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Please check the attached documents. I have already written this assignment, but have been asked to resubmit it as

Please check the attached documents. I have already written this assignment, but have been asked to resubmit it as it didn’t meet the passing criteria. Here is also comments that I received from my teacher:

Thanks for your submission. May I politely suggest you listen to my audio feedback, then read this written feedback, and you’ll see how the rubric criteria have worked out. You are allowed one reattempt, and that can only receive a maximum of 50% if it is successful.

You were asked to read the case study about Apple and its suppliers and in no more than 2,000 words answer these questions:

Compare and contrast the legal and ethical considerations of the Apple/Foxconn crisis. How were these reconciled?
RESULTS: Unfortunately this answer is rather too blunt for academic writing and needs more explanation. What we’re looking for is a more detailed explanation of how the relevant laws and treaties apply and have changed.

Do you think Apple is responsible for the alleged human rights violations? Why and how does the law apply?
RESULTS: Unfortunately this section lacks sufficient discussion of the relevant laws and treaties. Remember this is a unit called “legal frameworks”.

Is it reasonable for Apple to apply different ethical and legal standards in different countries?
RESULTS: This section includes several statements such as “companies must apply the same level of ethical and legal standards”, and “companies have a duty of care” … but this unit is intended to give you the information and skills to say *why* they must (what compels them) and *why* they have a duty of care (what happens if they don’t).

OVERALL RESULTS: It would have improved your assignment to have included some material from content readings such as Mugarura, N. (2017). “The interaction of public and private international law in regulation of markets”. International Journal Of Law

DEAKIN COLLEGE MMM132/MMMP132 ASSIGNMENT 1 Trimester 1 2017 – INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT NOTE:

DEAKIN COLLEGE

MMM132/MMMP132 ASSIGNMENT 1 Trimester 1 2017 – INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

NOTE: Assignment 1 has TWO parts: Part A (Report Preparation Tasks – 10%, due Friday 31 March 2017); Part B (Individual Business Report – 30%, due Friday 28 April 2017)

The scenario

Assume you have completed your Deakin degree and applied for a graduate position at Atlassian https://www.atlassian.com/company OR Samsung www.samsung.com/au/aboutsamsung/samsungelectronics/vision2010/. As part of the selection process the company requires you to demonstrate your academic integrity, research, writing, and analytical skills by way of a report that identifies and analyses specific aspects of their organisation and your personal ‘fit’ in their organisation.

You must do this using academic and other reputable sources – do not contact the business directly. You must use Deakin Report Format http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/studying/study-support/academic-skills/report-writing.

Part A: Report Preparation Tasks (Individual Assignment)

Due Date: online Moodle submission by 8.00 am Friday 31 March 2017 in the submission inbox that will be provided on Moodle for you.

Marks: 10 marks (10%)

Word Count: 600 words (plus or minus 10%)

These tasks are designed to help you prepare for your MMM132/MMMP132 Individual Business Report (Part B).

Part A Aims:

To manage in the real world, managers need to know how to find, research and write about academic theory and concepts using management texts and academic journal articles. The following Report Preparation Tasks will help you learn these skills and assist you to prepare for the Final Report. Specifically you will learn to:

Plan your report

Use academic theory and concepts to understand real world organisations

Find academic journal articles relevant to understanding management of organisations

Cite and provide a reference list of your sources using Deakin Harvard style

Develop your academic and business writing skills

Complete the following Report Preparation Tasks

Provide the table of contents (TOC) you plan to include in your Final Report showing the section headings you plan to use in the Final Report.

Define and describe academic theory and/ concepts on the specific environment relevant to all organisations. (Start by reading pp. 34-41 of the textbook). Describe and discuss one real-life factor/condition relevant to your chosen organisation’s specific environment. Analyse the impact of this factor on the organisation in 2016/7. Include in your answer:

A direct quotation using Deakin Harvard citation style.

Indirect (paraphrased) quotation using Deakin Harvard citation style. You should aim to use more paraphrased materials from sources throughout your response rather than primarily using direct quotations.

Provide a reference list that includes the sources used in this task and sources you plan to use in the Final Report using Deakin Harvard referencing style. This reference list must include:

The textbook;

Five academic journal articles. One relevant to question 2 above and other articles relevant to answering each question 1-4 in the Final Report. These articles should discuss aspects of the theory and/or concepts relevant to the questions;

At least one reputable source of information about your chosen organisation.

Below are examples of how to use theory and concepts in your writing. These will assist you develop an academically supported management style of writing by showing how to present and link management concepts and theories from academic sources to real-life and your own ideas.

Flamholtz and Randle (2012) suggest business models must include corporate culture to ensure…

Business culture is critical to the professional future of the business (Hummel, 2012).

Turker and Altuntas (2015) state past experiences significantly impact a person’s beliefs about…

According to Robbins et al. (2016) an organisation’s general environment includes…

I have drawn upon the Robbins et al. (2016, p. 34) to identify…

MMM132 Assignment Marking Rubric: Report Preparation (10% – 10 marks)

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

YET TO ACHIEVE MINIMUM STANDARD

MEETS STANDARD

EXCEEDS STANDARD

No/poor attempt

Needs improvement

Satisfactory

Good

Very good

Excellent

Report Table of Contents (TOC) is relevant to the task

ULO2 – GLO2

(Max 1 mark)

Poor attempt at developing a Table of Contents, incorrect order of sections or majority of sections are not included.

(0 marks)

Does not follow the required TOC structure, with some sections not included or in the wrong order.

(0.25 marks)

An attempt is made to follow the required TOC structure. Most sections are included but some inconsistencies exist in the layout.(0.5 marks)

A good attempt is made to follow the required TOC structure. Most sections are included and layout is consistent within the table.

(0.6 marks)

A very good attempt is made to follow the required TOC structure. All sections are included and layout is consistent within the table.

(0.7-marks)

Excellent use of the TOC structure/format. All sections are in included and layout is clear and consistent within the table.(1.0 mark)

Critically reflects on theory of the ‘specific environment’ and applies analysis to chosen organisation.

ULO3 – GLO4

(Max 5 marks)

The fundamental theories and their application to the chosen organisation are not clear.

(0 marks)

The fundamental theories and their application to the chosen organisation may be slightly unclear or poorly applied.

(1.25 marks)

The fundamental theories relevant to this question and their application to the chosen organisation are provided without ambiguity

(2.5 marks)

The fundamental theories relevant to this question and their application to the chosen organisation are clear and quite well-reasoned. (3.0 marks)

The fundamental theories relevant to this question and their application to the chosen organisation are clear, well-reasoned and systematic (3.5 marks)

The fundamental theories relevant to this question and their application to the chosen organisation are clear, systematic and comprehensive.(5 marks)

Direct and indirect quotations using Deakin Harvard citation style

ULO2 – GLO2

(Max 1 marks)

No quotations included and/or most entries not compliant with most Harvard citation guidelines

(0 marks)

One of either but not both direct and indirect quotations included and/or are not compliant with most Harvard citation guidelines. (0.25 marks)

Both direct and indirect quotations included and are partially compliant with most Harvard citation guidelines.

(0.5 marks)

Both direct and indirect quotations included and are mostly compliant with most Harvard citation guidelines

(0.6 marks)

Both direct and indirect quotations included and are very compliant with Harvard citation guidelines

(0.7-marks)

Both direct and indirect quotations included and citations are completely error free

(1.0 marks)

Reference list of sources suitable to use in this task and planned for the Final Report using Deakin Harvard referencing style

ULO1 – GLO1

ULO2 – GLO2

(Max 3 marks)

No academic journal articles relating to the tasks and/or reference list not included or most entries not compliant with most Harvard referencing guidelines.

