ABOUT ME and SOME ROUGH THOUGHTS TO CONSIDER WHEN DRAFTING ESSAY. I DO NOT EXPECT THESE THOUGHTS TO BE IN THE ESSAY WORD FOR WORD. THEY ARE JUST THOUGHTS AND IDEAS. I am applying to USC School of Dramatic Arts Major – Theatre, Acting Emphasis (BA)* I want to pursue acting and screenwriting.
Attending USC enables me to not only chase, but fulfil my dream.
Creativity is more than just a word in my life. It’s a sense of purpose. Taking the train every weekend to Manhattan to attend my acting classes and catch a Broadway show was more than just finding a creative outlet, I was embarking on a journey to my dream career. For me, acting invigorates my mind and emotions and screenwriting expands my imagination. Because of USC’s interdisciplinary opportunities, I believe that I will be able to cultivate my passion for acting while studying the craft of screenwriting for television and film.
Having more than one skill as a creator is an important ideal to me. As a theatre major with an acting emphasis, I will immerse myself in the art of acting while exploring screenwriting. Ultimately, I want to change societal perspectives through my own stories, whether I’m playing the lead role or in the writer’s room. That is one reason why I fell in love with USC. Encouraging students to follow their dreams with courage is a value USC and I have in common. To me, creativity should be at the forefront of any endeavor and USC makes that possible.
Outside of the classroom, the Trojan spirit and lively atmosphere of USC’s extracurricular activities already energizes me. I envision myself collaborating with other screenwriters in student-led productions with the Film
Surname 2 Student Name Course Name Instructor Due Date Cold War’s Impact
Cold War’s Impact on the American Foreign Policy
The conclusion of the second World War paved way for the emergence of America and the Soviet Union as the main global powers. The two nations which were once allies during the just conclude global military conflict became enemies. However, the two nations avoided armed confrontation hence the commencement of the Cold War due to the bloodless nature of the war. The Cold War affected America’s and global foreign policies; this was a period in which both super powers faced mutual hostilities from one another as though in preparation for a war that never took place. When the two superpowers did clash, they used other countries and never dealt with each other directly. Hence, America had to come up with different foreign policy strategies which were mainly spearheaded by two men: James Byrnes who was the secretary of state and Henry A. Wallace, the state secretary of commerce. The geopolitical tension between the two nations necessitated the need to for the US to court strategic allies in preparation for the emergence of armed war. Thus, the lengthiness of the Cold War altered American foreign policy and as a result shapes contemporary geopolitical relations and alliances.
Firstly, America embraces uncertainty in foreign policies. Due to the lack of an instigator in the US-Soviet conflict, the United States had to contend with multiple possibilities when coming up with foreign policies. The US had to avoid instigating the war or falling victim, should the Soviets result to armed confrontation. James Byrnes believed that the Soviets loomed as the new threat and insisted that the United States had to follow a “get tough” policy that met Soviet expansion with diplomatic and military force (Hollitz, 169). On the other hand, Wallace argued that the war between the two nations could be avoided, but only if President Truman’s administration avoided the dangerous policy of confrontation with the Soviets as advocated by Byrnes (Hollitz, 169). The uncertainty exhibited by the state secretaries reflected the fear ingrained within the ruling administrations and the nation. Thus, the US had to measure every possible foreign policy against the destructive and devastating nature of a nuclear war (episode 11, 10:19). The prospect of the two nations going to war, was much scarier due to the emergence of nuclear arms.
