1.Integrate the concepts of leadership presented in this course with faith and learning
2.Examine the concepts of leadership from both the historical and organizational perspectives *
3.Compare and contrast the functions of leadership and management
Your Last Name 1 American Writer American writers have a long and
Your Last Name 1
American writers have a long and illustrious history, with some of the world’s most famous authors among them. Plays, novels, and poems are the main writing in the United States, with an increasing number of women, Native Americans, Hispanics, and African Americans making a significant contribution. Since the beginning of American literature in 1607, it has evolved through four periods (realism, naturalism, and postmodern). Due to this evolution, these four periods will be discussed to reveal who is an American writer during each movement.
In American literature, realism refers to the period from the civil war until the century when American writers wrote fiction dedicated to accurate representation and exploration of American lives in different contexts. Due to the rapid growth of the United States after the civil war, there was an increase in literacy and democracy, population increase caused by immigration, and rapid development of industrialism and urbanization. This significant shift in the U.S. led to a comparative rise in middle-class fortunes to provide a fertile literacy environment for readers interested in understanding the rapid culture change. To satisfy the increasing number of readers, American writers had similar writing characteristics to what was happening and is likely during the realism period and in the future. While writing, they used different literary realism such as social, magical, kitchen sink, socialist, and psychological realism.
In Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offenses essay, Mark Twain uses psychological realism to criticize James Fenimore Cooper’s writing. Twain starts by quoting a few critics who have supported the work of Cooper. The main issue with the supporters is that they do not have the novels because Cooper’s work is inaccurate. Twain argues that Cooper has achieved 114 out of a potential 115 infractions towards literary art in one location in Deerslayer and the limited span of two-thirds of a page. Further on, Twain list 18 different literacy offenses that he feels were committed by Cooper. One violated literacy that governs romantic fiction is “That a tale shall accomplish something and arrive somewhere (Twain 1343).” This rule was violated as Deerslayer did not accomplish anything, and it arrived in the air. The criticism provided by Twain in the essay shows that he was an American writer as they are based on real things that can happen in life.
Additionally, Booker T. Washington qualifies to be an American writer as he used socialist realism to fight for African-Americans’ rights. Washington existed in the post-reconstruction era south, and during this time, it was challenging for black people. Racial segregation was widespread during this time, such that black people had no right to vote, education, and access to jobs. During this time Ku Klux Klan started to advocate for their civil rights. This led to Washington delivering his most famous speech on 18th September 1985, where he told Whites that African-Americans needed self-improvement, whereby common labor should be dignified and glorified. Additionally, Washington felt that it was better for blacks and whites to remain separated as long as the black community had access to education, economic progress, and justice within the U.S judiciary. This speech led him to have a rivalry with W.E.B. Du Bois rejected his demands on the address (Washington 1763). All these Washington’s beliefs and rivalry with W.E.B Du Bois qualified him to be an American writer as he was writing about what was happening to him and people of his race.
In Native American Assimilation and a Reemerging Tradition, Francis Parkman shows that he is an American writer of social realism to narrate the behavior of tribes of people after colonization. He tells about the first group of people who get easily assimilated and forget about their culture and shift to the colonizers’ practices. The second group he describes is the Indians, who demonstrate great strength in continuing their cultural practices after colonization (Parkman 1322). This group is strictly unwilling to change regardless of being forced by their colonizers. Additionally, in the same reading, President Andrew Johnson is realistic as a leader during the era when people were brought assimilated to Christianity. In the reading, he sent a message to Congress demanding immediate execution by the sword for people who rejected civilization (Johnson 1322). Parkman and Johnson are writing about realities during the realism period, making them American writers.
Naturalism refers to thought made to glorify nature and exclude spiritual and supernatural elements with close adherence to the spirit in literature. Towards the 19th century, American writers shifted from realism to naturalism because it was more advanced. Additionally, naturalism was progressive as it was more detailed than realism to suggest inescapability forces of heredity, environment, and social conditions that shape human character. The main reason for shifting was to bring new ideas to convince the reading public with something new and modern. For an individual to qualify to be an American writer during the naturalism period, they should have been influenced by Charles Darwin’s evolution theory. In addition to influence, there were determinism, objectivism, pessimism, and a surprising twist at the end of the story.
