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Part 2: Inferential Statistics Our Study Has 11 RQs. RQs 1, 3, History Assignment Help Company

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HSM300 Human Service Professional Discussion Post assignment help sydneyCraft a response to the human service professional by first identifying the ethical dilemma and then providing them with some advice and/or solutions to their situation. Be sure to identify your assigned situation at the beginning of your post.
 
Situation for response: Situation 1
 
Our agency was built on volunteers. Many of our clients come into care, loving their experience with case management, and then want to volunteer. In a volunteer role they may participate in some our groups, so they can get some privileged information about other clients. They all sign confidentiality statements, but signing a statement for some people does not necessarily mean that they adhere to policies or standards.

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International Political Relations Discussion instant essay help: instant essay helpDiscussion represents a fundamental aspect of this hybrid course. As a matter of fact, it is important to interact with your peers and to create new discussions. Please share your comments and points of view about the TRUMAN DOCTRINE.
 
1) Read the material provided by Oct. 23 as per below:
 
 
How to Tell Fake News from Real News
Truman Doctrine
Kennan – What would he say today?
Collapse of the Soviet Union
My own material
2) Create a thread on the “Discussion Arena” on the topics already listed in the description by Oct. 23 (Truman Doctrine)
 
 
Discussions are fundamental for a hybrid course and affect the final grade as participation;
 
Please make sure to post comments inherent to the discipline describing situations or events how they are and not how they should be (try to avoid personal opinion or judgements);
 
3) Reply to at least two of your colleagues on the “Discussion Arena” by Oct. 25
 
 
Replies are fundamental for a hybrid course and affect also the final grade with reference to participation;
 
 
Please make sure to reply to comments in an appropriate manner trying to avoid personal interpretation;
 
BLUF – The attached GVPT Methology is the format for the final paper for this class while the GVPT

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Vegetation’s ability to consume CO2” (Amos) homework essay help 
Sparks 01  http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-41604760 Conner Sparks Professor, O’Neal  
GEOSC 100 – FYSci #7 October 12, 2017   CO2 levels in our atmosphere are now being monitored by an organization known as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO). Which track the responsiveness of gas emitted and absorbed throughout earth. “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) tracked the behavior of the gas in 2015/2016 – a period when the planet experienced a major El Niño event” (Amos).  
This past El Niño was the highest recorded in recent past. “El Niños occur when warm waters in the western Pacific periodically shift eastwards. This sets off a global perturbation in weather systems, redistributing rainfall and bumping up temperatures” (Amos). With direct evidence  
liking to global warming—this could be bad news for the Earth and every living organism that expresses different levels of fitness. Normally, excess amount of carbon dioxide is absorbed through forests’. Although, with wildfires spreading worldwide—decomposition of plant  
material—it makes this issue become more serious. Essentially, this past climate occurrence contributes abnormal amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere.   With excess amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere—it simply acts as a blanket. This gas based blanket continuously warms the Earth making matters worse. “It is a rate of increase not  
seen on Earth in at least 2,000 years” (Amos). With what I stated in the previous paragraph—
about the wildfires and decomposition being a serious matter. It certainly is, because during wildfires, all of the carbon that had been absorbed is now released back into the air—as well as when plants cannot survive, they decompose—which releases carbon dioxide into the air.  
Sparks 02  “In South America, it could show that the biggest drought in 30 years limited vegetation’s ability  
to consume CO2” (Amos). Here I have shown the direct links of how different regions of world  
can contribute to the grand scheme of things. On the other hand, we certainly have season fluctuations in photosynthesis—which is most definitely on our side (for this matter that is). These season fluctuations allow the dilution and redistribution of CO2 in our atmosphere. “The last major El Niño was 1997/8 and that was really just the start of the satellite tropospheric chemistry missions. We’re now sampling a lot of different variables and the real breakthrough comes when you tie all the information together. We’re not quite there yet, but this is a really good start” (Palmer).  

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West Nile Virus Summary Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:eduAPA Format
5 Pages Long with abstract
References are to be cited using the APA Style Manual. Write a research paper on either a chronic non-communicable disease or a communicable disease that is of great significance in the United States.
Be sure to include:
· Title page
· Introduction to the problem and its significance. Either a chronic non-communicable disease or a communicable disease that is of great significance in the United States.
· Description of burden of disease/distribution including the demographic of the population at risk.
· Describe prevalence and risk factors or protective factors (if any) for this disease.
· State what is currently done to prevent this disease or its progression in those affected? Each paper should reflect the application of knowledge and skill, and source credibility.
· Are there any screening programs to detect this disease early? If yes, please elaborate on the validity and reliability of the current screening tests.
· Are there any therapeutic drugs or treatment strategies in place for curing this disease? If yes, please elaborate on their effectiveness.
· Conclusion. State your recommendations on how to improve the preventive strategies for this population at risk.
· Reference page (not part of page count) use at least 5 scholarly sources; websites may be included but are not to be included as scholarly sources.
Please attach all scholarly sources.

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Strategic marketing in tourism and leisure assignment help sydney: assignment help sydneyWrite a 13 pages paper on strategic marketing in tourism and leisure. Initially, most forms of tourism planning were localized and site-specific, reflecting the rather limited horizons that originally characterized most patterns of tourism. But as the spatial range of tourists has become more extensive as mobility levels have increased, planning systems that are capable of co-ordinating development over regional and even national spaces have become more necessary.
Second, in view of the natural patterns of fragmentation within tourism, any systems that permit co-ordination of activity are likely to become essential to the development of the industry’s potential. This fragmentation is mirrored in the many different elements that are required to come together within a tourism plan, including accommodation, attractions, transportation, marketing and a range of human resources, and, given the diverse patterns of ownership and control of these factors in most destinations, a planning system that provides both integration and structure to these disparate elements is clearly of value. (Alan, 2005: 48-56) Planning systems (when applied in a marketing context) will also enable the promotion and management of tourism places and their products, once they are formed.
Third, as noted in the introduction to this paper, there are clear links between planning and principles of sustainability. Implicit in the concept of sustainable tourism is a range of interventions aimed not only at conserving resources upon which the industry depends but also at maximizing the benefits to local populations that may accrue through proper management of those resources. The commonest form of intervention is via a tourism development or management plan.
Fourth, planning can be a mechanism for the distribution and redistribution of tourism-related investment and economic benefits. This is a particularly important role for planning given that tourism is becoming an industry of global significance but one where activity does not fall evenly across different regions and where the spatial patterns of tourist preference are also prone to variation through time.

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Advantage of services provided by Amazon persuasive essay helpJust write 1 to 2 pages discussion , don’t need any cover or front pages but include references and peer-reviewed references with APA format.
 
Discussion deals with Cloud Computing and its concerns. The term Cloud Computing services refers to many things and many types of services. Generally speaking there is PaaS, SaaS, IaaS & MaaS. One of the biggest supplier of cloud computing services is Amazon. Amazon makes it possible for many organization to take advantage of it web portal services, so that these organizations do not have to develop their own capabilities. Companies like Kaplan and Unilever take advantage of services provided by Amazon.
 
An organization is contemplating cloud computing services, but is not sure at what level of service the organization should commit to. Based on your reading and your understanding, please provide which of the cloud services would you recommend and why. Please provide your justification for your recommendation.
Also provide any pros and cons that you might consider for the service you are recommending. Are there any legal considerations for cloud computing?
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Discussion: Spiritual Development compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay helpFurness and Gilligan (2010) stated, “There is a growing body of literature written predominantly for health professionals and more recently for social workers about the importance of developing and incorporating cultural and spiritual sensitivity and awareness in their work with others” (p. 2187). Spirituality, which may or may not include involvement with an established religion, contributes to human diversity and influences human behavior. An individual’s spirituality may be an important factor in his or her social environment. As a social worker, your awareness of a client’s spirituality may help increase your understanding of the client and his or her needs.
Sensitivity to and respect for your client’s spiritual dimension reflects your appreciation of diversity. As you consider the potential impact of your clients’ spirituality on their perspectives and behavior, you must also consider how your spirituality might influence your interactions with a client.
 
For this Discussion, you consider the impact of spirituality on your interactions with clients.
 
 
By Day 3
Post a Discussion in which you explain how considerations about clients’ worldviews, including their spirituality or religious convictions, might affect your interactions with them. Provide at least two specific examples. In addition, explain one way your own spirituality or religious convictions might support your work with a client, and one barrier it might present. Finally, share one strategy for applying an awareness of spirituality to social work practice in general.
 
 
 
Required Readings

Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA:  Cengage Learning.Chapter 3, Section “Relate Human Diversity to Psychological Theories” (pp. 130-132)Chapter 7, Sections “Review Fowler’s Theory of Faith Development,” “Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Fowler’s Theory,” and “Social Work Practice and Empowerment Through Spiritual Development” (pp. 350-354)Chapter 15, Section “Spotlight on Diversity 15.2: Spirituality and Religion” (pp. 694-696

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National Family Legal Foundation ccusa autobiographical essay helpComplete 12 pages APA formatted article: National Family Legal Foundation: To Be or not to Be. Early in 1995, a successful real estate developer in Arizona by the name of Charles Dunlap was invited to join a local nonprofit organization known as the National Family Legal Foundation. This organization, which began as a small group of concerned citizens in the 1950s, had dedicated itself to fighting the spread, creation, and distribution of pornographic materials. Specifically, the National Family Legal Foundation fought against the purveyors of child pornography. Although Dunlap held most of the qualities needed by the NFLF, he was less than enthusiastic about the organization and about the offer to join. Dunlap believed the organization to be lacking in influence, monies, and motivation: all key aspects to saving a previously prosperous and well-organized organization. Upon accepting the offer under the condition that he would remain on the Board of Directors for a one-year period, Dunlap realized just how disorganized and ineffective the National Family Legal Foundation had become. Dunlap came to realize that he must make a decision: to either allow the National Family Legal Foundation to cease functions and dissipate, or to come up with a plan to save the foundation.&nbsp.
The National Family Legal Foundation (NFLF) began as a small group known as the Citizens for Decent Literature (CDL). Charles Keating, a young and assertive lawyer in Cincinnati, started the group as a means to urge prosecutors to begin filing suits against those people who made a living through the publication and distribution of pornographic and other obscene materials–specifically, the purveyors of child pornography (Buntin, 1999). The Citizens for Decent Literature began in 1957. however, by 1967 the group had already grown into a national organization with more than 300 national chapters.
During the 1970s, Keating’s empire grew to include a real-estate development organization–the American Continental Corporation–in Phoenix, Arizona and later Lincoln Savings and Loans in Irvine, California.

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Psychology Letter assignment paper essay help site:eduImagine that you are departing on a 10-year voyage, leaving behind your pre-adolescent child. Your task is to compose a letter (500 words minimum) to help your imaginary child cope with the changes – biological due to puberty, cognitive, and social — that will soon occur and associated with these changes issues of identity, autonomy, and sexuality.

Make sure to provide information WHAT will soon occur at each ‘stage’ of adolescence (early, middle, and late adolescence), and what the child should (or shouldn’t) DO and WHY.

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Add Amazing Stickers And Text to your videos. college essay help online free: college essay help online freeInshot Pro is a fantastic image editing app for Android smartphones and tablets. It is developed by Insomus Inc., a Benelux-based company that provides high-quality editorial design solutions to publishers, graphic designers, and mobile app developers. You can download and install the Inshot Pro apk file on your Android phone/tablet and enjoy its remarkable collection of photo editing tools.
Inshot Pro is a powerful video editor. It allows you to create, edit, and save your images, then share them with your friends and family. This software is portable so that you can store it on your Mac, PC, or mobile device. There are many features, including basic editing and layers, professional effects, a GIF maker, and hundreds of different shapes, sizes, and types of photos. You can even add text and music to your pictures and share them with people all over the Internet.
Inshot is the most popular and advanced mobile portrait studio in the world today. The app has everything you need to create professional portraits and great mobile photos.
If you’re a photographer, you can’t afford to make mistakes. For example, if you’re shooting with a too dark camera, you can’t make a decent image. The same goes for your camera and your lens. If you use a lousy lens or don’t take the best shot possible, you can’t get a bad image. It’s the same with your Inshot Pro! Making mistakes on the web and social media is a sure way to get yourself into a world of trouble. The best thing
Inshot Pro is an excellent tool for photographers and anyone who wants to shoot Video. It allows you to add filters, effects, and textures to your Video. It’s perfect for creating titles, backgrounds, or color palettes for your videos.
An in-hot video editor is an excellent tool for anyone, whether an Active-Internet marketer, a blogger, or a freelancer. It can help you create calm and assertive ads for your blogs, websites, or social networking profiles. Also, InShot™ can be used as an app with Google AdWords and Bing Ads to generate traffic in your niche.
Features
There are a lot of different kinds of video editing software out in the market, each one geared towards a specific task or subject. So, if you’re interested in learning how to edit videos, you should try to find the software that best suits your own need. I’m not sure what the best video editing software is for you, but I am sure that the Inshot pro Apk version is best for editing videos.
Video editing
Most video editing software has an Interface that is not easy to use. If you’re trying to edit a video or play around with your videos on youtube, you may have to deal with the frustration that comes with the interface of a video editing tool. Users cannot easily maneuver the device to some presets, which can lead to a lot of frustration and frustration when it comes to creating and editing a video.
Inshot is a vital tool for home users and any business looking to create video content. It provides you with a lot of insight into what you can do with Video in the future and gives you a place to target your marketing. If you don’t consider yourself a video person, chances are you’ll be very pleasantly surprised by this industry.
We want to introduce our brand new Video Editing Feature to Inshot Pro Apk. You can put filters of your choice add stickers, texts, emojis, or doodles wherever you want. The video editing feature is available in the new Inshot Pro apk the latest version. You can try it by downloading the Inshot Pro mod file on our website.
If you’re looking to create a video blog, you will need a few things. First, you’ll need a computer that can do videos and it needs to be able to access a lot of internet resources. It would be best if you had an internet connection, as a big part of making a video blog is uploading and editing your videos.
Add Amazing Stickers And Text to your videos.
Lots of people love stickers. They are a quick and easy way to make your blog post-pop, and they’re also a great way to get some interaction from readers. Adding stickers to your posts is easy enough – follow these five steps. In some cases, you may want to add stickers to your photos to show a little bit more about them.
Or perhaps you’re a professional photographer and want to keep your images looking sharp for your clients. It can do in several different ways, but in many cases, the best way to do it is by setting up an inshot.
Nowadays, it is elementary to make videos and share them. Because of this, you can easily insert a bunch of text or a custom sticker on the Video. But, if you want the text to be readable, you need to add it to some free software. This software is called Inshot Pro. Inshot gives you a lot of text and stickers options, and you can even change the font and color of the text.
If you are unaware of it, adding text in images and videos is exciting with the Inshot pro App. You can add text and stickers to your photos or videos through Inshot Pro Apk. With all the Inshot App features, they are also great for adding effects.
Use Transition And Effects in Your Videos
The Transition Effects are a series of lighted shots that can transition between the different scenes in a scene. They are used to create various background images with minimal effort. They can be helpful when making a variety of different situations and settings.
Transition effects are one of the most commonly overlooked features of the INSHOOT Pro app. Transition effects are animations that disappear when a transition is shown and can be recreated later on the same transition frame. Transition effects are often used to make a change appear faster, more fluid, or hide unused content.
These effects are significant for making your Video stand out in the crowd, but there are a few things you need to keep in mind if you want your Video to have a significant transition effect. Transition effects are used to create more dramatic effects on foreground images.
This is a beneficial technique as it makes the viewer’s eyes move to the side or otherwise look at an object. With the Effect Transition technique, you can create exciting camera movement applied to several popular background materials such as the sun, soft lights, and water.
Add Music for Making Enjoyable videos.
Audio effects are a great way to add a little more power to your videos—no need to spend hours creating and editing videos that include music, graphics, or even voice-over. Use one of these Visual Effects to become an audio producer, so you can make your videos stand out. Whether you have one or several Vimeo accounts, Sounddrop provides a variety of powerful effects with little or no expense.
This article will learn how to apply different effects like fade, clip, fade in without, fade-out, and more. You will also learn how to apply effects to your menu. Use this tutorial to make an excellent video with the music and audio. You can also use this tutorial to make a superb cutout video with audio and text added to it.
Inshot video editor is an opportunity to make videos with the freedom of using audio and image and a fantastic chance to create your video URL. The process is straightforward. Download the Inshot pro apk from my site and make a short video with your custom interface. Your videos on Video Inshot Pro Mod should work with the most popular video plugins and codecs, including Quicktime and AVI.
If you’re looking to make your website more appealing through visuals, you should know how to incorporate audio, music, images, effects, and voice-over into your Video. You can find a vast selection of various products, audio, and music to choose from.
Convert Video into Different formats and sizes
It’s essential to know the difference between the popular audio and video formats. There are so many devices that produce audio and video, but there are times when you cannot get the quality you desire. Inshot Pro is a solution for that issue. Due to its powerful video conversion capabilities, the app has gained much attention. It converts videos into Mp4 for you, which will help give your videos more life.
You would prefer to produce your videos and edit them to the best quality. You probably have a lot of videos that you want to convert into mp4, MPEG, or a variety of other video file formats. Now the problem is that you don’t have the software. The software work on Mac, Windows, and Linux. So what’s the difficulty? There is not one. Inshot editor will convert any video file into the formats you desire.
Inshot Pro is the video converter. All you need to do is click “Convert Any Video to Mp4,” select your Video from your computer and press the convert button. Inshot Pro is a handy tool to help you convert any video to m4v or move files quickly, easily, and safely. It supports the most popular video formats such as AVI, MPEG, WMV, ASF, 3GP, M4V, MP4, and FLV.
Inshot Pro Version Provides No watermark in Your videos.
Neither a watermark nor ad banners are included in the shot pro apk. Overall, the app is the best one out there. The user interface is ad-free and premium. It’s a functional design that is appealing to the eye.
Premium features are not included in the regular version of your application but can be purchased separately. There are many reasons why you may want to use premium features. You could be running a business and want to offer extra services to your customers without paying for them. Or you could be a developer and need to build apps for your customers without having to spend money on ads.
Download Inshot Pro APk
Here is the step on how you can download the short pro apk.
1. Download Mod Apk File From This Page.
2. Go to Mobile setting And Enable Unknow Sources
3. Tap to install the download file of in shot and Wait.
4. After Installation is done, Enjoy.
 
Faqs
How To Download And Install Inshot Pro Apk
Simple, You can download the Inshot Pro Apk Mod file through the download button of this page and install it on your android device with the given steps I provide.
Is inshot Pro Editor is Free
Yes, it’s a free video editor. You can download Inshot Video Editor Free of cost from the play store. But the free version has some limited features.
Is Inshot Pro Mod Version Remove watermark on photos and videos
Yes, the Inshot Pro Mod Version removes the watermark on your photos and videos. You can download the pro version on this page use it easily.
Final words
I can use many video editors that are available on the market. But When I use Inshot Pro, I am delighted because of its features and stability. Every editor has its advantages. But some editors have unique functionality and features. In the list of video editors, Inshot Pro is the best editor right now. If you want limited features, Include a watermark on photos and Video, then play the store and download it. Otherwise, download Inshot pro apk Mod with advanced features.

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How Then Do We Curb Crime? scholarship essay helpHow Then Do We Curb Crime?
As briefly mentioned, we see that the reason either theory attribute to the occurrence of crime influences the methods both theories use to curb and control crime. For example, since right realism believes that crime is a rational choice propagated by a lack of social control, it emphasises the credence of an environment where committing the crime is hard or the risk of getting caught is high and harsh (Newman and Clarke, 2016). They state that crime will become a less attractive proposition, and hence the crime rates will drop. Situational crime prevention or environmental crime prevention can be done in two ways. Situational crime prevention mainly concerns itself with making it harder to commit crimes by reducing the opportunities to commit crime successfully. This can be achieved through increasing surveillance or by designing common places where crime occurs—for example, areas of transportation—in a manner that makes them less suitable for crime—for example, by using floodlights (Newman and Clarke, 2016). Environmental crime prevention focuses on areas that are primarily known to harbour crime. This would mainly target the dilapidated neighbourhoods described in James’ and George’s articles. Examples of measures that would include environmental crime prevention are curfews, zero-tolerance policing, street drinking bands and the three-strike rule (Clarke, 2009). 
Right realism also heavily focuses on using already-placed socio-justice controls to curb crime. One of the main socio-justice controls that right realists focus on is the use of the police to curb crime through pragmatic intervention (Daniel, n.d.). The police’s role should be to create an environment in a society where crime cannot thrive. Furthermore, they broaden the role of the police not only to be law enforcers but also to act as a body that maintains social order (Newman and Clarke, 2016). This means that the police should be allowed to deal with potentially disruptive behaviour that causes concern but isn’t necessarily considered criminal in the strict sense.
 

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Reserve Bank of India (RBI) college essay help free: college essay help freeReserve Bank of India (RBI)
Founded on April 1, 1935, under the Rbi Act, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s monetary system and primary financial institution. The Reserve Bank of India is responsible for maintaining economic security in India through the use of financial regulation. It is also in place to regulate its monetary and banking systems.
 
What Does RBI do?
The RBI has implemented various measures, including reorganizing bank examinations, implementing off-site bank monitoring, and a huge upgrade of accountants.
 
India’s financial system, primarily, is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Board’s goal is to keep inflation in check and guarantee that money is accessible to profitable sectors of the economy. Regulation of all currency transactions has been delegated to the RBI, governed by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (1999). India’s currency market will benefit from this law, which permits the Reserve Bank of India to expedite imports, exports, and transactions.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) serves as the broader financial system’s controller. Hence, it boosts people’s faith in the financial system and the economy, preserves lending rates, and gives them more profitable banking products and services. Furthermore, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) serves as the country’s central bank and is responsible for issuing the country’s currency. Money in India is either supplied or annihilated regarding the current usefulness. Hence, it alleviates a long-standing concern of the General population about the availability of reliable money in the form of currency in circulation. 
 
The RBI’s primary responsibilities include the following:
 
 
 

The Printing of Money:

Apart from one-rupee notes published by the Finance ministry, all digital currencies in India are manufactured by the Reserve Bank of India. The Central Bank’s money has been proclaimed to demand deposits in the entire country. Many benefits accrue to the Reserve Bank’s consolidation of the notes issuing activity, including consistency in balances distribution, stronger governance monitoring, and the ability to govern and manage finance in the sector.
 

A banker who works for the federal government:

Supervision of the financial requirements is handled by the Reserve Bank, which serves as the administration’s banker. Official term deposits must be maintained and operated by it. On behalf of the nation, it gathers revenues and pays. As a part of the International Monetary Fund Bank, it supports the Indian government.
 
3. Financial firms’ working capital is held in trust by the Trustee of Liquid Assets:
 
The Banking System holds the assets of the financial institutions, and the Reserve Bank is also in charge of the safekeeping of the financial institutions’ liquid assets.
 
4. Keeper of the Nation’s Foreign Exchange Reserves:
 
The Reserve Bank is responsible for the safekeeping of the nation’s foreign exchange reserves, which permits the Reserve Bank to efficiently cope with crises associated with a negative current account surplus situation.
 
5. Dealer of The last Opportunity:
This term refers to a lender who lends only in the last resort. Financial institutions turn to the Reserve Bank in moments of crisis to help them get through hard economic times, and the Reserve Bank comes to their aid, even if it means charging them a higher interest rate to help.
 
 
 
6. Approval and resolution of finances at a single location:
Having the excess capital holdings lodged with the Reserve Bank makes things simpler for financial institutions to engage with one another and resolve their claims against one another via accounting statements in the Reserve Bank’s records. 
 
7. Credit Control Officer (CCO):
 
As credit money accounts for the vast majority of the money stock, and because the availability of funds has a significant effect on financial sustainability, the need for debt regulation emerges evidently. Regulatory debt is governed by the Reserve Bank, which operates in conformity with the country’s budget objectives.
 
Conclusion
It was initially established as a separate organization in 1935, but it was nationalized in 1949. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the country’s monetary system.
One of the primary responsibilities of the Reserve Bank of India is to perform integrated management of the Indian financial system, which is comprised of lenders, investment firms, and non-banking financing companies.

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The Context Of Australia common app essay help: common app essay helpacism has been the ugly underbelly of Australian sport for over a century (Human Rights, 2007). According to Szoke (2012), ultimately, racism is a denial of human relationship (Szoke, 2012). There are many ways in which race and skin colour has been “marked” in sport in Australia. This essay will look at the many ways in sport in which race and skin colour has been represented to society. This essay will begin to look at race from a historical perspective within the context of Australia. It will also discuss and critically analyse the way this issue is being protected by relevant policies, probed by the media and spectators and monitored by both relevant policy documents and society in sport and in our generation today.  
 
During the early…show more content…
According to Szoke (2012):
 
Racial Discrimination involves any act where a person is treated unfairly or vilified because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin, religion or belief. Racism impacts directly on the full enjoyment of individual’s human rights, in particular the right to equality (Szoke, 2012, para 11).  
 
When looking at the historical context of racism in sport in Australia, in the very beginning when European explorers and settlers encountered Aboriginal people from the 1600s-1800s, they often said that Aboriginal people were not humans but were actually animals – like apes or monkeys (Riceman, 2013). This stereotype has continued through time with racial remarks such as these have been directed at Aboriginal and Islander players.   According to Tatz and Adair (2009) the history of Aboriginal exclusion from organised competitive sport has been well documented, these exclusions are based on spurious racial grounds such as they “smelled”, they “always won” and that they were “uncivilised” (Tatz & Adair, 2009, pp.3). One historical perspective of racial discrimination in Australian sports is the day Nicky Winmar, a famous AFL player stood up to racial truants from spectators in 1993.  
 
Winmar’s gesture not only demonstrated his pride in his colour but also began the process towards eradicating racism in the AFL (Ralph, 2011). Another example of sporting racism in Australia is the 1995 racial clash between Damian
 

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Statistics for Criminal Justice questions my assignment essay help1)    A domestic violence program coordinator is planning their budget for the upcoming year, and has to divide funds between two sites. To aid in this process, they decide to review data from the past 25 weeks. In that period, Site A receives an average of 9.16 requests for shelter each week (S = 4.78). In that same period, Site B receives an average of 10.98 requests for shelter each week (S = 6.81).
a.     Find and interpret a 99% confidence interval for shelter requests at Site A. (0.5pt)
 
b.    Find and interpret a 99% confidence interval for shelter requests at Site B. (0.5pt)
 
c.     Based on this information, how would you recommend that the coordinator distribute funds between the two sites? Justify your answer, based on the results of your confidence intervals. (0.25pt)
 
 
2)    A criminal justice program professor is planning a career series, and wants to be sure that speakers reflect students’ interests. They poll a sample of 269 students, and finds that 70 are interested in law enforcement, 49 are interested in courts, 36 are interested in corrections, 78 are interested in advocacy, 16 are interested in academics, and 20 are unsure.
a.     Find and interpret a 95% confidence interval for the percentage of students who are interested in corrections. (0.5)
b.    Find and interpret a 95% confidence interval for the percentage of students who are interested in courts. (0.5)
c.     Can we say, with 95% confidence, that students are more interested in courts? Why, or why not? (0.25)
 
 
 
3)    Review the Pew Research Center’s report: “Most Americans Favor the Death Penalty Despite Concerns About Its Administration,” including the main text and methodology pages. Then answer the following questions. (1.75pt)
a.     Summarize the main text in a paragraph.
b.    Provide the unweighted sample sizes and margins of error for the Total sample, Republican/Leaning Republican sample, Democrat/Leaning sample, White sample, and Black sample.
c.     Find and interpret confidence intervals for the following groups’ agreement with the statement that “Black people are more likely than White people to be sentenced to the death penalty for committing similar crimes.” Be sure to make efficient use of the data provided in the main text and methodology pages, including point estimates and margins of error.
·         Total
·         Rep/Lean Rep
·         Dem/Lean Dem
·         White
·         Black
d.    Based on the confidence intervals you calculated for part c, which subgroups differ significantly from the Total sample? Which do not differ significantly from the Total sample? How can you tell?
e.     What are the implications of these findings? What should researchers and policymakers do with this information?
 
 

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Civil Liberties Post-September 11th essay help online free: essay help online freeCivil Liberties Post-September 11th
 
September 11th forever changed America and its views on their vulnerability to attacks from foreign entities. Not since Pearl Harbor had an act of war been conducted on American soil. Invisible boundaries that were once believed to keep one of the most powerful nations in the world secure had failed. Evil had entered and wreaked havoc, killing thousands of innocent and unsuspecting citizens and setting the nation on edge. The immediate response was fear, anger, and an unwavering solidarity to ensure that this sort of atrocity would not happen again. However, in an effort to protect America and its ways of life that are grounded in the pursuit of freedom, new policies meant to be tough on terror have seriously impinged on American citizens’ civil liberties.
 
As Davis and Silver note, during ordinary times, for everyday citizens, civil liberties are likely to be only a remote concept, yet in certain situations, there are immediate implications for people’s sense of freedom and well-being. Newly implemented measures, since September 11th, go beyond what critics feel is necessary to combat terrorism. Many of these restrictive measures are permanent. They apply to both citizens and non-citizens, and unlikely to be effective in the fight against terrorism. The ACLU notes that these threats to civil liberties fall into three broad categories: “secrecy, erosion of checks and balances, and circumventing long-standing personal privacy protections by muddying the important distinction between foreign intelligence gathering and criminal investigation” (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
Secrecy:
 
America was founded on certain basic principles. One of these was a government by and for the people. Stephen describes the cornerstone of government by the peoples as citizens “each have a meaningful vote and voice in how we function as a society, allocate our resources and resolve our inevitable conflicts.” In this way, the founding fathers hoped to ensure a country that guaranteed the individual freedoms of its citizens. However, to be an effective government that is truly by the people, that government must be both transparent and accountable. The American public must be able to judge the effectiveness of the leaders that they’ve placed into office, and the correctness of their actions (“Threats to Civil Liberties”). Government actions following September 11th have been in complete conflict with this concept.
 