(0 marks)

Fewer than three academic journal articles relate well to the tasks and/or reference list is not compliant with many of the Harvard referencing guidelines.

(0.75 marks)

Fewer than four journal articles relate satisfactorily to the task and reference list mostly complies with Harvard guidelines. Suitable organisational source and text included.

(1.5 marks)

At least four journal articles relate well to the task and reference list is compliant with mainly the Harvard guidelines. Suitable organisational source and text included.

(1.8 marks)

Five or more journal articles relate well to the task and reference list is compliant with Harvard guidelines. Suitable organisational source and text included.

(2.1-marks)

Five or more exceptionally well-selected journal articles in relation to the task and reference list is completely error free. Excellent organisational source and text included.

(3.0 marks)

Submission Guide:

Title page:

Provide a title page with the title of the assessment centred in the middle of the page

On bottom left-hand side provide the unit code (MMM132 or MMMP132), your name, your Deakin ID, your lecturer’s name, your class number, day and time

Page 2:

Your response to task 1: provide a plan of your table of contents for the final report. Consider use of appropriate section headings, consider also use of a section numbering system. You will NOT be able to provide actual page numbers, just use x to show page numbers

Pages 3 & 4:

Your response to task 2: provide a 400-500 word response to this task. Make sure you correctly acknowledge use of direct and indirect (paraphrased) sources of information. Try to ensure you use theory from your text and at least ONE academic article as the basis for your discussion as you ‘analyse’ your chosen specific external environmental factor and its impact on your chosen organisation.

Page 5:

Your response to task 3: provide a correctly formatted reference list that includes the sources used in this assignment, and those you plan to use in the final Individual Business Report, using Deakin Harvard Referencing Style.

Use 1.5 line spacing for task 2 response

Submission MUST be an MSWord document (.doc or .docx format, NO other format is accepted)

Need help?

Access the AS Moodle site

See your lecturer

See the Academic Skills Advisors

Part B: Individual Business Report

Due Date: online Moodle submission by 8.00 am Friday 28 April 2017 in the submission inbox that will be provided on Moodle for you.

Marks: 30 marks (30%)

Word Count: 2500 words (plus or minus 10%)

Provide a business report that answers the questions below in relation to your chosen organisation. Answer these questions in sections in the body of the report. See http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/study-support/academic-resources/report-writing)

Remember to use feedback from your Part A (Report Preparation Tasks) to assist you with your final report submission.

For every question

Remember to use the textbook and academic journal article(s) to identify academic concepts relevant to each question.

Remember to use reputable industry or media sources to find information about your chosen organisation in 2016/7.

Remember to cite and reference all sources.

Remember to present your answers using academic concepts and sources to define, explain, and analyse the information you find about your chosen organisation.

Define, describe and discuss academic theory and/ concepts on the purpose of an organisation. Identify the purposes of your chosen organisation, its mission in 2016/7, and its profit/not-for-profit orientation. (Start by reading pp. 93-94 and Table 4.1 of the textbook). (Approximately 200 words)

Define and describe academic theory and/ concepts on an organisation’s general environment. (Start by reading pp. 34-41 of the textbook). Discuss one general factor/condition (other than the economic factor) from your chosen organisation’s general environment. Analyse the impact of this factor on your chosen organisation in 2016/7 and suggest how the organisation could deal with this factor. (Approximately 600 words)

Define and describe academic theory and/ concepts on organisational Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ethics. (Start by reading pp. 52–59 of the textbook). Discuss the CSR and ethics of your chosen organisation with reference to relevant theoretical concepts on ethics and CSR. (Approximately 600 words)

Define and describe academic theory and/ concepts on organisational culture. (Start by reading pp. 42-44 and 46-47 of the textbook). Complete the personal insights quiz “What’s the Right Organisational Culture for Me?” (Robbins et al., p. 46). Report on your results from this quiz and reflect on how well you think you might fit into this organisation and its organisational culture. Please remember to cite the quiz with an in-text citation. (Approximately 600 words)

MMM132 Business Report Format

(Adapted from http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/study- support/academic-resources/report-writing)

Title page

(not included in the word count)

Title of report (should be short to indicate what the report is about)

Name and website of organisation

Student name and ID number

Unit code and unit name

Executive summary

This is a summary of the whole report. Outline the task and explain the research process used, what you found, and what your findings mean (approx. 200 words).

Table of contents

(not included in the word count)

List the headings of main sections and sub-sections of your report. (Use the MSWord template provided in the unit site to learn to create heading styles and an automatic Table of Contents – TOC).

Introduction

Set the scene; give some background information about the report/organisation; state the aim/purpose of the report. Provide an outline of the main sections in the body of the report (approx. 150 words).

Body

Organise the body of the report into sections. You should have four sections and each section answers one question with a clear section heading. The analysis of each question should define and describe academic theory and/ concepts on the topic of the questions, describe what you found about the organisation, as well as your interpretation and analyses of what you found, with correctly cited references drawn from appropriate academic textbook and journal sources (see the list above). Remember to include at least one academic reference for each of the five sections (approx. 2000 words).

Conclusion

Summarise what has been achieved in the report. Use the information from the body of your report to identify the anticipated future direction of the organisation in light of the environments discussed in the body of the report, and the ‘match’ between you and that organisation in a graduate role (approx. 150 words).

Recommendations

NOT required in this assignment.

References

(not included in the word count)

A list of all of the in-text sources that you cited in the report using the Deakin Harvard referencing style: http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/study- support/referencing/harvard

Appendices – No marks [optional]

Any information (graphs, charts, tables or other data) you used in your report but did not include in the body.

MMM132/MMMP132 Assignment Marking Rubric: Report (30% – 30 marks)

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

YET TO ACHIEVE MINIMUM STANDARD

MEETS STANDARD

EXCEEDS STANDARD

No/poor attempt

Needs improvement

Satisfactory

Good

Very good

Excellent

Report structure, organisation and flow, including Executive Summary, Table of Contents, Introduction and Conclusion. ULO2 (Max 5 marks)

0.7

Poor attempt

Report does not follow the required format. There is no logical flow between sections.

0-1.4

2

Report somewhat follows the required format. Report is disjointed and fragmented.

1.5-2.4

2.7

An attempt is made to follow the required report structure/format. Report lacks flow and is somewhat disjointed and fragmented.

2.5-2.9

3.2

A good attempt is made to follow the required report structure/format.

Report flows quite well, but is disjointed or fragmented in some places.

3.0-3.4

3.7

A very good attempt is made to follow the required report structure/format.

Report has a logical flow.

3.5-3.9

5

Excellent use of the required report structure/format.

Report has a logical flow and coherent line of argument.

4 – 5

Description and analysis of Q1 relevant to the organisation.

ULO1

(Max 3 marks)

0.3

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are not applied at all to the organisation chosen. The context is not provided or is very unclear.

0-0.75

0.8

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are slightly unclear or have not been cited to an appropriate academic source (text or journal article). Some context is provided but remains unclear.

0.76-1.45

1.1

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are described without ambiguity and refers to a text or journal article, but these have not be well discussed. Some context provided.

1.5 – 1.75

1.3

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are clearly identified. Reference to a suitable journal article included, that is somewhat explained without ambiguity and in context.

1.76-2

1.5

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are clearly identified and described well. Relevant information, suitable journal article(s), and argument where necessary for understanding included. The context and the background are explained.

2.1-2.4

2

The fundamental theories and practice relevant to this question are clearly identified and described comprehensively, suitable journal article(s) are used. Response delivers all relevant information necessary for full understanding. The context and the background are well explained.