Edith Wharton is considered an American writer due to naturalist traits in her writing. She was born during Civil War into New York’s aristocracy and lived through turbulent changes in the American society of the late 19th and 20th centuries (Wharton 1747). Due to the skills she acquired as an anthropology and philosophy student, Wharton presents literary situations and characters that show America’s changing social customs shifting from a mercantile society to an industrial one. Wharton’s keen sense of observation character sheds light on the human moral experience. Additionally, she has characters who are usually tragic figures for those who seek freedom but are incapable of changing forces that hinder them from their fates. Further on, Wharton has the role of social historian that depicts the likelihood of environment and heredity to suppress and capture individuals pursuing self-determination. Her precise observation of society and the focus on its deciding influence on the course of human existence places Wharton in a unique position leading to being a naturalist.
Jack London is considered one of the greatest and most popular naturalists among American writers. He was among the first writers to shift to realistic fiction and realism in American literature. His qualification to be an American Writer was due to his profound influence from Darwin’s works of constant struggle in nature and the survival of the fittest. For instance, in his novel The Call of the Wild, he ultimately shows philosophical naturalism (London 1838). The novel’s plot involves previous domestication and a pampered dog called Buck, whose ancient instincts return after numerous events. To show naturalism’s character, the environment plays a crucial role in the novel. The analysis of the book reveals that the environment controls the life of dogs and wolves. This is a clear indication that London has a deep understanding of the environment through expressing naturalism. Due to naturalism expression in the novel, London qualifies to be an American writer in that era.
Although Edwin Arlington Robison was a famous poet, he qualifies to be an American writer as some of his work was about personal life. Unlike other poets, Robison dared to write about his doomed sense of life (Robison 1805). Additionally, in one of his most famous poems Richard Cory, he evaluates the world-warping pitfalls that involve knowing other people’s minds. In the poem, a chronicles sequence of assumptions made by a tragic chorus comprised of the impoverished residents of a tiny hamlet, perceiving and speaking collectively. Further on, the poem narrates that the locals are envious of Cory’s affluence, gentlemanly demeanor, and “human” affability. Finally, they implicitly project stability and contentment onto someone who, much to their surprise, returns home “one quiet July night” to “place a bullet through his skull.” This is a precise fulfillment of determinism characteristics making Robinson an American writer.
In the early 20th century, western countries experienced intensified advances in science and technology, leading to unprecedented progress. Additionally, World War I destructions and great depressions caused widespread suffering in America. All these contradictory impulses revolve around the modernism period, which is usually a radical break from the past. This break was characterized by destruction because it led to the loss of faith in traditional beliefs and structures. Due to contradictory impulses in the modernism period, it is considered one of the most productive and richest in American literature. Literary modernism allowed writers to express themselves more practically than realism and naturalism. During this period, for individuals to be American writers, they possessed characteristics such as experimentation, individualism, multiple perspectives, free verse, and literary devices.
The south writers of Cultural Portfolio: The Southern Renaissance qualify to be American writers as they possess some of the characteristics contained in modernism. Before the renaissance, Southern writers focused on historical romance, such as the lost cause of the confederate states of America. Historical romance aimed to glorify the heroism of the confederate army and civilians who were present during the Civil War and World War I. However, after the Southern Renaissance, they shifted to addressing three significant themes in their works. The first theme was the burden of history, whereby many people still remembered military defeat, reconstruction, and slavery. The second was to concentrate on the conservative culture of the Southern primarily to ensure that an individual would exist without losing their sense of identity in the religion, family, and community. The final theme was to approach the troubled history south concerning racial issues. This shift of their works depending on themes made them pose the characteristic of experimentation leading to south writers of the Cultural Portfolio: The Southern Renaissance to be American writers.