Additionally, America had to assume position of global leader. Byrnes argued the adoption of the atomic policy citing its use on Hiroshima and Nagasaki as evidence of America’s military exceptionalism. The Secretary of State believed that the US’ attack on Japan had impressed and illustrated the power of the United States to the Soviets. In contrast, secretary of war, Henry Stimson warned against leveraging America’s nuclear arsenal to gain global supremacy. According to Stimson, Byrne’s policy would backfire by making the Soviets more stubborn instead of intimidating them into submission. Instead, Stimson advocated for conservatism when dealing with the Soviets. Consequently, in London, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov called bluff on American nuclear power superiority highlighting that the Soviets were not intimidated and would readily engage in war. Molotov toasted, “Here’s to the atomic bomb, we’ve got it” (episode 11, 4:59). Molotov’s boast indicated that the Americans had to pursue avenues that prevented nuclear war, while at the same time leveraging their proven military and economic might to dictate global discourse.
Thirdly, America adopted the carrot-rather-than-stick foreign policy. Soviet suspicion and distrust of the United States emerged during World War II. Despite being on the allied union and pursuing similar objectives, the Soviets held historical suspicions against the West which were confirmed during the war. Earlier in World War II while the Soviets were taking heavy losses on the eastern front, the Americans and the British repeatedly postponed invading France which would have greatly relieved the Soviet position. Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin was suspicious and conspired that the western counterparts were deliberately stalling hoping that the Germans and the Soviets wore each other down (Hollitz, 172). As a result, Stimson, having correctly predicted Soviet reaction to the use of American nuclear arsenal, proposed the absolute abandoning of threats when dealing with Soviets. The use of atomic weapons as a stick against would only fuel their distrust and risk an escalation to armed conflict (episode 11, 5:53). As a result, the US experiment with the idea for controlling the atomic bomb through global collaboration and sharing information. However, American distrust towards Soviets led to public outcry against sharing the atomic bomb with the Soviets who “could not be reasoned with” (episode 11, 7:00). As a result, the US had to repeatedly use forceful tactics in global relations to keep the Soviet Union in check.
Also, the United States adopted the policy of containment to guide its foreign policies. Containment prevented Soviet expansion into Western Europe and persevered and advanced capitalism globally to thwart the spread of communist ideologies. Following his election in February, 1946, Joseph Stalin made his famous speech prophesying the eventual global war due to capitalist states employing Germany as an example of unchecked capitalist nations causing chaos. Stalin implied that the capitalist nations led by greed would go into war with each other and somehow the Soviet would be pulled into it to defend their culture and state. Consequently, George F Kennan, America’s highest-ranking diplomat sent a telegram back home advising his superiors to take a hard stance with the Soviets. Citing the prevalent traditional Russian insecurities, Kennan argued that Soviet and communist expansion was inevitable whenever the Soviets had an opportunity, thus they needed to be contained. The ensuing policy of containment would be followed by Truman and every other Cold War president. The policy of containment in international relations was in order to contain the Soviets to prevent the expansion of communist ideologies into Western Europe (episode 11, 21:41). Taking hard line stances against the Soviet and its allies made it easier with the communist threat. Soviets and the Kremlin were thus identified as a totalitarian foe just as Germany had been during World War II. As a result, American foreign policies and strategies were devised with the specific aim of thwarting the Soviet Union as a foe and negating the spread of Eastern communist ideologies.
On top of that, America devised the foreign economic policy. The Truman administration believed that the prevalent hunger, poverty and misery in Western Europe undermined the regions morale to reject Soviet and communist invasion. As a result, the United States required to formulate a foreign policy that discouraged the emergence and growth of local communist parties. Truman argued that the evolution of communist parties into positions of authority in Western Europe would cause such states towards the Soviet. Thus, America needed to provide massive foreign aid across all of Western Europe, without which, the prevalent poor conditions in Europe only played into the Soviets hands. However, congressional changes in the US prevented Truman from embarking on immediate financial aid spree to Europe. The US congress could not be bothered with the plight of Western Europe however, the house was strongly anti-communist. Thus, to overturn the 1946 changes to Truman employed alarmist language to depict how the fall of Western Europe into Soviet undermined the strength of the US and her allies.