2.45-3

Description and analysis of Q2 relevant to the organisation.

ULO1

(Max 6 marks)

0.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are not applied to the organisation chosen. The context has not be provided or is very unclear.

Paraphrases or summarises information rather than providing an analysis. Does not identify components of the theory, and does not distinguish the relevant from irrelevant details.

0-1.7

2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are slightly unclear or an appropriate academic source (text or journal article) has not been cited. Some context is provided but is unclear.

Paraphrases or summarises information with very little analysis. Inconsistently identifies components of the theories and incorrectly distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

1.75-2.9

2.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are provided without ambiguity and refers to a text or journal article, but these are not well discussed. Some context provided.

Demonstrates the ability to analyse information at a rudimentary level. Identifies components of the theories; mostly distinguishing relevant from irrelevant details.

3-3.5

3.2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and explained, without ambiguity and in context and with reference to a suitable journal article.

A fair analysis of information, clearly identifying the key components of the theories and accurately distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

3.6-4.15

3.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described well, with relevant information and argument where necessary for understanding. The context is clear and suitable journal article(s) are used.

A robust analysis of information, consistently identifying the key components of the theories and accurately distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

4.2-4.75

5

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described comprehensively, delivering all relevant information necessary for full understanding. The context and background are well explained and suitable journal article(s) are used.

A thorough analysis of information, identifying the key components of the theories and accurately and thoroughly distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

4.8-6

Description and analysis of Q3 relevant to the organisation

ULO1

(Max 6 marks)

0.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are not applied to the organisation chosen. The context has not be provided or is very unclear.

Paraphrases or summarises information rather than providing an analysis. Does not identify components of the theory, and does not distinguish the relevant from irrelevant details.

0-1.7

2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are slightly unclear or an appropriate academic source (text or journal article) has not been cited. Some context is provided but is unclear.

Paraphrases or summarises information with very little analysis. Inconsistently identifies components of the theories and incorrectly distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

1.75-2.9

2.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are provided without ambiguity and refers to a text or journal article, but these are not well discussed. Some context provided.

Demonstrates the ability to analyse information at a rudimentary level. Identifies components of the theories; mostly distinguishing relevant from irrelevant details.

3-3.5

3.2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and explained, without ambiguity and in context and with reference to a suitable journal article.

A fair analysis of information, clearly identifying the key components of the theories and accurately distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

3.6-4.15

3.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described well, with relevant information and argument where necessary for understanding. The context is clear and suitable journal article(s) are used.

A robust analysis of information, consistently identifying the key components of the theories and accurately distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

4.2-4.75

5

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described comprehensively, delivering all relevant information necessary for full understanding. The context and background are well explained and suitable journal article(s) are used.

A thorough analysis of information, identifying the key components of the theories and accurately and thoroughly distinguishes relevant from irrelevant details.

4.8-6

Report and reflection of Q4 relevant to the organisation

ULO1

(Max 6 marks)

0.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are not clearly applied to the organisation chosen. The context may not be provided or may be very unclear.

Reflection does not demonstrate clear reasoning and does not provide discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation

0-1.7

2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question may be slightly unclear or may not cite an appropriate academic source (text or journal article). Some context is provided but may be unclear.

Reflection demonstrates minimal clear reasoning and provides very basic discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation.

1.75-2.9

2.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are provided without ambiguity and refers to a text or journal article, but these may not be well discussed.Some context provided.

Reflection demonstrates satisfactory clear reasoning and provides reasonable discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation.

3-3.5

3.2

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and explained, without ambiguity and in context and with reference to a suitable journal article.

Reflection demonstrates clear and consistent reasoning and provides detailed discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation.

3.6-4.15

3.7

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described well, with relevant information and argument where necessary for understanding. The context is clear and suitable journal article(s) are used.

Reflection demonstrates clear, consistent and detailed reasoning and provides high-level discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation.

4.2-4.75

5

The fundamental theories relevant to this question are clearly identified and described comprehensively, delivering all relevant information necessary for full understanding. The context and background are well explained and suitable journal article(s) are used.

Reflection demonstrates consistent and systematic reasoning and provides thorough discussion on the “cultural fit” to the organisation.

4.8-6

Quality of language and ability to communicate information accurately using academic style

ULO2

(Max 4 marks)

0.4

Writing filled with grammatical and spelling errors. English expression is difficult to understand.

Little or no use of paraphrasing, with a heavy reliance on quotes.

In-text citation and referencing have not been used or do not conform to Harvard standard.

0-1.55

1.2

Many grammatical and spelling errors. English expression is difficult to understand, but meaning can be made of what is written.

Little effort has been put into paraphrasing of material.

In-text citations not utilised or inaccurate.

List of references does not follow the Harvard referencing style correctly.

1.6-1.95

1.6

Expresses thoughts meaningfully, even though there may be occasional errors.

Paraphrasing uses too many of the author’s own words.

In-text citations are too sparse and/or mostly inaccurate.

Some attempt to present a list of References following the Harvard referencing style, but may have several errors.

2-2.36

1.9

Expresses thoughts meaningfully, even though there may be occasional errors.

Paraphrasing portrays the ideas of others in student’s own words.

In-text citations are accurate in most cases and are just adequate to the task.

List of References presented using the Harvard referencing style accurately in most cases.

2.4-2.76

2.2

Communicates meaning with clarity and fluency. Writing is almost error-free.

Paraphrasing correctly portrays the ideas of others in student’s own words.

In-text citations are accurate and support the arguments made in the assignment quite well.

List of References presented accurately using the Harvard referencing style.

2.8-3.16

3

Skillfully communicates meaning with high level of clarity and fluency. Writing is virtually error-free.

Paraphrasing correctly portrays the ideas of others in student’s own words.

In-text citations are accurate and support the arguments made in the assignment very well.

List of References presented very accurately using the Harvard style.

3.2-4

List of suggested academic journal articles, books and book chapters:

Carroll, AB and Shabana, KM, 2010. ‘The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice’, International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 12, no.1, pp. 85-105.

Edwards, JR, Caplan, RD and Van Harrison, R, 1998. Person-environment fit theory. In CL Cooper (Ed.) Theories of organizational stress (pp. 28-67), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Edwards, JR, Cable, DM, Williamson, IO, Lambert, LS and Shipp, AJ, 2006. ‘The phenomenology of fit: linking the person and environment to the subjective experience of person-environment fit’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 802-807.

Ferguson, J (2016) ‘Corporate response to climate change: language, power and symbolic construction’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 278- 304. http://ezproxy.deakin.edu.au/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-09-2013-1465

Hollensbe, E, Wookey, C, Hickey, L, George, G, & Nichols, CV, 2014, ‘Organizations with purpose’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1227-1234. Available from: 10.5465/amj.2014.4005. http://ezproxy.deakin.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=heh&AN=98822522&site=eds-live&scope=site

Jovanovic, Z, 2015. ‘Management and changes in business environment’, Ekonomika, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 143-151. http://ezproxy.deakin.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=103670794&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Robbins, SP, DeCenzo, DA, Coulter, M, Woods, M 2016, Management: The Essentials 3e, Pearson, Melbourne, Australia.

Szymańska, K and Walecka, A, 2016, ‘Culture openness as an element of positive potential of enterprised in a crisis situation’. Journal of Positive Management, vol. 6, no.4, pp. 53-65.

http://ezproxy.deakin.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=116483370&site=ehost-live&scope=site  

Verbos, AK, Gerard, JA, Forshey, PR, Harding, CS and Miller, JS, 2007, ‘The positive ethical organization: Enacting a living code of ethics and ethical organizational identity’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 17-33.