Additionally, Zitkala-Sa had modernist characteristics such as experimentation, individualism, and multiple perspectives. First, the experimentation characteristics are identified in The Representative Indian, where her central theme is despondency and Isolation; she felt like an outsider in a school populated with whites. Secondly, individualism is the Coming-of-Age story where she starts by narrating about herself as a young girl leaving her family to go to the east in school. The story continues by saying what she expects as she will be living in school. Finally, multiple perspectives are in the collection of Indian stories where she uses first-person perspective with numerous characters to show changing world (Zitkala-Sa 1850). All the characteristics depicted by Zitkala-Sa in her works make her an American writer.
The author of Native Son, Richard Wright, qualifies to be an American characteristic of the modernism movement. First, the book uses literary devices such as symbolism and imagery. The rat symbolizes many things in the book, such as greed, disaster, and inner thoughts. On the other hand, the author uses imagery to describe the case where Thomas kills Mary Dalton, the daughter of his white employer. Secondly, the experimentation character is used because the book has themes such as racism, crime and justice, communism and capitalism, anger and charity and death, life’s purpose, and the will to live. Therefore, literacy devices and experimentation characteristics make Wright an American writer.
The authors of poems in the Poems and Stories qualify as American writers because they have modernism period characteristics. The main feature identified in all the poems is the use of free verses. All the other poems in the reading have rejected the traditional structure of poetry and adopted the use of free verses where there is no consistent metrical pattern, rhyme scheme, and musical form. On the other hand, the story Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston shows that he was an American writer because he possessed experimentation characteristics. The story has themes such as domestic abuse, Christianity, hard work vs. entitlement, and race and class to justify this characteristic. Therefore, all authors in the Poems and Stories were American writers.
The letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr. qualifies him to be an American writer as it possesses characteristics of American literature in the Modernism period. First, King used literary devices such as alliteration, where he repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words in a sentence. For example, “The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward the goal of political independence, and we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward the gaining of a cup of coffee at a lunch counter (King 2487).” He used other literary devices were a metaphor, allusion, imagery, and personification. The second character was experimentation, where his letter had themes such as racism, Christianity and morality, extremism vs. moderation, and justice. Due to these two characteristics, King qualified to be an American writer.
The postmodernism period occurred immediately after the end of the modernism movement. It was mainly inspired by the end of World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, the civil rights movement, and Vietnam War. Due to this series of events writing was influenced, and it started to display materialism, diversity, and pride seen in entire America. During this period, authors began to describe new technology and daily life. For individuals to qualify to be American writers in the postmodern period, they should concentrate on the present and future because American Literature is still evolving.
In the early stage of postmodernism, some postmodernists conflicted with the system change and expressed their confusion, fears, and anxieties through their art. They later became members of the counter culture were the beats. Their main aim was to be vocal about free speech, sexual liberation, resisting Christian ideals and industrialization harms, and political wars. During this time, Allen Ginsberg was one of the prominent leaders. He used persuasive language, especially in Howl, even leading other members of the beat to be forgotten. Additionally, he made his way to the 70s counter-culture generation. Ginsberg’s profane language to touch on issues like madness, freedom, and alienation from society made Howl a sensation when initially published in 1957 (Ginsberg 2444). The message delivered in Ginsberg’s publication in 1957 shows that he was an American writer because he had written what was happening then and in the future.
Tony Kushner was born in 1956 in New York and raised in a Jewish Family. In the 1960s, Kushner burst into the American theatrical scene with brilliant exuberance and political engagement (Kushner 2738). Additionally, his play American Angels: Millennium Approaches depicts the A.I.D.s crisis, which was common in the 1980s and affected a group of characters living in New York during the height of the pandemic (Kushner 2739). This play shows postmodernism of what was happening in the 1980s, and in the future, A.I.D.s are still affecting numerous people worldwide. Kushner qualifies to be an American writer, from appearing in acting scenes to writing a play relevant to current and future generations.