In contrast, the Cold War caused a revolution in the nature of the American socioeconomic landscape. Despite the lack of significant casualties during the Cold War, the American society consistently lived with fear of Soviet attacks. Correspondingly, the fear of Soviets became roughage that politicians chewed on to shape American conversations. Following the uproar against the US footing Western Europe’s bills and incorporating the region into American economy. The Truman administration to trump up congressional support to change foreign policy was through spreading fear of communism on the march (episode 11, 24:53). Back home, the president would employ fear tactics to beat the citizenry into submission. The fear of communism infiltrating American society shaped American domestic politics. As a result, Truman utilized this to convince Americans that western Europe needed to have their economy built up by American aid which would cause the Americans to undergo massive spending. In the next year, America sent twelve and a half billion dollars to western Europe to provide Europe with the finances to undergo a rebuild following world war. On the other hand, Americans would get accustomed to America as a donor state.
In conclusion, America’s involvement with the Soviet Union in the Cold War affected both the American citizenry and the global community. However, the war had far reaching consequences for global geopolitical relations that it did for Americans. The constant fear of an oncoming Soviet armed attack pushed the US to adopt strengthening its position by acquiring and strengthening its allies. As a result, American adopted foreign economic policies to prevent poor western Europe countries from falling into the arms of the Soviets or communist ideologies. On the other hand, the Soviet’s vague motives also necessitated the need for the US to exercise caution in dealing with the Soviets to avoid starting a war. Thus, the US adopted carrot rather-than-stick policies which ensured the US would not act as aggressor. Also, containment policies were useful to deploy against Soviet hard headedness. Force was useful to gauge the strength and will of the Soviets. As a result, the US had to assume the role of global leader given the void left by the fall of former European glories. Thus, its is evident that despite the bloodlessness and conclusion of the Cold War, the conflict shaped contemporary geopolitical alliances and tensions.
Authority and flow of command in the company. Administrative efficiency is the
Please provide a statement that addresses your reasons for transferring to University of Southern California and the objectives you Writing Assignment Help Authority and flow of command in the company.
Administrative efficiency is the key to effective administrative changes. Spotify has adopted the Agile model in administration, which has led to increased team performance and profitability and proved to be efficient. The model is comprised of numerous agile teams. According to Henrik Kniberg and Andrean (2012), the central organizational unit is a squad that comprises less than eight people. Squads are autonomous in that they have the authority to make their own decisions. Squads are grouped into a tribe. To maintain alignment, tribes comprise about 40-10 people. Chapters link several squads in a tribe to support tribes comprised of several squads linked together through a chapter, a horizontal grouping that helps support distinct expertise such as agile coaching( Annosi, Magnusson, Martini& Appio,2016). Guilds unite people with similar interests in areas of knowledge that cutting through squads and chapters, for instance web delivery.
Public administration’s primary focus is on constructing models that indicate structured results, decision making, and efficient objectives and in the definition of concepts (Simon, 1946). Simon laid out the accepted administrative principles that demonstrate effective administrative efficiency. This paper discusses how Simon’s administrative principles affect the administrative efficiency of an organization to Spotify’s agile Administrative model.
Specialization. Specialization of tasks among teams increases administrative efficiency (Simon, 1946). The tasks should be organized in a direction that leads to organizational efficiency. Spotify’s teams are specialized based on the tasks they perform, which has led to the efficiency of its administrative system. The squad comprises experts who have a specialty in certain areas. They have the liberty to make decisions on what product or service to improve ,develop and expand, and also when and how it is going to be built, and with whom to indulge in product development.( Henrik Kniberg & Andrean ,2012).
Span of control. An effective span of control is adopted by limiting to a smaller number, the hierarchy in an organization, to increase administrative efficiency. When this is implemented issues only pass through a smaller level before they are effected thus enhancing administrative efficiency. In Spotify, Spans of control have been limited to a reasonable number of fewer than eight people to enhance effective superior-subordinate relationships, innovation and creativity (Martins & Terblanche, 2013).