10

The Unitarist, Pluralist and Radical Perspectives Explain the meanings of the unitarist,

Please check the attached documents. I have already written this assignment, but have been asked to resubmit it as Law Assignment Help The Unitarist, Pluralist and Radical Perspectives

Explain the meanings of the unitarist, pluralist and radical perspectives on the

Employment relationship. Drawing on examples, critically assess the relevance of

These perspectives for contemporary industrial relations.

Introduction

Today organizations have gone through a significant change regarding kind of workforces they deploy as they aim at intensification of their profits and production. There has been a lot of emphasis on the choosing of ways of production particularly dedicated labor and this implies that employers nowadays focus on the exact things they require in the production process (Scott 2015). There is an increase in dispute and agreement procedures which the employer association forces on unions but still the freedom and bargaining ability calls for a restructuring of pay agreements as well as diversification of the roles of employees. Management of the industries has greatly changed regarding current needs and the management duties are now being performed by the board of governors (Johnstone & Ackers 2015). There are perspectives which are wide references concerning industrial relations. The perspectives include the Unitarist, Pluralist, and Radical perspective. Each perspective offers a distinct insight of workplace relations and clarifies the activities, statements and proprietors’ manners and trade unionists, such as job rules, workplace conflict, and responsibilities of unions differ.  In job principles, employees and employers implement an agreement contract whereby these contracts contain instructions over different workplaces. They comprise of discrete interests that disregards the economic authenticity behind the bargain due to inequality between the parties. Such single-sided interest of the contract of enrolment is the root of disagreements in workplace relationship (Williams 2017). The agreement of work always ensures that it takes full consideration what the employee offers the owner the capability to work, a fact that capitalists take extreme advantage of due to the benefits it brings to them. This essay will, therefore, focus on the three aspects perspective that are a wide reference in regard to industrial relations, their view on how conflicts start and how they can be handled under all systems. This paper will also assess these perspectives’ relevance for industrial relations as well as how the managers under these perspectives increase control for efficient management.

Employment relationships refer to the legal link that exists between employees and employers. This link comes up when one performs some tasks or provides services under specific conditions in return for a wage. Industrial relations is an interdisciplinary field which studies employment relationship and in most cases, it is also referred to as employment relations due to the significance of non-industrial employment relationships. Reciprocal rights and obligations between the employer and the employee are made through an employment relationship. It acts as a vehicle through which employees are granted way into the benefits and rights associated with employment in the sectors of social safety and labor law. The existence of an employment relationship controls the application of social security and labor law necessities addressed to workers (Kaufman 2018). The unitary, radical and plural perspectives are widely discussed as well as their relevance.

The Unitary Perspective

The unitary perspective of industrial relations considers an organization as a team that is unified by common objectives and goals, and that is the success of the organization. This perspective assumes that everybody in the organization, including the employers and employees is a team which has a single loyalty structure. This then implies that barriers do not exist between departments and groups of people, a factor that would invite animosity and miscommunication which compromises the idea of common goals and values hence sabotaging the success of an organization. Either way, Fox views conflicts as perceived as irrational activities. The set of common values and goals serve to create and maintain harmony within the organization as well as enabling the workers to work in unison (Davies 2018). The idea of having common goals and values to achieve among all the people within the company makes the workers at the bottom of the organization feel that they are valued and appreciated. Unitarists argue that even though the sectional interests of workers are secondary to the success and general profitability of an organization, they are equally important. Fox views the states as external agencies which they can impose their notions into. This implies that they believe the idea of common objectives and goals needs not to be confined to companies only but also to the nation as a whole so that people can have common values which nationwide. Unitarism s opinion on the cause, scope, and how to solve workplace conflicts is entirely time-tested and conservative hence the planned labor is only dared when it comes to the process of assigning and organizing work as well as endorsing the labor force.

The major factors for clashes within a company are the issue of lack of communication which Fox regards as counterproductive and generally dysfunctional. Unitarist claim that conflicts are not intrinsic in employee relations because it does not create a good sense for the company (Spicer 2010). Fox argues that conflicts can be an opposite of what their notion stands for since it is not organized, not structural, and it is generally frictional. This is because a conflict can cause rifts and lead to the creation of sub-cultures within a company and this goes against their belief that an organization should work as a team towards the achievement of goals. Unitarists consider trade unions as intruders into an organization and that they are potential causes of conflicts within an organization. Trade unions are considered unnecessary within a company because they can build an unconventional misplaced focus among some employees. In some cases, employees may place their loyalty with the trade unions because they view them as part of the organization and this may create chaos. Management holds to this view as it legitimizes the role of authorities by projecting management and employee interests to be similar as well as emphasizing the role of management within an organization. Moreover, this view reassures managers by confirming that whenever there exists a conflict within an organization, it is the fault of the government, not the management team. The assumptions of this perspective with its prominence on managerial indemnity, as well as its efforts to critique the realities of differing work-group values and attitudes in the concern of “strong unified team” makes it feeble under contemporary conditions, particularly in their outdated opinion on the nature of conflicts experienced in the workplace.

From the employee point of view, the unitary perspectives imply that working operations should be flexible: workers should be determined to improve the business, equipped with diverse skills and ready to work on any task presented to them with efficiency and enthusiasm. Great emphasis is on sound conditions and terms of employment as well as a good relationship (Storey 2014). The company should not employ bargaining as a method of determining elements of a workplace relationship rather it should recognize and appreciate the efforts of the workers by rewarding them in regard to their contributions. In the unitary approach, Fox also implies to the workers that participation of staff in organization decisions is also permitted and this emancipates them in their tasks and stresses innovation, creativity disposition in problem-solving, teamwork and general improvement within groups. The unitary stance by workers argues that the manager should act as a role model and the staff should feel their expertise and skills. For the employers, the unitary perspective implies that staffing policies should aim and motivating, unifying efforts as well as inspiring individuals and the company’s objectives should be widely discussed and communicated with the staff. Also, rewards systems should be designed in a manner that secures and fosters loyalty and commitment and managers are expected to take proprietorship of their staffing responsibilities. Thompson and Harley (2007), argue that inadequate presentation of management policies and insufficient information as well as the staff whose values vary from the company’s cause conflicts between employers and employees. Therefore, this perspective makes it clear that personal objectives employees within an organization need to be discussed with them and assimilated with the company’s needs.

Pluralist Perspective

Pluralist perspective is a structure that has a political correlation whereby many teams that have different beliefs and interests behave as a single association and the government utterly relies on their cooperation and consent. Just as the name suggests, they view organizations as mulita-structured when it comes to teams, loyalty, authority, and leadership (Tremblay 2018). The ultimate authority in pluralism is deprived of the moral bargain to reach an ultimate decision without depending on members’ unity. In this structure, trade unions are valid societies that represent the combined concerns of the employees and they have the audacity to challenge management. There is therefore negligible authoritarianism given that clashes in the workplace are regarded as unavoidable and as an occurrence that is destined to transpire without question. In this perspective, Fox views Industrial relations as very adaptable and stable due to the mutual agreement and it is very challenging for management to interfere with trade unions unlike in the unitary perspective where they are viewed as intruders. In the guideline of pluralism, conflicts brought about by the trade unions are obligatory so the organization should be concerned with how they can handle them and not how to restrain the union’s activities (Ackers 2014). The pluralist perspective views an organization plural society that has interrelated but distinct objectives and interests which needs to be tamed to a kind of stability through conflict if the employees seem to be commandeered (Kubota 2015). Managing of a pluralism scheme always aims at creating a balance of the member’s operations of the team for the maximum step of freedom. This is achieved corresponding to the general interest of society. The system is a function because sectional sets have conflicting interests, but they still aim for a mutual goal and are jointly reliable. Under this notion, for managers to acquire any accepted authority, they need to employ many strategies in their professional roles. These comprise categorizing customers, the local community, shareholders, the government and technical resources,

