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Please follow the template, see title “Background”, also, improve your figures, as they’re now, they’re not presentable. Also, Figure Essay

Please follow the template, see title “Background”, also, improve your figures, as they’re now, they’re not presentable. Also, Figure number 1 has no axis labels, what is the y axis? What is the y axis and x axis of figure 2? Figure 3 is very small, hard to see the text inside.
The conclusion is quite incomplete. The conclusion should go deeper but concise and the important numerical results of the work should be given. In the conclusion section, the author should be objective and specific, presenting the main results from the study.

Rebuilding Europe After World War II While APA style is not required

Rebuilding Europe After World War II

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines.

The overall assignment must include three to five relevant scholarly sources in support of your content. Cite your sources under the reference section at the bottom of the page.

1.Describe European efforts to address postwar economic destruction and distress. Compare and contrast Western and Eastern European national economic programs, as well as reconstruction efforts by the emergent superpowers in the context of the Cold War, including the Marshall Plan and the Molotov Plan. (200 words)

Explain the movement towards European unification in Western Europe during the 1950s, from the Council of Europe to the ECSC to the Common Market. How did Western integration compare to the consolidation of the Eastern bloc? (200 words)

1.3.) Examine the rise of Cold War military alliances, including an explanation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. What issues affected the relationships between Western European states and the American-led Western umbrella organization of NATO? Use Dietl or Trachtenberg readings to support response. How did the Warsaw Pact as a Soviet-led organization function compared to NATO? (200 words)

2.4.) Describe how the loss of power, the moral weight of World War II, and decolonization wars affected Europe during the postwar period. Compare and contrast the decolonization methods and experiences of Britain and France after World War II. (200 words)

References

References [1] R. Derwent and A.-G. Hjellbrekke, Air Pollution by Ozone Across

Please follow the template, see title “Background”, also, improve your figures, as they’re now, they’re not presentable. Also, Figure Essay Writing Assignment Help References

[1] R. Derwent and A.-G. Hjellbrekke, Air Pollution by Ozone Across Europe: Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, no. 9. 2019.

[2] P. J. Landrigan et al., “The Lancet Commission on pollution and health,” Lancet, vol. 391, no. 10119, pp. 462–512, 2018, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32345-0.

[3] A. J. Cohen et al., “Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015,” Lancet, vol. 389, no. 10082, pp. 1907–1918, 2017, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6.

[4] C. Men, R. Liu, F. Xu, Q. Wang, L. Guo, and Z. Shen, “Pollution characteristics, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals in road dust in Beijing, China,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 612, pp. 138–147, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.123.

[5] S. Dytłow and B. Górka-Kostrubiec, “Concentration of heavy metals in street dust: an implication of using different geochemical background data in estimating the level of heavy metal pollution,” Environ. Geochem. Health, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 521–535, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10653-020-00726-9.

[6] M. Y. Hanfi and I. V. Yarmoshenko, “Health risk assessment quantification from heavy metals contamination in the urban soil and urban surface deposited sediment,” J. Taibah Univ. Sci., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 285–293, 2020, doi: 10.1080/16583655.2020.1735735.

[7] H. T. Moryani, S. Kong, J. Du, and J. Bao, “Health risk assessment of heavy metals accumulated on pm2.5 fractioned road dust from two cities of Pakistan,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 1–21, 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197124.

[8] Y. Du, B. Gao, H. Zhou, X. Ju, H. Hao, and S. Yin, “Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Road Dusts in Urban Parks of Beijing, China,” Procedia Environ. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 299–309, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2013.04.039.

[9] C. Men, R. Liu, Q. Wang, L. Guo, Y. Miao, and Z. Shen, “Uncertainty analysis in source apportionment of heavy metals in road dust based on positive matrix factorization model and geographic information system,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 652, pp. 27–39, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.212.

[10] Faheem, J. Bao, H. Zheng, H. Tufail, S. Irshad, and J. Du, “Adsorption-assisted decontamination of Hg(ii) from aqueous solution by multi-functionalized corncob-derived biochar,” RSC Adv., vol. 8, no. 67, pp. 38425–38435, 2018, doi: 10.1039/c8ra06622a.

[11] B. Jancsek-Turóczi, A. Hoffer, I. Nyírö-Kósa, and A. Gelencsér, “Sampling and characterization of resuspended and respirable road dust,” J. Aerosol Sci., vol. 65, no. September 2014, pp. 69–76, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2013.07.006.