Unity of command. Organizing members in a defined hierarchy of authority in an organization preserves the unity of command and increases organizational efficiency. Within the squad, leadership is autonomous. The individual contributors in the squad are also chapter leaders. The chapter leader’s primary focus is on mentoring and coaching team members. Squad members are at liberty to switch squads while maintaining the formal leader within the chapter. This model works with a hands-off leadership style that gives the employees every tool they require to solve problems. According to Etzioni, (1959), Employees embrace personal growth and stay highly motivated because they are involved in decision-making.
Organization by process, clientele, place, and purpose. When workers are grouped around a purpose, process, clientele, and place, administrative efficiency increases. This organization’s primary purpose is to bring together those working on rendering a particular service into a single unit. Guilds for instance bring together groups of of people who have similar interests and whose main function is to spread information across all teams (Kniberg& Ivarsson, 2012).
Spotify’s communication channel.
Communication channels are essential elements of the organizations’ administration in today’s world. Some of the ways of communication used in Spotify include ticket systems, internal chat-apps and e-mails because the company prefers mediums that keep a record. Through them, information is relayed between superiors and subordinates effectively. Spotify’s organizational structure has adopted horizontal lines of communication and interaction in the organization. This facilitates on-timely dissemination of information of knowledge and information between workgroups. To ease the transfer of information and integration, the organization requires that the top management, such as executives and managers, become extensively immersed in developing the music streaming business. The top management staff participates in both long-term and short-term project groups, which brings to attention the value of each group member and encourages equality (Aubry, M & Lavoie-Tremblay, 2018).
The lateral communication channels adopted have facilitated the achievement of their strategic goals of developing an agile culture for agile software development. This channel supports Spotify’s human resources strategies. The corporate organization structure has strategically associated with Spotify’s value chain. The main resource capabilities of the company are effectively exploited in the value chain which has been made possible through effective organization of the human resources. The organization has also been able to adopt Servant leadership, leading to increased engagement between staff and leaders (Dassein, 2002). Managers hold Weekly one-on-one meetings with their subordinates to encourage the employees to be highly productive.
Annosi, M. C., Magnusson, M., Martini, A., &Appio, F .P. (2016). Social conduct, learning, and innovation: An abdicative study of the dark side of agile software development. Creativity and innovation management, 25, 515-535.
Aubry, M., &Lavoie-Tremblay, M. (2018). Rethinking organizational design for managing multiple projects. International journal of project management. , 36(1), 12-26.
Dessein, W. (2002). “Authority and communication in organizations”, the review of Economic studies, Vol 69, pp.811-838.
Etzioni, A, (1959). “Authority structure and organizational effectiveness”. Administrative science quarterly, Vol 4, pp.43-67.
Herbert A. Simon, (1994). The proverbs of public administration. Public administration review, Vol 6, No 1, pp.53-67
Kniberg, H. and Ivarsson, A.92012). “Spotify agile @Spotify with tribes, squads, chapters &Guilds”. [Online PDF].https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/1018963/_Articles/spotifyscalingpdf[collected 2017-05-05]
Martins E. and Terblanche F, (2016). “Building organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation”, European journal of innovation Management, Vol.6, 64-74.
Comparative analysis of Telehealth policies in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Comparative analysis of Telehealth policies in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Telehealth is the practice of delivering and making healthcare services accessible to through digital information and communication technologies like mobile phones and digital computers. Telehealth can be a service that either a doctor uses to deliver healthcare services, or a technology that as an individual you can easily use from home. Telehealth can also be defined as the practice of distributing services in relation to health through information that is electrically transmitted and through other forms of technologies. Telehealth makes it possible for patients that are far from healthcare facilities to access services, get reminders, monitoring their health by doctors or nurses, and even get advice from healthcare providers.