Instead of a government open to inspection by its citizens, following September 11th, American government has become more secretive. This is worrisome, according to the ACLU, because it is only through public examination, and the resultant debates that follow, that America can choose the best course of action for the country. There is a difference between matters of national and military security that must be kept secret, such as troop movements, however “the Bush Administration has unilaterally gone far beyond this level of secrecy and has entered policy territory far outside the appropriate level of secrecy for American governance” (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
One of the most important areas of secrecy that the government has maintained is critical information regarding the 500-plus detainees currently being held in federal prisons. Requests for information under the Freedom of Information Act and a lawsuit filed in federal court, has not resulted in an allayment of fears of the violations of civil liberties. According to the ACLU, many of the prisoners are being held on charges that are unrelated to the attack on September 11th. A policy of tighter restrictions of releases of other information, via the Freedom of Information Act, in general has also heightened secrecy (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
Legislation passed over the course of the last five years has given governmental approval to increased levels of secrecy. The use of ‘black bag’ or ‘sneak and peek’ searches by law enforcement, all in the name of anti-terrorism, has increased (Stephens). With these newly granted powers, law enforcement is not even required to notify the person whose residence or property is being searched until much later, if at all (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
Clearly this is a violation of liberties protected by the Fourth Amendment Right to be Free from Unreasonable Search and Seizure (Stephens), held dear to American society. In a post-September 11th poll regarding the conflicting desires of security vs. civil liberties, only 23% of respondents indicated that they would be willing to forego their civil liberties and approve of warrantless searches on suspicion only, in exchange for greater security (Davis & Silver).
 
The passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Act was perhaps the most abhorrent violation of civil liberties, further increasing the government’s ability to operate in secrecy. As the ACLU notes, prior to the Patriot Act, “several privacy statutes required that the government notify Americans when it collected private information, including credit reports, student records, financial information and other personal data” (“Threats to Civil Liberties”). Currently, the recently renewed Patriot Act gives law enforcement and the intelligence community the ability to collect sensitive, personal information, in secrecy. Stephens reiterates the ACLU’s opinion on these atrocities.
 
In swift succession, government security and intelligence agents have been granted broad powers to spy lawfully on citizens and others in this country, without evidence of any crime, to keep previously public information and legal proceedings secret, to engage in ethnic profiling, including indefinite detention without criminal charges, to conduct secret searches and wiretaps without probable cause, to monitor people’s internet and library use, and to collect personal records.
 
A trade-off between liberty and security is inherent in the task of combating terrorism, and it is, in fact, a statement of politically tolerable risk” (Lewis). Yet, there becomes a point when the cost paid in liberties is not justified by the relatively small increase in security.
 
Erosion of Basic Checks and Balances:
 
In addition to an increased level of secrecy, post September 11th, infringing on citizens’ civil liberties, there has also been an erosion of the basic checks and balances that are inherent to a democratic government. Separation of powers in the United States was created to safeguard against the imposition of the will of the majority on that of the minority. However, since September 11th, this separation has weakened, with the executive branch of the government garnering more power than it should (“Threats to Civil Liberties”). Immediately following the attacks on September 11th, both the government and the public agreed, for the first time, that terrorism was a critical issue that government needed to address (Lewis). Yet, in no way did the American public condone the basic dismantling of the checks and balances system that has been the background of the government.
 
Anti-terrorism legislation has taken away much of the judiciary branches’ ability to review the actions of the executive branch. “Immigration judges have far less ability to prevent the unlawful detention or deportation of non-citizens. The legal standards for granting law enforcement search and seizure warrants have, in many cases, been reduced significantly. Wiretapping and surveillance powers have been greatly expanded and judicial review of these actions reduced” (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
The right of a jury trial, with a civilian judge and a unanimous verdict has been taken away from defendants being held as suspected terrorists, with the implementation of military tribunals in place of the criminal justice system.
 
With the continued existence of the Patriot Act, as well as other response by the Administration, the judicial court system has been treated as more of an obstacle to the executive branch’s actions than the protection of civil rights that it was established to be. The judicial system protects the public by ensuring that fair processes and procedures are utilized to make certain that only the guilty are convicted. By circumventing this system, not only are innocent people in danger, but the dangers to the general public are increased because actual terrorists may still be at large (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
It is not the concept of keeping America safe that is clashing with civil liberties, but, instead the government’s methods of obtaining that security (Davis and Silver).
 
Privacy:
 
The last major threat to civil liberties, since the advent of September 11th, is the reduction of privacy in America. Privacy is one of the most valued of civil liberties for Americans. When asked if they’d be willing to allow the monitoring o telephone and e-mail conversations as a means of increasing national security against terrorism, only 34% of respondents were willing to give up this civil liberty (Davis & Silver). The ACLU clearly points out that the blurring of the lines between traditional separation of criminal investigation and intelligence gathering has seriously eroded the public’s right to privacy.
 
This is a backwards leap from the progress the country has made over the last four to five decades, when the FBI used programs such as COINTELPRO to harass civil rights leaders and anti-war groups (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
As a result of these abuses by the FBI, the three branches of government worked diligently to separate law enforcement from foreign intelligence gathering. However, following September 11th and the anti-terrorism efforts, much of this separation have been erased.
 
T) he FBI can now act like a domestic CIA when seeking a criminal conviction. It can obtain a secret warrant from a secret court to gather evidence of crime without ever having to present to the court evidence that the person upon whom it wishes to spy is involved in crime. Moreover, evidence gathered in criminal case can now be more easily shared – without a court order – for “intelligence” purposes with intelligence agencies such as the CIA even if the information is about an American citizen (“Threats to Civil Liberties”).
 
The exercise of rights generates costs, and it is these costs that are often in conflict. Davis and Silver agree that a proper balance must be found between freedom and control and that civil liberties cannot simply be trodden upon.
 
Lewis cites research documenting that the general public’s fears had diminished within a month’s time, to the point where less than one-third of Americans were highly concerned about terrorism or safety in their communities, after September 11th.
 
This lack of fear equates to a lesser desire for increased security, and therefore a reluctance to give up such fundamental civic liberties like privacy. The cost, at this point, far outweighs the results.
 
Conclusion:
 
In the end, the world has changed since the terrorist attacks on September 11th, especially for Americans. No longer is there the feeling of utter security within the invisible borders. And, steps do need to be taken to ensure that attacks like that cannot happen again. “The fundamental purposes of the federal government, as enumerated in the preamble to the U.S. Constitution, are to ‘establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty….’ (Lewis). However, these duties often come into conflict with one another, when events of “national import, urgent peril, and human horror” occur.
 
In these times, trade-offs must occur between the conflicting goals. Since the events of September 11th, providing common defense and securing the blessings of liberty have been at war, with the loss of liberty being at the mercy of common defense.
 
As Davis and Silver quote Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, following the attacks on September 11th, “We’re likely to experience more restrictions on our personal freedom than has ever been the case in our country…. It will cause us to re-examine some of our laws pertaining to criminal surveillance, wiretapping, immigration, and so on.” Justice O’Connor had clear insight into what a post-September 11th society would be like. Personal freedoms have been restricted and laws allowing law enforcement and government agencies to conduct covert surveillance have been loosened, all in the name of the War Against Terror. However, millions of people having their civil liberties encroached upon, to better facilitate the capture of a scant few, is not the answer.
 
Since September 11th, increased governmental secrecy, erosion of fundamental checks and balances, and a loss of privacy have seriously undermined the principles this great nation was founded upon.
 
References
 
Davis, D. & Sliver, B. “Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America.” American Journal of Political Science 48(1) Jan 2005: 28-46. JSTOR. JSTOR. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006 http://www.jstor.org.
 
Lewis, C. “The Clash Between Security and Liberty in the U.S. Response to Terror.” Public Administration Review. Jan/Feb 2005: 18-30. ProQuest database. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.
 
Stephens, T. “Civil Liberties after September 11: Background of a Crisis.” Guild Practitioner 61(1) Winter 2004: 4. ProQuest database. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.
 
Threats to Civil Liberties Post September 11th: Secrecy, Erosion of Privacy, Danger of Unchecked Government. No date. ACLU. November 29, 2006 http://www.aclu.org/natsec/gen/14346prs20011214.html.

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Using the Artemesia Gentileschi article, free essay help onlineUsing the Artemesia Gentileschi article, talk about the trouble with using the artists biography to inform our understand of the art being produced. I know we didn’t talk about this article in class, so use this as a question to explore your ideas!  
article address: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/10/05/a-fuller-picture-of-artemisia-gentileschi?utm_social-type=owned&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&mbid=social_facebook&utm_brand=tny&fbclid=IwAR0p5Qk9gSYV2Gw33NQTnNxur4kMz2hXpFEQAA_EtVnapPmLyrU3ULGI3-A
 
Consider the three R’s in the Ethics of Collecting Article. Why is it so difficult for us to determine who has control over art?  (article see attached files)
 

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Applying Social Psychology Theories To Explain Behavior college essay help online  In Week 2, you were introduced to the bystander effect (Darley & Latané, 1968). The perceived diffusion of responsibility makes bystanders less likely to intervene in an emergency situation. It might be tempting to assume that aggressors and the bystanders who do nothing to intervene are just “bad” people; however, the reasons for how and why these behaviors occur are much more complex. In this assignment, you will consider how factors such as obedience to authority, perceived power, and diffused responsibility in the presence of others may explain varied responses to potential or actual harm to others.  

Reflect on the following social media scenario: You are reading posts in your favorite social media site, when you come across a post by a 19-year-old male. He writes that he was raped at a party last night and he’s afraid they will post pictures of it online. He is contemplating suicide. You notice three types of behaviors in the comments to him:

A small group of individuals are using profanity and belittling him. They are encouraging him to commit suicide.
A larger group of individuals are making supportive comments and providing the number for a crisis help line.
Many of his online followers have not responded to his post.

Think about how social psychology theories or principles could be applied to explain the types of comments made to the 19-year-old in the scenario.

By Day 7
Submit a 2 page paper that addresses the following:

Describe the impact of social context on conformity, obedience, and helping behaviors.
Explain how social psychology theories or principles could be applied to account for each of the responses in the scenario (e.g., which principles/theories could explain response type A; which principles/theories could explain response type B, and so on). Be sure to support your assertions with scholarly content.
Provide at least one recommendation to help reduce the derogatory comments or increase the number of supportive comments in the scenario, based on what you have learned about social psychology.

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The effect of foot position on peak force during a press-up essay help writer: essay help writer

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To collect the data, we tested 17 individuals in the university of East London in a sport scientific classroom which in the middle of it had 3 force plates. all of our individuals started doing some warmup before the the test for example some did stretching others just had some reps of push-up so they could be familiarised.nFor the data we measured athletes by putting their foot in deferent heights, we standard( normal push-up), 30cm box and 60cm box, the tutor put a small box (10cm) to the ground so the individuals couldn’t go any further down. We tested them randomly for example the one person could have start the trial with 60cm box and the next one with the standard version of a push-up. they all pass from standard, 30cm and 60cm. they had approximately 3 seconds between every repetition and approximately 5 minutes between conditions. we will need to use 2 graphs – one showing the force data across the conditions and one showing the RPE(Rating of Perceived Exertion) across the 3 conditions, I have provide a file called ”useful slides which tells you exactly how the drafts and the whole assessment has to be.nyou will find all the information you need in the files bellow. I have also provide the handbook which tells you about the assessment 1 you are about to do. I have upload a data collected sheet with all the individual’s data (age, weight, sex, height, etc). 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Increasing Airline industry term paper essay help for free airline industry has become increasingly competitive in recent years due in part to the horsewhipping it experienced following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The ongoing global economic downturn and high energy prices have added further constraints to airline performance. In this environment, it is not surprising that airlines that are agile and nimble in their response to changing market conditions will enjoy a competitive advantage, and this has certainly been the case with WestJet’s performance compared to the struggling Air Canada airlines. By providing the flying public with no-frills, low-cost regional and international alternatives, WestJet has not only survived during this turbulent period, it has also gained market share from Air Canada, continuing the bleeding of this former industry leader. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevant literature to identify what WestJet and Air Canada are doing right — and wrong — to achieve a competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace.
 
Table of Contents
 
1.0
 
Chapter One: Introduction
 
1.1
 
Statement of the Problem
 
1.2
 
Purpose of Study
 
1.3
 
Research Questions
 
1.4
 
Importance of Study
 
1.5
 
Rationale of Study
 
1.6
 
Overview of Study
 
2..0
 
Chapter Two: Literature Review
 
2.1
 
Recent Trends in the Airline Industry
 
2.2
 
Westjet
 
2.3
 
Air Canada
 
3.0
 
Chapter Three: Methodology
 
3.1
 
Description of the Study Approach
 
3.2
 
Data-gathering Method and Database of Study
 
4.0
 
Chapter Four: Findings/Data Analysis
 
4.1
 
Case Studies
 
4.2
 
Meta-Analysis
 
5.0
 
Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations
 
WestJet vs. Air Canada: Why WestJet Will Win
 
1.0
 
Chapter One: Introduction
 
In what more than one analyst has likened to a David-and-Goliath battle, the competition between giant Air Canada and its smaller counterpart in WestJet appears to be so lopsided in favor of the Goliath, Air Canada, to preclude any inroads in its market share by the David, WestJet. Indeed, the U.S.-Canada market represents one of the largest air transportation markets in the world today, and Air Canada’s already enjoys a transborder network with 59 cities each in the U.S. And Canada (“United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture” 2010). Furthermore, Air Canada is the country’s largest domestic and international full-service airline, and it provides scheduled and charter international passenger and cargo air services to more than 170 locations spanning five continents providing scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 170 destinations on five continents, with around 31 million passengers each year (United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture 2010). Besides the 118 destinations in its North American market, Air Canada also services 60 destinations throughout the Middle East, Europe, Australia, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America; moreover, as part of the Star Alliance which it helped to establish, Air Canada is part of the largest air transportation network in the world, providing air services to almost 1,200 destinations and 181 countries (United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture 2010).
 
By very sharp contrast, WestJet Airlines Ltd. (hereinafter “WestJet” or “the company”) provides scheduled services to a North American and Caribbean network comprised of 69 cities (“Profile: WestJet Airlines Ltd.” 2010). Despite its business model that has traditionally focused on low-cost and convenient alternatives, WestJet now features extra legroom, leather seats and live seatback television on its fleet of 87 Boeing Next-Generation 737 aircraft; in addition, as of December 31, 2009, WestJet had leased an additional 10 aircraft (seven 737-700s and three 737-800s), bringing its total of leased aircraft to 33 (“Profile: WestJet Airlines Ltd.” 2010).
 
1.1
 
Statement of the Problem
 
During the closing decades of the 20th century, global air transportation grew at a steady pace until the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in a drastic but short-lived downturn in the passenger and cargo traffic. Although the industry has largely recovered since that time, many air carriers continue to struggle during a period characterized by a global economic downturn combined with escalating energy costs. In this regard, Janda, Flouris and Oum emphasize that, “At this juncture, it is important for Canada to examine its medium-term air transport policy options, taking into account the changed and changing industry environment domestically and internationally” (2005:73).
 
This problem is especially acute for countries such as Canada where its large geographic size means that the airline industry plays an important role in its economic performance. As Janda and his associates emphasize, “Transportation has been a cornerstone of Canada’s national political and economic policy since before Confederation and continues to be vitally important to this country’s future” (2005:73). Because it is vitally important, major successes and failures in the transportation sector have a very real impact on the economy of Canada and its neighbors. In this environment, identifying which factors contribute to the success of Canadian air carriers represents a timely and valuable enterprise, an enterprise that is also directly tied to the purpose of this study which is discussed further below.
 
1.2
 
Purpose of Study
 
The purpose of this study was three-fold as follows:
 
1.2.1
 
To determine the historic performance of Air Canada and what factors have contributed to its successes and failures.
 
1.2.2
 
To determine the historic performance of WestJet and what factors have contributed to its successes and failures.
 
1.2.3
 
To develop a qualitative synthesize based on the foregoing findings to identify the superior performer and what steps are being used to achieve this superior performance.
 
1.3
 
Research Questions
 
The study was guided by the following research questions:
 
1.3.1
 
What has Air Canada been doing that has contributed to its successes? Its failures?
 
1.3.2
 
What has WestJet been doing that has contributed to its successes? Its failures?
 
1.3.3
 
Are there any airline industry best practices that can be identified which can be used by Air Canada to improve its performance?
 
1.4
 
Importance of Study
 
Taken together, the foregoing trends and the importance of the issues that are involved create a real need for informed policies for the Canadian airline industry. For instance, Janda et al. also note that, “Given the global restructuring of the aviation industry that is well underway, it is critically important that Canada chart a clear course for Canada’s airlines and air service providers” (2005:74). Although a number of steps have been taken to help the Canadian airline industry become more competitive and technological innovations have contributed to its efficiency, these initiatives and technological innovations have been balanced by the increased need for security procedures and the potential for terrorist threats throughout the world in recent years. Indeed, although the airline industry in general has regained some of its strength, many carriers have experienced difficult times and some have even folded as a result of increased competition combined with a wide range of external factors that have made competing in the 21st century airline industry even more challenging. Consequently, the importance of this study directly relates to the need to determine what business models are providing the best results, and these issues are discussed further below.
 
1.5
 
Rationale of Study
 
According to Flouris and Walker (2005), the new business models represented by low-cost airlines such as Canada’s WestJet managed to outperform legacy carriers even following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Moreover, following deregulation of the airline industry in North America, new business models are increasingly required to compete more effectively, particularly during turbulent political and economic periods. Therefore, identifying what works best so that more of this can be done by others just makes good business sense.
 
1.6
 
Overview of Study
 
This study used a five-chapter format to achieve the purpose stated above; chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and importance of the study, as well as its scope and rationale. Chapter two provides a critical review of the relevant and peer-reviewed literature concerning the regulatory and competitive environment in the North American airline industry in general and the Canadian airline industry in particular, and chapter three describes more fully the study’s methodology, including a description of the study approach, the data-gathering method and the database of study consulted. Chapter four consists of the case studies of WestJet and Air Canada as well as the meta-analysis of recent media reports concerning these two airlines. Finally, chapter five presents the study’s conclusions together with a summary of the research and salient recommendations.
 
2.0 Chapter Two: Literature Review
 
2.1
 
Recent Trends in the Airline Industry
 
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers were heard to venture that, “Things would never be the same” and in many ways, they were right. Because of its enormous impact on the airline industry, this date does serve as a useful demarcation point for before-and-after types of analyses. In this regard, just prior to the 9/11 attacks, there were about a dozen or so low-cost carriers that were competing in the United States besides the industry leader, Southwest Airlines (Doganis 2001). In these halcyon days for the legacy carriers, these low-cost carriers did not represent much of a threat and while major airlines continued to enjoy enormous profits, their low-cost competitors did not fare as well, particularly during 1996 and 1997 (Doganis 2001). By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
 
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in which they compete: “Since, in the long run,” Janda and his colleagues note, “levels of per-capita income and GDP are the main factors determining air passenger and freight volumes, it is not surprising to see that the long-term growth outlook for the air transport industry is excellent. Even in North America, where the airline markets (especially the United States and Canada) are saturated, passenger traffic is forecast to grow on average 4.5 per cent per year in the next 20 years” (2005:73).
 
Lacking an economic crystal ball, these rosy estimates may be forgiven in view of the lingering global economic downturn, but the direct connection between macroeconomic factors and the airline industry is apparent. In this regard, Janda and his associates cite a number of more recent events that have hammered the airline industry following the demarcation date represented by September 11, 2001, including the following:
 
1. The dot-corn collapse and the subsequent slowdown of business travel;
 
2. The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent war on terrorism;
 
3. The Afghanistan and Iraq wars; and,
 
4. The SARS outbreak (2005:73).
 
The implications of these events, particularly during a period when the airline industry was already struggling to cope with the effects of 9/11 in general, were truly profound. While the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 were unique in terms of the magnitude of its overall impact on world events, the potential for the types of other events listed above are always threatening to disrupt the airline industry today. In terms of the overall effects of the above-listed events on the airline industry in general, Janda et al. write, “These key events that brought the world’s airlines and the associated air transport industries to their knees. Together these events completely wiped out more than three years’ worth of air traffic growth and produced a more than 15 per cent reduction in air passenger volumes globally in the short run” (2005:74). In fact, the aforementioned SARS outbreak was enough to tip the balance for some airlines that were already struggling. For example, Miller emphasizes that, “This global epidemic struck Toronto particularly hard — right at the heart of Canada’s economy and its principal aviation hub. Air Canada estimates that during the month of April it lost approximately $125 million due to the SARS epidemic” (2003:267).
 
The adverse effects of the SARS outbreak were not restricted to April 2003 alone. Just as the Canadian airline industry was recovering from this shockwave, another outbreak of the disease the following month caused similar havoc, resulting in another decline in passenger traffic of more than a quarter (26.4 per cent) and loss of more than $200 million (Miller 2003). At the time, the president of Air Canada President reported that the company’s operating revenues for 2003 would be fully $1 billion less compared to 2002, a loss that was primarily attributed to the SARS outbreak alone (Miller 2003). According to this industry analyst, this was all the struggling giant could take: “This final blow was enough to tip the precarious balance for Air Canada and, in April, it filed for bankruptcy protection under the Companies Creditors’ Arrangement Act” (Miller 2003:267). In its defense, Air Canada was faced with a dual whammy from the SARS/post-September 11, 2001 environment: “What made this Perfect Storm particularly devastating was its timing. It arrived at a time when consumers were turning their backs on the traditional network carriers and flocking to low-fare alternatives. And in Canada, it came at a time when government air transportation policy was in serious disrepair” (Miller 2003:267). Clearly, though, WestJet was competing in the same turbulent regulatory environment as Air Canada, suggesting that the former was reading the signs far better than the latter.
 
By 2004, though, leading industry experts at the International Air Transport Association projected that the airline industry in Canada would recover to its pre-September 11, 2001 levels by 2005 (Janda et al. 2005), a projection that would have been well received by managers at both WestJet and Air Canada. The projections by Costa, Harned and Lunquist (2002) in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks, though, specifically cite the business model used by WestJet as representing the solution for the airline industry’s ailments. According to these authorities, “In the 1980s, increased yields drove recovery in the airline business. This time around, given the high levels of excess capacity and projected weakness in business travel revenues, we do not believe that yields will come back as strongly as in previous downturns. Instead, any recovery will have to come from long-term, structural cost reductions” (Costa et al. 2002:89). These downward and largely more accurately projections were based on the unwieldy operational structure in place at major airlines such as Air Canada compared to the more flexible and responsible approach used by WestJet. In this regard, Costa et al. add that, “For major airlines using the high-coverage hub-and-spoke model, such reductions may be difficult to achieve, and these airlines may struggle beyond 2004. In contrast, competitors that utilize a lower-cost strategy — such as WestJet in North America look well positioned to expand their operations and profitability” (2002:90).
 
Although more recent performance levels are discussed further in chapter four below, it is important to note at this juncture that the overarching implication for the airline industry in general and in North American in particular was to create the need for a new business model that could respond to this changing environment more efficiently. In this regard, Whitelegg emphasizes that, “The 11 September 2001 attacks on New York and Washington DC accelerated a restructuring of the airline industry, whose net losers have been large flag carriers and whose net winners – so far, at least – the low-cost carriers” (2005:125). Unfortunately, there were ample cases to support this industry analyst’s assessment of the post-9/11 environment for the Canadian airline industry. For example, Whitelegg adds that the trends were readily apparent with regards to the changing demands for lower cost alternatives during this period. “Economic prosperity was polarized: as the largest airline in the world, United Airlines, entered bankruptcy,” Whitelegg reports, he also notes that “low-cost JetBlue expanded”; likewise, “as the Belgian national carrier Sabena crashed, Ryanair aggressively redrew the aviation map of Europe” (2005:125).
 
Significantly, these trends were there for all to see, especially the analysts at Air Canada and WestJet which form the basis for this discussion. Given the fundamental differences in their performance in recent years, it is clear that WestJet recognized a growing demand and responded, but the case can be made that this demand began before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the successful survivors were those that read these trends more accurately than those that did not. In this regard, Whitelegg also points out that, “Airline analysts and executives now point to the low-cost model as the path of the future, and a plethora of books on the topic highlights an interested market among both academic and popular readers. . . . In the process, they document the industry’s development, providing context for a story that has been running for a good deal longer than the last ten years” (2005:125). Indeed, WestJet’s low-cost business model is certainly not new, with early efforts to offer low-cost alternatives also being directly tied to prevailing macroeconomic conditions. According to Whitelegg, “Attempts to provide cheap air tickets date back to the Second World War. With new holiday entitlement, workers returning from the war brought with them a thirst for foreign travel” (2005:125). The charter approach to providing low-cost flying solutions for these and other would-be air travelers became the framework on which regional and national airlines would base much of their business models in the years to come. As Whitelegg concludes, “Over the next thirty years, charters became the inexpensive link between the tourist-generating markets of northern Europe and the Mediterranean sun. They were the original low-cost carriers” (2005:125).
 
WestJet, though, took this low-cost business model to heart and applied it in a consistent and thoughtful manner to the dynamic marketplace in ways that its more cumbersome rival, Air Canada, could not. It is little wonder that the timeline of events for the past several years reflects a theme of good news for WestJet and bad news for Air Canada, varying only in degrees. In this regard, in 2005, Janda and his associates observed that for Air Canada, even the good news was tinged with some bad: “On the Canadian scene, as of October 1, 2004, Air Canada (ACE Aviation) emerged from 18 months of bankruptcy (CCAA) protection, and its third-quarter results show a clear improvement” (2005:74). By contrast, the report for WestJet was strictly positive: “WestJet has just initiated its transborder services to the United States” (Janda et al. 2005:74). The pace of recovery from the demarcation date of September 11, 2001 had also accelerated by this point in time, with Air Canada and WestJet both reporting “significantly increased passenger load factors in 2004 over 2003,” reports that Janda and his associates suggest indicate “cautious optimism for Canada’s airline industry even in the short run” (2005:75).
 
While the competitive environment remained highly dynamic, one permanent feature that emerged from this series of events was the need for a business model such as the one used by WestJet. As Doganis points out, “In Canada, in brief, the low-cost, no-frills model has clearly become a permanent feature of North American aviation” (2001:135). Although this business model has proven successful for WestJet and its like-minded competitors, there were still a number of questions being debated concerning the future direction for the airline industry in Canada. In this regard, the primary issues that were facing the Canadian airline industry in the post-September 11, 2001 climate were summed up in late 2004 by Canadian Transport Minister Jean Lapierre in his report to the Standing Committee on Transport. The recommendations that emerged from this meeting are provided in Table 1 below.
 
Table 1
 
Recommendations from November 5, 2004 by Transport Minister Jean Lapierre to the Standing Committee on Transport at the Air Currents Conference
 
Recommendation No.
 
Recommendation
 
1
 
Canada should make an effort to be included in the currently stalled negotiation on the EU-U.S. Open Aviation Area. If it cannot become a party to EU-U.S. negotiations, Canada should find its own venue for negotiations with the EU and should consider a two-track approach in which it undertakes discussions with key member state partners, such as France, at the same time exploring a global relationship with the European Commission. In any event, Canada should seek to become part of an Open Aviation Area and should work to ensure that it is formulated so as to be open to additional parties.
 
2
 
The government should conduct a review of the National Airports Policy with a view to ensuring the cost-effectiveness and accountability of airport operators.
 
3
 
The government should revisit the unanimous April 11, 2003, recommendations of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Transport to see whether further progress can be made toward relieving the burden of charges, excise taxes, and rents faced by the air transport industry.
 
4
 
Transport Canada should make a renewed effort to provide timely, carrier-specific electronic statistics.
 
The primary issues identified at the time were as follows:
 
1. Should Canada increase the limit on foreign ownership of voting shares in Canadian air carriers from the current 25 per cent to 49 per cent?
 
2. Should Canada go further and remove constraints on who controls Canadian air carriers, such that foreign interests could establish, or acquire control of, air carriers in Canada, for the purposes of offering domestic services only (right of establishment)?
 
3. Should Canada permit foreign air carriers, as a matter of principle or on a case-by-case negotiated basis, to provide air services between points in Canada? If so, under what conditions?
 
4. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States in an effort to further liberalize the current air agreement between the two countries?
 
5. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States in an effort to achieve a U.S.-style open skies agreement?
 
6. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States to address issues that go beyond open skies? If so, what issues specifically?
 
7. How should the Canadian government balance the often conflicting interests of Canadian airports and local governments on the one hand, and air carriers on the other hand, during bilateral air negotiations?
 
8. Should Canada further liberalize its charter policies to lessen or remove remaining restrictions on granting authority for charter flights between Canada and third countries?
 
9. Should different approaches be taken to the two questions above for passenger and all-cargo services?
 
10. Should Canada consider introducing domestic service, ownership and control, and market integration issues into its international negotiations, and, if so, under what conditions or with which bilateral partners?
 