She inspired Rita Dove’s wide reading, leading to her excelling in school. She was one of the 100 high school graduates receiving a presidential scholarship from attending Miami University in Oxford as a National Merit Scholar (Dove 2674). Dove obtained a Fulbright to study at the University of Tübingen in West Germany after graduation. She earned an M.F.A. at the Iowa Writers’ Workshop, where she met her husband, German writer Fred Viebahn. She started her writing career in 1980 with a collection of The Yellow House on the corner. This reading was widely praised for its historical sense combined with individual details. The book reveals the beginning of a long and productive profession as well as announcing the development of a continuous distinctive style. Her works, such as Thomas and Beulah, on the Bus with Rosa Parks, and Sonata Mulattica, have postmodernist characteristics. They treat events with a personal touch to address her grandparents’ life and marriage in the 20th century, the forgotten career of Black Violinist, and the triumph of the civil rights era. Since her work depicts postmodernist traits, Dove qualifies to be an American writer.
American writers change over time depending on the period they exist. They started with realism writers until they developed to the last stage of postmodernism. All the stages of evolution are differentiated by the characteristics that define their writers. If individuals do not have the factors determining the American writers in that movement, they do not qualify to be American writers. Therefore, to be an American Writer in a particular period, an individual had to fulfill the characteristics that defined that period.
HEALTHCARE POLICYMAKING 2 Healthcare Policymaking Student’s Name University Course Professor Date Healthcare
Please answer each question in detail, and follow the rubric attached: 1.Integrate the concepts of leadership presented in this Business Assignment Help HEALTHCARE POLICYMAKING 2
Focus Question 1
The ACA And the Controversy Surrounding It, Especially Among Some Republicans
When President Obama was elected in 2008, the Democrats achieved majority control of the House of Representatives and a majority in the US Senate. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed in 2010 without the approval of any Republicans in either the Senate and the House (Feldstein, 2018).Based on the partisan nature of the vote, Democrats have over the years felt obliged to support it while Republicans have continuously criticized the ACA (Meacham, 2020).Given the partisan nature of the ACA, it became a key issue in the 2012 congressional elections as the controversial law cost Democrats control of the House although they maintained majority in the Senate (Feldstein, 2018).The divided Congress meant that Democrats could not fix key issues that had arisen with the ACA as Republicans favoured repealing the legislation. Over the years, the ACA has experienced political struggles impacting its key programs.
1a. The Current Status of ACA And Its Achievements
The ACA is the most significant health policy passed since Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.Nonetheless, there has been much debate about the legislation. Unlike the ACA, members of both political parties supported Medicare and Medicaid (Feldstein, 2018). Given that the ACA did not get a similar bipartisan recognition, the legislation experiences a number of setbacks. Since its enactment, the ACA has been changed in several ways. From the enactment under President Obama and efforts to repeal it under President Trump has left many Americans confused about its current stature (Meacham, 2020). The ACA has remained in full force over the years and remains in effect. Since its enactment, ACA has three key objectives; promote affordable health coverage to many Americans, enlarge the Medicaid program and promote innovative health care delivery techniques meant to reduce healthcare costs (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), 2022). Despite political setbacks, the ACA has achieved some of its objectives. Since its enactment, the ACA has impacted several aspects of the delivery and financing of healthcare services (Feldstein, 2018). The complexity of the policy also entails imposing new types of taxes and severe reductions in healthcare provider payments to fund government subsidies for enlarging insurance coverage. One of the main achievements of the ACA is reducing the rate of uninsured people through Medicaid eligibility expansion. The legislation provides users with subsidies (premium tax credits) that reduce healthcare expenses for families with earnings between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty level [FPL] (HHS, 2022). The program has also expanded the Medicaid program to include all adults with earnings below 138% of the FPL.
