partnership, before new employees begin to work, they must be trained so that they are equipped with the necessary skills and techniques required of their positions. John Lewis Partnership have a variety of training programs and development pathways available for employees to achieve their goals.Providing a series of training programs, the company encourage its employees actively to try new things. Employees will be more flexible about which work opportunities are right for them due to training(John Lewis Partnership).

Managing employee performance

Performance management refers to a set of strategic and operational HR activities and processes whose aim is to maintain and improve employee performance to ensure that employees can contribute positively to organizations’ objectives (Buchner,2007).

Performance appraisal is to systematically evaluate employees with regard to their performance on the job and potential for development. In the performance appraisal process an organization measures and evaluates the employee’s performance over a specific period of time.

A Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a specific form of performance appraisal. KPI refers to a set of quantifiable metrics which can measure how well an organization, a team or an employee is achieving its stated goals and objectives(Hutchinson,2013). If KPI is used appropriately, productivity or service will be dramatically improved because KPI can be pressure and drive for employees. KPIs are usually linked directly to rewards and recognition. When employees have reached the set KPIs, they should be rewarded as stated. Conversely, if employees have not reached the goals, they will be punished as stated too. The mechanism of KPI can effectively motivate employees to exert their efforts on achieving the set objectives.

A series of benefits of performance management can be seen. Firstly, performance management cam greatly improve organization profits because it can increase employee productivity and quality of work by improving the bottom line of an organization. Secondly, successful performance management can increase employee responsibility. When challenging job expectations are given to employees, they will be especially accountable for their decisions and actions, which may lead to the remarkable improvement in employee commitment. Thirdly, performance manage can reward employees who have good performance and identify and eliminate under-performers. Performance-related pay can motivate and encourage employees to perform better. Conversely, effective performance management can help identify under-performers, which will increase organization efficiency. Lastly, standardized procedures of performance management can ensure all employees are treated fairly and the traditional subjective assessment on employees’ performance conducted by managers can be avoided(Armstrong and Brown, 2006).

John Lewis Partnership holds that every employee should know the the relation between the pay they receive and the type of work they do. Employees also should know what is required to improve their performance so as to increase their pay. The annual pay review provides an opportunity for employees to know whether their pay rates have really reflected their performance and contribution to the business.Partners are encouraged to discuss their pay review with managers so that they can fully understand how their performance is linked with pay. In order to make conducting pay review transparent, John Lewis Partnership launched its Pay for Performance framework in 2014, which enables Partners to increase pay through better performance(John Lewis Partnership).


In combination with the example of John Lewis Partnership, this essay discusses sever important issues in human resources management. Human Resources Planning (HRP) can forecast the number and the type of employees so that qualified employees can be recruited. Then the issue of how employees should be rewarded is discussed, pointing out that tangible and intangible rewards should be used together. The issue of employee training and development also be discussed. In view of a series of benefits, training should be emphasized. Lastly, it comes to the issue of performance management, which is linked with pay, recognition and development. The topics above are so important that they can not be overlooked by an organization.


Armstrong, M and Brown, D. 2006, Strategic Reward, 1st ed. Kogan Page Limited, Great Britain.

Beck, Robert C. 2007, Motivation Theories and Principles, 1st ed. Prentice Hall Inc,New York.

Buchner,W.T.,2007.Performance management theory: A look from the performer’s perspective with implications for HRD. Journal of Human Resource Development International. 10(1),pp. 59-73.

Donovan, J. J., 2001. Work motivation. In Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology, Edited by: Anderson, N, Ones, D, Sinangil, H and Viswesvaran, C. 2(3), pp.53-76. Sage,London.

Greene, R. J., 2011. Rewarding performance: guiding principles, custom strategies. Routledge,

New York.

Hutchinson, S.,2013. Performance Management: Theory and Practice. London: CIPD

John Lewis Partnership. Available from: (Accessed 23 April 2018).

Reilly, P., 2003. Guide to Workforce Planning in Local Authorities, Employers Organization for Local Government, London.

Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C., 2009. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 1st ed. Pearson Education Limited, New York.

Yoon,J.H., Sung,Y.S., Choi,M.J., Lee,K. and Kim,S.,2015. Tangible and Intangible Rewards and Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role of Situational Extrinsic Motivation.

Creativity Research Journal, 27(4), pp.383-393.

Zingheim, P.K. and Schuster, J. R. 2000, Pay People Right, 1st ed. Jossey-Bass Inc, California.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION STYLE TO FIRMS Introduction Communication is the purposeful

Please read the documents carefuly then start the assignment Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Assignment Instructions Considering what you’ve learned Essay Psychology Assignment Help NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION STYLE TO FIRMS


Communication is the purposeful method of exchanging meaningful ideas and information across space and time by the use of various natural and technical means. The activity of communication requires a massage, a medium, a sender and a recipient (Feeney et al, 1999, p. 117). It is not a must for the receiver to be present or aware of the intention of the sender to communicate at the time communication is done, hence communication can be carried out across vast distance in space and time. The conveyed information during communication process may include ideas, facts, opinions, concepts, attitudes, beliefs, emotions or even instructions.

Communication also requires sharing of an area of communication commonality by the communicating parties. The process becomes complete only when the receiver understands the message send. The world has now become a global village with people able to communicate with others in far away and due to different cultures and language; the process of communication is becoming difficult (Hajro, 2009, p. 37).Different companies have expanded their business and are able to operate in different countries with different language and cultural practices making communication difficult. Therefore, it is important for the multinational companies to employ skilled and qualified persons who can communicate well. Communication styles can lead to negative impacts on the overall development of a firm. This essay discusses various negative effects of communication styles in multinational firms.

Cross-cultural communication and its effects on multinational firms

Growth of global business, internet and technology has led to the use of cross-cultural communication by various Companies. Therefore, it is important for any Company with diverse workforce or intention to conduct global business to understand cross-cultural communication. This type of communication entails understandings of people from different cultures and how they speak, communicate and their perception of the world around them. In an organization, cross-cultural communication deals with the understanding of various business beliefs, customs and communication strategies (Lauring, 2011, p.156). There are various factors that affect cross-cultural communication which include; language difference, low-context vs. high context cultures, power distance and nonverbal differences. These factors affect multinational companies’ development in various ways.

Language differences

Language barriers are the major problems affecting cross-cultural communication in many multinational firms. For example, a Nigerian who goes to discuss a business partnership in china will not be able to communicate verbally with the Chinese (Marschan et al, 1999, p.45). The two parties may be forced to higher translators or use other methods of communication such as body language, facial expressions or drawings. These methods of communication may mean different in different countries resulting to misunderstanding between the parties. Also, translation of the language may end up bringing different meaning. Such factors affect the development of most multinational firms.

High-context versus low-context cultures

This concept relate to how a specific employee’s opinions, thoughts, upbringing and feelings affect their action in a given culture. For example, Western Europe and North America have low-context cultures and hence Companies in these areas have individualistic and direct employees who base decision on facts (Shachaf, 2008, p.112). This may result to businesses having issues with trust hence affecting their performance. Areas such as Africa, Middle East and Asia have high-context cultures and trust the most important factor in businesses located in these areas. Such companies focus on relationships between parties.

Non-verbal communication differences

Eye contact and gestures are examples of non-verbal communication methods utilized differently in different cultures. These communication methods when wrongly used may offend people from other cultures since their use varies and have different meaning depending on culture. For example, gesturing for long is considered a rude behavior in some cultures. Eye contact is used in U.S to mean honesty while in Africa its prolonged use is termed rude (Puck, Rygl & Kittler, 2007, p.87). To avoid the negative impacts, multinational companies should educate their employees on the proper use of these communication methods.