11. Would Canada be better served by adopting a multilateral (many countries) or plurilateral (smaller group of like-minded countries) approach for further air liberalization? Would this be practical? (cited in Janda et al. 2005 at 75).
 
The position of major Canadian air carriers such as Air Canada concerning the Open Skies initiative have been in favor, and in 2001, just 3 months after the terrorist attacks of September 11, Air Canada President and CEO Robert Milton recommended the Open Skies Plus initiative for Canada and the United States with a view to increasing air traffic between the two countries by 40 additional percent (Levin 2006). A lack of active participation in the negotiations over this proposal, though, have kept the Canadian airline industry from realizing the full benefits that could accrue to its adoption (Levine 2006). This lack of participation by the Canadian government, combined with its lopsided approaches to regulation in the past have created a situation where Air Canada has become sufficiently large to protect itself because it is “too large to fail.” Although this aspect of government oversight in a free economy has been witnessed on both sides of the border in recent years, the business model used by Air Canada has been uniquely Canadian. In this regard, Levine notes that, “The proliferation of business models and firms that emerged and survived in the United States did not find a counterpart in Canada. The only airline sharing Air Canada’s interests was Air Canada, and it chose to lower its costs through a bankruptcy that produced the devolution of Air Canada into a whole constellation of firms all owned by Air Canada, each specialized in competing against a particular sort of competitive threat” (2006:270). The position taken by Air Canada based on its perception of being too large to be allowed to fail is reflected in the observation by Levine that, “The periodic failures plus the constant drumbeat of warning of the only apparently viable low-fare competitor, Westjet, created a David vs. Goliath story for the press, with David Westjet seen as seeking help in defending the consumer from monopoly dominance by Goliath Air Canada” (2006:270). The response by the Canadian government was to introduce new regulations concerning pricing, but once again these worked in favor of Air Canada to WestJet’s detriment: “Air Canada has been able to persuade the government that its pricing policies should be left to the market, and that the government should focus its attention on remaining monopolies in airports and other infrastructure that inhibit entry and raise costs (the lion’s share of which are, of course, Air Canada’s!)” (Levin 2006:270)
 
The origins of these and the other issues confronting the Canadian airline industry at this point in time also began during the late 20th century. For example, Levine (2006) reports that the airline industry was deregulated and the Canadian government eventually divested itself of the national airline due in part to successful outcomes being realized through deregulation in the United States. In this regard, Levine notes that, “Heavily influenced by the widely-publicized successes of airline deregulation south of its border, Canada also deregulated its airline market in its National Transportation Act, which was passed in 1987 and became law in 1988” (2006:270). Over the next dozen years, the cumulative effect of these trends was to create a monolithic presence in the Canadian airline industry in the form of Air Canada. As part of its National Transportation Act initiative, for example, the Canadian government also privatized its national airline; however, Levine emphasizes that “. . . unlike in the United States, one legacy airline, Air Canada, with government encouragement, acquired failing Canadian Airlines in December 1999 and emerged as a clearly dominant firm, with a domestic market share by seat kilometer of around 73 per cent and a market share by seat capacity of 64 per cent in 2002” (Levine 2006:270). In fact, Canadian Airlines was on the verge of outright bankruptcy. As Doganis puts it, “In 2000, Canadian Airlines had to be rescued from collapse by Air Canada” (2001:16).
 
Given this “too large to fail” approach to the operation of Air Canada, it is not surprising that this acquisition created a monolithic airlines that could bully its way around the Canadian air industry landscape. Despite increasing competitive from low-cost air carriers, particularly, WestJet, Levine also emphasizes that, “Many travelers were dependent on the dominant carrier for service and its vigorous efforts to combat efforts to gain footholds in its market generated allegations of predatory pricing” (2006:270). The net result of these high-profile episodes was to create an increasingly negative perception of Air Canada among the Canadian flying public and elsewhere (Levine 2006). Other authorities go so far as to describe Air Canada in flatly negative terms. For example, according to Cote, “Air Canada, the closest thing we have to a national heritage, seems to be in a profound crisis. What should we do? Allow a U.S. company such as United Airlines or American Airlines to acquire it? Nationalize it, again? Or should we encourage new investors (like Onex) to take control? Air Canada has undeniably become the least popular of Canada’s major corporations” (2002:60). Although more recent surveys indicate that Air Canada’s popularity has increased, at least among business travelers, the prevailing issue at this point in Canada’s aviation history was directly related to government regulation and its effect on Air Canada. In this regard, Cote adds that, “Until the federal government clarifies its views on air transportation, Air Canada’s future will remain in jeopardy. The airline industry suffers from chronic problems tied to capacity adjustments and excessive indebtedness and has to cope with a volatile and fickle clientele. Last, turbulent labour relations and a fully unionized workplace give the industry a rigid cost structure” (2002:60). What Cote does not point out, though, is that here again, WestJet was competing in the identical uncertain environment as Air Canada. Indeed, it has required almost a decade before Air Canada has responded to one of the fundamental problems that it was experiencing as far back as the pre-September 11, 2001 demarcation date. According to Cote, “No wonder airlines have a short lifespan. The ax falls often, lopping off the most vulnerable. By simple process of elimination, it is not surprising that Air Canada finds itself teetering on the brink. One major blow could push it into bankruptcy. Air Canada’s other problem is that it is an east-west airline in an economy that is increasingly forging north-south links. Does a trans-Canadian airline have any relevance in a continental context?” (2002:60).
 
Although Air Canada has finally gotten around to forging new north-south links with United Airlines just as this study was written, Cote would likely suggest that it was “economic reality” that forced Air Canada to do so rather than any foresight on its part: “Would it be better to integrate it into the operations of a major North American carrier than to wait for economic reality to impose it? The federal government can’t wash its hands of Air Canada’s fate” (Cote 2002:60). The reason for this inextricable relationship between the fate of Air Canada and the Canadian government relates to the critical nature of the airline industry to Canada’s economy as well as the nature of the industry itself. For example, the definition provided by Black’s Law Dictionary indicates that an “oligopoly” is “an economic condition where only a few companies sell substantially similar or standards products. Oligopoly markets often exhibit the lack of competition” (1999:1086). Therefore, government oversight at some level is regarded as an essential element in Canada’s airline industry. For example, according to Cote, “The airline industry throughout the world is an oligopoly, thus requiring government intervention to ensure meaningful competition” (2002:60). Likewise, because of its vast geographic size and proximity to the United States, the air industry is an essential component in the economic infrastructure of Canada, making effective government oversight all the more critical. In this regard, Cote adds that, “Canada’s geography also makes air transport a critical industry. The federal government cannot ignore Air Canada pricing strategies and its service policies toward less populated regions. The government must ensure public interest takes precedence over the greed of airline management, which is as concerned about the stock price as the quality of service to its customers” (2002:60). In other words, giants such as Air Canada cannot be allowed to run roughshod over the interests of all of the flying public while skimming the cream where it can. As Cote points out, “Particular attention has to be paid to ensure virtual abusive monopolies do not arise in big cities like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver by the virtue of controlling landing rights. Indeed, if Air Canada were to increase its current market share, government intervention would be advisable” (2002:60).
 
The need for some level of Canadian government oversight, then, is required to ensure a competitive marketplace and this is especially relevant to the cases of Air Canada and to a lesser extent, WestJet. In this regard, Cote points out that, “If a crisis were to put an alternative airline such as Air Transat or WestJet in jeopardy, the government may have to intervene financially to ensure healthy competition. In short, as essential as Air Canada is to the country, it shouldn’t be given free rein” (2002:60). Citing numerous examples of airlines that have failed when such oversight was absent, Cote suggests that the same thing could easily happen in Canada, particularly in view of the collusive manner in which governmental regulators have approached the problem in the past. As Cote notes, “When profit is more important than ensuring a costlier public interest alternative, it can happen. Many U.S. multinationals do not feel bound by Canadian public interest. As long as they feel they can marshal the support of friends in Washington to defend their case, we’d better keep them away from our strategic sectors” (Cote 2002:60).
 
Given Air Canada’s recent strategic partnership with United Airlines to provide additional north-south coverage, Cote’s admonition is particularly timely and relevant. According to Cote, “Canada needs an east-west transport policy and sufficient political leverage over the airlines serving these routes. The Canadian government should formally declare it will not let Air Canada fall into the hands of a foreign carrier. Such a policy would be addressed to Air Canada’s current management and to any group of investors considering taking control with a view to selling the company to foreign interests down the road” (2002:60). The implications of such an intervention by the Canadian government would be significant, but less so than the invisible hand that has been wracking Air Canada’s profitability in recent years. In this regard, Cote concludes that, “Such a decision may affect Air Canada’s share price. But let’s keep in mind that in the past two years, it has fluctuated between $2 and $20 without government intervention. When all is said and done, the Canadian government will never be as merciless to Air Canada shareholders as financial markets and management have already proven to be” (emphasis added) (Cote 2002:60).
 
The results of a recent study cited by the Centre for Aviation (“Canadian airlines make argument for eliminating taxes and fees” 2010) provides some useful insights into some of the invisible-hand types of market forces that are driving the competitive landscape in the Canadian airline industry today. According to this report, “As with their U.S. counterparts, Canadian airlines are seeking government policy changes on taxes, saying that the increased economic output resulting from the elimination of the taxes may even provide more money to government coffers” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 3). These findings were based on the results of a study sponsored by the National Airlines Council of Canada (NACC), an organization that includes WestJet and Air Canada (as well as Air Transat and Jazz). The study’s principal researcher, Dr. Fred Lazar of York University’s Schulich School of Business, indicated that although U.S. airlines have been using a similar approach in recent years with little success, the situation is different for the Canadian airline industry. For instance, Lazar and his colleagues estimated that Canadian airlines could gain an additional 600,000 passengers each year if several steps were taken, including:
 
1. Elimination of ground rents;
 
2. Elimination of the Air Travellers’ Security Charge (ATSC);
 
3. Elimination of the excise tax on jet fuel; and,
 
4. NAV CANADA is reimbursed for its annual costs for servicing the CAD1.5 billion debt it took on when it was privatised in 1996 (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010).
 
From a supply-side perspective, these steps would serve to create a multiplier effect on the overall Canadian economy making the loss of taxes more than offset by corresponding increases to the economy as a whole and the new taxes that would be generated in the process (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). Other steps needed to level the playing field for the Canadian airline industry would be to find a compromise between current capital investment needs for the industry’s infrastructure vs. other transportation sectors. The authors of the International Air Transport Association-sponsored study emphasized that “the air transport is the only sector required to pay for its own infrastructure, something that sticks in the craw of many airline presidents who complain they have to compete with subsidised rail and road transport while paying through the nose for the privilege” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 4). The relative economic impact of the Canadian airline industry supports the need for reform in this area. For example, the four airlines that comprise the National Airlines Council of Canada provide passenger service to almost 50 million passengers each year and directly employ nearly 40,000 people (almost 85,000 total when the multiplier effect is taken into account); moreover, the combined revenues from its members was more than CAD$14 billion with corresponding expenditures of almost CAD$11 billion in Canada, increasing to almost $CAD20 billion total when the multiplier effect is applied (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). Besides these direct and indirect economic impacts, the group’s members, WestJet, Air Canada, Jazz and Air Transat, are responsible for facilitating domestic and international trade, with imports and exports shipped by air during 2009 totaling CAD$94 billion (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010).
 
Finally, Lazar and his colleagues used various analytical methods to demonstrate how the Canadian airline industry’s impact on the Canadian economy extended to less visible factors such as increased productivity levels that contribute tens of billions of additional dollars into the economy, with estimates ranging from 2.3 per cent to 3.0 per cent of the country’s GDP (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). By relaxing government regulation and taxation of the airline industry, additional revenues could be generated in this top-down, supply-side perspective that could drive the Canadian economy in major ways, at least based on this industry-sponsored study’s conclusions. In fact, current regulations affect low-cost carriers such as WestJet disproportionately compared to Air Canada. For example, the lead researcher notes that, “Indeed, a survey of 10 selected domestic flights for each of Air Canada and WestJet shows that the aggregate impact of a host of government policies accounts for 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the total fares, with the relative impact being larger for the lowest fares” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 4).
 
These findings clearly indicate that pound for pound, WestJet is having a more significant economic impact that its more cumbersome counterpart at Air Canada, so there must be some factors at play to account for this disparity in performance. Certainly, besides the negative public relations these allegations of predatory pricing and unresponsiveness to customer demands produced, they also served to underscore the prevailing attitudes concerning these two airlines among many Canadians today, with Air Canada being the largest but most disliked and WestJet being widely admired as a worthy but underdog competitor, themes that receive additional attention in Chapter Four below. Taken together, the regulatory and economic environment in which Air Canada and WestJet compete has experienced significant changes since the airlines were formed, with WestJet’s founding being the more recent and this organization is discussed further in chapter four below, following a description of the study’s methodology in chapter three.
 
3.0 Chapter Three: Methodology
 
3.1
 
Description of the Study Approach
 
To improve the trustworthiness and credibility of the study’s findings, this study used a triangulated study approach. According to definition provided by Neuman, “Triangulation is a term borrowed from surveying the land that says looking at an object from several different points gives a more accurate view of it” (2003:547). The first part of the triangulated methodology consisted of a review of the relevant literature concerning the airline industry in Canada, including recent and current trends in the regulatory environment and market conditions. This first part of the research methodology is widely regarded as an indispensable element in most modern research projects. For example, Fraenkel and Wallen report that, “Researchers usually dig into the literature to find out what has already been written about the topic they are interested in investigating. Both the opinions of experts in the field and other research studies are of interest. Such reading is referred to as a review of the literature” (2001:48).
 
The second component of the methodology consisted of a case study of WestJet and Air Canada. This approach is congruent with a number of social researchers who cite the advantages of studying one or two cases in detail. According to Neuman, the case study approach is “research in which one studies a few people or cases in great detail” (2003:530). The ability to develop an in-depth analysis of a specific topic makes the case study methodology a highly suitable technique for this study. In this regard, Feagin, Orum and Sjoberg also emphasize that, “The study of the single case or an array of several cases remains indispensable to the progress of the social sciences” (1991:1). These authors add that, “The case study offers the opportunity to study these social phenomena at a relatively small price, for it requires one person, or at most a handful of people, to perform the necessary observations and interpretation of data, compared with the massive organizational machinery generally required by random sample surveys and population censuses” (Feagin et al. 1991:2). Based on the foregoing factors and considerations, the case study approach was deemed to be a useful framework for providing the study’s findings with increased validity for two key reasons:
 
1. Conclusions that are related to a certain aspect of a phenomenon under study do not necessarily have to be based solely on one data source; and,
 
2. Case studies generally rely on a variety of data sources (Benz & Newman 1998).
 
The final component of the triangulated methodology consisted of a meta-analysis of the issues developed in the review of the relevant literature. According to Zimmerman, “Meta-analysis is a systematic synthesis, comparison, or summary of narrative reviews” (1995:123). The use of a meta-analysis approach has provided new opportunities for social researchers to develop new insights and formulate conclusions that are often more accurate and possess superior credible compared to the findings than can be developed based on any single primary study or a single non-quantitative, narrative review (Dimatteo & Rosenthal 2001). This approach is also congruent with Neuman (2003), who emphasizes that a meta-analysis does not have to employ statistics to in order to develop insightful summaries of findings from a wide variety of sources of different types. It is also congruent with the guidance provided by the American Psychological Association’s Publication Manual (5th ed.) which states, “Word tables present qualitative comparisons or descriptive information. Word tables illustrate the discussion in the text” (2002:161).
 
3.2
 
Data-gathering Method and Database of Study
 
The literature review was conducted with a focus on using peer-reviewed and scholarly resources to develop the requisite background information concerning the airline industry in Canada as well as recent and current trends. The case study component of the research methodology drew on both juried and scholarly sources as well as the popular literature to develop more in-depth findings and the meta-analysis relied on sources of all types in order to add breadth to the analysis. The database of study consulted included university and public libraries, as well as reliable online research resources such as EBSCO, FindArticles and the premium service, Questia.
 
4.0 Chapter Four: Findings/Data Analysis
 
4.1
 
Part One: Case Studies
 
Case Study No. 1: WestJet Airlines, Ltd.
 
In 1996, a team of Calgary entrepreneurs led by Clive Beddoe founded WestJet to serve as a Western Canadian regional carrier; at its founding, the company only had three aircraft that flew to five different five cities (“WestJet Corporate Profile” 2010). From these modest beginnings, just a decade and a half later, though, WestJet has become Canada’s leading low-cost airline and currently provides scheduled service throughout North America, Mexico and the Caribbean, with a fleet of 88 Boeing Next-Generation 737-series aircraft (“WestJet Corporate Profile” 2010). The company’s promotional literature states that its strategic plan for long-term growth and success is based on four pillars, as follows:
 
1. People and Culture — Investing in and fostering the growth, development and commitment of our people.
 
2. Guest Experience – Consistently and continuously providing an amazing guest experience.
 
3. Revenue and Growth — Achieving an average annual compound growth rate in available seat miles of between four and seven percent.
 
4. Costs — Achieving a targeted, sustainable profit margin that will be number one among North American airlines (“WestJet Fact Sheet” 2010).
 
The company’s emphasis on cost efficiency and high quality has paid major dividends as shown in Figure 1 below which illustrates the company’s stock performance for the past 10 years.
 
Figure 1. WestJet Stock Performance: 2000-2010 (to date)
 
Source: Reuters at http://www.reuters.com / finance/stocks/company Profile-symbol =WJA.TO
 
This impressive performance and sustained success over the past decade has attracted a great deal of speculation from industry observers concerning the future for WestJet and its larger but struggling competitor, Air Canada. In this regard, citing the potential for further market share to be drained away to air carriers in the United States, Janda et al. suggest that the business model being used by WestJet represents the clear-cut choice for the future of the airline industry in Canada. According to these industry analysts, “The only way to prevent such traffic diversion is to make direct air travel between Canada and foreign countries more convenient and inexpensive,” but they caution as well that, “This can be accomplished [only by] a fundamental change in attitude on the part of Canada’s international air policy makers and executers” (Janda et al. 2005:75).
 
Support for the need for this sea change in attitude on the part of Canadian policymakers could be gained by examining the respective performance of Air Canada and WestJet in recent years. For instance, Janda and his colleagues emphasize that the Canadian government needs “to abandon the notion that restrictive bilateral agreements (a foreign carrier is denied the opportunity to expand its services or launch new routes if a Canadian carrier cannot make money on the route) will somehow protect uncompetitive Canadian carriers’ interests in the long run” (Janda et al. 2005:75). While government oversight is needed to ensure a competitive landscape, allowing the invisible hand to direct the environment in which Canadian air carriers compete, then, will pay dividends in the long-term, an assertion supported in large part by the consistent performance by WestJet in responding to changes in market conditions. In this regard, Janda and his associates also note that, “This protectionist policy prolonged the uncompetitive situation for Air Canada and, before its demise, of Canadian Airlines while inflicting major costs on the traveling public and harming Canada’s wider economic interests (tourism and related industries, corporate location choices, etc.). Such a policy did not protect either Canadian Airlines or Air Canada from becoming uncompetitive, allowing them to stare into the abyss of bankruptcy” (2005:75).
 
In addition, WestJet has administered its responsibilities under existing laws and regulations differently than Air Canada in ways that increased its cost efficiency. For example, although every Canadian air carrier is required to monitor the extent of foreign ownership of its voting shares Air Canada and WestJet has implemented different methods to track this ownership in order to alert the company’s leadership when it is nearing the limit (Janda 2005). According to Janda, “WestJet, which over time has approached the 25 per cent threshold and is currently reporting 22.6 per cent non-Canadian ownership of voting shares, has put a special procedure in place for non-Canadian share transfers (www.westjet.com). Non-Canadians wanting to buy WestJet shares can reserve the right to obtain a transfer after completing a reservation application. WestJet’s policy is to permit reservations to stand for four business days when non-Canadian ownership levels exceed 21.0 per cent” (Janda 2005:74). This approach has facilitated tracking and management of this legal requirement in cost-effective ways (Janda 2005).
 
Other recent initiatives by WestJet demonstrate how closely the company’s managers follow consumer trends to identify opportunities for improvement. In this regard, a recent report from Market Wire notes that, “Demand for air travel is resulting in busier contact centers for airlines like WestJet, one of Canada’s leading air carriers. In May 2010, WestJet flew 125,000 more guests than in May 2009, and more guests can mean only one thing: more guest interactions. While WestJet uses sophisticated workforce management strategies to ensure that callers receive a world class experience, events such as special promotions and unexpected weather can make consistently achieving high performance targets a challenge” (“WestJet Enhances Guest Experience With Virtual Hold Technology” 2010:37). In late 2009, WestJet purchased a Virtual Hold solution to support delivery of great guest experiences during events that lead to higher hold times. In six months, WestJet guests have avoided more than 13 million minutes of hold time by choosing the Virtual Hold option (“WestJet Enhances Guest Experience With Virtual Hold Technology” 2010).
 
This initiative, together with the other innovations introduced by WestJet in recent years, resulted in Envision designating WestJet as a recipient of the 2010 Envision Excellence Awards (“Envision Announces 2010 Customer Excellence Award Winners” 2010). Finally, WestJet emphasizes that it is “one of the most profitable airlines in North America” due in part to the fact that “Approximately 84 per cent of eligible [employees] own shares in the company through the employee share purchase plan” (“WestJet Fact Sheet” 2010:1).
 
Clearly, WestJet is modeling the way for the Canadian air industry but it is doing so in a far more efficient manner than its unwieldy competitor at Air Canada can manage. As Janda and his colleagues conclude, “We observe that Air Canada is fixing things fundamentally only after getting a real competitive assault from WestJet. WestJet seems to be the best medicine for Air Canada’s chronic disease” (emphasis added) (2005:75). This knee-jerk reaction to WestJet’s leadership is a recurrent theme in the literature. Indeed, it was if the managers and marketers at Air Canada had been lulled into a false sense of security based on their cozy relationship with the national government and the prevailing “too large to fail” mentality that has existed in the past and to a certain extent, today. After being slammed in the head more than once by its smaller but more agile competitor at Westjet, Air Canada appears to have at last sat up and taken more serious notice and these issues are discussed further below.
 
Case Study No. 2: Air Canada
 
Despite some turbulent times in recent years, Air Canada remains the largest full-service airline in Canada today and the company is also the largest airline providing regularly scheduled passenger services in the Canadian market, the Canada-U.S. transborder market and in the international market to and from Canada (Air Canada Profile 2010). Air Canada provides passenger services to more than 32 million customers annually in combination with its regional partner Jazz; this strategic partnership also provides direct passenger service to more than 170 destinations located on five continents (Air Canada Profile 2010). In addition, Air Canada is a founding member of Star Alliance, is the 15th largest commercial airline in the world, and employs almost 23,000 full-time equivalent employees (Air Canada Profile 2010).
 
Recently, Air Canada was named Canada’s favorite airline for business travel by the Ipsos Reid Business Traveller Survey. These findings are congruent with the observation by Costa et al. that, “While the lower-cost strategies can be ideal for leisure travelers, they are not suitable for many business fliers, because they cannot offer the flexibility, range of flights and destinations, or level of service that business travelers demand” (2002:90). In the Ipsos Reid Business Traveller survey, Air Canada was preferred by 71 per cent of Canadian business travellers surveyed for 2010, the third consecutive year of improvement in Air Canada’s ratings in the national survey. This significant recognition followed hard on the heals of another major award by SkyTrax World Airline which designated Air Canada as the Best Airline North American for 2009 (“Air Canada Named Canada’s Preferred Airline by Frequent Business Travellers” 2010).
 
The survey showed consistent and strong increases in customer ratings for overall satisfaction, airline most frequently flown, as well as improvements in factors such as the quality of Air Canada’s on-board products and service offerings. Among other results, the survey determined that:
 
1. Business travellers’ overall satisfaction with Air Canada’s service climbed 10 percentage points over last year.
 
2. Air Canada is the preferred carrier from Canada to the U.S. For 68 per cent of business travellers, an improvement of 9 per cent over last year. In addition, business travelers to the U.S. are using Air Canada five per cent more than last year (including Jazz).
 
3. Overall, business travel is rebounding, with travellers having made – on average – 17 business trips in 2010, as compared to 16.1 business trips in 2009.
 
4. Small business travellers from companies with fewer than 2,000 employees have been growing in numbers, now comprising up to 80 per cent of business travel (“Air Canada Named Canada’s Preferred Airline by Frequent Business Travellers” 2010:2-3).
 
The net effect of these trends in business travel has been to increase the availability of discounted air fares offered by all carriers. In this regard, the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants report that, “The expansion of low-cost carriers, route coverage and service frequency on business routes have accelerated the availability of discounted fares” (“Business Travel Goes Budget 2004:10).
 
As yet another example of Air Canada following WestJet’s lead in the Canadian airline industry, a report (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008) notes that, “Airlines have grown more sophisticated at wringing every last dollar out of a flight, partly by lowering and raising fares based on supply and demand. Much of this magic, called ‘yield management,’ is invisible to passengers, but it results in people in the same cabin paying wildly different amounts for the same flight” (9). The report goes on to emphasize that Air Canada executives have disdained their U.S. counterparts’ actions in increasing yield by being less than forthcoming about their pricing, but the actions taken by Air Canada are clearly a reaction to what was already underway at WestJet. For example, the report adds that, “Air Canada went through bankruptcy earlier this decade, and when it emerged in 2004 it was losing customers to low-cost rival WestJet Airlines Ltd. Air Canada fought back by creating a bare-bones service to compete with WestJet fares, with extra amenities for picking a fancier plan” (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008:9). These actions by Air Canada were based on the company’s loss of market share to its low-cost rivals, especially WestJet, and were Air Canada’s meager effort to “gain the confidence back from our customers and offer products we thought they wanted” (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008:9).
 
The opportunity to select the class of service desired was provided by Air Canada along a continuum of four levels with the most expensive levels, called Latitude and Executive Class, having fully refundable tickets as well as priority check-in, food and other amenities included in the purchase price; by contrast, the least expensive fare, known as Tango, requires additional fees for upgrades for features such as food, advance seat selection, flight changes and access to airport lounge facilities (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008). Most recent indicates show that about half of Air Canada’s passengers elect the higher prices levels while the other half is satisfied with the lower cost alternatives (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing 2008).
 
In sharp contrast to WestJet’s sustained performance since September 11, 2001, Air Canada has experienced some rocky times in recent years as shown in Figure 2 below which illustrate the company’s stock performance for the period 2006-2010.
 
Figure 2. Air Canada stock performance: 2006-2010
 
http://www.corporateinformation.com/Company-Snapshot.aspx?cusip=C124ZZC00
 
In sharp contrast to WestJet’s savvy management style, though, Air Canada continues to falter in some important ways. For example, Penello (2009) emphasizes that, “Some airline companies, such as Air Canada, hedged too much jet fuel beyond one year and were consequently saddled with commitments to buy above the market while revenue was well below what was anticipated” (38).
 
4.2
 
Part Two: Meta-Analysis of Recent Media Reports Concerning WestJet and Air Canada
 
A summary of recent media reports for WestJet and Air Canada is presented in Table 1 and Table 2 below, respectively.
 
Table 1
 
Recent media reports concerning WestJet
 
WestJet
 
Description/Summary
 
“American Airlines and WestJet sign interline agreement.” 2010, October 20 Airline Industry Information. [online] available: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CWU/is_2010_Oct_20/ai_n55834075/.
 
On October 19, 2010, American Airlines and WestJet jointly announced that they have entered into an interline agreement. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, American Airlines’ passengers may travel to Canada and transfer to a WestJet flight with a single ticket and they may check their bags to their final destination. The new agreement with the Canadian airline also provides American’s customers with connecting services to 25 new Canadian cities not currently served by American or American Eagle. The second phase of the interline agreement, which will add non-stop connecting opportunities through WestJet’s non-stop U.S. services to Canadian cities, is expected to be implemented in December 2010.
 
“WestJet Says No More Airline Code-Shares this Year.” 2010, October 6 Manila Bulletin 37.
 
WestJet Airlines Ltd. will not announce any more code-share agreements during 2010 after the carrier struck its first, long-awaited deal early in October 2010. Despite such partnership agreements being a key part of its revenue growth strategy, WestJet representatives emphasized that further agreements would place unnecessary stress on WestJet’s staff during the busy Christmas season when winter storms often also play havoc with air travel. One day after completing a code-sharing partnership with Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd., WestJet’s executive vice-president of strategy and planning, Hugh Dunleavy, noted that, “I would not turn on another code-share until after the new year is completed.” Code sharing is the practice where airlines sell space on each other’s flights. It can help to boost revenues as airlines can offer passengers more destinations while keeping a lid on costs as they don’t have to service all the places themselves. In WestJet’s case, code-share agreements are a central part of its plans to make deeper inroads into the market for business travelers, for whom the ability to connect easily to many destinations is key. WestJet, Canada’s second-biggest airline, has recently started to expand from its low-budget roots and begun targeting the business market as it looks for new avenues for revenue and profit. The deal with Hong Kong’s dominant carrier is not a surprise as WestJet already had an “interline” agreement – a watered-down version of a code-share – with Cathay Pacific. WestJet has a similar partnership with Air France-KLM, making it a likely candidate for a full code-share. Analysts also expect a deal with a U.S. carrier, possibly Delta Air Lines Inc.
 
Sorensen, C 2010, May 31 “Ready for Takeoff.” Maclean’s 123(20): 35-36.
 