[12] B. H. Alharbi, A. Maghrabi, and N. Tapper, “The march 2009 dust event in Saudi Arabia: Precursor and supportive environment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 515–528, 2013, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00118.1.

[13] B. Alharbi, M. M. Shareef, and T. Husain, “Study of chemical characteristics of particulate matter concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Atmos. Pollut. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 88–98, 2015, doi: 10.5094/APR.2015.011.

[14] M. A. Alghamdi, S. K. Hassan, N. A. Alzahrani, M. Y. Al Sharif, and M. I. Khoder, “Classroom dust-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah primary schools, Saudi Arabia: Level, characteristics and health risk assessment,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. 8, 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082779.

[15] H. Ali, E. Khan, and I. Ilahi, “Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: Environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation,” J. Chem., vol. 2019, no. Cd, 2019, doi: 10.1155/2019/6730305.

[16] P. V. Suryawanshi, B. S. Rajaram, A. D. Bhanarkar, and C. V. Chalapati Rao, “Determining heavy metal contamination of road dust in Delhi, India,” Atmosfera, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 221–234, 2016, doi: 10.20937/ATM.2016.29.03.04.

[17] Y. Jin, D. O’Connor, Y. S. Ok, D. C. W. Tsang, A. Liu, and D. Hou, “Assessment of sources of heavy metals in soil and dust at children’s playgrounds in Beijing using GIS and multivariate statistical analysis,” Environ. Int., vol. 124, no. January, pp. 320–328, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.024.

[18] L. Järup, “Hazards of heavy metal contamination,” Br. Med. Bull., vol. 68, pp. 167–182, 2003, doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldg032.

[19] M. Jaishankar, B. B. Mathew, M. S. Shah, K. M. T.P., and S. G. K.R., “Biosorption of Few Heavy Metal Ions Using Agricultural Wastes,” J. Environ. Pollut. Hum. Heal., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2014, doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-1-1.

[20] D. O’Connor et al., “Lead-based paint remains a major public health concern: A critical review of global production, trade, use, exposure, health risk, and implications,” Environ. Int., vol. 121, no. August, pp. 85–101, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.052.

[21] Z. Shen et al., “Lead-based paint in children’s toys sold on China’s major online shopping platforms,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 241, no. 2018, pp. 311–318, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.078.

[22] Y. Wang et al., “One-pot green synthesis of bimetallic hollow palladium-platinum nanotubes for enhanced catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 539, pp. 161–167, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2018.12.053.

[23] P. Zhang et al., “Green and Size-Specific Synthesis of Stable Fe-Cu Oxides as Earth-Abundant Adsorbents for Malachite Green Removal,” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 9229–9236, 2018, doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01547.

[24] E. L. Z. and J. W. Ditri, HHS Public Access,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 139–148, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.060.Characteristics.

[25] Y. Tao, S. Mi, S. Zhou, S. Wang, and X. Xie, “Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou, China,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 185, pp. 196–201, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.035.

[26] 2005 Tang et al., NIH Public Access,” Bone, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008, doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000026.Ambient.

[27] S. Y. Tan, S. M. Praveena, E. Z. Abidin, and M. S. Cheema, “A review of heavy metals in indoor dust and its human health-risk implications,” Rev. Environ. Health, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 447–456, 2016, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2016-0026.

[28] “MEP and MLR announce the report on national general survey on soil contamination.” .

[29] D. Hou and F. Li, “Complexities Surrounding China’s Soil Action Plan,” L. Degrad. Dev., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 2315–2320, 2017, doi: 10.1002/ldr.2741.

[30] J. W. C. Wong and N. K. Mak, “Heavy metal pollution in children playgrounds in hong kong and its health implications,” Environ. Technol. (United Kingdom), vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 109–115, 1997, doi: 10.1080/09593331808616518.

[31] J. Yang, Y. Teng, L. Song, and R. Zuo, “Tracing sources and contamination assessments of heavy metals in road and foliar dusts in a typical mining city, China,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1–19, 2016, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168528.

[32] M. T. Latif et al., “Composition of heavy metals in indoor dust and their possible exposure: A case study of preschool children in Malaysia,” Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 181–193, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11869-013-0224-9.

[33] W. Zgłobicki, M. Telecka, S. Skupiński, A. Pasierbińska, and M. Kozieł, “Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels of street dust in the city of Lublin , E Poland,” Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 77, no. 23, pp. 1–11, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s12665-018-7969-2.