1b. The Most Popular Initiative by the ACA
The most popular initiative by the ACA was reducing the number of uninsured. Generally, the ACA as effective in decreasing the rate of uninsured people from 41.1 million in 2013 to 27.5 million in 2016; hence,13.6 million Americans gained insurance (Feldstein, 2018). The number of uninsured as a percentage of the non-elderly population reduced from 15.3% to 10.1% during this period. Based on the administrative statistics, Medicaid enrollment increased by 13 million as of 2017, to 74 million and the exchanges increased to 9.1 million in 2016 and 9.9 million by 2017 (Feldstein, 2018). The ACA uses six strategies to address the issue of the uninsured (Meacham, 2020). First, it strives to expand the Medicaid eligibility from 100 to 138% of the FPL. About 74 million individuals are enrolled in Medicaid that is 68 million in Medicaid and 6 million in Children’s Health Insurance Program [CHIP] (Feldstein, 2018). The initiative is funded by the federal and state government matching funds.
Again, it imposes an employer mandate requiring all employers with 50 or more to provide their employees’ health insurance or pay a penalty. Moreover, the ACA provides tax credits to small employers to encourage them to purchase health coverage for their workers (Feldstein, 2018). It exempts employers with less than 50 staffs from the employer policies to motive them to purchase insurance for their employees. Furthermore, the legislation imposes an individual mandate to buy an insurance or pay a penalty for those aged between 18-64 years (Meacham, 2020). The individual mandate is meant to eradicate the free rider problem and ensure that the individual market risk pool is enlarged to include a large number of healthy adults to reduce the increasing medical costs incurred on the elderly population. Additionally, it permits needy kids up to the age of 26 to be included on their parent’s insurance (Feldstein, 2018). Finally, ACA provides income-based tax credits for use on newly created ACA insurance exchanges to Americans with earnings between 138-400% of the FPL.
1c. The Least Popular Initiatives by the ACA
Despite its success in reducing the high rate of the uninsured, some of its programs are least popular. These include the employer mandate, the individual mandate and the small business tax credit which have been ineffective in increasing insurance coverage (Feldstein, 2018). The employer mandate backed by sanctions failed to increase the employee’s coverage. Majority employees chose not to accept their employer’s coverage offers since their premium contribution and the deductible in the ACA-qualified plan exceeded their perceived benefits (Meacham, 2020). Employee would also have had to purchase separate coverage for their families and pay the full premium, plus bear an additional deductible costs (Feldstein, 2018).Once the employee declined the employer’s insurance offer, he could not buy subsidized health insurance on the exchanges (Feldstein, 2018).A number of studies indicate that the Act’s employer legislation was insufficient in reducing the rate of uninsured workers (Duggan et al., 2019).It is estimated that close of 3.7 million workers have been negatively impacted by these ACA guidelines.
The temporary small-business tax credits were an unsuccessful incentive for several small businesses to provide health coverage to their workers. The financial and administrative burden imposed on these parties was unbearable (Feldstein, 2018). Even though low-income employees whether in large or small firms still require affordable coverage, the ACA small business premium tax credit failed to reduce the rate of uninsured employees by any appreciable amount (Meacham, 2020). Similarly, several studies have indicated that the individual mandate by the ACA failed to increase insurance coverage (Frean et al., 2016). The Congressional Budget Office denoted that if these individual mandates were repealed, several people who had enrolled in Medicaid to avoid paying the tax penalty would disenroll.
2a. My Reflection on The Most Helpful Part of The Course
One of the key points in this course was the economic perspective of healthcare. Healthcare impacts the health of many communities and uses a huge portion of the country’s resources (Feldstein, 2018). According to Feldstein (2018), the most effective way to comprehend healthcare is through an economic viewpoint. The course has thus enhanced my skills in understanding the economic perspective of the U.S healthcare system. I have been able to examine the efficacy of various healthcare programs like the ACA, Medicaid and Medicare in economic terms. Moreover, I have greatly benefited from the policymaking process outlined by Meacham (2020) which has been a backbone of this course. As a health professional, I have been able to comprehend the policymaking process which is essential in achieving some healthcare objectives. In healthcare, policymaking is critical since it exerts some influence thus enhancing healthcare services delivery.