Author reports that WestJet’s plans to compete with Air Canada and then globally. According to the article, speculation concerning whether or not WestJet is content to remain a discount airline was created by WestJet’s naming of commercial airline industry veteran Gregg Saretsky to chief executive officer. The competitive challenge for Air Canada is based on WestJet’s announcement of a code-sharing partnership agreement with Hong Kong, China’s Cathay Pacific Airways. Since his appointment as CEO last March, speculation has been rising about whether WestJet has finally reached a point in its evolution where it’s not content to remain a folksy discount airline. It has set its sights on challenging Air Canada, not only domestically, but in the growing market for global air travel; however, unlike Air Canada, WestJet currently flies one kind of airplane — Boeing’s 737 — which helps keep maintenance and pilot training costs down but the downside is that it limits the airline mainly to destinations within North America.
 
“Corporate profile.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: .
 
WestJet strives to offer guests a friendly, efficient and relaxing experience from time of booking to final destination. Guests now have a variety of innovative options to make their travels as smooth as possible. WestJet’s check-in choices include web check-in; mobile check-in, self serve check-in kiosks at most airports or traditional counter check-in. Some of WestJet’s airports have also adopted the cost-effective and space-saving flow-through check-in. WestJet was the first airline in North America to launch the electronic boarding pass which is accepted at all Canadian destinations.
 
“Community spirit.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: .
 
Through programs that focus on children’s health, community festivals and amateur sports, WestJet supports over 800 community initiatives across Canada. The WestJet Cares for Kids program supports charities that work to address children’s health and wellness issues. The WestJet Fun ‘n Festival Series sponsors over 25 festivals across the country including Just for Laughs Festival in Montreal and Toronto, Global ComedyFest in Vancouver and the Calgary Stampede.
 
“Green initiatives.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: ?????Y?Z??Y??[Z??[?????H?HZ??Y??H???[?????H???????[?H?Y]??  ??Y?Z??Y????]?X?Y????]???[?H??H?H[?[???[?[???Y[YY??X?Y[??Y]?[???[Y?X?K]ZY?]?[?Y?[??]??X?[???Y?Y?X?[?H?YX?H?Y[???[?[Z??[?????]??H??????Y?[??[?YH?Y??]Z?Y?]?Y?][????X[??H
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“Sky-high Wi-fi.” 2009, September PM Network 23(9): 16-17.
 
Sorensen, C 2010, May 31 “Ready for Takeoff.” Maclean’s 123(20): 35-36.
 
“Struggling Air Canada Raises U.S.$936 M. In Fresh Financing.” 2009, July 30 Manila Bulletin 7.
 
“United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture, Strengthening Canada-U.S.
 
Network.” 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
 

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Increasing Airline industry term paper global history essay help: global history essay help airline industry has become increasingly competitive in recent years due in part to the horsewhipping it experienced following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The ongoing global economic downturn and high energy prices have added further constraints to airline performance. In this environment, it is not surprising that airlines that are agile and nimble in their response to changing market conditions will enjoy a competitive advantage, and this has certainly been the case with WestJet’s performance compared to the struggling Air Canada airlines. By providing the flying public with no-frills, low-cost regional and international alternatives, WestJet has not only survived during this turbulent period, it has also gained market share from Air Canada, continuing the bleeding of this former industry leader. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevant literature to identify what WestJet and Air Canada are doing right — and wrong — to achieve a competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace.
 
Table of Contents
 
1.0
 
Chapter One: Introduction
 
1.1
 
Statement of the Problem
 
1.2
 
Purpose of Study
 
1.3
 
Research Questions
 
1.4
 
Importance of Study
 
1.5
 
Rationale of Study
 
1.6
 
Overview of Study
 
2..0
 
Chapter Two: Literature Review
 
2.1
 
Recent Trends in the Airline Industry
 
2.2
 
Westjet
 
2.3
 
Air Canada
 
3.0
 
Chapter Three: Methodology
 
3.1
 
Description of the Study Approach
 
3.2
 
Data-gathering Method and Database of Study
 
4.0
 
Chapter Four: Findings/Data Analysis
 
4.1
 
Case Studies
 
4.2
 
Meta-Analysis
 
5.0
 
Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations
 
WestJet vs. Air Canada: Why WestJet Will Win
 
1.0
 
Chapter One: Introduction
 
In what more than one analyst has likened to a David-and-Goliath battle, the competition between giant Air Canada and its smaller counterpart in WestJet appears to be so lopsided in favor of the Goliath, Air Canada, to preclude any inroads in its market share by the David, WestJet. Indeed, the U.S.-Canada market represents one of the largest air transportation markets in the world today, and Air Canada’s already enjoys a transborder network with 59 cities each in the U.S. And Canada (“United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture” 2010). Furthermore, Air Canada is the country’s largest domestic and international full-service airline, and it provides scheduled and charter international passenger and cargo air services to more than 170 locations spanning five continents providing scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 170 destinations on five continents, with around 31 million passengers each year (United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture 2010). Besides the 118 destinations in its North American market, Air Canada also services 60 destinations throughout the Middle East, Europe, Australia, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America; moreover, as part of the Star Alliance which it helped to establish, Air Canada is part of the largest air transportation network in the world, providing air services to almost 1,200 destinations and 181 countries (United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture 2010).
 
By very sharp contrast, WestJet Airlines Ltd. (hereinafter “WestJet” or “the company”) provides scheduled services to a North American and Caribbean network comprised of 69 cities (“Profile: WestJet Airlines Ltd.” 2010). Despite its business model that has traditionally focused on low-cost and convenient alternatives, WestJet now features extra legroom, leather seats and live seatback television on its fleet of 87 Boeing Next-Generation 737 aircraft; in addition, as of December 31, 2009, WestJet had leased an additional 10 aircraft (seven 737-700s and three 737-800s), bringing its total of leased aircraft to 33 (“Profile: WestJet Airlines Ltd.” 2010).
 
1.1
 
Statement of the Problem
 
During the closing decades of the 20th century, global air transportation grew at a steady pace until the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in a drastic but short-lived downturn in the passenger and cargo traffic. Although the industry has largely recovered since that time, many air carriers continue to struggle during a period characterized by a global economic downturn combined with escalating energy costs. In this regard, Janda, Flouris and Oum emphasize that, “At this juncture, it is important for Canada to examine its medium-term air transport policy options, taking into account the changed and changing industry environment domestically and internationally” (2005:73).
 
This problem is especially acute for countries such as Canada where its large geographic size means that the airline industry plays an important role in its economic performance. As Janda and his associates emphasize, “Transportation has been a cornerstone of Canada’s national political and economic policy since before Confederation and continues to be vitally important to this country’s future” (2005:73). Because it is vitally important, major successes and failures in the transportation sector have a very real impact on the economy of Canada and its neighbors. In this environment, identifying which factors contribute to the success of Canadian air carriers represents a timely and valuable enterprise, an enterprise that is also directly tied to the purpose of this study which is discussed further below.
 
1.2
 
Purpose of Study
 
The purpose of this study was three-fold as follows:
 
1.2.1
 
To determine the historic performance of Air Canada and what factors have contributed to its successes and failures.
 
1.2.2
 
To determine the historic performance of WestJet and what factors have contributed to its successes and failures.
 
1.2.3
 
To develop a qualitative synthesize based on the foregoing findings to identify the superior performer and what steps are being used to achieve this superior performance.
 
1.3
 
Research Questions
 
The study was guided by the following research questions:
 
1.3.1
 
What has Air Canada been doing that has contributed to its successes? Its failures?
 
1.3.2
 
What has WestJet been doing that has contributed to its successes? Its failures?
 
1.3.3
 
Are there any airline industry best practices that can be identified which can be used by Air Canada to improve its performance?
 
1.4
 
Importance of Study
 
Taken together, the foregoing trends and the importance of the issues that are involved create a real need for informed policies for the Canadian airline industry. For instance, Janda et al. also note that, “Given the global restructuring of the aviation industry that is well underway, it is critically important that Canada chart a clear course for Canada’s airlines and air service providers” (2005:74). Although a number of steps have been taken to help the Canadian airline industry become more competitive and technological innovations have contributed to its efficiency, these initiatives and technological innovations have been balanced by the increased need for security procedures and the potential for terrorist threats throughout the world in recent years. Indeed, although the airline industry in general has regained some of its strength, many carriers have experienced difficult times and some have even folded as a result of increased competition combined with a wide range of external factors that have made competing in the 21st century airline industry even more challenging. Consequently, the importance of this study directly relates to the need to determine what business models are providing the best results, and these issues are discussed further below.
 
1.5
 
Rationale of Study
 
According to Flouris and Walker (2005), the new business models represented by low-cost airlines such as Canada’s WestJet managed to outperform legacy carriers even following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Moreover, following deregulation of the airline industry in North America, new business models are increasingly required to compete more effectively, particularly during turbulent political and economic periods. Therefore, identifying what works best so that more of this can be done by others just makes good business sense.
 
1.6
 
Overview of Study
 
This study used a five-chapter format to achieve the purpose stated above; chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and importance of the study, as well as its scope and rationale. Chapter two provides a critical review of the relevant and peer-reviewed literature concerning the regulatory and competitive environment in the North American airline industry in general and the Canadian airline industry in particular, and chapter three describes more fully the study’s methodology, including a description of the study approach, the data-gathering method and the database of study consulted. Chapter four consists of the case studies of WestJet and Air Canada as well as the meta-analysis of recent media reports concerning these two airlines. Finally, chapter five presents the study’s conclusions together with a summary of the research and salient recommendations.
 
2.0 Chapter Two: Literature Review
 
2.1
 
Recent Trends in the Airline Industry
 
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers were heard to venture that, “Things would never be the same” and in many ways, they were right. Because of its enormous impact on the airline industry, this date does serve as a useful demarcation point for before-and-after types of analyses. In this regard, just prior to the 9/11 attacks, there were about a dozen or so low-cost carriers that were competing in the United States besides the industry leader, Southwest Airlines (Doganis 2001). In these halcyon days for the legacy carriers, these low-cost carriers did not represent much of a threat and while major airlines continued to enjoy enormous profits, their low-cost competitors did not fare as well, particularly during 1996 and 1997 (Doganis 2001). By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
 
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in which they compete: “Since, in the long run,” Janda and his colleagues note, “levels of per-capita income and GDP are the main factors determining air passenger and freight volumes, it is not surprising to see that the long-term growth outlook for the air transport industry is excellent. Even in North America, where the airline markets (especially the United States and Canada) are saturated, passenger traffic is forecast to grow on average 4.5 per cent per year in the next 20 years” (2005:73).
 
Lacking an economic crystal ball, these rosy estimates may be forgiven in view of the lingering global economic downturn, but the direct connection between macroeconomic factors and the airline industry is apparent. In this regard, Janda and his associates cite a number of more recent events that have hammered the airline industry following the demarcation date represented by September 11, 2001, including the following:
 
1. The dot-corn collapse and the subsequent slowdown of business travel;
 
2. The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent war on terrorism;
 
3. The Afghanistan and Iraq wars; and,
 
4. The SARS outbreak (2005:73).
 
The implications of these events, particularly during a period when the airline industry was already struggling to cope with the effects of 9/11 in general, were truly profound. While the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 were unique in terms of the magnitude of its overall impact on world events, the potential for the types of other events listed above are always threatening to disrupt the airline industry today. In terms of the overall effects of the above-listed events on the airline industry in general, Janda et al. write, “These key events that brought the world’s airlines and the associated air transport industries to their knees. Together these events completely wiped out more than three years’ worth of air traffic growth and produced a more than 15 per cent reduction in air passenger volumes globally in the short run” (2005:74). In fact, the aforementioned SARS outbreak was enough to tip the balance for some airlines that were already struggling. For example, Miller emphasizes that, “This global epidemic struck Toronto particularly hard — right at the heart of Canada’s economy and its principal aviation hub. Air Canada estimates that during the month of April it lost approximately $125 million due to the SARS epidemic” (2003:267).
 
The adverse effects of the SARS outbreak were not restricted to April 2003 alone. Just as the Canadian airline industry was recovering from this shockwave, another outbreak of the disease the following month caused similar havoc, resulting in another decline in passenger traffic of more than a quarter (26.4 per cent) and loss of more than $200 million (Miller 2003). At the time, the president of Air Canada President reported that the company’s operating revenues for 2003 would be fully $1 billion less compared to 2002, a loss that was primarily attributed to the SARS outbreak alone (Miller 2003). According to this industry analyst, this was all the struggling giant could take: “This final blow was enough to tip the precarious balance for Air Canada and, in April, it filed for bankruptcy protection under the Companies Creditors’ Arrangement Act” (Miller 2003:267). In its defense, Air Canada was faced with a dual whammy from the SARS/post-September 11, 2001 environment: “What made this Perfect Storm particularly devastating was its timing. It arrived at a time when consumers were turning their backs on the traditional network carriers and flocking to low-fare alternatives. And in Canada, it came at a time when government air transportation policy was in serious disrepair” (Miller 2003:267). Clearly, though, WestJet was competing in the same turbulent regulatory environment as Air Canada, suggesting that the former was reading the signs far better than the latter.
 
By 2004, though, leading industry experts at the International Air Transport Association projected that the airline industry in Canada would recover to its pre-September 11, 2001 levels by 2005 (Janda et al. 2005), a projection that would have been well received by managers at both WestJet and Air Canada. The projections by Costa, Harned and Lunquist (2002) in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks, though, specifically cite the business model used by WestJet as representing the solution for the airline industry’s ailments. According to these authorities, “In the 1980s, increased yields drove recovery in the airline business. This time around, given the high levels of excess capacity and projected weakness in business travel revenues, we do not believe that yields will come back as strongly as in previous downturns. Instead, any recovery will have to come from long-term, structural cost reductions” (Costa et al. 2002:89). These downward and largely more accurately projections were based on the unwieldy operational structure in place at major airlines such as Air Canada compared to the more flexible and responsible approach used by WestJet. In this regard, Costa et al. add that, “For major airlines using the high-coverage hub-and-spoke model, such reductions may be difficult to achieve, and these airlines may struggle beyond 2004. In contrast, competitors that utilize a lower-cost strategy — such as WestJet in North America look well positioned to expand their operations and profitability” (2002:90).
 
Although more recent performance levels are discussed further in chapter four below, it is important to note at this juncture that the overarching implication for the airline industry in general and in North American in particular was to create the need for a new business model that could respond to this changing environment more efficiently. In this regard, Whitelegg emphasizes that, “The 11 September 2001 attacks on New York and Washington DC accelerated a restructuring of the airline industry, whose net losers have been large flag carriers and whose net winners – so far, at least – the low-cost carriers” (2005:125). Unfortunately, there were ample cases to support this industry analyst’s assessment of the post-9/11 environment for the Canadian airline industry. For example, Whitelegg adds that the trends were readily apparent with regards to the changing demands for lower cost alternatives during this period. “Economic prosperity was polarized: as the largest airline in the world, United Airlines, entered bankruptcy,” Whitelegg reports, he also notes that “low-cost JetBlue expanded”; likewise, “as the Belgian national carrier Sabena crashed, Ryanair aggressively redrew the aviation map of Europe” (2005:125).
 
Significantly, these trends were there for all to see, especially the analysts at Air Canada and WestJet which form the basis for this discussion. Given the fundamental differences in their performance in recent years, it is clear that WestJet recognized a growing demand and responded, but the case can be made that this demand began before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the successful survivors were those that read these trends more accurately than those that did not. In this regard, Whitelegg also points out that, “Airline analysts and executives now point to the low-cost model as the path of the future, and a plethora of books on the topic highlights an interested market among both academic and popular readers. . . . In the process, they document the industry’s development, providing context for a story that has been running for a good deal longer than the last ten years” (2005:125). Indeed, WestJet’s low-cost business model is certainly not new, with early efforts to offer low-cost alternatives also being directly tied to prevailing macroeconomic conditions. According to Whitelegg, “Attempts to provide cheap air tickets date back to the Second World War. With new holiday entitlement, workers returning from the war brought with them a thirst for foreign travel” (2005:125). The charter approach to providing low-cost flying solutions for these and other would-be air travelers became the framework on which regional and national airlines would base much of their business models in the years to come. As Whitelegg concludes, “Over the next thirty years, charters became the inexpensive link between the tourist-generating markets of northern Europe and the Mediterranean sun. They were the original low-cost carriers” (2005:125).
 
WestJet, though, took this low-cost business model to heart and applied it in a consistent and thoughtful manner to the dynamic marketplace in ways that its more cumbersome rival, Air Canada, could not. It is little wonder that the timeline of events for the past several years reflects a theme of good news for WestJet and bad news for Air Canada, varying only in degrees. In this regard, in 2005, Janda and his associates observed that for Air Canada, even the good news was tinged with some bad: “On the Canadian scene, as of October 1, 2004, Air Canada (ACE Aviation) emerged from 18 months of bankruptcy (CCAA) protection, and its third-quarter results show a clear improvement” (2005:74). By contrast, the report for WestJet was strictly positive: “WestJet has just initiated its transborder services to the United States” (Janda et al. 2005:74). The pace of recovery from the demarcation date of September 11, 2001 had also accelerated by this point in time, with Air Canada and WestJet both reporting “significantly increased passenger load factors in 2004 over 2003,” reports that Janda and his associates suggest indicate “cautious optimism for Canada’s airline industry even in the short run” (2005:75).
 
While the competitive environment remained highly dynamic, one permanent feature that emerged from this series of events was the need for a business model such as the one used by WestJet. As Doganis points out, “In Canada, in brief, the low-cost, no-frills model has clearly become a permanent feature of North American aviation” (2001:135). Although this business model has proven successful for WestJet and its like-minded competitors, there were still a number of questions being debated concerning the future direction for the airline industry in Canada. In this regard, the primary issues that were facing the Canadian airline industry in the post-September 11, 2001 climate were summed up in late 2004 by Canadian Transport Minister Jean Lapierre in his report to the Standing Committee on Transport. The recommendations that emerged from this meeting are provided in Table 1 below.
 
Table 1
 
Recommendations from November 5, 2004 by Transport Minister Jean Lapierre to the Standing Committee on Transport at the Air Currents Conference
 
Recommendation No.
 
Recommendation
 
1
 
Canada should make an effort to be included in the currently stalled negotiation on the EU-U.S. Open Aviation Area. If it cannot become a party to EU-U.S. negotiations, Canada should find its own venue for negotiations with the EU and should consider a two-track approach in which it undertakes discussions with key member state partners, such as France, at the same time exploring a global relationship with the European Commission. In any event, Canada should seek to become part of an Open Aviation Area and should work to ensure that it is formulated so as to be open to additional parties.
 
2
 
The government should conduct a review of the National Airports Policy with a view to ensuring the cost-effectiveness and accountability of airport operators.
 
3
 
The government should revisit the unanimous April 11, 2003, recommendations of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Transport to see whether further progress can be made toward relieving the burden of charges, excise taxes, and rents faced by the air transport industry.
 
4
 
Transport Canada should make a renewed effort to provide timely, carrier-specific electronic statistics.
 
The primary issues identified at the time were as follows:
 
1. Should Canada increase the limit on foreign ownership of voting shares in Canadian air carriers from the current 25 per cent to 49 per cent?
 
2. Should Canada go further and remove constraints on who controls Canadian air carriers, such that foreign interests could establish, or acquire control of, air carriers in Canada, for the purposes of offering domestic services only (right of establishment)?
 
3. Should Canada permit foreign air carriers, as a matter of principle or on a case-by-case negotiated basis, to provide air services between points in Canada? If so, under what conditions?
 
4. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States in an effort to further liberalize the current air agreement between the two countries?
 
5. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States in an effort to achieve a U.S.-style open skies agreement?
 
6. Should Canada seek negotiations with the United States to address issues that go beyond open skies? If so, what issues specifically?
 
7. How should the Canadian government balance the often conflicting interests of Canadian airports and local governments on the one hand, and air carriers on the other hand, during bilateral air negotiations?
 
8. Should Canada further liberalize its charter policies to lessen or remove remaining restrictions on granting authority for charter flights between Canada and third countries?
 
9. Should different approaches be taken to the two questions above for passenger and all-cargo services?
 
10. Should Canada consider introducing domestic service, ownership and control, and market integration issues into its international negotiations, and, if so, under what conditions or with which bilateral partners?
 
11. Would Canada be better served by adopting a multilateral (many countries) or plurilateral (smaller group of like-minded countries) approach for further air liberalization? Would this be practical? (cited in Janda et al. 2005 at 75).
 
The position of major Canadian air carriers such as Air Canada concerning the Open Skies initiative have been in favor, and in 2001, just 3 months after the terrorist attacks of September 11, Air Canada President and CEO Robert Milton recommended the Open Skies Plus initiative for Canada and the United States with a view to increasing air traffic between the two countries by 40 additional percent (Levin 2006). A lack of active participation in the negotiations over this proposal, though, have kept the Canadian airline industry from realizing the full benefits that could accrue to its adoption (Levine 2006). This lack of participation by the Canadian government, combined with its lopsided approaches to regulation in the past have created a situation where Air Canada has become sufficiently large to protect itself because it is “too large to fail.” Although this aspect of government oversight in a free economy has been witnessed on both sides of the border in recent years, the business model used by Air Canada has been uniquely Canadian. In this regard, Levine notes that, “The proliferation of business models and firms that emerged and survived in the United States did not find a counterpart in Canada. The only airline sharing Air Canada’s interests was Air Canada, and it chose to lower its costs through a bankruptcy that produced the devolution of Air Canada into a whole constellation of firms all owned by Air Canada, each specialized in competing against a particular sort of competitive threat” (2006:270). The position taken by Air Canada based on its perception of being too large to be allowed to fail is reflected in the observation by Levine that, “The periodic failures plus the constant drumbeat of warning of the only apparently viable low-fare competitor, Westjet, created a David vs. Goliath story for the press, with David Westjet seen as seeking help in defending the consumer from monopoly dominance by Goliath Air Canada” (2006:270). The response by the Canadian government was to introduce new regulations concerning pricing, but once again these worked in favor of Air Canada to WestJet’s detriment: “Air Canada has been able to persuade the government that its pricing policies should be left to the market, and that the government should focus its attention on remaining monopolies in airports and other infrastructure that inhibit entry and raise costs (the lion’s share of which are, of course, Air Canada’s!)” (Levin 2006:270)
 
The origins of these and the other issues confronting the Canadian airline industry at this point in time also began during the late 20th century. For example, Levine (2006) reports that the airline industry was deregulated and the Canadian government eventually divested itself of the national airline due in part to successful outcomes being realized through deregulation in the United States. In this regard, Levine notes that, “Heavily influenced by the widely-publicized successes of airline deregulation south of its border, Canada also deregulated its airline market in its National Transportation Act, which was passed in 1987 and became law in 1988” (2006:270). Over the next dozen years, the cumulative effect of these trends was to create a monolithic presence in the Canadian airline industry in the form of Air Canada. As part of its National Transportation Act initiative, for example, the Canadian government also privatized its national airline; however, Levine emphasizes that “. . . unlike in the United States, one legacy airline, Air Canada, with government encouragement, acquired failing Canadian Airlines in December 1999 and emerged as a clearly dominant firm, with a domestic market share by seat kilometer of around 73 per cent and a market share by seat capacity of 64 per cent in 2002” (Levine 2006:270). In fact, Canadian Airlines was on the verge of outright bankruptcy. As Doganis puts it, “In 2000, Canadian Airlines had to be rescued from collapse by Air Canada” (2001:16).
 
Given this “too large to fail” approach to the operation of Air Canada, it is not surprising that this acquisition created a monolithic airlines that could bully its way around the Canadian air industry landscape. Despite increasing competitive from low-cost air carriers, particularly, WestJet, Levine also emphasizes that, “Many travelers were dependent on the dominant carrier for service and its vigorous efforts to combat efforts to gain footholds in its market generated allegations of predatory pricing” (2006:270). The net result of these high-profile episodes was to create an increasingly negative perception of Air Canada among the Canadian flying public and elsewhere (Levine 2006). Other authorities go so far as to describe Air Canada in flatly negative terms. For example, according to Cote, “Air Canada, the closest thing we have to a national heritage, seems to be in a profound crisis. What should we do? Allow a U.S. company such as United Airlines or American Airlines to acquire it? Nationalize it, again? Or should we encourage new investors (like Onex) to take control? Air Canada has undeniably become the least popular of Canada’s major corporations” (2002:60). Although more recent surveys indicate that Air Canada’s popularity has increased, at least among business travelers, the prevailing issue at this point in Canada’s aviation history was directly related to government regulation and its effect on Air Canada. In this regard, Cote adds that, “Until the federal government clarifies its views on air transportation, Air Canada’s future will remain in jeopardy. The airline industry suffers from chronic problems tied to capacity adjustments and excessive indebtedness and has to cope with a volatile and fickle clientele. Last, turbulent labour relations and a fully unionized workplace give the industry a rigid cost structure” (2002:60). What Cote does not point out, though, is that here again, WestJet was competing in the identical uncertain environment as Air Canada. Indeed, it has required almost a decade before Air Canada has responded to one of the fundamental problems that it was experiencing as far back as the pre-September 11, 2001 demarcation date. According to Cote, “No wonder airlines have a short lifespan. The ax falls often, lopping off the most vulnerable. By simple process of elimination, it is not surprising that Air Canada finds itself teetering on the brink. One major blow could push it into bankruptcy. Air Canada’s other problem is that it is an east-west airline in an economy that is increasingly forging north-south links. Does a trans-Canadian airline have any relevance in a continental context?” (2002:60).
 
Although Air Canada has finally gotten around to forging new north-south links with United Airlines just as this study was written, Cote would likely suggest that it was “economic reality” that forced Air Canada to do so rather than any foresight on its part: “Would it be better to integrate it into the operations of a major North American carrier than to wait for economic reality to impose it? The federal government can’t wash its hands of Air Canada’s fate” (Cote 2002:60). The reason for this inextricable relationship between the fate of Air Canada and the Canadian government relates to the critical nature of the airline industry to Canada’s economy as well as the nature of the industry itself. For example, the definition provided by Black’s Law Dictionary indicates that an “oligopoly” is “an economic condition where only a few companies sell substantially similar or standards products. Oligopoly markets often exhibit the lack of competition” (1999:1086). Therefore, government oversight at some level is regarded as an essential element in Canada’s airline industry. For example, according to Cote, “The airline industry throughout the world is an oligopoly, thus requiring government intervention to ensure meaningful competition” (2002:60). Likewise, because of its vast geographic size and proximity to the United States, the air industry is an essential component in the economic infrastructure of Canada, making effective government oversight all the more critical. In this regard, Cote adds that, “Canada’s geography also makes air transport a critical industry. The federal government cannot ignore Air Canada pricing strategies and its service policies toward less populated regions. The government must ensure public interest takes precedence over the greed of airline management, which is as concerned about the stock price as the quality of service to its customers” (2002:60). In other words, giants such as Air Canada cannot be allowed to run roughshod over the interests of all of the flying public while skimming the cream where it can. As Cote points out, “Particular attention has to be paid to ensure virtual abusive monopolies do not arise in big cities like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver by the virtue of controlling landing rights. Indeed, if Air Canada were to increase its current market share, government intervention would be advisable” (2002:60).
 
The need for some level of Canadian government oversight, then, is required to ensure a competitive marketplace and this is especially relevant to the cases of Air Canada and to a lesser extent, WestJet. In this regard, Cote points out that, “If a crisis were to put an alternative airline such as Air Transat or WestJet in jeopardy, the government may have to intervene financially to ensure healthy competition. In short, as essential as Air Canada is to the country, it shouldn’t be given free rein” (2002:60). Citing numerous examples of airlines that have failed when such oversight was absent, Cote suggests that the same thing could easily happen in Canada, particularly in view of the collusive manner in which governmental regulators have approached the problem in the past. As Cote notes, “When profit is more important than ensuring a costlier public interest alternative, it can happen. Many U.S. multinationals do not feel bound by Canadian public interest. As long as they feel they can marshal the support of friends in Washington to defend their case, we’d better keep them away from our strategic sectors” (Cote 2002:60).
 
Given Air Canada’s recent strategic partnership with United Airlines to provide additional north-south coverage, Cote’s admonition is particularly timely and relevant. According to Cote, “Canada needs an east-west transport policy and sufficient political leverage over the airlines serving these routes. The Canadian government should formally declare it will not let Air Canada fall into the hands of a foreign carrier. Such a policy would be addressed to Air Canada’s current management and to any group of investors considering taking control with a view to selling the company to foreign interests down the road” (2002:60). The implications of such an intervention by the Canadian government would be significant, but less so than the invisible hand that has been wracking Air Canada’s profitability in recent years. In this regard, Cote concludes that, “Such a decision may affect Air Canada’s share price. But let’s keep in mind that in the past two years, it has fluctuated between $2 and $20 without government intervention. When all is said and done, the Canadian government will never be as merciless to Air Canada shareholders as financial markets and management have already proven to be” (emphasis added) (Cote 2002:60).
 
The results of a recent study cited by the Centre for Aviation (“Canadian airlines make argument for eliminating taxes and fees” 2010) provides some useful insights into some of the invisible-hand types of market forces that are driving the competitive landscape in the Canadian airline industry today. According to this report, “As with their U.S. counterparts, Canadian airlines are seeking government policy changes on taxes, saying that the increased economic output resulting from the elimination of the taxes may even provide more money to government coffers” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 3). These findings were based on the results of a study sponsored by the National Airlines Council of Canada (NACC), an organization that includes WestJet and Air Canada (as well as Air Transat and Jazz). The study’s principal researcher, Dr. Fred Lazar of York University’s Schulich School of Business, indicated that although U.S. airlines have been using a similar approach in recent years with little success, the situation is different for the Canadian airline industry. For instance, Lazar and his colleagues estimated that Canadian airlines could gain an additional 600,000 passengers each year if several steps were taken, including:
 
1. Elimination of ground rents;
 
2. Elimination of the Air Travellers’ Security Charge (ATSC);
 
3. Elimination of the excise tax on jet fuel; and,
 
4. NAV CANADA is reimbursed for its annual costs for servicing the CAD1.5 billion debt it took on when it was privatised in 1996 (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010).
 