Pluralist employees and shareholders, sustain their affairs with managers as their root of information to decrease workplace conflicts as well as convey their services and goods to their gratification. Under pluralism, the competence of managers in their profession is extremely resolved on how they relate to those who represent the workforces. Therefore it is possible to assume that in this perspective, Fox perceives workplace conflicts as obligatory and as part of work hence trade unions are inevitable institutions (Cullinane 2016). Pluralists claim that the only means managers can be comfortable is by creating an equilibrium between their interest and the employees’ by creating a good bond with negotiators. In companies that uphold the pluralist approach, managers encompass collective negotiations, informal and formal consultations, and processes of argument settlement as tools of management. There is an independent state comprising several sectional groups that have different values over which the government is trying to keep a vibrant equilibrium. The chief groups within this perception that find themselves at the conflicting ends of the scales are managers and workers. This, in turn, creates issues such as pay inequality, poor working conditions, and conflicts over working hours and bonus.

Fox claim that the employees’ interests compete with the organization’s interests due to the existence of strains over the levels of taxation and price of labor. The solutions to this conflict are achieved if different groups and workers do not dwell on the issues but instead, they focus on resolving their dissimilarities and work collectively for the good of the company (Johnson 2016). This is the strategy Pluralist employ to bring order, with the management of conflict instead of pretending that it does not exist or giving up on the efforts to resolve it, like Marxists and Unitarists. Pluralists view conflict as constructive because it can point out times when things need to be altered in the company as well as indicating modifications that need to be fixed. According to the pluralists, the faulty labor market structures ought to be the point of reference upon which to evaluate policy interventions. This is because the way they interpret conflicts, relates to the conviction that the labor market is not competitive. From this hypothetical perspective, unions and laws are taken as mechanisms for demolishing the conflict between employees and employers hence endorsing the optimum maneuvers of the market rather than meddling with it (Baiman et al. 2015). Generally, the pluralist frame of reference is that unions have an authentic responsibility, clashes results from variances in the interests between workers and employers, there are contending sources of leadership and loyalty, and finally, it admits the inevitability of conflict.

Radical Perspective

The radical perspective also known as the Marxist perspective emphasizes the natural surroundings of the society where the organization is situated. In this perspective, Karl Max puts emphasis and assumes that an organization occurs within a capitalist society where product systems are owned privately and profit is the primary inspiration on the organization’s policies and the owners’ managerial agents enforce control over production. Marxism in its appropriate form is a broad theory of social change and society and with inferences for industrial relations, capitalism and analysis (Sinha & Varma 2018). Since its origin, Radicalism has been serving as a discourse in which reality and other phenomena are inspected as well as a means of social exploration into power relations. If the owners of production maintain making profits out of the exploitation of labor, then class conflict, a cosmos of workplace clashes, according to Radicalism, will continue to last within the system. Class divisions which exist in the society are nearly intertwined with the lower class structure of labor industry and wage. The capitalist, according to Radicalism, has announced social structures that govern the labor process which is an asset of the employee and this compels employees to trade their interest alongside their labor power. This segregates labor from the owner and makes it easy to be managed by the capitalist. Karl Marx, the inventor of Marxist’s school of thought, indicated that humanity is similar to one’s labor one can feel dehumanized when someone else tries to control his or her labor. Given that the buyer is more powerful compared to the owner of labor, there is a possibility of arrogation of the employee by the employer and this invites the formation of trade unions.

Marxism views trade unions as legitimate vehicles meant to challenge the extremes of property holders whenever they interrupt the dissemination of national products due to variances in power. Radicalism, therefore, argues that conflicts in the workplace are inevitable, but there is a need to take measures to curb them (Edwards 2017). Trade unions are seen as institutions that rose due to sore manipulation of workers by the people who owned means of manufacture, and consequently as a combined bargaining person. According to this notion, conflicts can be controlled if handled and perceived positively. Marxism is the final conflict concept that critiques pluralism and Unitarism because of their indulgence on managing the conflicts at the workplace (Therborn 2018). Research proves that the pluralist perspective differs from the Radical one in the way they analyze industrial relation as well as in their definition of its nature and subject matter. The only common thing in both schools of thought is how they view matters concerning stability acquisition and conflict (Edwards 2017). This implies that both perspectives view conflict as unavoidable within the workplace. Radicalism claims that in most workplaces have their management asserting its control and authority in a descending form whereas the work groups affirm their control and independence in an ascending manner (Therborn 2018). Such kind of contrary expectation projects a contradictory point where the balance needs to be hit drastically to the advantage of neither of the parties. The radical interpretation of industrial relation allows the integration of trade unions into the operations and institutions within the capitalist society.

This policy, which is employed by managers under Marxism to procure authority, is an ultimate evil that may afflict trade unions given that once that is fulfilled, unions stop acting as tools of social class safety. This amalgamation assumes terms such as incorporation institutionalization, and economism. Even though this is not reliable with the objectives of trade unions, it does not take into consideration the worker who is intended to be represented. Collective bargaining utilizes freedom for employees to arrange sovereign trade unions to bargain effectively and autonomously with the proprietor. Workers have the liberty to organize independent trade unions purposely to deal away with persistent inferiority. Marxists claim that incorporating trade unions into the capitalist society, inspire all agents who interact with employers and managers’ association, to renounce their responsibility to serve workers. To evade such issues, trade unionists are always advised against making agreements that bind them with their employers.

According to this perspective, any conflict between the employers and the employee ought to be solved in a harmonious manner close to both sides’ objective and this agreement is normally attained after a series of conventions. As the two parties push each other beyond limits, they need to have in mind that they equally rely on each other. Collective bargaining is the pillar of their industrial relations (Kossek &Thompson 2016). This does not mean that trade union agents constantly concede to the forces of the initiative. Marxists are certain that the employees’ ability to productively provide labor depends on the damage they bring to the proprietors whenever there is a strike. Further classification of trade unions enables them not to be viewed as instruments of radical revolt and protest. Trade unions in the radical setting are alienated to a political party that has more funds, extensive support, and additional activists. Marxism, therefore, establishes politicization of workforces by action that employees must know how to use the mass power of the amalgamation as a tool of revolt when possible.

The relevance of the Unitarism, Pluralism, and Radicalism for contemporary industrial relations.

Unitary perspective

In contemporary industrial relations, various organizations have the management adopt the unitary notion though others do in a modified form. The purpose of most contemporary organizations is to ensure that an organization gets the best out of the employees’ ability in an effective and efficient manner. Contemporary organizations have incorporated the paradigm of HRM whose nature is unitary. HRM is a premeditated tactic of managing contemporary employment relationship. The major concern of HRM is the application of human resources to attain premeditated management of objectives. HRM concentrates on generating policies that concurrently benefit managers through their attention on the maximization of profits and workforces through their emphasis in fulfilment (Edwards 2017). The unitary perspective emphasizes sharing common goals and purpose. This is evident in the modern organization, in practices such as performance management. This practice happens to be a factor of concern to all members as it ensures that individual goals are in line with the team and cooperate goals. In addition, the aspect of shared goal and purpose can be observed in modern organizations through utilization of common mission and vision, cooperate primary values and generally the cooperate culture that distinguishes one organization from the other.