Marketing tools used

Multinational Companies use various tools to introduce their products and services in various countries using different advertisements that in most cases create controversy (Hajro, 2009, p. 57).The Companies’ intended aim is to communicate to their potential customers but this may create more problems the benefits. When a Company posts controversial ads, the Company is affected negatively in that, certain groups of individuals become offended especially when the ad goes against their cultural practices. This mostly happens in international advertising where the ad reaches people from different cultural norms. This problem may also happen even when a firm has done research on cultural practices since it is not possible to know all cultural norms of different people.

Communication style depending on gender

Multinational companies’ development can also be affected depending on the gender of the employees handling the customers. It has been observed that there is a fluctuating language overlap between men and women in different contexts of communication (Shachaf, 2008, p. 46) Customers prefer to communicate with female mostly when dealing with certain language features such as questions, negations, oppositions and references to emotion. On the other hand the customers prefer male communicator when dealing with judgmental adjectives and words.

Communication conflicts

There are various behaviors and language that may affect the process of communication. For example, managers from funded enterprises in Europe have difficulty in communicating with the staff in Nigeria (Feeney et al, 1999, p. 78). These cultural behaviors result to conflicts. The managers find it difficult to man activities in other countries like Nigeria that believe that western countries only follow laws but have no respect for others. This may lower their morale resulting to low work output.


Miscommunication in multinational firms results to reduced development the companies. The communication negative effects on the multinational firms are mostly as a result of different cultural practices in different countries and regions across the world. This is because multinational firms are located in different countries from the parent firm. To run business in these new regions with different cultural practices requires affirm to learn about these cultures as they create communication barriers that lead to negative effects to the firm development. The communication style employed in these firms is cross-cultural communication where people strive to pass information to others with different cultural practices. There are various effects that are as a result of poor or inadequate communication that affect multinational firms. These include customer dissatisfaction, conflicts from cultural differences, misunderstanding between employees, low profits due to difficulties in marketing strategies employed, among others.


Feeney, J.A., Kelly, L., Gallois, C., Peterson, C. and Terry, D.J., 1999. Attachment Style, Assertive Communication, and Safer‐Sex Behavior 1. 

Gupta, A.K. and Govindarajan, V., 1991. Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations. Academy of management review, 16(4), pp.768-792.

Hajro, A., 2009. Contextual influences on multinational teams: empirical evidence from an Austrian company. European Journal of International Management, 3(1), pp.111-129.

Lauring, J., 2011. Intercultural organizational communication: The social organizing of interaction in international encounters. The Journal of Business Communication (1973), 48(3), pp.231-255.

Marschan-Piekkari, R., Welch, D. and Welch, L., 1999. In the shadow: The impact of language on structure, power and communication in the multinational. International Business Review, 8(4), pp.421-440.

Puck, J., Rygl, D. and Kittler, M., 2007. Cultural antecedents and performance consequences of open communication and knowledge transfer in multicultural process-innovation teams. Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change, 3(2), pp.223-241.

Shachaf, P., 2008. Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams: An exploratory study. Information & Management, 45(2), pp.131-142.

How does communication style affect the development of multinational company? Introduction For

How does communication style affect the development of multinational company?


For the multinational companies, communication across different culture difference is a big issue. Thus how to deal with the communication among an organization will affect the development of the multinational company. Specifically, in term of communication there are two communication styles, which are assertive and responsive communication style (Thomas, Richmond and McCroskey, 1994). However, the effect of these two communication style inconclusive ( Men, 2015: p.464). By reviewing literature, this essay will look at how different communication styles affect the development of the multinational company by introducing the variables of team performance, interpersonal relationship and job satisfaction.

Team Performance and Interpersonal Relationship

For the responsive communication style, generally, it will promote the interpersonal relationship among the organization, and this will promote the development of the organization. The logic behind this is that,on one hand, responsive communication style pay more attention on the feelings and needs of other people, serving like a listener (McCroskey and Richmond, 1995) . As such kind of communicator is regarded as kind-hearted, warm, and compassionate, the communicators will form a good interpersonal relationship more easily, and if everyone communicates like that, the relationships among the whole organization will be more closer and stronger. On the other hand, developing good relationship among the company and making employees know more about each other will promote the team work, which is also strategy for dealing with culture issue (Chevrier, 2003: p.146). Specifically, it increases the mutual agreement and promotes trial- and-error process, which is good for improving team performance and the development of a multinational company that has much culture differences.