[34] M. S. El-Shobokshy, “A preliminary analysis of the inhalable particulate lead in the ambient atmosphere of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2125–2130, 1984, doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(84)90198-7.

[35] I. A. Al-Saleh and A. Taylor, “Lead concentration in the atmosphere and soil of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 141, no. 1–3, pp. 261–267, 1994, doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(94)90032-9.

[36] A. Maghrabi, B. Alharbi, and N. Tapper, “Impact of the March 2009 dust event in Saudi Arabia on aerosol optical properties, meteorological parameters, sky temperature and emissivity,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, no. 13, pp. 2164–2173, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.071.

[37] M. A. Alghamdi, S. K. Hassan, N. A. Alzahrani, F. M. Almehmadi, and M. I. Khoder, “Risk assessment and implications of schoolchildren exposure to classroom heavy metals particles in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 1–24, 2019, doi: 10.3390/ijerph16245017.

[38] I. I. Shabbaj, M. A. Alghamdi, M. Shamy, S. K. Hassan, M. M. Alsharif, and M. I. Khoder, “Risk assessment and implication of human exposure to road dust heavy metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 15, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010036.

[39] M. El-Sergany and M. El-Sharkawy, “Heavy Metal Contamination of Airborne Dust in the Environment of Two Main Cities in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia J. King Abdulaziz Univ. Environ. Arid L. Agric. Sci., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 135–148, 2011, doi: 10.4197/met.22-1.10.

[40] B. H. Alharbi, M. J. Pasha, M. D. Alotaibi, A. K. Alduwais, and M. A. S. Al-Shamsi, “Contamination and risk levels of metals associated with urban street dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 18475–18487, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-08362-7.

[41] A. Patrick, O. Hamid, S. B. Mahad, A. Al-Mamun “ Indoor air pollution and exposure assessment of the gulf cooperation council countries: A critical review. 121, Part 1, 491-506,  Environment International doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.043

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An effective way to recall material is to review them and write

An effective way to recall material is to review them and write about them soon after being exposed to them. As such, you are expected to write weekly ~250-350 word papers responding to class materials and simply share your reflections. It is better to write in-depth about a couple of topics rather than trying to cover everything superficially. The purpose of these papers is not to summarize concepts; rather, it is to react, reflect, and retort. As example, you might discuss how some topic(s) would be usefully applied in the companies you work with (as a customer, or employee…), your rationale for disagreeing with something you read, or how topics are related to other topics in the same week or other weeks.

Reimbursement Methodologies for Pharmacy Technicians Question 1 (5 points) What is the

Reimbursement Methodologies for Pharmacy Technicians

Question 1 (5 points)

 

What is the definition of universal healthcare?

Question 1 options:

A) 

Healthcare that’s provided globally as well as to U.S. citizens

B) 

Healthcare that’s provided to all people without exception

C) 

Healthcare that includes certain medical treatments, without limitations

D) 

Healthcare that’s provided by an employer to an employee

Question 2 (5 points)

 

What does the acronym ASC stand for?

Question 2 options:

A) 

Ambulatory state care

B) 

Ambulatory surgery center

C) 

Acute services center

D) 

Assisted specialist care

Question 3 (5 points)

 

What is the name of the federal agency within the DHHS responsible for administering programs such as the Health Insurance Marketplace?

Question 3 options:

A) 

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

B) 

Health Insurance Initiative Program

C) 

Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

D) 

Medicaid Insurance and Health Organization

Question 4 (5 points)

 

Which of the following is a common reason for reimbursement mistakes?

Question 4 options:

A) 

Outdated billing software showing outdated codes

B) 

Loss of data

C) 

Mistaken identity of patients

D) 

Failure to process claims that were submitted

Question 5 (5 points)

 

What type of care is least complicated to bill?

Question 5 options:

A) 

ER

B) 

Inpatient pharmacy

C) 

Pre-booked hospitalization

D) 

Outpatient pharmacy

Question 6 (5 points)

 

What’s one type of episode-of-care reimbursement?

Question 6 options:

A) 

PPS

B) 

OPPS

C) 

Global payment

D) 

Point-of-sale

Question 7 (5 points)

 

What’s one of the goals set out by the Healthy People 2010 program?