2b. My Reflection of The Least Important Part of The Course
Policymaking especially in healthcare is a critical mandate to enhance the wellbeing of Americans. Nonetheless, policy makers and economists have over the years failed to incorporate the complexity of human factors and the systems in which their reside into the policymaking process. Hence, decision makers have failed to fact in individual factors that interact in different ways as key determinants of health in the community.
2c. My Reflection on The Texts
The two texts by Feldstein (2018) and Meacham (2020) were effective in the course. I his book, Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective, a famous author Paul J. Feldstein outlines the factors that inform reforms in healthcare and outlines why the public health system has emerged to its present state (Feldstein, 2018).In its 38 chapters, the book covers several elements of the American health structure including health insurance, medical care costs, physician and nursing shortages, Medicare and Medicaid, malpractice reform, health school admittance and prescription drug prices and several others. Particularly, the article incorporates data about the most important health laws passed in recent years-the Affordable Care Act (Feldstein, 2018). Hence, the text provides quality knowledge about the U. S’s health policies.
On the other hand, Meacham (2020) in the book the Longest’s Health Policymaking in the United States, provides an insight into health policymaking procedures upon which the government impacts the need of health across America. In its 10 chapters, the book provides an overview on wellness, health determinants and related policies, the process of policymaking community health, the role of federal and state governments and different components of policymaking (Meacham, 2020). The text thus builds our understanding in policymaking in American public health systems.
Duggan, M., Goda, G. S., & Jackson, E. (2019). The effects of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage and labor market outcomes. National Tax Journal, 72(2), 261-322.
Feldstein, P. J. (2018). Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective (7th Edition). Health Administration Press. https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781640550100.
Frean, M., Sommers, B. D., & Gruber, J. (2016). Disentangling the ACA’s coverage effects—lessons for policymakers.
Meacham, M. R. (2020). Longest’s Health Policymaking in the United States, Seventh Edition (7th Edition). Health Administration Press. https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781640552128.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS). (2022, March 15). About the ACA. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/about-the-aca/index.html.
4 Experience in a Team Response Name Institution Course Tutor Date Experience
Experience in a Team Response
Experience in a Team Response
Response to First Student’s Post
The student is currently working independently, but their previous experience working in a team framework taught them some valuable skills. The teamwork experience occurred during the 2020 U.S. presidential election when they served at a voting site. Indeed, this was a momentous period because, in addition to being an election year, the country and the rest of the globe were dealing with an epidemic that radically altered how people worked and interacted with one another.
The student’s journey concentrates upon working in a diverse workforce, collaboratively working towards mutual objectives and the value of being guided by persons with management and supervisory expertise. The five-stage team-building method employed among most groups to help them become high-performing was one key point that the student elaborated on. The Bruce Tuckman-created stages include forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Tuckman’s thesis revolves around group cohesion and his conviction that all phases are required for a group to operate as efficiently as possible together to succeed (Calvello, 2021). Even though the theory is crucial in that it acknowledges that teams develop to perform via phases, the premise that the sequential periods are not completed in a specified time implies that the concept may not perform as projected. However, the paradigm may be used in social welfare to demonstrate how organizations can work together to achieve their maximum capabilities.
Response to Second Student’s Post
The student contributes to the argument that Tuckman’s hypothesis has certain shortcomings. The student believes that the team’s makeup and goals determine its success or failure. The student is currently employed by a program and project-based organization, and the group they are a part of is at the performance stage.
The fourth level of Tuckman’s five-stage group concept is performance. At this level, the individuals are completely engaged and ready to work; they quickly modify and adapt to changing circumstances and can solve key challenges collaboratively. Group identification, enthusiasm, and commitment are all elevated at this point. The student attributes the group’s success to effective communication, a common desire to achieve the organization’s objectives, team diversity, and competent and structured leadership. However, the team’s success is mainly because the team had previously worked collectively and was thus deemed dependable, with little to no external obligations and thus focused on productivity.
Calvello, M. (2021, April 21). 5 Stages of Team Development (and How to Navigate Them Smoothly). Fellow app. https://fellow.app/blog/management/stages-of-team-development-and-how-to-navigate-them-smoothly/