An example of this is a study which finds that the intensity of network, or the high level of interpersonal relationship is associated with better team performance (Grund, 2012). This shows that, by improving the relationship among the team member, responsive communication style is positively related to team performance, which is good for the company.

For the assertive communication style, generally, it is not good for the interpersonal relationship, but has a positive effect on the development of the organization. That is because an assertive communicator focuses more on the task, and are more forceful when communicating with other people (McCroskey and Richmond, 1995) . Specifically, on one hand, the forceful power may make other people feel stressful and uncomfortable, which is not good for forming a warm relationship among the members. On the other hand, as interpersonal relationship is not a crucial factor for the team member, they can aggregate the energy and focus more on pursuing the team goal without worrying about destroying the interpersonal relationship. As a result, the members may psychologically not have a good relationship with each other, but will try their best to meet the requirement of the team, which finally leads to the quickly accomplishment of the work plan.

An example of this is a research conducted by Pearsall and Ellis (2006, p.582) . It finds that the assertiveness level of the main team member is significantly positively related to the performance of the whole team. This shows that assertive communication style is beneficial for improving the team performance. Expanding this finding to a multinational organization, the assertive communication style will also help to deliver the instructions clearly and efficiently, which is also good for the development of the company.

Job Satisfaction

For the responsive communication style, it can contribute to improving the job satisfaction so as to maintain the long-term development of the multinational company. The reason behind this is that, first of all, as mentioned before, responsive communication helps to develop a good relationship among the team members, thus it helps the team members have more opportunities to receive social support (Lönnqvist and Deters, 2016: p.113). Secondly, as social support is highly related to job satisfaction (Harriset et al., 2017), such kind of communication style will promote the job satisfaction of the employees. Then the turnover rate will be lower, which are good for the sustainable development of the multinational company in the long-term.

An example of this is from a case study among hotel employees from Poland, which is conducted by Grobelna, Sidorkiewicz and Tokarz-Kocik (2016). In the research, the authors make a survey among 356 hotel workers in North Poland, exploring the antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction. The result shows that supervisor support can significantly predict the job satisfaction, and job satisfaction is positively related to the organization commitment and negatively related to the thoughts of turnover. This shows that by producing social support and improving the job satisfaction, responsive communication style is beneficial to the development of the company.

For the assertive communication style, though it can improve the team performance with the forceful power, but it reduces the workers’ job satisfaction which is not good for the sustainable development of the company. The reason behind this is apparent. First of all, employees under assertive communication style are stressful and task is the only thing that matter in the organization. That consequently reduces the employee’s psychological well-being and the satisfaction with the company. Then, due to a long-term bad mood, employee may think of leaving as long as there is a good job opportunity, which collectively lead to the higher turn over rate and are not good for the stable development of the company.

An example of this is a survey conducted among four hundred and fifty three workers (Gumussoy, 2015: p.187). The survey finds that job stress is negatively related to job satisfaction, and it’s the strongest predictors of turnover intention. This shows that by forming a stressful climate and reducing the job satisfaction, assertive communication style is not good for the stable development of the company.


To conclude, the communication styles affect he development of the multinational company in different ways. To be specific, both assertive and responsive communication styles have a positive effect on the team performance, with one focusing on the task and another focusing on the relationship. But the assertive communication style has more psychologically negative effects, with a lower level of the interpersonal relationship and job satisfaction, which lead to less social support, higher turnover rate and is not good for the sustainable development of the company. More researches in how to reduce the negative effect of assertive communication style will be needed in the future.


Chevrier, S. (2003). Cross-cultural management in multinational project groups. Journal of world business, 38(2), pp.141-149.