The unitarist approach can also be seen in the current prominence on the psychological contract between employees and the employer which varies from a written employment contract because its major concern is on promises, expectations, and obligations that organizations and individuals believe have been prepared, about what each party expects from the other. When the psychological contract is managed properly, it improves organizational commitment which happens to be one of the principles of the unitary approach. Contemporary organizations are characterized by the diversity of the workforce. This can be explained in terms of gender, religion, training, ethnic backgrounds and even different levels of education. The unitary approach, therefore, comes in to harness energy given that it focuses mainly on common values and goals (Quinlan 2018). Despite the observable diversity, organizations are therefore able to function and be produce yields due to the unity of goals and purpose. The organizational vision and mission unite all employees despite their distinct differences.

The Radical Perspective

Another factor, which is equally significant in comprehending industrial relations, is and the role played by it played in the emergence of discipline. The two are kind of intertwined. In the nineteenth century, industrial society experienced a problem which was obliquely referred to as industrial peace. Industrial peace became a persistent feature that was a threat to the revolution. Central social- science theories mainly standard economics would neither recognize the issue nor address it (Sinha et al. 2017). An automatic reaction was to subdue the immediate cause which is trade unions or break up a domination that inhibited competition, a recommendation which is the incident of unions only intensified the problem. Marxism provided a theoretical toolkit for meditating upon these issues, but at the expense of a theory of revolution. Industrial relations also presented an alternative. It acknowledged the issue of industrial peace as being crucial in the construction of economic policies and issued a terminology to discuss and a theoretical framework for reasoning about it that seemingly evaded the Marxist outcome (Chandra 2017). The relevance of this perspective in industrial relations includes bringing out the contradiction and weaknesses present in the capitalist system which triggers the revolution and dominance of socialism over capitalism (Heery 2016). It brings out the fact that within an organization, workers and capitalists can be in contention to create their constant win-lose struggles. This perspective, therefore, shows its concern with the nature and structure of the society and enables people to understand that the conflicts observed in organizations play a major role of reflecting the exact picture of the structure of the society.

Pluralist perspective.

In contemporary employment relations, few organizations have adopted the pluralist perspective given that it embraces a balancing paradigm. Inequalities of income, from a pluralist perspective, can decrease the growth of the economy by sabotaging consumer purchasing capacity as well as blocking investments in physical and human capital (Cradden 2011). An extreme commercial power that generates insufficient wages and working conditions can afflict the society with social costs that reduce the welfare. Behavioral components of decision-making denote that distinct perceptions of fairness or balance are capable of affecting the employee’s productivity, turnover, among other industrial relations consequences (Heery 2016). A dominant analytical principle of the pluralist school, therefore, is that employment relations results persist and emerge, not because they are certainly the most effective as it always is in a neo-classical paradigm but for the reason that they create a balance amid the competing welfare of various institutions, stakeholders, and individuals. Moreover, given that people are viewed logically as humans and not economic agents, industrial relations sponsorship that dates back to the twentieth century cross-examines not only the behavior of the workforces but also the quality of treatment they earn as human beings in an autonomous society. With defective labor markets, the occurrence of powerful corporations or distressed competition among workforces can trigger substandard employment situations (Dundon & Dobbins 2015). Therefore, the systematic fundamentals of pluralist industrial relations similarly form a resilient normative agenda hence generating a balance amid the competing welfare in the employment relationship. Social, organizational, and individual results beyond productivity or efficiency are therefore significant nature of industrial relations scholarship (Heery 2016.). While propelled by discrimination experienced in the twentieth-century employment relationship, these logical normative matters and views still remain very significant for the employment relationship.

Conclusion

Plural, radical and unitary perspectives have great relevance in industrial relations. Whereas the unitary approach claims that members share common interests and values, the pluralist perspective emphasizes more on collective bargaining and compromising and the radical approach argues that there is likely to be conflicts between employers and their workforce due to capitalism. However, these perspectives do not rule in the current labor market, but a modern orthodox under the assuring enterprise deceived human resource management (Keller & Platzer 2018). For managers to be under full control at the workplaces they need to adopt commitment and enhanced motivation at the organization hence triggering high performance. Generally, conflicts experienced in the workplace are utterly unavoidable but what matters is how they get handled. Trade unions are meant to resolve the clashes between the employer and the employee but there are specific issues, set aside specifically for management to handle. These three perspectives present their views on the industrial relations, but their endurance is determined by the culture of the society and how those involved understand and interpret them. The most crucial thing, in this scenario, is an equilibrium that serves to maintain steadiness in the workplace and ensure the satisfaction of every party involved.

Reference list

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Cradden, C., 2011. Unitarism, pluralism, radicalism… and the rest?.

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POST-TRUTH ERA AND JOURNALISM CRISIS Introduction The journalism industry is in crisis

POST-TRUTH ERA AND JOURNALISM CRISIS

Introduction

The journalism industry is in crisis as the contemporary world evolves leaving the industry fighting for its life. After the inflation adjustment in 2000 and in 2012, most media houses and newspapers lost billions in their annual advertising revenues. The newspaper traditionally relied on revenue from advertisements which provided over 80% of the total income. The reduction in revenue resulted in the companies laying off some of its employees to cut on the expenses. With the collapse in the advertising model in newspapers, the public has been left with less coverage of public reaches and foreign news. The media is in trouble and the trust in the press in at its lowest moment. In the post-truth era of fake news, the audience is forced to filter and choose what they believe is the right information. The issue has affected the existence of journalism in a broad way. This proposal intends to have an intensive look at the post-truth era while analyzing the crisis facing journalism through review of the various literature with the aim of having an in-depth understanding of what exactly is happening and what should be done in an attempt to rescue journalism existence.

Background

In the past journalism was something that was unknown to many. The information took a long time before getting to the citizens. The news was something that people had little knowledge about. The media devices were limited, and those privileged to own did not also receive information as it occurred. The radio as the major tool of broadcasting was owned by a few people in the society. People would gather around that one radio to get information and news of what was happening around the country. The newspaper was also scarce. Although media in America and other civilizations dates back to the early1900s, it came into effective functioning in the 1950s. However, the situation has since changed with the evolving of the world and advancement in technology.

In most nations globally journalism is part and parcel of the modern life. Newspapers, magazines bring the news to the world as well as the delights of the day to the people right at their doorsteps. Radio news and internet ensures the people on the go can get the information right in the comfort of their cellular phones. Televisions links sound with picture relay information in their regular news coverage broadcast or at any time there is breaking news. A simple click of the website takes the browser across the globe in search of the news they need. Journalism and the broad array of mass communication tools have led the world to the modern state it is in currently. Citizens in the developed and developing countries have so much to hear, see, read and click that it at times becomes difficult to process the information sieving from the true news and the fake news.

As technology advances with the media and journalism sector broadening, there are other issues that come along that are a threat to the existence of journalism. The news media is in trouble and is on the brink of collapse. The trust in the press is becoming low as days go by. The issue becomes even complicated with the threat of existential issues. In the post-fact age of fake news, the audiences are forced to cherry pick the information they feel match their own biases dismissing the rest. The news media has since fallen to the edge where it seems to have lost its power in shaping the public opinion.

A few decades ago, people worried that the press had too much power. The media laid a straitjacket on the national discussion. The news was determined by the few media corporations that had the resources to enable them to reach to the mass audience. There existed a huge barrier to the entry in the independent mass media stations. The business model relied on the national brand advertisers, and they did not support publication or airing of stories they felt were distasteful or controversial. The journalists relied highly on the cooperation of sources ranked as paramount which prevented publication of information that seemed oppositional. The material for the broadcast had to pass through a lot of filters leaving only that which they felt was clean enough for the public audience. The result of the filter was false and ignored the outlying ideas, voices of the people and existing facts.