Question 7 options:

A) 

Ensuring that private hospitals accept payment from any health insurance company

B) 

Eliminating the difference between the healthcare available to low- and high-income persons

C) 

Encouraging all employers to provide health insurance to their employees

D) 

Ensuring that complaints against unfair billing are addressed

Question 8 (5 points)

 

A patient has an outpatient procedure at a hospital and is given a prescription that’s filled at the hospital pharmacy. The bills for these services are sent to the patient’s health insurance provider, who then pays the hospital. This payment is best classified as

Question 8 options:

A) 

settlement.

B) 

compensation.

C) 

reimbursement.

D) 

remuneration.

Question 9 (5 points)

 

What’s the term given to the process of determining whether to approve a health insurance claim?

Question 9 options:

A) 

Enquiring

B) 

Adjudication

C) 

Arbitration

D) 

Reimbursement

Question 10 (5 points)

 

What’s one of the billing steps taken by the pharmacist in an outpatient pharmacy?

Question 10 options:

A) 

The patient will pay out of pocket, and the pharmacist will give the patient a compensation letter which will allow them to be reimbursed by the insurance company.

B) 

The prescription data, which includes the patient’s insurance information, is entered into the pharmacy’s software management system.

C) 

The pharmacy will notify the prescribing physician who will then bill the insurance company for the service and for the medication they prescribed on behalf of the pharmacy.

D) 

The pharmacist will submit the claim to the insurance company by phone.

Question 11 (5 points)

 

What’s one of the functions served by PBMs?

Question 11 options:

A) 

They protect pharmaceutical companies from being the target of legal action.

B) 

They don’t work closely with insurance companies.

C) 

They ensure that medical insurance companies operate within the law.

D) 

They perform drug utilization reviews.

Question 12 (5 points)

 

What method of reimbursement do most pharmacies use?

Question 12 options:

A) 

Point of sale

B) 

Fee-for-service plan

C) 

Retrospective plan

D) 

Prospective plan

Question 13 (5 points)

 

What’s one of the services provided by a home health agency (HHA)?

Question 13 options:

A) 

Medication disbursement

B) 

Comprehensive hospital care

C) 

24-hour nursing coverage

D) 

Speech therapy

Question 14 (5 points)

 

What type of reimbursement will increase the reimbursement rate if the costs of the healthcare provider increase?

Question 14 options:

A) 

Capitation

B) 

Episode-of-care reimbursement

C) 

Prospective payment system

D) 

Fee-for-service reimbursement

Question 15 (5 points)

 

What does the acronym APC stand for?

Question 15 options:

A) 

Ambulatory pre-assistance care

B) 

Assisted preventive care

C) 

Ambulatory payment classification

D) 

Assistance for postoperative care

Question 16 (5 points)

 

Medicare Part D covers what part of Medicare?

Question 16 options:

A) 

Physician and outpatient care

B) 

Prescription drug coverage

C) 

Medical reimbursement

D) 

Hospital care

Question 17 (5 points)

 

Medical expenses covered under a patient’s insurance plan are paid by the

Question 17 options:

A) 

third-party payor.

B) 

sponsor.

C) 

beneficiary.

D) 

insurance broker.

Question 18 (5 points)

 

What’s one of the most common reasons for a claim being rejected by an insurance company?

Question 18 options:

A) 

The patient is outside of the age group that is specified for the medication.

B) 

The patient’s insurance information has been entered incorrectly.

C) 

The prescribing physician is out of the patient’s network.

D) 

The medication prescribed isn’t the correct treatment for the patient’s condition.

Question 19 (5 points)

 

Which payment system was originally developed by the US federal government specifically for Medicare?

Question 19 options:

A) 

Retrospective payment

B) 

Historical payment

C) 

Global payment

D) 

Prospective payment

Question 20 (5 points)

 

A _______ cost for a given condition is a measure of how much people paid in the past to treat it.

Question 20 options:

A) 

homecare

B) 

historical

C) 

prospective

D) 

physician

Please reply to student 1 and student 2 you are required to

Please reply to student 1 and student 2 you are required to reply to 2 classmates’ initial thread. Each reply must be at least 300 substantive words

The was the question that we all had to answer:

After reading the book Humility, post an initial thread to include the following (use separate bolded section titles or paragraphs to break up the post showing where each point is addressed):

Approximately, what percentage of the book was read in preparation for this discussion?

What is Murray’s central thesis in the book? Defend your answer.

In chapter 2, Murray writes, “If humility be the first, the all-including grace of the life of Jesus, if humility be the secret of His atonement, then the health and strength of our spiritual life will entirely depend upon our putting this grace first too, and making humility the chief thing we admire in him, the chief thing we ask of him, the one thing for which we sacrifice all else.”