For instance, telehealth can occur among physicians that are discussing a case problem through a live video conference or even when laboratory tests are being transferred to different health care facilities for further interpretation. When it comes to the governance of healthcare practices and healthcare practitioners, there are a lot of policies that are put in place. In order to practice telehealth, as a medical practitioner you need to have a license. However, depending on the state that you ought to practice in, there are different policies regarding the practice of telehealth. Policies that involve telehealth are deliberate rules and regulations that are put in place to control the decisions that people make and at the same time come up with set outcome
In the state on New York, there are a number of policies in regard to telehealth. There is a reimbursement policy which states that the state of New York has the responsibility to reimburse in a two-way electronic audio-visual mode of communication between a telehealth provider who is at a distant site and a patient. However, the telehealth service should not be used if in any case it will reduce the quality of the health care service provided to the patient. New York state will not reimburse if the telehealth service is used by the health care provider for their own benefit, and face to face service is preferred by the patient. Another policy is regarding the delivery of mental health services, which states that for a practitioner to be allowed to provide telehealth services, they have to fill a health service compliance attestation form that indicates that the practitioner is able to provide mental health services that conform to the required clinical and technology standards.
The state of New York also has a policy that covers eligible healthcare providers that for the purpose of reimbursement, all service providers authorized to provide face to face services, are allowed to provide the same services through telehealth as long as it is favorable. Some healthcare providers that are allowed to provide telehealth services are, licensed physicians, physician assistants, dentists, nurses, psychologists, midwife, or even physical therapists among other healthcare providers. In New York, all health care providers are allowed to provide distant health care services to their patients or they have the option to completely switch to telehealth and only deliver distant appointments. However, before a health care provider is allowed to practice telehealth, they have to meet a number of requirements. One of the requirements is be fully licensed and registered. Another is they should only deliver services that are in the scope of their practice. The other one is that they have to expertise to practice at both distant and originating sites.
Another policy is the store and forward technology policy. This simply means the mode in which a patient’s information is transmitted through either previously recorded videos or pictures from a healthcare provider at an originating site to a telehealth provider in a distant area. This information also includes the patient’s medical data like laboratory results, images that show the patient and even videos. The state of New York has allowed health care providers to share this protected health information amongst themselves only with the consent of the patient, solely to provide treatment to the patient whether face to face or distant. Another policy in the New York telehealth policy is regarding remote patient monitoring. This means the use of both current and previous data from technological means to obtain patients medical information from and originating site to a distant site. This data can only be used only to provide the treatment of the patient if only the medical condition requires regular monitoring. Some of the conditions listed by Medicaid are heart failure, diabetes, mental health problems, and conditions that are oxygen dependent. Another thing in remote patient monitoring is that it must be ordered by a healthcare provider who has an ongoing interaction with them. And also if the condition is stabilized or improves then remote patient monitoring can be stopped.
Another policy in New York regarding telehealth is about people living with disabilities. The office for people with developmental disabilities does not allow independent health care practitioners to carry out telehealth services. They state that the services have to be provided on a face to face basis. Another policy is regarding mental health. The office of mental health in New York requires that a health care practitioner should have a written plan and attestation before delivering mental health services. This written plan shield should have possible location, agreements amongst patients and the health care provider, services you want to provide and the assurance of confidentiality. Another policy by is about cross-state licenses. This policy will allow health care providers to deliver telehealth services to patients whose originating site is in New York, with the provision that they have the license to practice medicine in New York and are under Medicaid. Another law is that informed patient consent is necessary when providing psychiatric services, other than this when a patient has chosen to get telehealth services means you have their consent. However, health care providers have the responsibility of informing patients on any risks accompanied by telehealth.