However, the situation after various critiques changed and the media gained freedom. National brand gave way to automated exchanges that place their advisement on thousand online sites regardless of the content they display. Politicians and political parties no longer rely on a journalist to relay information and reach their audiences, but instead, they can reach them through a simple online presence via the many social media platforms. The ability to reach the national audience has been made an individual case with everyone being able to reach them at all times. There is nothing that prevents fringe arguments and ideas from getting to the audience and also from spreading. The technology has enabled filtration of all forms of information to the hands of people via their mobiles phones and computers. The mainstream media is slowly diffusing to the online space. The trend has been increasing since the dawn of the internet, but it has since been overcharged by the social media.

Literature Review

For many people consuming of the news is an easy task. Individuals can read news from their phone at any place, see what stories their friends have to share on Facebook and other social media platforms and also listen to news from the podcast as they run their errands. The number of media outlets, social media posts and blogs are increasing by the day. Despite the journalism crisis, for many information has never been plentiful and accessible. According to Gasher et al. (2016), the media crisis is not a financial issue as many would wish to think. The percentage of people receiving news daily is still high with the efficiency in terms of delivery and frequency being high than in the past (Siles & Boczkowski, 2012). In addition, less than half of the people receiving the news have heard, seen or read about the journalism organization facing a financial crisis (Wechsler, 2017).

The financial crisis in journalism gained momentum in America’s presidential campaigns in 2016 as the newsroom chased profits and propagation of unprofessional news sources were exploited for despicable purposes. Simultaneously, sensational and misinformation news articles spread through hyper partisan news sites as well as the social media. The media houses were in the forefront of the electioneering period with the aim of making the greatest profit from it. They, however, did not put in consideration the news they were feeding to the citizens. Although it is tempting to believe that some of the news was mere propaganda and fake, it is likely to have been believed by some of the people. Barthel, Mitchell, & Holcomb, (2016) argue that a good percentage of adults believe that made up news has caused a great deal of confusion about the basic facts of the events occurring in the period leading to misinformed decisions.

The political economy plays a paramount role in the journalism industry. The political and economic interest influences the allocation of resources at the media houses as well as influencing the regulatory system of the media. Baker (2007) argues that the media markets are controlled by oligopolies which reduces the competition and diversity while inflating the consumer prices. The deregulation of the media industry has played a critical role in the diminishing of the potential benefits of the internet and a healthy local news system (McChesney, 2003). Political economy has a better position in challenging the crisis facing journalism with emphasis placed on the importance of engaging interventions that promote the democratic goals. A central focus of the political economy has a great effect on the news that gets to the consumers. Besides the profits that come along with the political coverages, the media can use the situation to ensure the public knows what exactly is happening in the country. However, that is not the case as the journalist is after the profits and the information that reaches the audience is dependent on the location and the political background of the area. The post-truth era has influenced journalism a great deal as the once feared political influence in terms of giving the public the plain truth has changed with them feeding them with what they want to hear and what is beneficial to them (Wasko, 2012).

The gap between public relations and journalist has been widening with many newspaper journalists being laid off. The number of journalists represents the actual number of people whose livelihood depend on the salaries and job security. Journalism crisis is bound to affect the career path of the current journalists as well as the potential journalists. The salaries have been greatly affected by inflation it the past years. Coupled with the reduction in the number of journalists, it means that the ration of journalists to public relation specialist has widened. In their study, McChesney and Nichols (2010), argue that as the number of staff in the editing if the news decreases the less able, the media becomes in the interrogation and also in the counter of claims in the press release. News coverage is a function of many factors. The well-staffed and equipped media house is likely to have a broad scope in the news. However, the case has been different with the reduction of a number of staff in the media houses. This brings a crisis as the remaining staff is overworked and also the coverage is not as intense and extensive as it ought to be. The journalists and media houses have been stripped off the power to have well-researched news owing to the insufficient personnel which has ultimately led to the rise in the post-truth menace in the sector.

The rise of the digital websites has greatly affected the traditional journalism. Individuals are increasingly getting news and other information from the websites which only publish online (Williams, 2016). There is the assumption that with the laying off of journalists from the print media, they are resulting in using the online websites to produce the information. However, this may not be the case. The digital outlets are independent bodies that seem to be overtaking the newspaper coverage. With the advancement of technology and the era of industrialization, people have been occupied in their daily lives in search of a better life. This has drastically reduced the free time that people initially had. The time to sit down and have a read of the newspaper or to watch news from the television or listen to radio news has been used in other things. People have resulted in using alternative sources of information. According to William (2016), online sources of information are gaining popularity due to the scarcity of tie from the public. The online platforms are of the busy schedule of the public have employed the tactic of producing scanty news in form of outlines. This leaves the public with less coverage and understanding of the information. The rise of the digital media has also paved way for the increase in the fake news all over the internet. Gone are the days where there was media censorship from the government. The freedom that the media houses have is leading to an increase in the fake news all over the internet. With the easy access to the internet, the filtration of the news to the public is much easier.

The developments in the journalism industry have overturned the business logic drove the journalists towards their career accord. In the past, there were only a few national media houses, and each competed to attract its audience. However, with the increase in the news sources, the audiences have shifted to following the sources that seem to favour and flow in line with their interests. The media has changed with their main interest being achieving the passionate positions instead of alluring the audiences to a broad sector of the political opinion. The outlets instead of captivating the viewers, they are always hunting down for new ones. They focus on recruiting of audiences rather than inheriting them. These trends have been in place since the dawn of the internet but over the past few years, they were supercharged as social media. Facebook among the social media platforms has emerged as a major news source. The media professionals who in the past had the power to steer conversations has vanished. Before the birth of social media, a news editor had the final say to which stories were to be published and which were not to get to the general public. They also dictated where the information would appear in the newspapers. However, the case has since changed in the contemporary world. Today, the readers have assumed the editorial role where an editor can publish a story, but if no one shares it, it might never be published.

The people employed to inform the public about events and news for magazines, television, newspapers and radio has continuously been reducing. The trend of the readers being the publishers have changed the traditional way of news creation and reporting. The best way to get them to share the story is by appealing to their feelings. The system has changed from a business model to a system that pumps up conflict and outrage. The number of people using the social media in sharing of information has increased drastically increasing the amount fake news at the disposal of the public. The public has been on the receiving end of the increased Facebook news which increases the chance of them being deceived or making the wrong decisions as far as the news is concerned. As the journalism sector evolves, everything changes. Good journalism is meant to enable the public to understand the changes and why they are happening.

Methodology

The journalism industry is at a crisis that has been largely affected by the post-truth era. The industry today faces threats in its existence with its future being untold. The research is intended to define at the broad extent the issue of fake news while discussing on the crisis that the sector is in currently. The study is aimed at looking into the future of journalism and as such requires an in-depth study of previous literature in an attempt to understand the root cause of the problem while looking for a possible solution. The methodology likely to fit in the research is one that adds volume to previous literature related to the topic of study. The methodology used is credible when conducting social research by following the outlined procedures, the findings are bound to be justifiable and can be easily evaluated in future studies on the same. The sources utilized in the review of literature will be properly referenced to avoid cases of plagiarism and also to provide readers with materials for further readings.