Do you agree or disagree with this statement and how is his argument here developed through the rest of the book?

Whether you agree or not with his argument, wherein Scripture could someone argue that “humility be the first, the all-including grace of the life of Jesus”?

Which chapter did you find most convicting and why?

Which chapter did you find most encouraging and why?

Student 1

Approximately, what percentage of the book was read in preparation for this discussion?

100%

 

What is Murray’s central thesis in the book? Defend your answer.

The central thesis of this book is not easily identified in a sentence but more so presented over the course of the preface of the book. The main idea of this book is that our idea of humility tends to be focused on the degradation of our standing before a holy God. Murray believes that it is more important to focus our understanding of humility on the life of Jesus. When we understand the humility of Jesus then we are able to comprehend what is necessary to live the Christian life. Murray puts it this way: 

We shall see that just as Jesus found His glory in taking the form of a servant, so when He said to us, ‘Whosoever would be first among you, shall be your servant,’ He simply taught us the blessed truth that there is nothing so divine and heavenly as being the servant and helper of all. The faithful servant, who recognises his position, finds a real pleasure in supplying the wants of the master or his guests. When we see that humility is something infinitely deeper than contrition, and accept it as our participation in the life of Jesus, we shall begin to learn that it is our true nobility, and that to prove it in being servants of all is the highest fulfillment of our destiny, as men created in the image of God.

 

In chapter 2, Murray writes, “If humility be the first, the all-including grace of the life of Jesus, if humility be the secret of His atonement, then the health and strength of our spiritual life will entirely depend upon our putting this grace first too, and making humility the chief thing we admire in him, the chief thing we ask of him, the one thing for which we sacrifice all else.”

Do you agree or disagree with this statement and how is his argument here developed through the rest of the book?

I disagree with Murray’s conclusion that the humility of Jesus is the secret of His atonement and the chief quality that we should seek to attain from Jesus. This is difficult for me to say in light of the rich content of this book. The thought I continued to gravitate toward was the idea of a hammer seeing everything as a nail. If one is writing a book on humility then one would tend to see humility in everything. There are more complex angles to the atonement and life of Jesus that make it difficult to argue that humility is the deepest root. It is certainly a foundational element to our understanding of Jesus and the Christian life but so is faith, the fear of the Lord, and confession of sin. 

Murray will build on his central thesis by pointing to the life, teaching, and followers of Jesus. Humility is a central characteristic of the life and instruction of Jesus. Murray developed his thesis by highlighting the humility of Jesus and then moving into how that humility should be evident in our daily lives. 

 

Whether you agree or not with his argument, wherein Scripture could someone argue that “humility be the first, the all-including grace of the life of Jesus”?

Murray builds his case by highlighting scriptures which point to the humility of Jesus. Philippians 2:5-7 is a key text here where Jesus completely humbled himself in order to make atonement of our sins. 

Murray also points to the calling we all have to live a life of humility. Mathew 20 speaks of the necessity of a life of service. In order to be exalted before God we must humble ourselves in service to others. 

 

Which chapter did you find most convicting and why?

In chapter 10, Murray says that “humility is the blossom of which death to self is the perfect fruit.” I have recently spent time in Luke 9 where the disciples spent too much time focusing on their ministry success, who was the greatest, and how they would solve ministry problems. Jesus, in His kindness, speaks to the disciples and tells them what it truly means to follow after Him. It is not about the path that we think is the right way. It is all about the path that he would be taking which is to take up the cross and follow Him. Humility is truly a key component of our ability to deny our way of living and follow Jesus. 

 

Which chapter did you find most encouraging and why?

It is always encouraging to me to look at the life of Jesus. Who does not want to live a life of both peace and joy in the midst of the difficulties of life? How do we attain such peace and joy? Murray points us to the life of Jesus that was characterized by total self-abnegation and submission to the Father’s will as the way that we can find complete peace and joy.  

 

1 Andrew Murray, Humility: (Nashville, TN.: B&H Publishing Group, 2017),  6.

2 Murray, Humility, 73.

3 Ibid, 26.

Student 2

Approximately, what percentage of the book was read in preparation for this discussion? 100%. I finished Murray’s book Humility: The Beauty of Holiness. The book was an enjoyable read that kept me wanting more information on how to improve in humility.