New Jersey also has policies put in place regarding telehealth. One of the policy is about those who are allowed to provide telehealth should have a valid practicing license. For instance, doctor has to have a license that has been given by the Board of medical examiners, others like drug and substance abuse counselors, marriage counsellors, and family counsellors have to obtain a license from Board of marriage and family therapy examiners. Another policy is in regard to out of state practice. The state of New Jersey is not a member of any major licensing practice, therefore, medical practitioners are not allowed to practice out of the state without having required additional licenses. Another policy in New Jersey is regarding online prescriptions. Health care practitioners with the authority to prescribe drugs, have the right to participate in online prescriptions of a majority of drugs like contraceptives, antibiotics, antivirals, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, there are drugs that can only be provided during face to face services for the first time, this are called are known as schedule II controlled substances. When it comes to a minor, the telehealth health care provider should have consent from the guardian.
Another policy in New Jersey is regarding the type of telehealth services allowed. The telehealth provider should conduct services through a means of technology that will enable the patient and the provider can see each other throughout the whole session. Telehealth providers are allowed to the technology of store-and-forward for instance if the telehealth provider need to critically review various tests that had been done previously. In New Jersey, there is no restriction regarding who can and who cannot provide health care services. As long as a healthcare provider you have the necessary license, then you are allowed to offer telehealth services. For instance, all nurses, practicing nurses have to meet all licensing and continuing education needs set by board of nursing in New Jersey.
In the state on Pennsylvania, there is no law that is regulating or prohibiting people from practicing telehealth. However, there have been various trials that have been made in regards to setting up regulations. There is a bill that had been proposed and it stated that there should be set out definitions for telehealth, requirements for licensing as well as ways of how providers can be paid. However, this law did not pass because the people opposing argued that instead of paying for telehealth services at the same amount at which they were paying for in person healthcare services, the payers should come up with how they want to reimburse. The state of Pennsylvania defines telehealth as provision of healthcare services through live videos. In as much as there is no specific licensing to practicing telehealth, there is a code that discusses extra territorial licenses. The state of Pennsylvania issues extraterritorial licenses to healthcare providers who have unrestricted licenses in adjoining states, and also those who live or have practices near Pennsylvania and want to extend their practice. Also, Pennsylvania is a member of the interstate medical licensure compact, therefore, it is easier for health care providers out of Pennsylvania to get permission or licenses to practice in Pennsylvania.
In as much as there are few laws in Pennsylvania regarding telehealth, there are laws that health care practitioners are bound to comply with. The health care providers are required to comply with the health insurance portability and accountability. This institution requires an individual to keep any kind of information you have of a patient, confidential and safe. For a healthcare provider to be covered by this board, you have to get into a business associate agreement with the telehealth platform provider to make sure that they will ensure that patients information is secure. Failure to which both parties are prone to be penalized. Pennsylvania medical assistance takes care of only live video services and mainly consultative services and some telehealth psychiatry services. The state of Pennsylvania does not have any policies that cover store-and-forward telehealth. This will mean that, a telehealth practitioner will not be compensated for either the collection, exchange, and transferring medical data for further analysis. The state of Pennsylvania Medicaid, only compensates for video consultations that health care providers have had with their patients. Also, the states requires that any kind of telehealth that involves psychiatry, the provider should have a signed consent from the patient.
Students have positive feedbacks in regard to telehealth. They believe that telehealth is a rapidly growing area that will play a huge role in the future of medicine. In as much as most students are not new to the word telehealth, there needs to be more exposure to the new technology among the students. More medical students need to be educated on telehealth. Various studies conducted have shown that students will want to use telehealth in future. Pennsylvania, when compared to New Jersey and New York still has a long way to go in terms of policies that govern telehealth. Pennsylvania is constantly coming up with bills and eventually, these bills will be successful. For Pennsylvania to adopt telehealth, they need to put a lot of factors in place. The state of Pennsylvania should use a technological platform that is easy for both health care providers and the patients. The use of telehealth is deemed to have a positive impact on the health care sector. Telehealth saves a patient’s time in regards to travelling. In as much as there are very promising upcoming technologies, there needs to be more research on how this technology will fit into the healthcare system. There needs to be more studies on the expected risks and outcomes of implementing telehealth into the existing healthcare system. With more research, health care providers and patients are able to be more educated on the subject of telehealth.