From a supply-side perspective, these steps would serve to create a multiplier effect on the overall Canadian economy making the loss of taxes more than offset by corresponding increases to the economy as a whole and the new taxes that would be generated in the process (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). Other steps needed to level the playing field for the Canadian airline industry would be to find a compromise between current capital investment needs for the industry’s infrastructure vs. other transportation sectors. The authors of the International Air Transport Association-sponsored study emphasized that “the air transport is the only sector required to pay for its own infrastructure, something that sticks in the craw of many airline presidents who complain they have to compete with subsidised rail and road transport while paying through the nose for the privilege” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 4). The relative economic impact of the Canadian airline industry supports the need for reform in this area. For example, the four airlines that comprise the National Airlines Council of Canada provide passenger service to almost 50 million passengers each year and directly employ nearly 40,000 people (almost 85,000 total when the multiplier effect is taken into account); moreover, the combined revenues from its members was more than CAD$14 billion with corresponding expenditures of almost CAD$11 billion in Canada, increasing to almost $CAD20 billion total when the multiplier effect is applied (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). Besides these direct and indirect economic impacts, the group’s members, WestJet, Air Canada, Jazz and Air Transat, are responsible for facilitating domestic and international trade, with imports and exports shipped by air during 2009 totaling CAD$94 billion (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010).
 
Finally, Lazar and his colleagues used various analytical methods to demonstrate how the Canadian airline industry’s impact on the Canadian economy extended to less visible factors such as increased productivity levels that contribute tens of billions of additional dollars into the economy, with estimates ranging from 2.3 per cent to 3.0 per cent of the country’s GDP (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010). By relaxing government regulation and taxation of the airline industry, additional revenues could be generated in this top-down, supply-side perspective that could drive the Canadian economy in major ways, at least based on this industry-sponsored study’s conclusions. In fact, current regulations affect low-cost carriers such as WestJet disproportionately compared to Air Canada. For example, the lead researcher notes that, “Indeed, a survey of 10 selected domestic flights for each of Air Canada and WestJet shows that the aggregate impact of a host of government policies accounts for 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the total fares, with the relative impact being larger for the lowest fares” (Canadian airlines make argument, 2010, para. 4).
 
These findings clearly indicate that pound for pound, WestJet is having a more significant economic impact that its more cumbersome counterpart at Air Canada, so there must be some factors at play to account for this disparity in performance. Certainly, besides the negative public relations these allegations of predatory pricing and unresponsiveness to customer demands produced, they also served to underscore the prevailing attitudes concerning these two airlines among many Canadians today, with Air Canada being the largest but most disliked and WestJet being widely admired as a worthy but underdog competitor, themes that receive additional attention in Chapter Four below. Taken together, the regulatory and economic environment in which Air Canada and WestJet compete has experienced significant changes since the airlines were formed, with WestJet’s founding being the more recent and this organization is discussed further in chapter four below, following a description of the study’s methodology in chapter three.
 
3.0 Chapter Three: Methodology
 
3.1
 
Description of the Study Approach
 
To improve the trustworthiness and credibility of the study’s findings, this study used a triangulated study approach. According to definition provided by Neuman, “Triangulation is a term borrowed from surveying the land that says looking at an object from several different points gives a more accurate view of it” (2003:547). The first part of the triangulated methodology consisted of a review of the relevant literature concerning the airline industry in Canada, including recent and current trends in the regulatory environment and market conditions. This first part of the research methodology is widely regarded as an indispensable element in most modern research projects. For example, Fraenkel and Wallen report that, “Researchers usually dig into the literature to find out what has already been written about the topic they are interested in investigating. Both the opinions of experts in the field and other research studies are of interest. Such reading is referred to as a review of the literature” (2001:48).
 
The second component of the methodology consisted of a case study of WestJet and Air Canada. This approach is congruent with a number of social researchers who cite the advantages of studying one or two cases in detail. According to Neuman, the case study approach is “research in which one studies a few people or cases in great detail” (2003:530). The ability to develop an in-depth analysis of a specific topic makes the case study methodology a highly suitable technique for this study. In this regard, Feagin, Orum and Sjoberg also emphasize that, “The study of the single case or an array of several cases remains indispensable to the progress of the social sciences” (1991:1). These authors add that, “The case study offers the opportunity to study these social phenomena at a relatively small price, for it requires one person, or at most a handful of people, to perform the necessary observations and interpretation of data, compared with the massive organizational machinery generally required by random sample surveys and population censuses” (Feagin et al. 1991:2). Based on the foregoing factors and considerations, the case study approach was deemed to be a useful framework for providing the study’s findings with increased validity for two key reasons:
 
1. Conclusions that are related to a certain aspect of a phenomenon under study do not necessarily have to be based solely on one data source; and,
 
2. Case studies generally rely on a variety of data sources (Benz & Newman 1998).
 
The final component of the triangulated methodology consisted of a meta-analysis of the issues developed in the review of the relevant literature. According to Zimmerman, “Meta-analysis is a systematic synthesis, comparison, or summary of narrative reviews” (1995:123). The use of a meta-analysis approach has provided new opportunities for social researchers to develop new insights and formulate conclusions that are often more accurate and possess superior credible compared to the findings than can be developed based on any single primary study or a single non-quantitative, narrative review (Dimatteo & Rosenthal 2001). This approach is also congruent with Neuman (2003), who emphasizes that a meta-analysis does not have to employ statistics to in order to develop insightful summaries of findings from a wide variety of sources of different types. It is also congruent with the guidance provided by the American Psychological Association’s Publication Manual (5th ed.) which states, “Word tables present qualitative comparisons or descriptive information. Word tables illustrate the discussion in the text” (2002:161).
 
3.2
 
Data-gathering Method and Database of Study
 
The literature review was conducted with a focus on using peer-reviewed and scholarly resources to develop the requisite background information concerning the airline industry in Canada as well as recent and current trends. The case study component of the research methodology drew on both juried and scholarly sources as well as the popular literature to develop more in-depth findings and the meta-analysis relied on sources of all types in order to add breadth to the analysis. The database of study consulted included university and public libraries, as well as reliable online research resources such as EBSCO, FindArticles and the premium service, Questia.
 
4.0 Chapter Four: Findings/Data Analysis
 
4.1
 
Part One: Case Studies
 
Case Study No. 1: WestJet Airlines, Ltd.
 
In 1996, a team of Calgary entrepreneurs led by Clive Beddoe founded WestJet to serve as a Western Canadian regional carrier; at its founding, the company only had three aircraft that flew to five different five cities (“WestJet Corporate Profile” 2010). From these modest beginnings, just a decade and a half later, though, WestJet has become Canada’s leading low-cost airline and currently provides scheduled service throughout North America, Mexico and the Caribbean, with a fleet of 88 Boeing Next-Generation 737-series aircraft (“WestJet Corporate Profile” 2010). The company’s promotional literature states that its strategic plan for long-term growth and success is based on four pillars, as follows:
 
1. People and Culture — Investing in and fostering the growth, development and commitment of our people.
 
2. Guest Experience – Consistently and continuously providing an amazing guest experience.
 
3. Revenue and Growth — Achieving an average annual compound growth rate in available seat miles of between four and seven percent.
 
4. Costs — Achieving a targeted, sustainable profit margin that will be number one among North American airlines (“WestJet Fact Sheet” 2010).
 
The company’s emphasis on cost efficiency and high quality has paid major dividends as shown in Figure 1 below which illustrates the company’s stock performance for the past 10 years.
 
Figure 1. WestJet Stock Performance: 2000-2010 (to date)
 
Source: Reuters at http://www.reuters.com / finance/stocks/company Profile-symbol =WJA.TO
 
This impressive performance and sustained success over the past decade has attracted a great deal of speculation from industry observers concerning the future for WestJet and its larger but struggling competitor, Air Canada. In this regard, citing the potential for further market share to be drained away to air carriers in the United States, Janda et al. suggest that the business model being used by WestJet represents the clear-cut choice for the future of the airline industry in Canada. According to these industry analysts, “The only way to prevent such traffic diversion is to make direct air travel between Canada and foreign countries more convenient and inexpensive,” but they caution as well that, “This can be accomplished [only by] a fundamental change in attitude on the part of Canada’s international air policy makers and executers” (Janda et al. 2005:75).
 
Support for the need for this sea change in attitude on the part of Canadian policymakers could be gained by examining the respective performance of Air Canada and WestJet in recent years. For instance, Janda and his colleagues emphasize that the Canadian government needs “to abandon the notion that restrictive bilateral agreements (a foreign carrier is denied the opportunity to expand its services or launch new routes if a Canadian carrier cannot make money on the route) will somehow protect uncompetitive Canadian carriers’ interests in the long run” (Janda et al. 2005:75). While government oversight is needed to ensure a competitive landscape, allowing the invisible hand to direct the environment in which Canadian air carriers compete, then, will pay dividends in the long-term, an assertion supported in large part by the consistent performance by WestJet in responding to changes in market conditions. In this regard, Janda and his associates also note that, “This protectionist policy prolonged the uncompetitive situation for Air Canada and, before its demise, of Canadian Airlines while inflicting major costs on the traveling public and harming Canada’s wider economic interests (tourism and related industries, corporate location choices, etc.). Such a policy did not protect either Canadian Airlines or Air Canada from becoming uncompetitive, allowing them to stare into the abyss of bankruptcy” (2005:75).
 
In addition, WestJet has administered its responsibilities under existing laws and regulations differently than Air Canada in ways that increased its cost efficiency. For example, although every Canadian air carrier is required to monitor the extent of foreign ownership of its voting shares Air Canada and WestJet has implemented different methods to track this ownership in order to alert the company’s leadership when it is nearing the limit (Janda 2005). According to Janda, “WestJet, which over time has approached the 25 per cent threshold and is currently reporting 22.6 per cent non-Canadian ownership of voting shares, has put a special procedure in place for non-Canadian share transfers (www.westjet.com). Non-Canadians wanting to buy WestJet shares can reserve the right to obtain a transfer after completing a reservation application. WestJet’s policy is to permit reservations to stand for four business days when non-Canadian ownership levels exceed 21.0 per cent” (Janda 2005:74). This approach has facilitated tracking and management of this legal requirement in cost-effective ways (Janda 2005).
 
Other recent initiatives by WestJet demonstrate how closely the company’s managers follow consumer trends to identify opportunities for improvement. In this regard, a recent report from Market Wire notes that, “Demand for air travel is resulting in busier contact centers for airlines like WestJet, one of Canada’s leading air carriers. In May 2010, WestJet flew 125,000 more guests than in May 2009, and more guests can mean only one thing: more guest interactions. While WestJet uses sophisticated workforce management strategies to ensure that callers receive a world class experience, events such as special promotions and unexpected weather can make consistently achieving high performance targets a challenge” (“WestJet Enhances Guest Experience With Virtual Hold Technology” 2010:37). In late 2009, WestJet purchased a Virtual Hold solution to support delivery of great guest experiences during events that lead to higher hold times. In six months, WestJet guests have avoided more than 13 million minutes of hold time by choosing the Virtual Hold option (“WestJet Enhances Guest Experience With Virtual Hold Technology” 2010).
 
This initiative, together with the other innovations introduced by WestJet in recent years, resulted in Envision designating WestJet as a recipient of the 2010 Envision Excellence Awards (“Envision Announces 2010 Customer Excellence Award Winners” 2010). Finally, WestJet emphasizes that it is “one of the most profitable airlines in North America” due in part to the fact that “Approximately 84 per cent of eligible [employees] own shares in the company through the employee share purchase plan” (“WestJet Fact Sheet” 2010:1).
 
Clearly, WestJet is modeling the way for the Canadian air industry but it is doing so in a far more efficient manner than its unwieldy competitor at Air Canada can manage. As Janda and his colleagues conclude, “We observe that Air Canada is fixing things fundamentally only after getting a real competitive assault from WestJet. WestJet seems to be the best medicine for Air Canada’s chronic disease” (emphasis added) (2005:75). This knee-jerk reaction to WestJet’s leadership is a recurrent theme in the literature. Indeed, it was if the managers and marketers at Air Canada had been lulled into a false sense of security based on their cozy relationship with the national government and the prevailing “too large to fail” mentality that has existed in the past and to a certain extent, today. After being slammed in the head more than once by its smaller but more agile competitor at Westjet, Air Canada appears to have at last sat up and taken more serious notice and these issues are discussed further below.
 
Case Study No. 2: Air Canada
 
Despite some turbulent times in recent years, Air Canada remains the largest full-service airline in Canada today and the company is also the largest airline providing regularly scheduled passenger services in the Canadian market, the Canada-U.S. transborder market and in the international market to and from Canada (Air Canada Profile 2010). Air Canada provides passenger services to more than 32 million customers annually in combination with its regional partner Jazz; this strategic partnership also provides direct passenger service to more than 170 destinations located on five continents (Air Canada Profile 2010). In addition, Air Canada is a founding member of Star Alliance, is the 15th largest commercial airline in the world, and employs almost 23,000 full-time equivalent employees (Air Canada Profile 2010).
 
Recently, Air Canada was named Canada’s favorite airline for business travel by the Ipsos Reid Business Traveller Survey. These findings are congruent with the observation by Costa et al. that, “While the lower-cost strategies can be ideal for leisure travelers, they are not suitable for many business fliers, because they cannot offer the flexibility, range of flights and destinations, or level of service that business travelers demand” (2002:90). In the Ipsos Reid Business Traveller survey, Air Canada was preferred by 71 per cent of Canadian business travellers surveyed for 2010, the third consecutive year of improvement in Air Canada’s ratings in the national survey. This significant recognition followed hard on the heals of another major award by SkyTrax World Airline which designated Air Canada as the Best Airline North American for 2009 (“Air Canada Named Canada’s Preferred Airline by Frequent Business Travellers” 2010).
 
The survey showed consistent and strong increases in customer ratings for overall satisfaction, airline most frequently flown, as well as improvements in factors such as the quality of Air Canada’s on-board products and service offerings. Among other results, the survey determined that:
 
1. Business travellers’ overall satisfaction with Air Canada’s service climbed 10 percentage points over last year.
 
2. Air Canada is the preferred carrier from Canada to the U.S. For 68 per cent of business travellers, an improvement of 9 per cent over last year. In addition, business travelers to the U.S. are using Air Canada five per cent more than last year (including Jazz).
 
3. Overall, business travel is rebounding, with travellers having made – on average – 17 business trips in 2010, as compared to 16.1 business trips in 2009.
 
4. Small business travellers from companies with fewer than 2,000 employees have been growing in numbers, now comprising up to 80 per cent of business travel (“Air Canada Named Canada’s Preferred Airline by Frequent Business Travellers” 2010:2-3).
 
The net effect of these trends in business travel has been to increase the availability of discounted air fares offered by all carriers. In this regard, the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants report that, “The expansion of low-cost carriers, route coverage and service frequency on business routes have accelerated the availability of discounted fares” (“Business Travel Goes Budget 2004:10).
 
As yet another example of Air Canada following WestJet’s lead in the Canadian airline industry, a report (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008) notes that, “Airlines have grown more sophisticated at wringing every last dollar out of a flight, partly by lowering and raising fares based on supply and demand. Much of this magic, called ‘yield management,’ is invisible to passengers, but it results in people in the same cabin paying wildly different amounts for the same flight” (9). The report goes on to emphasize that Air Canada executives have disdained their U.S. counterparts’ actions in increasing yield by being less than forthcoming about their pricing, but the actions taken by Air Canada are clearly a reaction to what was already underway at WestJet. For example, the report adds that, “Air Canada went through bankruptcy earlier this decade, and when it emerged in 2004 it was losing customers to low-cost rival WestJet Airlines Ltd. Air Canada fought back by creating a bare-bones service to compete with WestJet fares, with extra amenities for picking a fancier plan” (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008:9). These actions by Air Canada were based on the company’s loss of market share to its low-cost rivals, especially WestJet, and were Air Canada’s meager effort to “gain the confidence back from our customers and offer products we thought they wanted” (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008:9).
 
The opportunity to select the class of service desired was provided by Air Canada along a continuum of four levels with the most expensive levels, called Latitude and Executive Class, having fully refundable tickets as well as priority check-in, food and other amenities included in the purchase price; by contrast, the least expensive fare, known as Tango, requires additional fees for upgrades for features such as food, advance seat selection, flight changes and access to airport lounge facilities (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing” 2008). Most recent indicates show that about half of Air Canada’s passengers elect the higher prices levels while the other half is satisfied with the lower cost alternatives (“American Airlines Weighs a la Carte Pricing 2008).
 
In sharp contrast to WestJet’s sustained performance since September 11, 2001, Air Canada has experienced some rocky times in recent years as shown in Figure 2 below which illustrate the company’s stock performance for the period 2006-2010.
 
Figure 2. Air Canada stock performance: 2006-2010
 
http://www.corporateinformation.com/Company-Snapshot.aspx?cusip=C124ZZC00
 
In sharp contrast to WestJet’s savvy management style, though, Air Canada continues to falter in some important ways. For example, Penello (2009) emphasizes that, “Some airline companies, such as Air Canada, hedged too much jet fuel beyond one year and were consequently saddled with commitments to buy above the market while revenue was well below what was anticipated” (38).
 
4.2
 
Part Two: Meta-Analysis of Recent Media Reports Concerning WestJet and Air Canada
 
A summary of recent media reports for WestJet and Air Canada is presented in Table 1 and Table 2 below, respectively.
 
Table 1
 
Recent media reports concerning WestJet
 
WestJet
 
Description/Summary
 
“American Airlines and WestJet sign interline agreement.” 2010, October 20 Airline Industry Information. [online] available: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CWU/is_2010_Oct_20/ai_n55834075/.
 
On October 19, 2010, American Airlines and WestJet jointly announced that they have entered into an interline agreement. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, American Airlines’ passengers may travel to Canada and transfer to a WestJet flight with a single ticket and they may check their bags to their final destination. The new agreement with the Canadian airline also provides American’s customers with connecting services to 25 new Canadian cities not currently served by American or American Eagle. The second phase of the interline agreement, which will add non-stop connecting opportunities through WestJet’s non-stop U.S. services to Canadian cities, is expected to be implemented in December 2010.
 
“WestJet Says No More Airline Code-Shares this Year.” 2010, October 6 Manila Bulletin 37.
 
WestJet Airlines Ltd. will not announce any more code-share agreements during 2010 after the carrier struck its first, long-awaited deal early in October 2010. Despite such partnership agreements being a key part of its revenue growth strategy, WestJet representatives emphasized that further agreements would place unnecessary stress on WestJet’s staff during the busy Christmas season when winter storms often also play havoc with air travel. One day after completing a code-sharing partnership with Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd., WestJet’s executive vice-president of strategy and planning, Hugh Dunleavy, noted that, “I would not turn on another code-share until after the new year is completed.” Code sharing is the practice where airlines sell space on each other’s flights. It can help to boost revenues as airlines can offer passengers more destinations while keeping a lid on costs as they don’t have to service all the places themselves. In WestJet’s case, code-share agreements are a central part of its plans to make deeper inroads into the market for business travelers, for whom the ability to connect easily to many destinations is key. WestJet, Canada’s second-biggest airline, has recently started to expand from its low-budget roots and begun targeting the business market as it looks for new avenues for revenue and profit. The deal with Hong Kong’s dominant carrier is not a surprise as WestJet already had an “interline” agreement – a watered-down version of a code-share – with Cathay Pacific. WestJet has a similar partnership with Air France-KLM, making it a likely candidate for a full code-share. Analysts also expect a deal with a U.S. carrier, possibly Delta Air Lines Inc.
 
Sorensen, C 2010, May 31 “Ready for Takeoff.” Maclean’s 123(20): 35-36.
 
Author reports that WestJet’s plans to compete with Air Canada and then globally. According to the article, speculation concerning whether or not WestJet is content to remain a discount airline was created by WestJet’s naming of commercial airline industry veteran Gregg Saretsky to chief executive officer. The competitive challenge for Air Canada is based on WestJet’s announcement of a code-sharing partnership agreement with Hong Kong, China’s Cathay Pacific Airways. Since his appointment as CEO last March, speculation has been rising about whether WestJet has finally reached a point in its evolution where it’s not content to remain a folksy discount airline. It has set its sights on challenging Air Canada, not only domestically, but in the growing market for global air travel; however, unlike Air Canada, WestJet currently flies one kind of airplane — Boeing’s 737 — which helps keep maintenance and pilot training costs down but the downside is that it limits the airline mainly to destinations within North America.
 
“Corporate profile.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: .
 
WestJet strives to offer guests a friendly, efficient and relaxing experience from time of booking to final destination. Guests now have a variety of innovative options to make their travels as smooth as possible. WestJet’s check-in choices include web check-in; mobile check-in, self serve check-in kiosks at most airports or traditional counter check-in. Some of WestJet’s airports have also adopted the cost-effective and space-saving flow-through check-in. WestJet was the first airline in North America to launch the electronic boarding pass which is accepted at all Canadian destinations.
 
“Community spirit.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: .
 
Through programs that focus on children’s health, community festivals and amateur sports, WestJet supports over 800 community initiatives across Canada. The WestJet Cares for Kids program supports charities that work to address children’s health and wellness issues. The WestJet Fun ‘n Festival Series sponsors over 25 festivals across the country including Just for Laughs Festival in Montreal and Toronto, Global ComedyFest in Vancouver and the Calgary Stampede.
 
“Green initiatives.” 2010 WestJet Backgrounder. [online] available: ?????Y?Z??Y??[Z??[?????H?HZ??Y??H???[?????H???????[?H?Y]??  ??Y?Z??Y????]?X?Y????]???[?H??H?H[?[???[?[???Y[YY??X?Y[??Y]?[???[Y?X?K]ZY?]?[?Y?[??]??X?[???Y?Y?X?[?H?YX?H?Y[???[?[Z??[?????]??H??????Y?[??[?YH?Y??]Z?Y?]?Y?][????X[??H
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“Sky-high Wi-fi.” 2009, September PM Network 23(9): 16-17.
 
Sorensen, C 2010, May 31 “Ready for Takeoff.” Maclean’s 123(20): 35-36.
 
“Struggling Air Canada Raises U.S.$936 M. In Fresh Financing.” 2009, July 30 Manila Bulletin 7.
 
“United Airlines and Air Canada to Form Transborder Joint Venture, Strengthening Canada-U.S.
 
Network.” 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
 

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Science and The Fracking Boom narrative essay help: narrative essay helpAPA STYLE AND EACH QUESTION ANSWER SHOULD be 200 words
Question #1. Review the interactive titled “Science and The Fracking Boom: Missing Answers” located at http://www.npr.org/2012/04/05/150055142/science-and-the-fracking-boom-missing-answers(Links to an external site.). Describe the benefits and drawbacks of natural gas production. Note: Be sure to include a discussion of issues related to waste products, extraction of the resource, land use, projected reserves, impacts on the environment, and cost/benefit.
Question #2. Review the informtion located at https://www.climate.gov/enso(Links to an external site.). Describe the interactions between the atmosphere and the surface ocean water in the equatorial Pacific Ocean under “normal” conditions. During an El Niño event, describe the changes that occur in both the Walker Circulation and the underlying ocean. Note: Be sure to include the changes of atmospheric convection, warm surface ocean water, and the thermocline in your description. List a specific region that is impacted negatively by an El Niño event.

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The Fourth stage of genocide homework essay helpThe Fourth stage of genocide
The fourth stage of genocide is organisation. One of the characteristics of genocide is that it is organised crime. According to Daniel Jonah Goldhagen in his book ‘Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1997), administrative organisations’ advanced preparation for the killings is generally a requirement for achieving total extermination. During the organisation stage, plans are laid out on how to exterminate the targeted group. This often involves collective action from either state machinery or the creation of militias and the identification of the targeted group. The militias are often armed and trained to exterminate the targeted population. At the same time, state machinery such as the army or police units aids the militias while turning a blind eye when attacks occur against the targeted population (Goldhagen, 1997). Examples of militias set up during the Holocaust include the Schutz Staffeinel and the Ordungspolizei (Orpo), which served as mobile killing squads, specifically assigned to wipe out whole Jewish communities in ghettoes they were emptied (Goldhagen, 1997). We also see the Euthanasia Programme and the Sonderkommandos set up and continuously streamlined by the Nazis to assist specifically in exterminating Jews (Goldhagen, 1997). 
 

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The Fourth stage of genocide essay help online: essay help onlineThe Fourth stage of genocide
The fourth stage of genocide is organisation. One of the characteristics of genocide is that it is organised crime. According to Daniel Jonah Goldhagen in his book ‘Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1997), administrative organisations’ advanced preparation for the killings is generally a requirement for achieving total extermination. During the organisation stage, plans are laid out on how to exterminate the targeted group. This often involves collective action from either state machinery or the creation of militias and the identification of the targeted group. The militias are often armed and trained to exterminate the targeted population. At the same time, state machinery such as the army or police units aids the militias while turning a blind eye when attacks occur against the targeted population (Goldhagen, 1997). Examples of militias set up during the Holocaust include the Schutz Staffeinel and the Ordungspolizei (Orpo), which served as mobile killing squads, specifically assigned to wipe out whole Jewish communities in ghettoes they were emptied (Goldhagen, 1997). We also see the Euthanasia Programme and the Sonderkommandos set up and continuously streamlined by the Nazis to assist specifically in exterminating Jews (Goldhagen, 1997). 
 

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The Jordanian medical nurses experience academic essay helpQUALITATIVE RESEARCH Article 1 Mundallal et al. (2017) study is qualitative cross-sectional research that took place in Jordan. The research aims to study the degree of burnout among nurses in Jordan and investigate the influence  of  leaders’  participation  in  practice  on  nurses’  burnout  to  develop  nursing  work outcomes further. During the information classification interaction, the trauma centre exploratory assistant can answer any questions identified in the search. They welcome the interest of nearly 460 recruited  medical  nurses, and  the response  rate is  around 88.5%,  or 407  out of 460. Jordanian nurses in the research showed some degree of depersonalization, moderate personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion. Almost 61% of nurses had an emotional exhaustion score greater than 27 – the extreme cut-off point of emotional exhaustion scored more significant than 13, which is severe. Despite this, 43% (n = 175) of medical nurses scored low (below 31): this is the tipping point for nurses to perceive low personal accomplishment, indicating significant burnout. The research attempted to identify factors that may affect nurse burnout through a gradual recurrence study (Mundallal et al., 2017). The primary factor for emotional exhaustion is the type of clinic, which suggests that the nursing work environment can play a significant role in nurse burnout. The research shows that most Jordanian medical nurses experience an undeniable degree of burnout,  reflected  by  their  significant  emotional  exhaustion,  depersonalization,  and  moderate personal accomplishment. Nursing burnout is a global problem. A large number of studies have shown that nurse burnout ranges from mild to severe. The severe burnout of medical nurses in Jordan can be linked to powerless working conditions, such as overwork, shame, lack of assets

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Argumentative Essay on Marijuana Should Be Legalized cheap mba definition essay help1       Argumentative Essay on Whether Marijuana Should Be Legalized     Student Name Lecturers Name Institution Course Date    
 
2 Argumentative Essay on Whether Marijuana Should Be Legalized Introduction Marijuana was introduced in 1611 in Jamestown and was grown as a commercial crop used as a popular source of fibre. The US outlawed possession and production of marijuana in 1927, and the law has since been in effect. Ever since, the world has experienced increased costs in fighting the drug, and governments have dedicated their resources to fighting drug cartels. Regardless, there has been intense argument concerning the legalization of marijuana among people from diverse cultures, political orientations, religious affiliations, age groups and nationalities. Several people have devoted their careers to advocating and defending the legalization of the drug in the US. There is literature encouraging people to support the legalization of the drug. For instance, a CNBC news report cited a bill to legalize marijuana at the federal level. Legalizing the drug could reduce expenditure by drug enforcement agencies and increase revenue given the sale of the product. Regardless, some people oppose the legalization of the drug based on their legal, social and moral obligation. Despite the opposing views, marijuana should be legalized since studies show that the drug could socially and economically benefit societies. Medical Benefits There are several medical benefits associated with the use of marijuana; therefore, it should be legalized. Most communities, such as Indians, have used cannabis for medicinal purposes (Maida, & Daeninck, 2016). The use of the product among indigenous communities lacks medical background. However, research studies have proven marijuana to be effective in cancer treatment since it manages chemotherapy symptoms such as vomiting and nausea.

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Economic Model for Monopoly Analysis in Telecommunication essay help online: essay help online Economic Model for Monopoly Analysis in Telecommunication:
 
Proposal to demonstrate Uniqueness. Mathematical Economic Model.
 
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to end the monopoly that once existed in the telecommunications industry. Since its adoption, the telecommunications industry has been undergoing a period of rapid change and development. The entry of new players into the market encouraged them to seek new ways to attract and keep customers. These changes have led to a rapid influx of new technology and services.
 