What is Murray’s central thesis in the book? Defend your answer. Humility is the most important virtue for a Christian to strive for to become a true disciple of Christ, demonstrating the characteristics that Christ exhibited in his everyday walk among men. Murray writes, “When we see that humility is something infinitely deeper than contrition and accept it as our participation in the life of Jesus, we shall begin to learn that it is our true nobility and that to prove it in being servants of all is the highest fulfillment of our destiny, as men created in the image of God.”1 Christians will never be able to combat the sinful nature that was acquired from the fall of humanity until they fully accept the humility that Christ possessed, which enabled him to bear the worst betrayals, slander, and humiliating death on the cross to redeem a sinful world.

Do you agree or disagree with Murray’s statement in chapter 2 and how is his argument here developed through the rest of the book? I agree with Murray that Jesus’ life is characterized by humility, and as a Christian, the thought of his humility makes me happy for my salvation. Christians must understand the depth of Christ’s love for us, which drove him to give up all to fulfill God’s will, regardless of the cost to his own well-being. Jesus demonstrated that his faith in God was more important than everything else in the world. Murray writes, “Christ is the humility of God embodied in human nature; the Eternal Love humbling itself, clothing itself in the garb of meekness and gentleness, to win and serve and save us. As the love and condescension of God make Him the benefactor and helper and servant of all, so Jesus of necessity was the Incarnate Humility.”2 Throughout the book, Murray spoke to Christ’s humility and how it inspired his deeds, which cemented his holiness. and how, for a Christian, it is the difference between living a sinful or holy lifestyle. In chapter 8 Murray highlights, “It is the sinner dwelling in the full light of God’s holy, redeeming love, in the experience of that full indwelling of divine love, which comes through Christ and the Holy Spirit, who cannot but be humble. Not to be occupied with thy sin, but to be occupied with God, brings deliverance from self.”3 In chapter 10 Murray writes, “Humility is the blossom of which death to self is the perfect fruit. Jesus humbled Himself unto death and opened the path in which we too must walk.”4

Whether you agree or not with his argument, wherein Scripture could someone argue that “humility be the first, the all-including grace of the life of Jesus”? ‘He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death.’—Phil. 2:8.

Murray writes, “The first and chief of the marks of the dying of the Lord Jesus, of the death-marks that show the true follower of Jesus, is humility. For these two reasons: Only humility leads to perfect death; Only death perfects humility. Humility and death are in their very nature one: humility is the bud; in death, the fruit is ripened to perfection.”5 To be effective disciple-makers for the kingdom of heaven, Christians must embrace the idea that we must die to our old life and selfish desires before Christ in order to get true access to Him and allow the Holy Spirit to indwell inside our hearts. A Christian’s life will be meaningless unless Christ is at the center of their delight.

Which chapter did you find most convicting and why? Chapter 5 was the most convicting for me because it caused me to reflect on my life and take inventory on how many times, I allowed the weight of the world to cause me to be overly concerned about things that I needed to place in the hands of a willing and able God who could handle my issues while also giving me peace. During numerous storms, pride stood in the way of absolute peace. When I surrendered to the Lord, He began to act in my favor and restored my health just as the physicians were growing tired of the outcome. God intervened and restored my platelets after a Splenectomy and 27 days in ICU with little to no platelets. I realized then that Christ possessed limitless power. Murray writes, “In His resurrection, He received from the Father an entirely new life, the life of man in the power of God, capable of being communicated to men, and entering and renewing and filling their lives with His divine power. In His ascension, He received the Spirit of the Father, through whom He might do what He could not do while upon earth, make Himself one with those He loved, and actually live their life for them, so that they could live before the Father in humility like His because it was Himself who lived and breathed in them.”6

Which chapter did you find most encouraging and why? I found chapter 10 to be the most encouraging because it gave me hope that I don’t have to be flawless or become a super Christian to understand humility. I learned that the Holy Spirit’s indwelling in me will guide and direct me in ways to grow more humble. I recognize that I have flaws and that I can be weak at times, which causes me to worry about being a stumbling block for another brother or sister in Christ. Murray reminded me when he stated, “The death to self is not your work, it is God’s work. In Christ you are dead to sin; the life there is in you has gone through the process of death and resurrection; you may be sure you are indeed dead to sin.”7

WC=1005

Notes:

1Andrew Murray, Humility: The Beauty of Holiness (New York; London; Glasgow: Fleming H. Revell, 1800), 7.

2Ibid., 21.

3Ibid., 66.

4Ibid., 73.

5Ibid., 73.

6Ibid., 41-42.

7Ibid., 75.