The study model chosen for the research was modelled to ensure that the data collected is satisfactory I answering the research questions. To avoid the preconceived perception in journalism and post-truth era, the study will adopt a two-stage approach to the gathering of information. First, it will gather general information from the secondary sources of the journalism crisis and secondary the review of relevant literature in line with the topic of study. The study will use credible information sources which include reports, government publication, credible articles among other peer-reviewed articles. The sources should have been published in accordance with the highest standards. The sources should be published in English and should be less than thirty years old. The secondary sources used will help in shading more light on the topic with the main interest on the current issues in the journalism industry.

Secondary data is the information collected by other researchers not necessarily to answer the thesis in question but relevant to it. The form of data collection is advantageous as it requires a short time to gather the relevant information required for the study. The secondary sources are more detailed and readily available. The researcher is required to gather information in accordance with the area of study which will be used in the set study. After the identification of the relevant information, it is studied further to provide a literature review to summarize the information obtained from the selected sources. I using secondary sources of data, the author acknowledges that the information was collected from other studies other than the current study. With this in mind, the researcher should carry deep scrutiny on the information to ensure it is relevant to the study. It is also critical to give credit where due to the initial owner of the information by providing references where necessary. The secondary sources of data should also be examined in terms of objectivity, timeliness, biases and also for authenticity.

References

Baker, C. E. (2007). Media concentration and democracy: Why ownership matters. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Barthel, M. (2017, June 1). Newspapers fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/factsheet/newspapers/ Barthel, M.,

Mitchell, A., & Holcomb, J. (2016, December 15). Many Americans believe fake news is sowing confusion. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2016/12/15/many- americans-believe-fakenews-is-sowing-confusion/

Gasher, M., Brin, C., Crowther, C., King, G., Salamon, E., & Thibault, S. (Eds.). (2016). Journalism in crisis: Bridging theory and practice for democratic media strategies in Canada. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.

McChesney, R. W. (2003). The problem of journalism: A political economic contribution to an explanation of the crisis in contemporary U.S. journalism. Journalism Studies, 4(3), 299– 329.

McChesney, R. W., & Nichols, J. (2010). The death and life of American journalism: The media revolution that will begin the world again. Philadelphia, PA: Nation Books.

Siles, I., & Boczkowski, P. J. (2012). Making sense of the newspaper crisis: A critical assessment of existing research and an agenda for future work. New Media & Society, 14(8), 1375–1394.

Wasko, J. (2012). Studying the political economy of media and information. Comunicação e Sociedade, 7, 25–48.

Wechsler, S. (2017). Canadian news consumers unaware of financial strain on the industry. Retrieved from http://ryersonjournalism.ca/2017/02/07/canadian-news-consumers- unaware-of-financialstrain-on-the-industry/

Williams, A. T. (2016, September 27). Employment picture darkens for journalists at digital outlets. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved from https://www.cjr.org/business_of_news/journalism_jobs_digital_decline.php

Leeds University Business School Success Criteria Assessment banding for Level M (Masters)

Leeds University Business School

Success Criteria

Assessment banding for Level M (Masters)

The marking guidelines below indicate the quality of work expected for the award of a particular grade. Tutors will take these guidelines into account when grading submitted work. These are not minimum criteria which must be met in all respects in order to gain a particular grade, but are indicative of the general standard of work expected at each level.

Assessment banding for Level M (Masters) – FAIL (pass mark 50)

0 – 39

40 – 48*

Coverage

(range and understanding of sources; synthesis and focusing of ideas on the topic)

Limited range of ideas; shows weak acquaintance with sources; ideas unfocused.

Evidence of reading in the field; identification of some pertinent issues; some superficiality in treatment of the topic.

Investigation /Research

(questions; rationale; theoretical background; data collection methods; critical analysis; implications)

Research questions unclear; rationale weak; theoretical background very limited; research methods not well-chosen or misapplied; analysis sketchy or unjustified by data; implications asserted or untenable.

Basic research questions; limited rationale; some theoretical background attempted; research methods adequate; analysis attempted but may lack depth; some implications examined.

Analysis

(organisation/coherence of argument; support through example/detail/ quotations/references/ experience; critical approach)

Disjointed organisation; unsupported arguments; little use of relevant experience; descriptive and without critical analysis.

Appropriate organisation; some evidence of understanding of ideas and ability to relate ideas and experience; mainly descriptive with limited attempt at critical judgement.

Presentation

(length; use of academic conventions; spelling, grammar, paragraphing etc; layout; proof-reading)

Length requirements not observed; use of unattributed material; incomplete referencing; presentation consistently marred by language errors affecting comprehensibility; inadequate proof-reading.

Length requirements observed; basic command of academic conventions; some errors in proof-reading and editing; presentation occasionally marred by language errors affecting comprehensibility.

* a mark of 49 is not used, a clear decision as to whether the work is a pass (mark 50) or a fail shall be made

Assessment banding for Level M (Masters) – PASS (50-59); MERIT (60-69); DISTINCTION (70+)

50 -59

60 -69

70 – 79

80+*

Coverage

(range and understanding of sources; synthesis and focusing of ideas on the topic)

Shows acquaintance with and understanding of key concepts and issues from a range of sources; ideas synthesised and related to the topic.

Competent coverage of major sources; shows depth of understanding of the topic; relationships between ideas cogently made.

Thorough coverage of sources; evidence of scholarship in understanding and synthesis of ideas.

Comprehensive coverage of sources; evidence of extensive research and original thinking in understanding and synthesis of ideas; integration of materials from the programme and other sources.

Investigation

/Research

(questions; rationale; theoretical background; data collection methods; critical analysis; implications)

Research questions clearly stated; rationale for research given; some relation to underlying theories established; research methods appropriate; some critical analysis of data; appropriate implications drawn from the study.

Perceptive identification of research questions; cogent, theoretically-based rationale; good research design with critical critically applied; critical analysis of data; careful appraisal of implications.

:Perceptive identification of research questions; critical appreciation of underlying theory and rationale; appropriate research design, carefully and critically applied; insightful and critical analysis of data; critical interpretation of implications.

Perceptive identification of research questions; full appreciation of underlying theory and rationale; clear rationale for the research design selection, having considered alternatives; insightful and critical analysis of data; critical interpretation of implications with evidence of originality in the conclusions.

Analysis

(organisation/coherence of argument; support through example/detail/ quotations/references/ experience; critical approach)

Ideas organised and grouped into a coherent argument; use of examples / detail / quotations / references / experience to support argument; some critical analysis of ideas/ evidence; limited appraisal of implications.

Critical review and synthesis of ideas; coherent, realistic and well-supported argument; insightful use of personal ideas and experience; perceptive appraisal of implications.

Systematic critical questioning of received ideas and suggestion of alternative perspectives; thorough, well-supported analysis; insightful evaluation and discussion of implications.

Systematic critical analysis of received ideas and creative consideration of alternative perspectives; well-supported in-depth analysis; insightful evaluation and discussion; clear evidence of reflection; excellent use of examples.

Presentation

(length; use of academic conventions; spelling, grammar, paragraphing etc; layout; proof-reading)

Length requirements observed; appropriate use of academic conventions; accurate spelling, grammar etc.; careful proof-reading.

Competent control of length; skilled use of academic conventions; almost all errors eliminated in proof-reading.

Concise and effectively argued, within the length allowed; skilled use of academic conventions; accurate proof-reading.

Exceptionally clearly and cogently argued within the constraints imposed by the word limits; skilled use of academic conventions; accurate proof-reading.

80+ marks shall be awarded for answers which are outstanding for Masters level students. In addition to meeting all the descriptors for the 70-79 category, answers shall excel in at least one or more of the four areas of Coverage; Investigation/Research; Analysis; Presentation, as indicated within the 80+ assessment banding.