Grobelna, A., Sidorkiewicz, M., and Tokarz-Kocik, A. (2016). Job satisfaction among hotel employees: analyzing selected antecedents and job outcomes. a case study from Poland. Argumenta Oeconomica, 2 (37), pp.281-310.

Grund, T. U. (2012). Network structure and team performance: The case of English Premier League soccer teams. Social Networks, 34(4), pp.682-690.

Gumussoy, C. A. (2015). The Influence of Personality Traits on Job Stress, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among IT Professionals in Turkey. Global Conference on Engineering And Technology Management GCETM-2015.

Harris, J. I., Strom, T. Q., Ferrierauerbach, A. G., Kaler, M. E., Hansen, L. P., and Erbes, C. R. (2017). Workplace social support in job satisfaction among veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary correlational study. Plos One, 12(8), e0181344.

Lönnqvist, J. E., and Deters, F. G. (2016). Facebook friends, subjective well-being, social support, and personality. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, pp.113-120.

McCroskey, J. C., and Richmond, V. P. (1995). Fundamentals of human communication: An interpersonal perspective.Prospect Heights. IL: Waveland Press.

Men, L. R. (2015). The internal communication role of the chief executive officer: Communication channels, style, and effectiveness. Public Relations Review, 41(4), pp.461-471.

Pearsall, M. J., and Ellis, A. P. (2006). The effects of critical team member assertiveness on team performance and satisfaction. Journal of Management, 32(4), pp.575-594.

Thomas, C. E., Richmond, V. P., and McCroskey, J. C. (1994). The association between immediacy and socio-communicative style. Communication Research Reports, 11(1), pp.107–115.



Question 1: Discuss the different Cultural Intelligence abilities that Lisa’s could develop through this exposure to a variety of multinational teams and working environments.

Traveling to different countries makes one to be exposed to different cultures hence adding value to their understanding of cultural diversity (Dyer & Handler, 1994). Individuals with ability to effectively deal with issues of cultural diversity are said to possess cultural intelligence abilities. The abilities develop as one continues to work or interact with individuals from different cultures (Ang, & Van Dyne, 2015). People who work for multinational organizations are more likely to develop cultural intelligence since they work with people from diverse cultures. They also travel a lot during their various assignments across different countries. Also, expatriates have high levels of cultural intelligence due to the fact that they travel to different countries where they interact with different kinds of people from diverse cultures (Ng, 2013). Individuals with high levels of cultural intelligence are able to relate well with their workmates and this promotes cohesion hence improving team and overall organization performance (Early & Ang, 2003). Possessing cultural intelligence abilities is more than just understanding diverse cultures as one has to appreciate such cultures and get the best out of them. This is because every culture has something good that can be useful for the betterment of individual’s or organization’s performance (Dyer & Handler, 1994).

Having travelled to different countries, Lisa could have developed various cultural intelligence abilities that are essential in improving individual performance. After her first move from Chicago, Lisa came across different cultures and interacted with various kinds of people and as a result, improving her cultural intelligence abilities. Cultural Knowledge is one of the possible cultural intelligence ability that Lisa may have developed. After travelling to different countries, Lisa had to learn to live with different people with different culture and language. To effectively fit in such cultures, Lisa could have been forced to understand the new cultures and by doing so, Lisa was able to make comparisons on different cultures and hence able to differentiate them. Acquiring CQ knowledge entails getting to understand and appreciate different business and cross-cultural knowledge (Ng, 2003). By moving from country to country, Lisa could have understood how businesses are influenced by social, economic, political and legal systems of a country and how to face the challenges.

The other CQ ability that Lisa could have developed is CQ drive. This is the ability for someone to build confidence and desire to work with people from diverse origins (Ang & Van Dyne, 2015). By developing the CQ drive, one is able to interact well and be part of a team. Teams that are made up of individuals with high CQ drive perform well as each one is able to contribute and actively participate to the performance of the team (Feldman & Bolino, 2000). Lisa could have developed this ability through her interaction with her workmates at Chicago, Singapore and finally China. By interacting with these people Lisa could have developed her intrinsic and extrinsic interest. This is because upon interacting with people from diverse origins, one enjoys by doing things differently. One also gets to know new skills and problem-solving methods.