Many times what defines a monopoly is not clear in every circumstance and there are many pending lawsuits for violations of Anti-trust laws in the courts today. Economic models are useful in resolving issues of whether a monopoly truly exists, or whether claims are unsubstantiated. Previous models were applicable only in certain situations. These models are unreliable in predicting monopolies outside the parameters for which they were designed. This research will evaluate and analyze economic models that could accurately predict the existence of a monopoly in the Telecommunications sector.
 
Introduction
 
Rationale for Study
 
Scope of Problem
 
Statement of Hypothesis and Research Questions
 
Literature Review
 
Methodology
 
Sample Population
 
Data Analysis
 
Findings
 
Conclusion
 
Introduction
 
Monopolies have been the subject of large amounts of media attention in recent years. Recently, there has been the question of whether Bill Gates constituted a monopoly, or whether his vast empire was a just and fair reward for good business savvy. There have been many questions regarding mergers and acquisitions of corporate giants would create a monopolistic environment, this creating an unfair advantage and virtually destroying any smaller companies that were unable to compete on their scale. Courts are flooded with cases such as these and surrounding all of these cases is one key question, “What exactly is a monopoly?”
 
Everyone is familiar with the textbook definition of a monopoly, that is, a marketplace where a lack of competition exists and one company controls all or a significant portion of the market place. A monopoly is only good for one entity, the monopoly itself. A lack of sufficient competition allows them to set their own prices and in some cases, no incentive to produce the best quality product available. If the product or service that the monopoly produces is necessary for life, then the customer has only one choice. They must take the product that is offered, and pay the price that is offered, especially if there is a lack of a sufficient substitute product.
 
Monopolies tend to drive up prices and have many negative effects on the establishment of a fair marketplace. One of the key issues surrounding the court cases regarding monopolies is that there are many different types of monopolies that exist for many different reasons. Some monopolies exist because of scale. In this case, the monopoly simply out-produces anyone else in the industry. They are price makers and everyone else must follow their lead. Because of their size, they can often produce goods cheaper than their competition and there fore can offer them at lower prices. Eventually, the smaller companies may be forced out of business and a true monopoly then exists.
 
Some monopolies exist due to location. This is particularly common in the telecommunications sector and other utility sectors. There may only be one service provider established in an area and the product may be necessary to life. Therefore a monopoly exists due to location. There are other more subtle forms and reasons for a monopoly existing, such as the effect that at a provider is the first to offer a service. They establish brand equity and name recognition. This may make entry into the market more difficult for the competition.
 
Monopolies may be complete, where the monopoly is the only provider and has complete control over the marketplace. The monopoly may be partial, where there is competition, but the monopoly retains a significantly large portion of the marketplace. A monopoly makes it difficult to enter into the marketplace. The more complete, the monopoly, the more difficult, entry into the market will be. However, in an incomplete monopoly, it is possible for the monopoly to drive prices up and consequently allow a lower priced competitor to steal a portion of the marketshare from the monopoly.
 
As one can see, there is not one hard and true definition of what constitutes a monopoly. The term “monopoly” has many shades and subtleties that make a hard definition a difficult task. There have been many mathematical economic models that have attempted to provide a legal definition by which the courts, businesses, and general public could use to classify whether a market is a monopoly or not. If this clear-cut definition existed, the courts would not be bogged with Anti-trust suits; there would be no argument. This is the purpose for the following research. This research will focus on the telecommunications industry and will examine models and their potential applications that will be useful in determining if a monopoly exists in the telecommunications industry. This model will be tested through empirical research.
 
Rationale for Study
 
Recent focus in the telecommunications industry has been on the cell phone sector and other new technologies such as broadband communication and other wireless services. However, the predecessor to this expansion in the telecommunications industry began with the Telecommunications Act of 1996. When this act was passed, there were eight major players who offered local telephone service: GTE and the seven “Baby Bells,” the operating companies spun off from the old AT&T — and five significant long-distance companies — AT&T, MCI, Sprint, LDS WorldCom and Qwest. In only three years, these thirteen companies have merged into five telecommunications giants, in a series of record-breaking merger deals (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
With the aggressive deregulation in the telecommunications industry in the United States and Europe during the early to mid-1990’s, it seemed that the local monopolies would be forced to unbundle their networks. However, MCI WorldCom, the second largest U.S. long distance telecommunications company, announced in October 1999, that it would acquire Sprint, the third largest U.S. long distance company, in the biggest corporate takeover in history to this time. The merger was valued at $129 billion in cash, stock and debt, making the new entity second only to AT&T in the U.S. telecommunications industry, a company with, as of 1999, $65 billion in annual revenue, 142,000 workers and 40 million business and residential customers (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
MCI WorldCom itself was formed from a $40 billion merger in 1998. It then outbid BellSouth to acquire Sprint. After reports began to surface of a combination of MCI WorldCom and Sprint, BellSouth jumped in with a $100 billion hostile takeover. This move compelled MCI WorldCom chief Bernard Ebbers to raise his offer to $115 billion in cash. This offer included $76 for each Sprint share, plus an additional $14 billion in stock, debt and deferred payments.
 
The enormous size of the combined company demonstrates the increasing monopolization of the telecommunications industry, nearly twenty years after the court-ordered breakup of the old AT&T monopoly. Since then, AT&T had 43% of the long distance market and the new MCI WorldCom-Sprint will have 37%, giving the two companies effective control (McGaughlin, 1999). As the landscape continued to evolve within the industry, more recently, SBC and Verizon both controlled greater than one third of the access in America. During the same time, SBC/Ameritech was hit with more than $1 billion in fines and penalties for a series of charges of anti-competitive behaviors over a six-year period. (Spiwak, 2002).
 
The passage of the Telecommunications Deregulation Act in 1996, with the bipartisan support of the Republican-controlled Congress and the Clinton administration, claimed that this law — for which the telecommunications industry spent tens of millions in lobbying fees and campaign contributions — would promote competition and lower costs to consumers. The result has been questionable. A major provision of the deregulation bill was to remove legal barriers to local and long distance phone companies acquiring each other, and the results were immediate and massive.
 
LDS WorldCom acquired MCI and now has acquired Sprint. Three of the Baby Bells — Southwestern Bell, Pacific Telesis and Ameritech — have been combined to form SBC Corp. Two more Baby Bells, Bell Atlantic and NYNEX, merged, and the new Bell Atlantic acquired GTE. Qwest acquired the smallest Baby Bell, U.S. West, and is now expected to merge with BellSouth, the last remaining independent Baby Bell, after BellSouth’s failure to acquire Sprint. Meanwhile AT&T, which retains the lion’s share of the long distance market, acquired two huge cable television and Internet access companies, TCI and MediaOne, as well as McCaw Communications, a leading cellular phone company. In each of these mergers, a vast corporate restructuring has followed in which telecommunications workers paid the price of consolidation through the loss of tens of thousands of jobs. The deal between MCI WorldCom and Sprint will be no different. Ebbers estimated that operating cost savings of $1.9 billion would be achievable by 2001, rising to $3.0 billion by 2004 — figures which translate into the elimination of at least 20,000 to 30,000 jobs (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
The deal was immediately criticized as anti-competitive by William Kennard, the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, and by the Communications Workers of America, which represents some workers at both of the merged companies. But neither government regulators nor union bureaucrats will have the slightest impact on the latest merger. They have neither the power nor the desire to oppose the plans of the giant telecommunications monopolies. More substantial opposition to the merger exists among the overseas rivals of the huge American firms. Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom, the semi-privatized telecommunications companies of Germany and France, each owned 10% shares of Sprint, and Deutsche Telekom at one point sought to enter the bidding to acquire the entire company. Now both European firms will sell their holdings because MCI WorldCom is in competition with them in the European market. It is the second time that WorldCom chief Ebbers has spiked an attempt by European telecommunications companies to break into the U.S. market, following last year’s contest between WorldCom and British Telecom to take over MCI. British Telecom has since formed an alliance with AT&T (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
It was also the second defeat for Deutsche Telekom in two months, after its failed effort to merge with Telecom Italia, whose board of directors accepted a rival bid from the much smaller Italian firm Olivetti, preventing the formation of a German-Italian telecommunications giant with a dominant position on the continent. Ebbers was able to use the then vastly inflated value of American stocks as a weapon in this competitive struggle against foreign rivals. A former basketball coach and motel operator, Ebbers took over LDDS, a small long distance provider based in Jackson, Mississippi, over a dozen years ago, and used it as the basis for more than 60 takeover bids, all of them utilizing complex stock swaps made possible by the booming U.S. stock market (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
The increasing scale of mergers and takeovers is a characteristic not only of the telecommunications industry but of world capitalism as a whole. Of the 10 largest mergers in U.S. corporate history, all 10 have taken place within the last ten years. But even this record pace has been dwarfed by the merger and acquisition activity in Europe. In the first nine months of 1999, total worldwide mergers and acquisitions hit a record $2.2 trillion, 16% above the figure for the year-earlier period. Mergers and acquisitions in the third quarter alone were $780.9 billion, up 45.8% from the year before. European merger activity in the third quarter accounted for nearly half, $374.6 billion, triple the figure of a year earlier and exceeding the $322 billion in mergers among U.S.-based companies (McGaughlin, 1999).
 
Since the enactment of the Telecommunications Deregulation Act in 1996, the players in the telecommunications industry have continued to form alliances akin to monopolies, thereby hampering the efforts to deregulate and encourage additional competition in the telecommunications industry. Keeping the fact in mind that in 1996 there were eight major U.S. companies providing local telephone service, and five significant long-distance companies, in only three years these thirteen companies merged into five telecommunications giants and this trend continues to this day. The concern over monopolies grows ever more intense. Overseas telecommunications firms are especially anxious to improve the level of competition and the access that they have to other segments of the consumer population. Additionally, current customers of the larger firms would like to see the savings that competition would ultimately bring.
 
One of the contributing factors to the flavor of this industry is that market entry as a primary competitor is expensive and difficult, with regulatory hurdles and heavy startup costs paving the way. This strengthens the position of the current stakeholders and provides an environment in which the bells can retain and maximize the lion’s share of the market. More recently, the Consumers Union and the Consumer Federation of America attempted to block the 2004 AT&T Wireless/Cingular merger, which represented the combination of the country’s second and third biggest cell phone firms. (Note: Cingular is owned by two of the largest bells: SBC and BellSouth.) The petition filed with the FCC claimed: “This merger proposes an unacceptable level of concentration at the nation level, clearly in violation of the merger guidelines, but the anti-competitive effects this merger will have on local markets is of even greater concern.” (Murray, 2004)
 
Prior to 1996, as others began to wish to enter the marketplace, they found it difficult or nearly impossible to compete with the giants. This scenario was not conducive to the ideals of free enterprise and true capitalism, so the government decided to act. They passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which de-regulated the industry and paved the way for open competition. The act included provisions for helping new companies enter the marketplace including providing extra licenses in many areas and funding sources for new business startups. This created a wealth of opportunity for new businesses. In an attempt to out-compete their competition, companies experimented with new services, pricing schemes and eventually, new technology. This created a boom in new technology and led to the invention of cell phones, pagers, and other wireless products. Two things were happening consecutively: the major industry competitors were increasing market share and decreasing the number of overall larger competitors using mergers and acquisitions as a vehicle. Secondly, innovation and technology allowed for a new set of entrants to the market; smaller companies that provided goods and services which would bolster and broaden the telecommunications industry as a whole as well as its fundamental composition.
 
As in other sectors, the privatization of the telecommunications industry has led to a plethora of business startups. Some of them became shining stars and rose to the top quickly, while others crashed and burned. As in any other industry that experiences this type of boom, there were many allegations of mergers and shining stars becoming monopolistic in nature. This led to a backlog of court cases that is likely to be there for some time in the future.
 
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to end the monopolies that existed in the telecommunications industry. Since the passing of that act, the telecommunications industry has seen a great deal of change and development, including entry of new companies into the market. The changes in the industry have opened the floodgates to new technology and services.
 
As previously stated, what constitutes a monopoly in one geographic and/or socioeconomic area, may not hold true for another area. Therefore it is imperative to evaluate and identify useful economic models to test for the existence of a monopoly, given the inputs and variables generic to the industry. What defines a monopoly is not an exact science, and is not clear in every circumstance. There are numerous pending lawsuits for violations of Anti-trust laws in the courts today. Economic models are useful in resolving issues of whether or not a monopoly in fact exists. Each model is applicable only given a certain scenario. A model is unreliable in screening for a monopoly if applied to a set of facts outside the parameters for which it was designed.
 
An economic model is really a set of decision-making devices, organizational arrangements, and rules for allocating society’s scarce resources. Some economic models are very simplistic. For example, a Robinson Crusoe economy is a simplistic economic model. The models can also be quite complex — as the everyday decisions of the 5 billion people in the world, the interactions between all firms in all countries, and the actions of all governments. The traditional approach to economic modeling is geared towards obtaining an equilibrium solution. This involves solving the maximization problems of all agents to yield market-clearing prices. Markets clear when demand is equal to supply for all goods, and also the quantities that are exchanged at these particular prices. One assumption imposed for analytic tractability that rarely captures the economic phenomenon we observe is homogeneity of agents (Yuret, 1998). Relaxing this assumption is not possible in a lot of economic models and, if it can be relaxed, the level of heterogeneity that can be modeled is still very restricted. Moreover, equilibrium solutions are not always very informative for policy purposes. For policy makers, the path to equilibrium is just as important as the equilibrium itself.
 
An economic model that tests for the existence of a monopoly in the telecommunications industry would be of great use in determining if a monopoly truly exists, or of the claims are unsubstantiated. This research will examine several existing models for the existence of monopolies. There are many instances in which these existing models reliably predict the existence or nonexistence of a monopoly. However, they were developed for prediction under certain types of markets and market conditions. As a result they are reliable in predicting monopolies in certain sectors of the market, however, prove themselves to be inadequate in predicting monopolies in other sectors.
 
The existing models do work in certain circumstances. However, their inability to work in other circumstances has left some cases, particularly that of the telecommunications field, in a predicament where no clear decisions can be reached. There are still some who argue that the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was unnecessary because no true monopoly existed.
 
Every sector of the market has its own set of characteristics. For instance, some are cyclical, such as retail, and some are steady growth, as in the case of many manufacturing sectors. Some sectors have many small players, while others are made of a few larger players. Sometimes one company is the clear leader. Sometimes there is a group who emerges ahead of the pack and sometimes all are on a level field. These varying characteristics make it necessary to develop a separate economic model for each sector or sub-sector in the market.
 
The telecommunications sector is has undergone a complete restructuring and is still in a period of rapid change. The most drastic change came after the adoption of the Telecommunications act of 1996. However, this is a rapidly changing industry and there are many more changes to come. Some contest that even though there are more companies in competition, that there is still a monopoly, or an environment closely resembling a monopoly. This is particularly true in the case of companies such as Lucent Technologies and AT & T. Mergers Such as Viacom, Worldcom and Cingular, among others, draw even more suspicion as they form conglomerates large enough to force smaller companies out of business, by their shear scale. This is the rationale behind the need for the proposed research.
 
Scope of Problem
 
The telecommunications sector has been a leader in the technology sector since the influx of new companies and new technologies that resulted in the invention and proliferation of technology after the adoption of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Anti-trust lawsuits have caused many disruptions in the development of the sector and as a result caused massive overheads for companies that could barely afford it. Many of these lawsuits have centered on the existence of local or large monopolies. These lawsuits lowered the profitability of many companies and forced many of them to go bankrupt pr make drastic cuts in their workforce. The costs of these lawsuits have been devastating and have hurt the profitability of many companies. As a result, the sector, as a whole, has suffered an evolution that will likely take some time to settle.
 
Statement of Hypothesis and Research Questions
 
The focus of this research will involve the examination and evaluation of mathematical economic models that can accurately predict the existence of a monopoly in the telecommunications industry. This model will be useful in predicting the existence of a monopoly in the Telecommunications industry, becoming a useful tool in resolving the issue of whether a monopoly exists or not.
 
While many economic models have been developed in this vein, their applicability to this rapidly evolving industry is questionable given their parameters and constraints. We will work to identify the models that are best suited to incorporate the characteristics of the industry and the outside factors that effect supply and demand, growth, price and competition.
 
Literature Review
 
Much literature exists on the telecommunications industry and the history of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. There is a wealth of scholarly debates regarding whether it has been a help or whether it has been of harm to the industry. It can be debated as to which side holds the most truth at the present time. The following will review the current literature available, both on the telecommunications industry and the models that have been used to describe other monopoly models. The review will be critical in nature and will attempt to summarize as much of the information as possible on the topics at hand.
 
The Telecommunications Industry
 
The telecommunications industry is important and considered a vital part of our everyday lives. The telecommunications industry represents only a small portion of the country’s Gross Domestic Product, only 1-2% (Stigiltz, 1998). While this amount may seem insignificant, the services that it provides are vital to every other sector in the economy. Telecommunications is the backbone of many other sectors.
 
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 is one of the most highly debated topics in economics. There are some that say that it has been ineffective and that we now have a monopoly again, as a result of mergers and acquisitions. There are others who say that it has had the intended result, but that the movement towards a competitive marketplace does not happen overnight. Poulson (1997) believes that achieving a fair market in Colorado will not be immediate and will take some time. There are others who believe that it is working in some cases and not working in others. Alaska is moving towards a more competitive marketplace on a local level. Rural communities often have a localized monopoly as there are not enough customers to attract competition (APUC, 1997).
 
Michael Porter states that “Paradoxically, the enduring competitive advantages in a global economy lie increasingly in local things – knowledge, relationships, and motivation that distant rivals cannot match (Porter, 1998). He is referring to what is known as clusters, which he defines as one place of unusual competitive success in particular fields. Examples of clusters can be found across industries and around the globe. Examples of clusters include Silicon Valley, Hollywood, the California Wine Valley and the Italian Leather Fashion sector.
 
Clusters can be characterized by the interconnected network of suppliers, service providers and producers who are geographically aligned and who have positive dependencies and cooperation with one another. Alfred Marshall’s Principles of Economics points out that location-based clusters that conduct specific types of business and economic activities form based on the sharing of “tacit” knowledge among business participants. (Krugman, 1991) The success of a cluster depends not only on what operating strategy firms employ, but also on the surrounding business environment. Clusters differ from the traditional definition of a monopoly in that competition and cooperation are vital to the success of the business. According to Porter, there are three overarching ways that clusters influence competition:
 
Productivity of companies is increased by the dynamics of a cluster.
 
Clusters tend to direct the pace of innovation through competition and cooperation.
 
Clusters actually support the growth of new business – each individual business can benefit from the scale of the cluster.
 
The Cluster Mapping Project conducted by the Harvard University Business School’s Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, identified and visually illustrated various clusters in America: from the auto industry in Detroit to the financial sector in New York.
 
Many have made predictions, similar to the one that will be made by this research project. Many of these feel that the telecommunications market in 2010 will be a pure competition, with no single company emerging as the dominant force. Pehal (2000) believes that the market in 2010 will not be dominated by one type of technology and that the result will be a mixture of the new and the familiar. Powers, and associates (2000) predict a similar scenario. Others see the market moving towards a monopolistic setting in the future (Farrell, 1995, Goldstein, 1993, Kanell, 1998, Kitmari, 1998, and others). They are basing these claims on the fact that some companies are now beginning to emerge as monopolies at the current time. Sun is currently being accused of attempting to gain a monopoly of scale (Malik, 1999).
 
Monopolies have many negative effects on the marketplace. Monopolies prevent competition and raises barriers of entry into a market. Senator Leahy points out that the cable television companies are a prime example of this. (Kenyon, et. al., 1995). A free and open competition ensure that customers will have many benefits, such as lower prices, a variety of new and developing products and services. A competitive market forces companies to strive to maintain a customer base, whereas a monopoly promotes routine and is resistant to change. In a free competition, businesses must strive to provide customers with new and innovative products at reasonable prices or face the loss of customers and declining profits (FCC, 1995). It is the customer and society as a whole that benefits from free competition.
 
A natural monopoly exists when the people in an area need a service or product to sustain their daily lives and there is no product substitution (Stoffels, 1999). It also exists where there is no other close competition, due to the fat that there is a lack of resources for expansion into the area. A prime example of this is a rural electric cooperative. Usually the one who ran the lines first can have a monopoly. The people will use whoever is there and have no other choice. It is unlikely that another company will run lines to the same locations due to the cost involved and the uncertainty that customers will switch. Gasmi, et. al., (1999) developed a test for a natural monopoly that he feels would be applicable to the telecommunications industry. It was developed to determine natural monopolies in the rural electricity industry. Upon examination of the test, it was felt that it would be useful in certain sectors of the telecommunications industry, especially where rural hardwire telephones were involved. However, it did not appear that it would be useful in other segments of the market, such as cell phones and other wireless products, or in urban areas.
 
A duopoly exists where there are two companies that compete in a marketplace. In this case, there is limited competition, but no clear competitors exist, other than the two duopolists there are some that many consider this situation to be a small oligopoly. In this case, the two competitors must match each other in price and quality. One cannot afford to fail to match the other’s price. This market can be good for the monopolists, if cooperation exists between them. However, if they are fierce competitors, the competition will serve to harm both, as they strive to lower prices and out-perform one another. Pociask and Rutner (2000) believe that a separate test must be applied when analyzing a monopoly vs. A duopoly.
 
Huisman, (2000) explored that benefits and effects that a monopoly will have on the marketplace. Huisman draws the conclusion that the long-distance market is currently an extremely concentrated market, increased by the bevy of mergers and acquisitions in recent years. Some feel that this configuration will make it even harder to compete for smaller companies.
 
Huisman argues that entry into the marketplace is currently high. The established companies have a considerable amount of brand equity attached to their names. It would take a massive and very expensive media campaign to compete with MCI Worldcom and Sprint. There is a certain amount of trust associated with a name. People will not be likely to switch to a small, barely known carrier, even if their prices are substantially lower. There are also considerable regulatory and capital expense barriers that make it nearly impossible to enter into the market. These factors tend to weaken the opinions of those who claim that the advent of MCI Worldcom, Sprint, Cingular and AT&T do not resemble a monopoly, or a strong duopoly. These carriers are able to meet future demands of a growing client base, therefore it seems unlikely that the current situation will change (Huisman, 2000).
 
Huisman argued that the MCI Worldcom/Sprint merger should not be allowed, as this will create a true monopoly in the telecommunications industry. As long as the two remain separate, there is at least a limited amount of competition. He feels that a limited amount of competition is better than allowing this market to become a pure monopoly. These two companies have cornered the market on an economy of scale and it would not be possible to retain efficiency in any other way. This is the case in the long-distance area of the market. However, Huisman feels that the merger would be beneficial in other markets such as in the wireless and local exchange services. The merger would provide better interconnectivity. However, there is still a concern that this would create a smaller competitive market in these areas as well.
 
Huisman is clearly against a further concentration in the Telecommunications marketplace and argues that re-creates the same situation that the Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to prevent. Huisman suggests that a strong campaign be launched to convince the government to dis-allow the conglomerate mergers. However, he feels that this is not enough and calls for a divestiture of Sprint’s equipment and backbone to allow others to enter into the marketplace. He feels that the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was necessary and that the intentions were good. However, since its adoption, the market has been allowed to develop with no guidance or intervention and that this has created a market similar to that which existed prior to the Telecommunications Act of 1996. He notes that the Worldcom merger, for instance, effectively eliminates the two companies who currently have a chance to pose competition to the impending “supergiant,” Bell Atlantic and GTE. His point-of-view at this time was that, due to a lack of maintenance, it would seem that we have taken a step backward and that it is “Ma Bell” all over again (Huisman, 2000).
 
Economic Models of a Monopoly
 
As one can see, the telecommunications industry is a complex entity and there are industries within the industry. The industry has gone from a relatively pure monopoly to an attempted competition, and now it is questionable as to whether it is gravitating towards a monopoly again. In addition, there are now more products and services available. The market is no longer comprised of one market. There is a long-distance market, a local service market, and a cell phone and wireless market. All of these markets have different characteristics and the previously existing models fail to useful in all areas of the telecommunications industry. For instance, the Gasmi Model (Gasmi, et. al., 1999) is useful in the rural local phone service industry in rural areas. However, is very ineffective in prediction in an urban market, where there are many competitors, such as the cell phone market. In this market, there may still be a monopoly. However, the monopoly does not have as much power as in a natural monopoly setting.
 
The Bureau of Census measures industry concentration for major Standard Industrial Classifications (SICs) by calculating a concentration ratio (CR). The CR identifies the industry’s 4, 8, 25 and 50 largest firms based on percent of market share. The higher the ratio, the greater the market share (indicating a possible monopoly). Conversely, a low ratio would indicate a larger number of competitors. Of course, market share is one piece of a puzzle when evaluating an industry. An industry that is characterized as disciplined, for instance, indicates that there is a low level of rivalry among competitors. Many factors contribute to increased competitiveness among like firms: as previously illustrated, for instance, a low CR ratio indicates more competitors who are likely to compete for greater market share. Slow economic growth also means competitors must work harder for a piece of diminishing pie. Given that the “all things being equal” premise is limited, Porter and Schumpeter have shifted from the ideal of a static model to understanding the dynamic nature of influencing forces and their related interdependencies with Porter’s “Five Forces Model.” Their underlying premise is that innovation drives market dynamics. This can be seen in the evolution of the telecommunications industry as new products, technologies and supporting services have entered the marketplace.
 
Porter’s “Five Forces Model” takes into account the landscape of suppliers, producers, buyers, and competitors within a specific industry. He points to five forces that are determinants of pure competition and profitability within a given industry. According to Porter, “the model of pure competition implies that risk-adjusted rates of return should be constant across firms and industries.” (Porter, 1998) This is one possible flaw in the underlying rationale: it is a scenario that assumes an all things equal stance, which does not mirror market conditions in real life. Nonetheless, the model can be useful in providing insight to the environmental context and structure in which a competitor operates, and how these factors can influence the outcomes. The following diagram illustrates the five forces and how they are inter-related.
 
Each force has distinguishing characteristics that when combined can influence the firm’s potential profitability and competitive stance. The first force, Suppliers, can be measured by the concentration of suppliers in a given region, the volume levels of the supplier, the types of inputs to the supplier and their effect on cost or differentiation, and the presence or absence of substitute inputs. Greater availability of substitute products, for instance, increases elasticity of demand because customers have greater choices. Price changes in substitute products influence the level of elasticity.
 
Porter states that, when consumer purchasing power is strong, the industry relation can be classified as a monopsony, i.e., a market characterized by many suppliers and one buyer. While the existence of pure monopsonies is scarce, there is a correlation between buyer power and industry position. With regard to potential new entrants to the market, increased competitors spur rivalry. In an ideal setting firms should be able to enter and exit markets freely and profit margins would be nominal. Yet barriers to entry exceed normal equilibrium adjustments typical of markets; they are unique characteristics of an industry such as high start up costs and heavy regulatory requirements, as in the case of the telecommunications sector. In addition, economies of scale within an organization can create a barrier to entry for new firms. The MES, Minimum Efficient Scale, measures the point at which production costs are minimized. Knowing this measure can help estimate the amount of market share necessary for entry. Porter notes that in the long distance communications sector, 10% of the market is necessary to attain MES and to remain competitive. Industries with a high MES, then, make it difficult for smaller start ups to enter the fray.
 
Strategies can be employed by companies to counter the effects of one or more of the five forces: from a business perspective, industry rivalry can be addressed using strategies involving cost leadership, differentiation, and focus to try and gain competitive advantage. The strategy employed by a competing firm should be designed to capitalize on its strength while countering any adverse effects of any of the five forces and how they impact the organization’s opportunity to compete in the marketplace.
 
An Agent-Based Economic Model
 
An agent-based economic model is one in which the decision-making processes of the agents is in an economy with one product market, and two input markets, with the two input markets being capital and labor. Firms interact with the three markets. There is a special firm, namely the state-owned enterprise (SOE). Obviously the SOE has different constraints and must follow different protocol than the rest of the firms. All firms, including the SOE produce identical products, for purposed of the model. In the model, consumer agents are not explicitly modeled, but rather specific input supply functions and an output demand function is imposed. This model can be solved analytically if firm agents are assumed to be homogeneous. All of the functions are differentiable, so the solution involves simultaneously solving the equilibrium conditions and all the first order conditions to the maximization problems, to get market-clearing prices and quantities. However, heterogeneous agents are a defining component of transition economies so this simplification would rob the simulation of all potential interest (Yuret, 1998). By applying the economic model to current telecommunications factors, one is able to identify where equilibrium does not exist.
 
Telecommunications market structure, development, and impact studies broad-based analysis of the underlying economic structure of national or state telecommunications markets is possible and necessary. This analysis includes such measures as competitive potential, growth and expansion opportunities, service maturity and evolution. Studies include fundamental cost and demand characteristics of existing and emerging markets, service substitutability, and macro-economic factors such as impacts of restructuring, changing demographics, income and trade variations. Economic models employed include: macro-industry, as well as sector and service specific cost and demand models (Townsend, 2001).
 
Demand analysis and forecasting studies, modeling
 
Analysis of present and prospective demand for various communications services in different markets, and under alternative economic assumptions. This type of study combines primary research such as survey and empirical analysis, with cross-reference data from prior experience or other markets. The studies can focus on a specific new service introduction, or prospects for market growth and expansion across broad industry segments. These studies also typically incorporate one or more Economic Models, which can include estimates of income and price elasticity, impact of economic changes, and comparative demand data.
 