Also, Lisa could have developed the ability to make of sense of experiences resulting from diverse people. This ability is vital as it enables one to make proper judgments on determining the right opinion without any form of bias. Individuals with CQ strategy are able to understand the available culture and then look onto ways of fitting into the culture to avoid culture conflict (Ng, 2013).

Question 2: Discuss some of the contemporary issues that business face today and how this impact on the international workplace and career paths.  

Today’s business is faced with various issues that influence individual career paths and international assignments. Such issues are very many and businesses need to look for proper ways of addressing them to avoid them from negatively affecting their businesses (Dyer & Handler, 1994). Some of the issues include; culture diversity issues, decision-making issues, diverse working environments, diverse workforce, legal issues, political issues and governance issues (Feldman & Bolino, 2000).

Cultural diversity influences the way businesses work. Organizations wishing to go global face the problem of cultural diversity as they have to set up new businesses in foreign countries (Dyer & Handler, 1994). It is not possible for an organization to transfer the entire workforce to new country and this makes it hard for the organization in its attempt to start a new business in another country. Since every country has its own unique culture, it is very hard to succeed in foreign country before first accepting the new culture (And & Van Dyne, 2015). The problem is that some cultures are hard to follow and may not be conducive for some of the businesses to thrive. For any business to succeed, organizations must learn to appreciate cultural diversity as this builds trust and confidence among the employees (Earley & Ang 2003). Working with people from diverse cultures is not easy unless each learns to value and appreciate others’ cultures. With the increased cultural diversity in workforce, organizations will be positively influenced since diversity brings about innovations (Ismail & Rasdi, 2007). This is because people from different cultures have different skills and exposure.Appreciation of cultural diversity will ultimately lead to many people choosing expatriate way of life (Suutari, 2003).

Businesses are also affected by ethical issues which include; honesty, integrity, inclusivity and trust (Dyer & Handler, 1994). Many businesses lack these qualities and instead are filled with corruption, dishonesty, poor employee treatment and non-compliance.Failure to observe the ethical issues will negatively affect the businesses and this will hinder them from excelling internationally where issues of ethics are observed to the letter (Feldman & Bolino, 2000). International businesses require trust and integrity among the employees. Failure to follow the ethical issues will make many people lose their jobs or be demoted hence negatively affecting their career paths (Ng, 2013).

In their decision-making process, many businesses are unable to involve all the stakeholders and this kind of exclusion negatively affects the businesses (Dyer & Handler, 1994). In order to effectively make the right decisions, businesses must value contributions from all the stakeholders as this builds trust and self-esteem among the employees. Lack of stakeholders’ involvement in decision-making makes it impossible for the businesses to succeed internationally (Earley & Ang, 2003). This is because no one would wish to work in a foreign organization that does not value its employees.

Businesses are also faced with governance challenges resulting from laws and regulations of a country (Ismail & Rasdi, 2007). The businesses are required to fully comply with state and federal safety regulations, environmental laws, monetary and fiscal reporting statutes. These governance issues have slowed down growth of many international businesses as foreign organizations find it hard to fit in starting business in new regions (Beauregard, 2007). Such regulations may be barriers to many people wishing to be expatriates. The barriers may include; over taxation, restriction from securing permanent residency, lack of visa renewal, among others (Suutari, 2003).

Question 3: Write about the impact of the travelling on Lisa’s career and personal life. Support this answer with evidence from the case study.

When one chooses to be an expatriate he/she must be ready to cope with challenges that are associated with travelling from country to country. Some of the challenges include; culture shock, language barrier, racism, lack of acceptance in the foreign land, work restrictions in foreign land and loss of friends (Beauregard, 2007). All these challenges impact someone’s personal life and career path. One may be forced to abandon a career that he/she was interested in and instead choose another different career. For one to excel in foreign land must therefore find good ways of coping with these challenges. Individuals with good cultural intelligence cope easily with these challenges and hence can turn their career paths on a positive way (Buikstra, 2006).

During her first travel from Sidney to Chicago, Lisa was very much excited as she hoped to start a new life with new experiences. This didn’t turn to be the case since she was forced to abandon her consultant career as she was not allowed to work in USA. Her life was also affected in that she was forced to be a trailing spouse with no financial contribution to the family. Lisa was also affected in that she could no longer interact with her friends in Chicago which she had made and this created boredom in her new environment. As a result of the boredom Lisa had to find a way of doing away with it after they had moved to Philadelphia. She decided to go back to school where she decided to take a doctorate course so as to advance her career. After travelling to Chicago Lisa had known how cope with boredom and since the environment allowed her to secure a job, she managed to work as a consultant and a teacher.

Traveling also made Lisa to understand different cultures and she had no option except to appreciate them and move on with life. After meeting people from different cultures, Lisa realized that repatriating back to Chicago was not a good idea as she had to take a global career path. This is because the more one travels, the more he/she learns to interact with people from different walks of life (Ismail & Rasdi, 2007). Were it not for her culture appreciation, she could not have advanced her career from a local consultant to a global consultant who could be employed anywhere in the world.

Travelling also helped Lisa to understand various languages that were used in foreign countries. Learning different languages is one of cultural intelligence abilities important for expatriate lives (Suutari, 2003). This helped her career to grow as she could work and interact well with people in different work environments. Also her way of thinking changed as she first desired to repatriate back to Sidney but after learning to cope with issues of cultural diversity and language barrier, she gained confidence in her expatriate way of life. This was her career turning point as she was ready to move to any country provided the move would support her career.

Questions 4: What are some of the issues she faces with repatriation? Provide some examples.

Many multinational Companies have a tendency of assigning their high level employees to work in overseas countries for a certain period of time (Buikstra, 2006). For this reason, such employees are forced to become expatriates and hence gain a lot of international knowledge which help them to increase their work performance. After the expats return to their home country, the positive returns expected are not harvested immediately due to various challenges associated with repatriation (Ismail & Rasdi, 2007). Repatriation challenges of adjustment mostly come from uncertainty and anxiety experienced upon the return of an individual to home country (Suutari, 2003). In the case of Lisa, she feared that she could face problems of work adjustment, psychological adjustment for her kids and socio-cultural adjustment problems mostly for her children. Travelling back to Sydney would mean change of her job responsibility which may lead to decreased authority and income. Also, Lisa had already learnt to live as an expat and her return to Sidney would mean various adjustments for social activities, life style, relationships, culture and financial conditions of the home country. Lisa’s expectations were high and needed to live her dream of following a global career path. Any attempt to repatriate meant that she would abandon her career path and become a local employee just as she used to be before her move to overseas. Lisa was also not sure whether she would be offered jobs with increased authority once she returned to Sydney. Her career expectations were high as she only needed jobs with increased autonomy, responsibility and authority. Having received a doctorate degree, Lisa never wanted to undertake low level jobs as revealed in her new teaching jobs she was offered in China. Lisa never wanted to undertake the teaching jobs as she aspired to publish journals. Travelling back to Sydney would mean loss of global recognition.

Also Lisa’s come back to Sidney would be faced with culture shock issues. Lisa feared that their move to Sydney would be very challenging as none of them was born there and after repatriation they would be forced to learn a new culture yet their career would be promising. This is because she and her husband had learnt to live with people of diverse culture and any move to Sydney would mean living with locals which would affect their lives significantly. Also, her children were not born in Sydney and any attempt to repatriate meant another challenge for them. Since they had no family ties in Sydney, Lisa saw it good for them to stay abroad and focus on their careers. She also wanted her children to follow global career paths as she had.