Service and Network Cost Studies and Models
 
Analytical studies and research into the cost structure of telecommunications networks, operators, and specific services in various markets. Based upon empirical data and comparative results, as well as review of alternative cost studies, these projects examine such factors as: long-run incremental costs (LRIC) of individual services; economies of scale and scope for integrated carriers; and market-wide network investment and operating cost characteristics and forecasts. Cost study projects are usually based upon existing or custom-designed Economic Models, as well as review and interpretation of other industry cost models, such as the various Benchmark Cost Models (BCM), and Bellcore cost models (Townsend, 2001).
 
Comparative tariff, policy, and market analyses
 
Research studies of comparative prices, regulatory policies, or market conditions across national and international telecommunications markets. Primary research is based upon direct contact with telecom operators and officials in different states or countries, along with review of published data sources. Quantitative comparisons are rendered in relevant terms, such as equivalent currencies and/or purchasing power parities. Comparisons of policies and market conditions also reflect differing economic and political environments. Comparative studies can also involve Economic Models, as for example the Tariff Comparison model, which incorporate calculations of various service elements to render valid statistical comparisons.
 
Tariff Model — International Comparisons
 
The OECD has established a methodology for comparing residential telephone service charges, business service charges, data circuit charges, cellular charges and a number of other services tariffs. The methodology is based on costing out a representative basket of component services and quantities, such as installation, access and call usage, in specified amounts, in each countries currency, and then converting to a common base via the use of ‘purchasing power parity exchange rates (PPP) ‘ [PPP exchange rates are based on comparison across countries of the cost of a representative basket of goods and services – hence the term purchasing power parity.]. While there is scope to argue that the methodology may not properly be representative of users actual cost structures and that the use of PPP exchange rates is problematic, the method never-the-less allows direct comparisons of typical telecommunications services costs between countries (Ministry of Economic Performance, 2001).
 
OECD Basket Comparisons of Telephone Services Charges – August 1997
 
Based on the comparative ranking of residential and business telephone services tariffs for OECD countries, (the OECD tariff basket model), New Zealand is ranked 12th in residential and 15th in business, out of 26 countries. It is possible that the OECD model does not adequately factor in discounted tariffs in New Zealand’s case and to this extent may not be fully representative of consumer telephone service costs in New Zealand. Most other OECD countries either do not allow tariff discounting or severely limit the practice. Over the last six years the major telecommunications services price reductions have been in the long distance call transport markets, which probably represent some 35% of Telecom’s core telecommunications services business by revenue (this would include national and international calls, and the long distance calls component of enhanced services). There has also been a reduction in business access (rental) charges following the introduction of city access rentals in built up business areas.
 
The Department of Statistics telecommunications services consumer price index (TS-CPI) indicates price changes (in real terms). Notable features are; the real price of toll calls has declined significantly. Since the entry of Clear Communications into the long distance call market in March 1991, real toll prices have reduced on average by some 5.6% per annum (pa);
 
in the corresponding period the data indicates that the average real telephone access line rental and installation costs increased initially but declined progressively since late 1993;
 
(However, it should be noted that the real price of standard residential telephone service has not exceeded the November 1989 level, as required by Telecom’s Kiwi Share obligations.) the consumers real telecommunications services price index decreased on average by some 2.1% pa over the period;
 
The indexes are considered to be representative of the prices for basic telecommunications services in the residential telecommunications services markets.
 
Telecom substantially updated many aspects of its core network infrastructure and associated services in the early 1990s. In recent times Telecom has invested substantially in expansion of its cellular network, information systems to support improved services and reduce cost, Internet service access and cable TV roll out (Ministry of Economic Performance, 2001).
 
Studies have been conducted on monopolistic markets in other areas. It has been found that monopolies retain certain characteristics and that they are subject to many factors that influence their behavior. Consumers have a set of guidelines, by which they make purchases. Even in a pure monopoly, the company must provide a certain level of perceived quality and cannot engage in overly high pricing schemes. It would seem as if the consumer would have no recourse, especially if they need the product or service. However, disgruntled customers will complain to their government and could pressure the government to break up their monopoly.
 
Many studies by Shimonura and associates (1197-1198) demonstrated that market equilibrium could be manipulated by placing a set of export constraints on the market (Kemp, M., Okawa, M., Shimonura, K., 1996). Graham, et. al. (1983) studied the airline industry after deregulation. They found that fares are independent of market concentration. Rogerson (1982) found that monopolies seek resources directed at obtaining profit and that there are social costs to the monopoly because of this rent-seeking activity.
 
A monopoly firm’s pricing strategy in a market in which consumers have varying perceptions of the quality of the firm’s product. The effect is reflected in the price that the firm will be able to secure for the product (Kehoe, 1996). Caminal (1996) found that a monopoly can choose between no advertising and large-scale advertising. The monopoly will adopt the most efficient advertising strategy in conjunction with lower fixed prices for their services. In a duopoly, when consumers have a fixed time-horizon, such as signing a one-year contract, the two firms may alternately dominate the customer base, alternately charging high and low prices. (To, 1996).
 
Using a maximum entropy technique, we can approximate the market shares of each firm in an industry using the available government summary statistics such as the four-firm concentration ratio (C4) and the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI). This technique is reported to be effective in estimating the distribution of market shares in 20 different industries. Golan et, al (1996) support practice of using HHI rather than C4 as the key explanatory variable in many market power studies (Golan et. al. 1996).
 
Golan et. al. Presented their technique as a one-size-fits all factor that would be useful and applicable in a variety of situation, citing its usefulness in 20 industries. Upon examination of the technique used, however, it was found that many variables were not taken into account, such as changes in industry structure and the existence of markets within markets, Golan and associates tout their method as being useful in almost any situation. However, it is was not found to have the wide applicability that they claim. Before applying their method, one should be careful to examine the circumstances to which it was originally applied and to be certain that the situation being tested has similar characteristics to those used by Golan and associates.
 
Golan and associates did apply their method to 20 industries. However, they did not state the conditions in the industry. Generalizations such as these can be dangerous and should be carefully examined when choosing to use the method for one’s own analysis. This is not to say that the method is not useful, it certainly has some merit. It is the widespread applicability that is in question in this case, not the method itself.
 
Lieberskand et. al. (1996) examined the impact of corporate restructuring measured at the industry level on industry concentration in U.S. industries. These industries were engaged in the basic, manufacturing, and services sectors between 1981 and 1989. The results demonstrated a modest increase in median industrial concentration in sample industries between 1981 and 1989. There were few sell-offs of assets at the industry level through horizontal mergers, acquisitions, and inter-firm asset sales increased U.S. industrial concentration during the 1980s. (Lieberskand et.al, 1996).
 
The Lieberskand study is interesting when one compares the manufacturing industry to the telecommunications industry. The telecommunications industry has undergone a complete restructuring, as compared to the manufacturing industry. The manufacturing industry has been relatively steady, yet still shows a trend toward a higher level of concentration. The manufacturing industry has high barriers to entry, and in many cases, only one of two producers of a particular product. Lieberskand was baffled by the trend towards a more concentrated marketplace in what he considers to be a free competition.
 
Lieberskand considered the entire manufacturing sector to be a free competition. However, in reality it is a bunch of small natural monopolies. For instance, Colgate/Palmolive make hundreds of consumer products. There are only two or three competitors that manufacture similar products. One of their primary competitors is Proctor and Gamble. They could be considered to be a duopoly. However, a closer examination of the market shares would have to be undertaken. This industry does not have hundreds of competitors. This represents only one product line.
 
Another example is in the airline industry. There are only two or three major manufacturers of airplanes. Lieberskand made the error in his analysis of considering manufacturing to be one entity. However, it is really a number of smaller entities and this is the factor that confounded Lieberskand’s analysis. Lieberskand was confused by his findings and this is explanation that eluded him. Some of these monopolies are natural monopolies. However, most are monopolies of scale.
 
Economic textbooks have called the telecommunications industry an ideal model of a natural monopoly (Thierer, 1994). However, Theirer points out that this monopoly came into existence with the aid of the U.S. government and that many would-be competitors were excluded and not allowed to obtain licenses in the beginning. As stated before, monopolies are detrimental to the market place by creating higher prices and sometimes-lower quality. Let us examine one possible reason why the government would wish to promote a monopoly.
 
A natural monopoly can serve consumers at lower costs than two or more firms. This would seem contrary to popular convention until one considers the high barriers to entry into a natural monopoly. Once a single firm overcomes the initial costs, such as laying the cable, or building the sub-stations, their average cost of doing business drops rapidly, relative to newcomers in the industry.
 
Kellogg, (2000) found that if a monopolist sets their price before they have determined the level of demand for their product, then they have essentially limited the availability of output at lower prices. It cannot lower its prices and this can lead the way for competition and lead to its eventual displacement as a monopoly. Kellogg cautions companies to wait until demand can be determined before setting prices.
 
Kellogg (2001) examined the homogeneous good Cournot model with two existing companies and one potential entrant into the market. HE demonstrated that entry can occur even if the entrant has no cost advantage and must rely on existing companies to distribute their product. This is exactly what happened in the wireless portion of the telecommunications industry. In the beginning there were only a few companies manufacturing cell phones. The costs to enter this market are high. However, in spite of this, other manufacturers were able to enter the market and there are now a large number of manufacturers in the industry. Some manufacture their phones and sell them under a larger conglomerate name. This gives the larger conglomerate another product line, for which it does not have all of the manufacturing costs and gives the smaller company the advantage of the larger companies brand equity. The Cournot model could prove itself to be highly useful in the development of a model for the telecommunications industry.
 
The practice described above is called “bundling.” Martin (1999) found that bundling be a firm with a monopoly over one product is strategic and that it changes the substitution relationships between the goods. Now the monopoly does not have to worry about the competition as a substitution product. It can now use the product produced by the other company to its advantage. This is a highly profitable proposition for the monopoly. This strategy is usually used by the monopoly to reduce or eliminate competition. In many cases, the larger company will force the smaller company into this arrangement as they can easily override them otherwise.
 
Labor Unions are not usually considered to be a monopoly. However, there have been many models that prove them to have all of the characteristics of a monopoly. Many models have been developed describing the characteristics of labor unions as being monopolistic in nature. Some of these models may be useful in determining the existence of monopolies in the telecommunications industry because the structure of the labor union is similar to the telecommunications industry.
 
Labor unions are national in scope, just as with the national telephone carriers. However, they are local in nature as well, small branches serve limited sections of the population. Labor unions engage in a variety of trades, such as plumbing, painting, electricians, etc. They have many products to offer and each of these products represents a different market. This is very similar to the telecommunications industry where there are long-distance markets, local service markets, cell phones, PDA’s and other products, all representing a different market. For these reasons, models that are used to describe the labor unions may prove to be the most useful in describing the telecommunications industry.
 
Currently, there are many models that claim to be the answer in all cases involving the existence of a monopoly. In the models that make these claims, one thing is obvious; they did not compare the market characteristics of the industries for which they have proposed the model. In the case of the telecommunications industry, it was surprising to find that the labor unions were the most similar in structure and market scope. These may be the most useful in constructing a model for conduct of this research.
 
Many of the models were sound in theory. However, sufficient testing was not performed to substantiate the claims being made. It is not expected that any one of these models will adequately apply to the telecommunications industry. However, in the case of the labor union models, a few modifications may make the most meaningful model. These statements are only speculative at this point and no clear conclusion regarding the methodology can be proposed at this time.
 
The literature on the telecommunications industry has to this point, focused on the effects of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. There are as many reports that state that the act created a competitive marketplace. Research has shown that this may have been true, at least for a while. However, it is possible that the marketplace may be changing to a monopolistic model in the near future, especially with the upcoming proposed merger between MCI Worldcom and Sprint.
 
Methodology
 
This research will be conducted in two phases, to be discussed in detail in the remainder of this section. The first phase of research involves a detailed review of the Telecommunications industry, both historically and in present times. Existing methodologies for determining the existence of monopolies will be explored in detail and compared to the needs of the telecommunication industry. We will then apply metrics form the telecommunications industry both prior to and following the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
 
The first section of this research involves evaluating the model and is applicability to the industry by design. This will involve a detailed study of existing models and how they apply to the circumstances for which they were originally developed. These models will then be studied to determine if they would be useful in the telecommunications industry. Unique factors in the telecommunication industry will be identified and worked into the equation. The model in this research will serve as the research instrument.
 
If the model reacts as planned it would be expected that the model will show strong evidence for the existence of a monopoly. The model will be tested after the adoption of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, where it should not show strong evidence for the existence of a monopoly. A variety of tests will be conducted in more recent times where the existence of a monopoly is questionable. If the results obtained fail to make the expected results, then the model will be reexamined and adjusted. The tests will be repeated until the desired results are obtained and found to be statistically significant.
 
Sample Population
 
The sample population for this study will be various sub-sectors of the telecommunications sector over the period of time from 1995 through 2002. This will cover the time both before and after the Telecommunications Act of 1996. It is not believed from historical literature examined that going farther back than 1995 will produce significant results, as the market remained relatively unchanged until this time.
 
According to Bureau of Labor Statistics data, approximately 2% of all consumer spending is devoted to telephone service, a statistic that has been static during the past fifteen years, although average annual expenditures on telephone service went from $375 per household in 1982 to $956 in 2003.
 
Wireline
 
Telecom carriers are required by the FCC to report the number of lines in services and wireless subscription stats. As of December, 2004, carriers with a minimum of 10,000 switched access lines or 10,000 mobile subscribers were required to report. According to the data submitted, incumbent local exchange carriers (ILEC) provided 145.1 million switched access lines, as opposed to 32.9 million for competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC). CLEC lines increased 3% during the second half of 2004. In addition, CLECs comprised 18.5% of the access line composition as opposed to 17.8% six months prior. (Eisner, 2004)
 
Wireless
 
In September of 2005, the FCC released its Annual Report on the State of Competition in the Wireless Industry. The report reflects marketplace conditions at the end of 2004 by taking into account market structure, carrier conduct, consumer behavior and market performance to measure competitiveness. Based on FCC findings, regardless of the recent wave of mergers, it concluded that the wireless sector of the market remains competitive in nature due to the following factors:
 
97% of the total U.S. population resides in counties with three or more providers
 
93% live in counties with four or more providers
 
87% live in counties with five or more providers
 
The report further notes that this composition is relatively unchanged from the prior year. In addition, the carrier conduct indicates strong pricing competition, with 6% of subscribers of prepaid plans in 2003 growing to 8-11% in 2004. Innovation continues to spur industry growth in this sector as well, with carriers investing in CDMA 1 xEV-DO networks that increase download speeds for consumers.
 
As for consumer behavior, when local number portability (LNP) was enacted in November of 2003, consumer costs were reduced by being able to retain their local numbers while switching carriers. An industry measure called churn reflects the percent of customers who switch carriers. This metric averaged 1.5% – 3% per month in 2004, a small reduction from the previous year.
 
Market performance indicators also point to competitive influences: the number of subscribers went from 160.6 million to 184.7 million during 2004. The Cellular CPI declined 1.0% during 2004 (as opposed to 2.7percent overall), indicating price savings for consumers. The average minutes of use per month as well as the volume of text messaging also grew significantly during this time. (Martin, 2005)
 
Data Analysis
 
The first portion of data analysis will be to determine if, when the model is applied, a monopoly is found to exist. Some may be considered to be partial monopolies. These will be treated as a monopoly for purposes of this study. This data will be analyzed and scatter-plotted according to time to determine if more or less monopolies come into existence over a long period of time. Patterns in this data are expected to reveal trends in the formations of monopolies over a period of time. Trends in the movement towards a monopoly or towards a more even competition are expected to be revealed by this analysis, which will be used to attempt to predict future trends in the formation of monopolies in the telecommunications sector in the future.
 
A dynamic model according to Hicks is different from a static condition, in that it takes into consideration key variables and their changing nature. (Hicks 1985) The telecommunications industry, for example, experienced disruptions during the bubble of 1990-2002. Telecom was once considered a predictable market with a long-term perspective, but the “bubble” has resulted in a more cyclical industry model. Business cycles can be described as recurring changes in the level of business and economic activity over time (Steven 1997). This business activity is commonly measured using Real Income Calculations such as the Real GDP
 
RGDP). Noam (2002b) claims that while the business cycle in the Telecom industry is a relatively new phenomenon, there is a relationship between the cycles andGDP (Zanowitz 1992). Growth cycles are considered to be a change from a long-run trend of the GDP, whereas business cycles are fluctuations in the levels of GDP rather than a deviation from a long-term trend.
 
Macroeconomic analysis of the telecommunications industry provides insight into the industry’s status and to identify the industry’s detractors. Macroeconomic inputs for this analysis includes evaluating factors like employment, GDP and the Consumer Price Index (CPI – i.e., the average measure of changes in prices over time in a market sector of goods and/or services.) The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Price Index measures the change in the average level of the prices of goods and services produced in the United States and is considered a measure of economic growth overall. The GDP itself is the aggregate value of all goods and services produced within a given country. Teledensity is a metric that measures the number of telephones per 100 residents.
 
Prior models sought to define the positive relationship between measures of GDP per capita and telephone density indicators (Jipp 1963). This relationship can be expressed in the following terms:
 
i t D. A Y b, = * * or (1) I t D. A b Y, log = + *log (2)
 
Whereby Di, t is the telephone density and Yi, t is the GDP for the country in year t, respectively; a is the intercept and b is the slope, an indication of the relationship between telephone density relative to GDP. The following table from ITU illustrates the GDP and density figures for the U.S. As well as worldwide.
 
Population
 
GDP
 
Total Telephone Subscribers
 
Total (M) 2003
 
Density (per Km) 2003
 
Total (B U.S.$) 2002
 
Per Capita (U.S.$) 2002
 
Total (k) 2003
 
Per 100 inhabitants 2003
 
US
 
World
 
Source: 15-March-05 ©ITU,2005
 
Utilizing Bureau of Economic Analysis methodology, we further examine employment trends in the telecom sector (Moyer 2004). Industry analysis incorporates a view of growth in real output and prices, and the value added input to this macro view by a given industry sector. Employment can be viewed as an indicator that involves the level of business spending on capital goods. Traditionally from a market view, declining employment means lower output and growth. Other factors in the industry have contributed to these trends, however. The consolidations spurred by mergers and acquisitions and the trend towards hiring more specialized experts are two examples of how the interpretation of the data can easily be skewed.
 
The previous figure illustrates that between 1998 and 2002 the CPI for gross output was negative, meaning that consumers benefit from declining prices. This graph depicts the CPI following the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Contributing factors can be interest rate levels, currency rates and borrower behavior. This can also be a side effect of decreases in employment, which has the effect of lowering economic demand.
 
Another view provides a look at the comparison between real GDP per capita and U.S. Telecommunications revenues for the period from 1991-2002, prior to the Act. The graph reveals that through 1996, Telecom revenues and GDP per capita were on par. After 1996, the telecom curve reflects a more cyclical trend, with an initial spike in revenues followed by a decrease from 1999 through 2001, when the trend reversed, thereby entering a new cycle. This can be partially attributed to innovations in new technology and the demand for those goods and services.
 
The following illustrations compare Wireline and Wireless density with the national GDP/capita by country. Figure 6 reveals that the United States in addition to France, Japan and Australia all have high GDP/capita vs. low wireless density. Since each country has a GDP/capita of $25,000 or higher, this trend indicates the existence of real demand, indicating potential for future growth. The growth factor in the wireless industry can be attributed to the advent of technological advances like internet connectivity and VOIP, which offers price advantages to consumers and greater choices for connectivity. These observations are substantiated by the Yankee Group (Yankee Group 2004), who notes that VoIP will have close to 1 million subscribers by year-end 2004, and serve 17.5 million U.S. households by year-end 2008. They predict that by 2009 as many as 15% of American adults will have cut the cord of the traditional wireline.
 
Findings
 
It is expected that the data will reveal definite trends in the telecommunication industry.
 
For many years the telecommunications industry was dictated by a few large-scale companies. There were virtually no smaller players and even if they did exist, they could not compete with the Bell conglomerate. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 paved the way for a free market in the Telecommunications sector.
 
Immediately following the passage of the 1996 Act, a plethora of small companies emerged. The government supported the growth of the industry by providing more licensing opportunities and providing grants and low interest loans to those who wished to enter into the lucrative enterprise. When an industry booms such as this one, there are many who enter that are not prepared to compete. Many lack the knowledge and skills necessary to make a sustainable proposition. As a result, many of these fledgling business fail in a short amount of time.
 
This left gaps in the market to be filled, either by another new company, or by an existing company that is positioned to take over that area of the market. More often than not, the latter is the case. This makes the existing company stronger and more able to control a larger section of the market. During this phase of market development, this same process occurs many times over. In the end, many of the small companies that were unable to compete will disappear and the market will emerge with fewer players, each controlling a larger section of the market than in the beginning of this development.
 
Sometimes, as many believe is the case currently in the telecommunications sector, one of these strong contenders will capture a large enough marketshare that they themselves become another monopoly by scale. Mergers and acquisitions can help play a role in this process. At this stage, prices tend to level, production levels and the market will eventually reach equilibrium. This has been the stage that has occurred in the telecommunications industry. Currently the market is in the stage where many of the smaller companies are beginning to fade into the sunset, and the few stable success stories are beginning to emerge.
 
The main question that must be posed at this juncture in time is whether there is currently a monopoly either existing now, or arising in the telecommunications sector? The other question is to attempt to determine whether this trend will continue in the future or whether there will again be another restructuring in the telecommunications industry. It is expected that the data will demonstrate the trends described earlier in an emerging market and that the market will be found to be reaching a period of more stability and more steady, less explosive growth.
 
In our analysis, we have determined that the Gasmi Model was limited to effective determinations regarding rural local phone service but lacked the sophistication to tackle more urban markets, which would include the cell phone market. The Bureau of Census has a broad measure of industry concentration using a Concentration Ratio by SIC code, which gives us a limited industry snapshot for a given point in time. Similarly, the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI) estimates the distribution of market share across 20 industry sectors, but fails to address conditions affecting each industry. Porter’s Five Forces Model (Aravantinos, 2004) takes into account the complexities of relationships between buyers and suppliers, barriers to entry and other conditions and industry specific factors.
 
Through our data evaluation, we have seen that the U.S. Telecommunications sector has gone through many changes since 1996 (Fransman 2002). (Economides 2004) is pointing out the major driving forces in U.S. Telecommunications today, such as dramatic and continuing reductions in the costs of transmission and switching, digitization, move of value from underlying services (transmission and switching) to interfaces and content and the existence of network effects. Since the beginning of the year 2000 (Atkinson 2001; and Noam 2003), the U.S. industry alone has shed in excess of 130,000 jobs, lost over $1 trillion in stock market capitalization, and endured a continuous stream of bankruptcies. According to the Telecommunications Industry Association. (TIA’s 2005 Telecommunications Market Review and Forecast) The dynamic environment and the fluctuating volatility of the Telecom industry is encouraging the development of new dynamic economic models. These models could serve several purposes, such as studying the impact of important events such as the Telecom Act and the infrastructure trends.
 
Conclusion
 
The telecommunications industry is unique and previous models to product the existence of a monopoly have to this point proven inadequate. Many of them only apply in certain sectors of the market. While others are only applicable on a limited basis, such as in the rural local telephone industry. It is expected that the final model will draw from these previous models, but that it will have to be modified to fit the circumstances unique to the industry. The possibility exists that one model may not be adequate in assessing the entire telecommunications industry. A series of models may eventually have to be developed which are applicable in various markets, or situations in the market.
 
Many of the models discussed in the literature review purport to have a wide applicability. However, upon closer examination, it can be found that they were not adequately tested to make such claims. In addition, the samples for these tests were not selected according to a certain criteria. It cannot be determined if the sample sets used to make draw these conclusions contained markets that were similar in characteristic, or if the models were tested on a variety of markets under widely varying conditions. In order to make the types of claims made by these models, one would have to have more information on the markets and test conditions than was provided in the reports.
 
The primary concern in developing the model or models that will be used to determine that existence of a monopoly will be certain to learn from past mistakes and not make the same mistakes as our predecessors. In order to avoid this conundrum, the research and test methods must include protocol for testing in various time periods under varying market conditions. In addition enough tests will have to be performed to make an accurate determination as to the applicability. The actual test results will have to be critically view to be certain that they are logical given what is qualitatively know about the market place. The entire industry will have to be tested as a whole, as well as the individual sectors separately. Only then can one make a determination as to the usefulness of the model in varying market conditions.
 
Though the previous models have been criticized, they cannot be discounted altogether. They will still be useful as examples in developing the final model. Surprisingly, the labor union models for determining monopolies were initially revealed to hold the greatest promise for providing a basis for the model. The market is nationwide, yet local in nature. It involves many trades, all representing different markets. These markets are similar to the various sub-sectors in the telecommunications industry. The labor union models may provide an interesting ground for cross- testing our own model to determine if it applies in other industries as well.
 
The telecommunications industry is changing rapidly and there is a growing need to define what constitutes a monopoly in this sector. This research hopes to resolves the existing dilemma by developing and testing a model for predicting the existence, either now or in the future of monopolies. The telecommunications industry is unique and models developed in the past fail to meet the needs of this industry. It is hoped that the model developed as a result of this research will prove useful in settling the many questions surrounding anti-trust in the telecommunications market.
 
In evaluation the economic and statistical data germane to the industry, we can conclude that the Telecom industry is going through another period of change, signifying a growth in wireless and a corresponding decline in wireline services. In addition, growth in wireless is spurred by innovation and technological advances, such as broadband and VOIP. We have also been able to conclude that while once the industry was static and clearly defined, it is now comprised of many sub-sectors and players that contribute to the industry’s overall composition and transformation to a cyclical pattern. During the current cycle and in the near future, business expansion will be driven by technological innovation. Employment is expected to continue to decline, however, due to market restructuring and automation.
 
While the bubble created significant industry declines in previous years, since 2003 the industry is now poised for continued growth, in the previously mentioned segments. While the mergers and acquisitions have created a few major players, new technologies have allowed smaller entrants to the market that provide complementary services and goods to the larger providers. The resultant conclusion is that while major carriers may represent a partial monopoly, the industry as a whole and sub-sectors within it have different characteristics, mirroring clusters more than monopolies. Based on our findings, firms would benefit from focusing on the wireless market while maintaining the telephony that is still profitable with a flat rate structure.
 
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Nursing involvement in the criteria development english essay help onlineOverview
Write a 3–4-page safety score improvement plan for mitigating concerns addressing a specific patient safety goal that is relevant to quality patient care. Determine what a best evidence-based practice is and design a plan for resolving issues resulting from not maintaining patient safety.
Quality improvement and patient safety are health care industry imperatives (Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001). Effective quality improvement results in system and organizational change. This ultimately contributes to the creation of a patient safety culture.
Context
Quality improvement and patient safety are health care industry imperatives (Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001). Effective quality improvement results in system and organizational change. This ultimately contributes to the creation of a patient safety culture.
 
Questions to Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the health care community.
Consider a performance measurement criteria or best practice guideline used in your work setting (or one that you are familiar with).
•How was this criterion or guideline implemented? ◦Has it been successful?
◦Is it used consistently?
•What evidence-based practices were used in developing the criteria or guideline?
•How was nursing involved in the criteria or guideline development?
 
Resources
Suggested Resources
The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.
Click the link provided below to view the following multimedia piece:
•Systems Theory and the Fifth Discipline | Transcript.
 
 
 
Assessment Instructions
Preparation
Refer to the library and the Internet for supplemental resources to help you complete this assessment, a Safety Score Improvement Plan.
Consider the hospital-acquired conditions that are not reimbursed for under Medicare/Medicaid. Among these conditions are specific safety issues such as infections, falls, medication errors, and other safety concerns that could have been prevented or alleviated with the use of evidence-based guidelines. Hospital Safety Score, an independent nonprofit organization, uses national performance measures to determine the safety score for hospitals in the United States. The Hospital Safety Score Web site and other online resources provide hospital safety scores to the public.
Read the scenario below:
Scenario
As the manager of a unit, you have been advised by the patient safety office of an alarming increase in the hospital safety score for your unit. This is a very serious public relations matter because patient safety data is public information. It is also a financial crisis because the organization stands to lose a significant amount of reimbursement money from Medicare and Medicaid unless the source of the problem can be identified and corrected. You are required to submit a safety score improvement plan to the organization’s leadership and the patient safety office.
Select a specific patient safety goal that has been identified by an organization, or one that is widely regarded in the nursing profession as relevant to quality patient care delivery, such as patient falls, infection rates, catheter-induced urinary infections, IV infections, et cetera.
 
Deliverable: Safety Score Improvement Plan
Develop a 3–4-page safety score improvement plan.
•Identify the health care setting and nursing unit of your choice in the title of the mitigation plan. For example, “Safety Score Improvement Plan for XYZ Rehabilitation Center.”
•You may choose to use information on a patient safety issue for the organization in which you currently work, or search for information from a setting you are familiar with, perhaps from your clinical work. ◦Demonstrate systems theory and systems thinking as you develop your recommendations.
 
 
 
 
 
Organize your report with these headings:
 
Study of Factors
•Identify a patient safety issue.
•Describe the influence of nursing leadership in driving the needed changes.
•Apply systems thinking to explain how current policies and procedures may affect a safety issue.
 
Recommendations
•Recommend an Overview
Write a 3–4-page safety score improvement plan for mitigating concerns addressing a specific patient safety goal that is relevant to quality patient care. Determine what a best evidence-based practice is and design a plan for resolving issues resulting from not maintaining patient safety.
Quality improvement and patient safety are health care industry imperatives (Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001). Effective quality improvement results in system and organizational change. This ultimately contributes to the creation of a patient safety culture.
Context
Quality improvement and patient safety are health care industry imperatives (Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001). Effective quality improvement results in system and organizational change. This ultimately contributes to the creation of a patient safety culture.
 