Lisa also found out that her husband’s career was successful as compared to his former job in Sydney and this deterred her from talking about their former plan to repatriate. She feared that their return to Sydney may not offer her husband with lucrative jobs.After they moved to Singapore, she found out that their culture was appealing as she was allowed to work. This prevented her from thinking about repatriation anymore.

Question 5:  What are some of the issues that women in particular face in the international workplace and as part of global management teams?  

Women face various challenges in their workplace as they try to make advancement in their careers. Some of the issues women face in workplace includes harassment, equal pay, and work-life balance, career disruption brought about by having children while at the same time working, and lack of career opportunities for women (Polk, 1996).These issues affect career growth as they influence working confidence and interaction.

The issue of gender wage gap is a great challenge that affects women in the workplace. A study conducted in the US indicated that women were lowly paid as compared to their male counterparts (Wheatley, 2012). Due to the low pay, women lose morale and trust in their organizations and this lowers their performance as compared to the males who get high pay. To avoid this, organizations must value their female workers and pay them equally as men performing the same roles (Beauregard, 2007). Such approach will make them to feel recognized and this will ultimately lead to increased team performance.

The other issue affecting women in the workplace is the problem of balancing work and life Wheatley, 2012). Studies indicate that most women need more time for their children and longer maternity leave (Polk, 1996). Many organizations do not take care of these issues and this affects women psychologically and emotionally lowering their performance. They are unable to concentrate fully during working hours hence low input to their teams. To avoid such stresses on women, organizations should understand their life challenges and help women in coping with them (Suutari, 2003).

Women also find it hard to find good career opportunities and in most cases find themselves working in the same organization for long without being promoted. A study conducted in the US showed that men had better access to career growth and professional development than women do (Ismail & Rasdi, 2007). The lack of promotion and recognition in workplaces make women less productive in the workplace.

Harassment is also a challenge in the workplace for many women and this makes them to lose confidence and trust on their fellow workmates and the organization at large (Feldman & Bolino, 2000). Lack of trust reduces performance and this lowers their team input. To avoid this, organizations must take severe actions on individuals who harass women as a step of building inclusive economies. More opportunities for the women should also be supplemented by private and public efforts to increase awareness of workplace inequity, and encourage women to push for change so as to unleash their true potential.


Ang, S. and Van Dyne, L., 2015. Conceptualization of cultural intelligence: Definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. In Handbook of cultural intelligence (pp. 21- 33).Routledge.

Beauregard, T.A., 2007. Family influences on the career life cycle.

Buikstra, J.E., 2006. Repatriation and bioarchaeology: Challenges and opportunities. Bioarchaeology: the contextual analysis of human remains, pp.389-415.

Dyer Jr, W.G. and Handler, W., 1994. Entrepreneurship and family business: Exploring the connections. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 19(1), pp.71-83.

Earley, P.C. and Ang, S., 2003. Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.

Feldman, D.C. and Bolino, M.C., 2000. Career Patterns of the Setf-Etnployed: Career Motivations and Career Outcomes. Journal of Small Business Management, 38(3), pp.53- 68.

Ismail, M. and Rasdi, R.M., 2007. Impact of networking on career development: Experience of high-flying women academics in Malaysia. Human Resource Development International, 10(2), pp.153-168.

Mäkelä, L., Känsälä, M. and Suutari, V., 2011.The roles of expatriates’ spouses among dual career couples. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(2), pp.185- 197.

Mata Greenwood, A., 1999. Gender issues in labour statistics. Int’l Lab. Rev., 138, p.273.

Ng, R., 2013.Cultural intelligence. The Encyclopedia of Cross‐Cultural Psychology, pp.310- 313.

Polk, M., 1996, October. Swedish men and women’s mobility patterns: Issues of social equity and ecological sustainability. In Proceedings from the Second national conference on women’s travel issues, Baltimore, October (pp. 23-26).

Suutari, V., 2003. Global managers: career orientation, career tracks, life-style implications and career commitment. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(3), pp.185-207.

Wheatley, D., 2012. Work-life balance, travel-to-work, and the dual career household. Personnel Review, 41(6), pp.813-831.