Questions to Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the health care community.
Consider a performance measurement criteria or best practice guideline used in your work setting (or one that you are familiar with).
•How was this criterion or guideline implemented? ◦Has it been successful?
◦Is it used consistently?
•What evidence-based practices were used in developing the criteria or guideline?
•How was nursing involved in the criteria or guideline development?
 
Resources
Suggested Resources
The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.
Click the link provided below to view the following multimedia piece:
•Systems Theory and the Fifth Discipline | Transcript.
 
 
 
Assessment Instructions
Preparation
Refer to the library and the Internet for supplemental resources to help you complete this assessment, a Safety Score Improvement Plan.
Consider the hospital-acquired conditions that are not reimbursed for under Medicare/Medicaid. Among these conditions are specific safety issues such as infections, falls, medication errors, and other safety concerns that could have been prevented or alleviated with the use of evidence-based guidelines. Hospital Safety Score, an independent nonprofit organization, uses national performance measures to determine the safety score for hospitals in the United States. The Hospital Safety Score Web site and other online resources provide hospital safety scores to the public.
Read the scenario below:
Scenario
As the manager of a unit, you have been advised by the patient safety office of an alarming increase in the hospital safety score for your unit. This is a very serious public relations matter because patient safety data is public information. It is also a financial crisis because the organization stands to lose a significant amount of reimbursement money from Medicare and Medicaid unless the source of the problem can be identified and corrected. You are required to submit a safety score improvement plan to the organization’s leadership and the patient safety office.
Select a specific patient safety goal that has been identified by an organization, or one that is widely regarded in the nursing profession as relevant to quality patient care delivery, such as patient falls, infection rates, catheter-induced urinary infections, IV infections, et cetera.
 
Deliverable: Safety Score Improvement Plan
Develop a 3–4-page safety score improvement plan.
•Identify the health care setting and nursing unit of your choice in the title of the mitigation plan. For example, “Safety Score Improvement Plan for XYZ Rehabilitation Center.”
•You may choose to use information on a patient safety issue for the organization in which you currently work, or search for information from a setting you are familiar with, perhaps from your clinical work. ◦Demonstrate systems theory and systems thinking as you develop your recommendations.
 
 
 
 
 
Organize your report with these headings:
 
Study of Factors
•Identify a patient safety issue.
•Describe the influence of nursing leadership in driving the needed changes.
•Apply systems thinking to explain how current policies and procedures may affect a safety issue.
 
Recommendations
•Recommend an evidence-based strategy to improve the safety issue.
•Explain a strategy to collect information about the safety concern. ◦How would you determine the sources of the problem?
 
•Explain a plan to implement a recommendation and monitor outcomes. ◦What quality indicators will you use?
◦How will you monitor outcomes?
◦Will policies or procedures need to be changed?
◦Will nursing staff need training?
◦What tools will you need to do this?
 
Additional Requirements
•Written communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
•APA formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
•Length: The plan should be 2–3 pages.
•Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced.
•Number of resources: Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed resources..
•Explain a strategy to collect information about the safety concern. ◦How would you determine the sources of the problem?
 
•Explain a plan to implement a recommendation and monitor outcomes. ◦What quality indicators will you use?
◦How will you monitor outcomes?
◦Will policies or procedures need to be changed?
◦Will nursing staff need training?
◦What tools will you need to do this?
 
Additional Requirements
•Written communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
•APA formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
•Length: The plan should be 2–3 pages.
•Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced.
•Number of resources: Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed resources.

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Political and Economic Differences personal essay help: personal essay helpPolitical and Economic Differences
 
Consider
 
Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world
 
The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.
 
The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of ‘second class citizens’ for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a ‘male’ recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the construction industry and the financial sector. In the developing world, women dominate employment in export manufacturing industries in Nicaragua, Bangladesh, and the Philippines and export-driven agriculture in Uganda, Thailand, and Ecuador. These nations suffered heavy economic losses due to a drop in demand for exports. Although men tend to be greater consumers of financial services women are actually the majority users of micro-finance institutions. “As credit dries out their earnings from micro-businesses will drop — this should be especially true in Latin America and ECA, where micro finance institutions obtain a significant portion of their lending from commercial rather than concessional (grant) sources” (The global financial crisis: Assessing the vulnerability of women and children, 2011, World Bank).
 
Developing nations without substantial social services, underdeveloped political structures and poorly-developed monetary governance have seen their populations take a notable ‘hit.’ But not all developing world economies have felt a negative impact. Because of the Asian financial crisis of the 1990s and the reforms that crisis generated “Asian banking systems were better positioned to handle the more recent turmoil” (Bernanke 2009). Regarding the small economic powerhouse of Singapore, for example: “the exposure of Singaporean financial institutions to failed and distressed institutions in the U.S. And Europe was not significant and did not pose any systemic risks to Singapore’s economy, as local financial institutions were well capitalized and remained resilient” (2009). Singapore, unlike the U.S., has retained its AAA credit rating. Singapore has long been famed for its highly regimented society — caning is still used as a form of punishment for relatively minor infractions — but its high level of state involvement in citizen’s personal lives and behaviors is paralleled with a capitalist system that mixes healthy private enterprise with a strong emphasis on supporting export-driven industries as a means of growth.
 
Virtually all of the nations of the developing world are highly export-dependent, and in this respect even Singapore suffered, despite its conservative financial policies: “Non-oil domestic exports declined 7.9 per cent in 2008…This severe export decline has raised concerns over Singapore’s reliance on external demand” (Chia 2009). Export-driven China has been similarly hard-hit by the decline in demand for exports. “The turmoil in credit markets doubtless exacerbated the sharp decline in demand for durable goods, and thus in trade volumes, as purchases of durable goods typically involve some extension of credit. Manufacturing production, a major component of trade flows, may have been cut back more sharply than would otherwise have been the case as producers, concerned about credit availability, attempted to preserve working capital” (Bernanke 2009). The developing world nations of East Asia had set up their economies to be export-driven to fuel growth and thus experienced a sharp decline in one of the pillars of their economic growth.
 
The Chinese government, much like Singapore, has maintained a system whereby there is a strong, accepted level of interference in people’s personal lives, yet also strong support for capitalism (with some areas of heavy interference by the government, to ensure, for example, that the Chinese currency remains undervalued). And unlike the U.S., the Chinese government passed a truly significant economic stimulus package to reinvigorate the flagging economy. “In November 10, 2008, China announced a historic $586 billion stimulus package aimed at encouraging growth and domestic consumption in ten areas of Chinese society ranging from infrastructure investment to environmental protection and disaster rebuilding” (Chiu 2010). Housing prices in China have dropped, as they have around the world, but China’s stratospheric growth rate never slowed, although its growth rate for the third quarter of 2008 was 9%, “the slowest rate that China has seen in five years” (Chiu 2010). Still, China’s economy remains relatively enclosed and well-protected from the ebbs and flows of the global economy, other than the inevitable pressures of consumer demand abroad.
 
China’s economic strength in the region has bolstered and buoyed many of the smaller East Asian powerhouses nearby of the developing world, such as Vietnam, which also has an export-driven capitalist economy with an officially communist government. “Vietnam exports 70% of its rubber to China, but it buys two-thirds more rubber products from China than it sells. Generally speaking, Vietnam relies on China for a very broad range of its imports, twenty percent of its total imports, and sells coal, oil and food products to China. Vietnam is a perfect external market for Chinese goods because of similar economic conditions and consumer cultures and low transportation costs” (Womack 2009).
 
Ironically, many of the nations of the developed world were more exposed to the risks and thus the fallout of the crisis than developing East Asian nations like Vietnam. The European Community was a notable causality. In the years shortly before the crisis, there was a great deal of talk of the EC surpassing the U.S. As the world’s major economic power. However, the collapse of the economies of Ireland and Greece has generated concern about the stability of the EC model. Ireland’s real estate bubble and Greece’s over-borrowing pushed both governments to the brink of default. Tying the Euro, the commonly-shared currency of the EC, to the economies of all of the European nations meant that instability in one economy could create trouble for all member nations. While Germany and France chafed at bailing out what they saw as irresponsible member nations, the ‘bailed out’ Greece and Ireland could not devalue their currency to encourage tourism and foreign investment as a solution to their monetary woes. Despite technically being part of the developed world, these fragile economies were far harder-hit by the fallout. In general, “faster growth of credit and higher leverage before the crisis are associated with larger decreases in projected output in 2009 both for developing countries and emerging markets” explaining why Greece and Ireland suffered while Vietnam did not (Dwyer 2010).
 
Some developed world nations were largely insulated from the financial crisis, such as the heavily-regulated Canada and Australia. These nations are modern parliamentary democracies which boast banking systems that are concentrated, strictly regulated by the government, and reluctant to lend to consumers. They also have shown a rapid growth in natural resource exports, which traditionally are less impacted than other industries by recessions. Australia in particular, because of its strong levels of trade with the Far East, was insulated from the crisis (Dwyer 2010).
 
Thus, political systems — whether democracies or not — were less a factor in weathering the crisis; another part of the explanation of why some failed and some were unscathed was what they exported and imported — and to whom. Vietnam’s close relationship with China, Australia’s export base in the Far East cushioned these nations from the impact felt in the U.S. And the EU. The 2008 crisis illustrates how the divide between the developed and developing world may be less meaningful in the future when analyzing risk in the new global economy.
 
References
 
Bernanke, Ben. (2009). Asia and the global financial crisis. Federal Reserve.
 
http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20091019a.htm
 
Chia, Siow Yue. (2010). Singapore weathers the crisis and prepares for a better year. East Asia
 
Forum. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/01/12/singapore-weathers-the-crisis-and-prepares-for-a-stronger-year/
 
Chiu, Lisa. (2010). China’s response. About.com. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at http://chineseculture.about.com/od/thechinesegovernment/a/Chinaeconomy.htm
 
Dwyer, Gerald. (2011). International dimensions of the global financial crisis of 2007 and 2008.
 
Center for Financial Innovation and Stability.
 
http://www.frbatlanta.org/cenfis/pubscf/vn_crisis_international_dimensions.cfm
 
The global financial crisis: Assessing the vulnerability of women and children. (2011). World
 
Bank. Retrieved September 7, 2011 at http://www.worldbank.org/financialcrisis/pdf/Women-Children-Vulnerability-March09.pdf
 
Hill, Charles (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace. 8th ed. New
 
York: McGraw Hill.
 
Womack, Brantley. (2009). Vietnam and China in an era of economic uncertainty.
 
The Asia-Pacific Journal, 36 (2).Retrieved September 7, 2011 at http://www.japanfocus.org/-Brantly-Womack/3214

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Selecting a Global Company Structure a level english language essay help: a level english language essay helpRunning head: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS PLAN  1          International Business Plan Student’s Name  
Institutional Affiliation        
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INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS PLAN    2  Table of Contents Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Planning the Global Business Enterprise ……………………………………………………………………………. 8 Determination of Potential Markets ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Analysis of Competitors Indonesia and Malaysia ……………………………………………………………….. 9 Potential Competitors …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Competitive Advantage ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 International strategies ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 Economic-Geographic Environment of Malaysia and Indonesia …………………………………………. 12 Geographical factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Economic conditions in Malaysia and Indonesia……………………………………………………………….. 14 Social-Cultural Environments of Indonesia and Malaysia ……………………………………………….. 14 Demography and Culture ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 Accessing the Political-Legal Environment………………………………………………………………………. 16 Government and Politics …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16 Formal Trade Barriers ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Promoting Global Business …………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 Selecting a Global Company Structure …………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Strategic Planning ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Profit Forecast in Malaysia and Indonesia ………………………………………………………………………… 20 Global Management Information System …………………………………………………………………………. 21 Global Information Needs …………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Technology for Managing Information ……………………………………………………………………………. 22 Staffing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22 Training and Development ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22 Performance Appraisal and Compensation ……………………………………………………………………….. 23 Financing Sources for Saudi Telecommunications …………………………………………………………….. 24 Global Management Information system………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Human Resources for Global Business Activities ……………………………………………………………… 26 Staffing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 Training and Development ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27 Performance Appraisal and Compensation ……………………………………………………………………. 27 

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Business Opportunities With The Navy Assignment college admissions essay helpAssignment 1: Small-Business Opportunities with the Navy
 
Worth 150 points
 
Imagine that you are the owner of a small floor refinishing business that provides a specialty coating product for ceramic tile and marble floors. There is no other local flooring business that provides this service. Having recently received a patent on your product, you are ready to expand your business by competing for Navy contracts at the local base, which is located a few miles away. The service you want to sell is the specialty coating, the application of the coating, and a regular maintenance schedule. Your company consists of you, one office assistant, and two production employees.
 
Note: You will be referencing this business throughout all five assignments for this course. Please use “First Name, Last Name, Inc.” as the name of your company throughout these assignments.
 
Write a two to three (3-4) page paper in which you:
 
Develop your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
Analyze the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Provide a rationale for your response.
Use at least three (4) quality references Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
 
Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
 
Describe the nature of government contracting, including authority, responsibilities, and legal considerations.
Explain the government acquisition process using sealed bidding, negotiations, and alternative contracting methods.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in federal acquisition and contract management.
Write clearly and concisely about federal acquisition and contract management using proper writing mechanics.
 
Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.
 
Points: 150
 
Assignment 1: Small-Business Opportunities with the Navy
 
Criteria
 
Unacceptable
 
Below 60% F
 
Meets Minimum Expectations
 
60-69% D
 
Fair
 
70-79% C
 
Proficient
 
80-89% B
 
Exemplary
 
90-100% A
 
1. Develop your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
Weight: 40%
 
Did not submit or incompletely developed your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
Insufficiently developed your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
Partially developed your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
Satisfactorily developed your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
Thoroughly developed your company’s acquisition and planning strategy for obtaining a contract.
 
2. Analyze the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Provide a rationale for your response.
 
Weight: 35%
 
Did not submit or incompletely analyzed the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Did not provide or incompletely provided a rationale for your response.
 
Insufficiently analyzed the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Insufficiently provided a rationale for your response.
 
Partially analyzed the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Partially provided a rationale for your response.
 
Satisfactorily analyzed the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Satisfactorily provided a rationale for your response.
 
Thoroughly analyzed the manner in which utilizing SmartPay or a similar program in electronic contracting will assist your company and the Navy. Thoroughly provided a rationale for your response.
 
3. 3 references
 
Weight: 5%
 
No references provided
 
Does not meet the required number of references; all references poor quality choices.
 
Does not meet the required number of references; some references poor quality choices.
 
Meets number of required references; all references high quality choices.
 
Exceeds number of required references; all references high quality choices.
 
4. Writing Mechanics, Grammar, and Formatting
 
Weight: 5%
 
Serious and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting.
 
Numerous errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
 
Partially free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting.
 
Mostly free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting.
 
Error free or almost error free grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting.
 
5. Appropriate use of APA in-text citations and reference section. Weight: 5%
 
Lack of in-text citations and / or lack of reference section.
 
In-text citations and references are given, but not in APA format.
 
In-text citations and references are provided, but they are only partially formatted correctly in APA style.
 
Most in-text citations and references are provided, and they are generally formatted correctly in APA style.
 
In-text citations and references are error free or almost error free and consistently formatted correctly in APA style.
 
6. Information Literacy/Integration of Sources
 
Weight: 5%
 
Serious errors in the integration of sources, such as intentional or accidental plagiarism, or failure to use in-text citations.
 
Sources are rarely integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.
 
Sources are partially integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.
 
Sources are mostly integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.
 
Sources are consistently integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.
 
7. Clarity and Coherence of Writing
 
Weight: 5%
 
Information is confusing to the reader and fails to include reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.
 
Information is somewhat confusing with not enough reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.
 
Information is partially clear with minimal reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.
 
Information is mostly clear and generally supported with reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.
 
Information is provided in a clear, coherent, and consistent manner with reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.
 
 

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Case scenario assignment free college essay helpNGRK
Philippians 2:1-11
Paper must be submitted in Turabian Style Format
VERY IMPORTANT TO FOLLOW ATTACHED INSTRUCTIONS
The essay should be 400-500 words in 12 point, Times New Romans font. Format per the Turabian guidelines. The purpose of the scenario above is to help you get into the kind of mindset that it will take to do well on this assignment. The point is to read the text itself and reconstruct the historical-cultural context based on a close reading of the internal evidence. Your course professor does not need to read a report about what other scholars think; you are the expert! With that said, please just write the report that the scenario above calls for without elaborating on the scenario itself. This assignment requires your analysis, observations, and evaluation of the text.

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IMPACTS OF ACQUISITIONS AND CROSS BORDER MERGERS professional essay helpIMPACTS OF ACQUISITIONS AND CROSS BORDER MERGERS
Moreover, it is clear that Acquisitions and cross-border mergers are a transformation of mechanical resources and generation structure on a world premise. It engages the worldwide exchanges of capital, innovation, administration, and merchandise and coordinates for widespread organizing. Acquisitions and cross-border mergers lead to the economics of scope and scale, which makes a difference in picking up effectiveness. Separated from this, it moreover benefits the economy like expanded efficiency of the have nation, increment in financial development and improvement especially on the off chance that the arrangement utilized by the government are positive(Liu, et al. 2022). Acquisitions and cross-merger bargains within remote household firms and organizations within the target nation. The slant of expanding acquisitions and cross-merger has ended up speedier with the globalization of the economic world. Certainly, the 1990s were a critical period for acquisitions and cross-border mergers, with a nearly 200 percent hop within the volume of such bargains within the locale Asia pacific. This locale was favored for acquisitions and cross-border mergers as most countries and liberalizing their arrangements, which gave them much, required boost to such bargains. It has been watched in a recent situation that America, Latin, and Africa are pulling in more acquisitions and cross-border mergers. This is often due to a gathering of political clog in nations like India that are incapable of choosing whether the nation needs more remote speculation, the immersion of china, and the fast rise of Africa as a venture goal. Moreover, America Latin is being favored basically due to the fast development rates of the economics of the locale(Strobl, et al. 2022).
 
Capital constructs up: Acquisitions and cross-border mergers bolster in the capital collection on a premise of long term. In arranging to grow their businesses, it not as it attempted to venture in building, plants and equipment’s but moreover within the incorporeal resources like the technical how-know, aptitudes instead of fair the physical portion of the capital.
Work creation: It is watched that the Acquisitions and cross-border mergers that are embraced to drive rebuilding may lead to downscaling but would lead to work pic up within the long term. The scaling back is, in some cases, fundamental for the proceeded existence of operations. When within the run long the industries extend and get to be effective, it would make unused work openings.
 

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The Legacy Of The Reagan Doctrine nursing essay help: nursing essay helpThe Reagan Doctrine was the foreign policy in the United States, legislated by President Ronald Reagan. This doctrine was design to eliminate the communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were indorsed and validated by the Soviet Union. This assignment will summarize how the United States provided open and private support to guerrilla and resistance movements during the Regan years. In addition, explicate the diplomatic doctrine specific events that occurred in Afghanistan when the Soviet Union invaded.  Finally, this assignment will describe the advantages and disadvantages based on the Regan Doctrine.  Summarize The Situation of U.S. Diplomatic of The Regan Doctrine Throughout the opening years of the Cold War, Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter all sanctioned policies against communism in order to contain it. Ronald Regan rejected their détente policy in 1979, when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. This alone proved that policies that only contain communism were ineffective. Regan disapproved in the compromise policy when it came to any communist government. Instead, Reagan proposed the Rollback strategy. The making of the Reagan Doctrine shifted from containment and spreading to eliminating all current communist governments. Furthermore, the United States wanted to increase and encourage democracy and capitalism in replacement of ousted communistregimes (Conservapedia, 2012).Implementation of the Regan Doctrine was to provide
 

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Historical Context Essay college essay help los angelesNGRK Philippians 2:1-11 Paper must be submitted in Turabian Style Format VERY IMPORTANT TO FOLLOW ATTACHED INSTRUCTIONS The essay should be 400-500 words in 12 point, Times New Romans font. Format per
NGRK 505
Historical Context Essay Instructions
 
Each student will write a 400-500-word exegetical essay describing the historical-cultural context of their selected passage. This essay should be based primarily on a close reading of the New Testament book in which the selected passage is found. Therefore, students should prepare for their essay by following the inductive method described below while referring to the concepts covered in the assigned reading and course materials. Please do not consult textbooks, commentaries, or other resources until you have worked through the scenario and method below.
Here is the inductive method you will use to construct the essay:
Adopt the mindset of a detective or researcher. Imagine that you’ve discovered an ancient text buried deep in the archives of the Scriptorium in the Rawlings School of Divinity at Liberty University (this sort of thing happens in libraries from time to time). You have been tasked with deciphering the hand-written Greek text and presenting a report about it to the Dean of the School of Divinity. The Dean will be addressing the media with information about the discovery, so you will need to determine, as best as possible, the following information:
who wrote the text;
when it was written,
where it was written;
to whom it was addressed and sent;
what purpose it served in those historical circumstances;
and whether it is a forgery or fake (those do exist in the antiquities market).
 
There is no textbook to grab that will give you these answers; you are the expert since you’re the only person alive who has read the text. Therefore, the only guidance you have is the information in the text itself. Only be as precise as the information in the text allows you to be. For the sake of getting into the right mindset and maintaining good method, it might help you to pretend that no book such as this exists in the New Testament; though you are able to compare what you find in it to the other books of the New Testament.
You must draft a report (400-500 words) for your Dean, presenting this information, as best you can discern it, from the text. Since the Dean will be addressing the media about the discovery, any statement about the text’s historical circumstances/context will need to be supported with evidence. Therefore, when you describe the date or author, you need to include the evidence from the text that led you to your conclusions (use chapter and verse citations). Evaluate the evidence so that your Dean knows how confident you are of the information and conclusions in your report.
 
As part of your report, focus especially on the passage you selected in Module/Week 1. Based on the information you’ve given the Dean about broader historical questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how?), do you think there are any historical or cultural issues that the Dean should be aware of when the media ask questions about the meaning of the passage? Are there any events, customs, titles, activities, social structures, or concepts that reflect the ancient historical culture/setting, which might have an impact on how people today interpret the meaning of this passage in the ancient text? The Dean will need to tell the media what plans the Divinity School has for further historical-cultural research of the text and this focal passage. So, your report should prepare the Dean with a recommendation.
Format:
The essay should be 400-500 words in 12 point, Times New Romans font. Format per the Turabian guidelines. The purpose of the scenario above is to help you get into the kind of mindset that it will take to do well on this assignment. The point is to read the text itself and reconstruct the historical-cultural context based on a close reading of the internal evidence. Your course professor does not need to read a report about what other scholars think; you are the expert! With that said, please just write the report that the scenario above calls for without elaborating on the scenario itself. This assignment requires your analysis, observations, and evaluation of the text.
This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 3.
Resources for Turabian formatting may be found in the Online Writing Center. Your paper should follow the footnote method of citation.
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Current and Emerging Technology mba essay help: mba essay helpSubject: Current and Emerging Technology
 
Question: You really like the concept of web-based computing and want to use as many web-based programs as possible. Write a brief paragraph discussing the programs you would use for productivity, file storage, collaboration, and communication. What are the benefits and drawbacks of each choice?
 
Instructions:
 
Minimum 300 words
 
3 APA References
 
No plagiarism please
 
Need Replies to the Below discussions:
 
Discussion 1: (Instructions: Need 1 reply minimum 150 words for Discussion 1)
 
1.Program for productivity
 
The best program that can be used for productivity is Air table. This application is used to track the progress of the project that a company or organization is undertaking. It also shows the amount of work that is due and the phases that the project will be completed in. Air table is a good organization tool (Business, 2018).
 
2. Program for file storage
 
The appropriate program for storage is the Google drive application. This application uses cloud computing to help its clients store data. This is managed by Google and it gives clients up to 15 GB free for them to use to store data such as word documents, PowerPoint presentations, spread sheets and other forms of data. It also offers storage to companies of up to 30 terabytes at an affordable price. Google drive application is the preferred option since data is secure, easy to retrieve and the cloud spaces are cost effective.
 
3.Program for collaboration
 
Collaboration software is enables people who are working simultaneously on a given concept to share information across themselves. For this one needs a program that can accommodate bulky data and a lot of people who are working on the software simultaneously and thus Workplace by Facebook will be a suitable collaborative program for the company (Thomas, 2016).
 
4.Program for communication
 
Communication is one of the essential tools of any organization. Communication is needed for the success of the company’s activities. It is important for one to adopt strong programs that can be used in communication such as the Skype for business. This is an application that enables people in a company to communicate by offering services such as video conferencing, communication with clients through activities such as Skype, instant and cloud messaging and collecting feedback from clients among other services (Gurdeep, 2014).
 
Discussion 2: (Instructions: Need 1 reply minimum 150 words for Discussion 2)
 
Web-based computing is a domain that comprises ultra-thin clients organized over the Internet. Applications in this condition comprise of code on the servers circulated to thin clients containing a program, for example, Netscape Communicator or Internet Explorer; the program characterizes the UI. Web applications are typically composed in Java. Java is completely protest arranged, contains bundles of classes for UI parts, math and security. Java is utilized by each significant player in the computing field, educated in schools, productive on the Internet, and may turn into the accepted standard for Web applications. Web-based applications require a Web server, which is a bit of software that utilizations HTTP to convey HTML or XML pages over the system. Web servers comprise of server software that is advanced for the age and transmission of Web pages.
 
Alternative for Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator:
 
Sometimes you simply need to make a graphic, however, paint won’t cut it, and Adobe software costs a lot – enter Aviary, the free online graphics editor that gives all of you the highlights important to make amazing manifestations, all you require is a web program. Best of all, Aviary is moving in the direction of making a whole online suite of applications that may one day turn into your one-stop search for graphics needs.
 
Dropbox:
 
My most loved application in years, this is the easiest approach to store and offer your documents over different frameworks. Simply introduce the client on any machine(s) you’d like – be it PC, Mac, or Linux – drop and records you select into the Dropbox envelope, and it in a flash matches up overall frameworks. You can even impart particular organizers to other Dropbox clients, undelete records, and make a distinguishable online exhibition out of your photo’s envelopes. Most importantly on the off chance that you have an internet association, your records are dependably inside reach.
 
Cisco WebEx:
 
A best online meeting and web conferencing instrument that incorporates highlights, for example, screen sharing, document sharing, comment, and open and private talk. WebEx levels depend on the number of individuals incorporated into the meeting as opposed to the number of meetings, with a free-form accessible for meeting with up to three members. It deals with various work area and portable stages. Security alternatives incorporate end-to-end information encryption.
 
Social networking:
 
Social networking is tied in with framing groups, sharing online substance and trading data. Notwithstanding being a noteworthy piece of social life in the advanced world, social networking is a priceless device for Internet promoting since it gives an easy to use and very open stage after that to trade data on items and administrations. For instance, on the off chance that somebody enjoys an article on your business blog or website, he may choose to impart it to his companions over Facebook or Twitter.

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Transitioning To Parenting assignment paper narrative essay help: narrative essay helpself regulation: (i.e.,  parental modeling, labeling emotions, learning coping strategies, and  emotional climate of the family). 

Explain the transition into parenting for parents of  newborns.
Explain the transition into parenting for parents    of preschool-age children.
Explain the role of attachment    at each stage.
Explain the role of discipline,    socialization, and emotional regulation and the impact on young  children.

Cite three to five scholarly sources to support your claims. The  PowerPoint presentation should consist of 15-20 slides, not including  the title slide and slide for APA citations. Images may be included in  the presentation, but be sure to keep all image sizes low for this presentation.

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PHIL 2306 Ethics in A Nutshell Basics of Ethics Discussion devry tutorcom essay help 
In addition to introducing you to the basics of ethics in this book, Dr. Deaton  makes many claims, for example that cultural subjectivism is a flawed theory (Chapter 3). In your post, choose a point or theory from any of the chapters and explain what Dr. Deaton has to say about it. In the second half of your post, critically reflect on what Dr. Deaton has to say and respond with some supporting ideas or raise some concerns. In either case, come up with new reasons,  evidence, or stories to support your point of view. Be sure to refer to the book using parenthetical citations, such as (Deaton, 5). Don’t forget that the discussion board rubric also requires you to make connections to other course material. At this point, you only have the first video and the Zell reading, but you should be able to make connections to these.

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Considerations before taking an abortion essay help writer: essay help writerA client facing the decision of whether or not to have an abortion is likely to consider a wide range of factors before making the final decision. This often is the case for clients regardless of whether they view themselves as generally for or against abortion (or somewhere in between), as the decision is different when considering how it applies to one’s own life.
 
The types of factors that can influence a client’s decisions include (but are not limited to) physical health considerations, educational background, cultural values, and predictions about short- and long-term consequences of abortion.
 
(2- to 3-pages):
 
Explain potential factors that might influence whether or not a client decides to have an abortion. Include short- and long-term considerations that might impact this decision.
Explain why certain factors might have a stronger impact on a client’s decision regarding abortion depending on the client’s background (e.g., age, gender, religion, socioeconomic status).
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the resources for this course.

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Learn by doing, use live coding global history essay helpHow do you save time and teach programming more effectively?
You save time and teach programming more effectively by live coding. You can also give assignments and use automatic grading. Lastly, provide effective feedback and support to improve student performance.
Programming is challenging, and it is easy for students to get lost in the different topics. It is essential to develop creative and practical ways to teach programming. 
That’s the goal of this article!
It will discuss tips on how to save time and teach programming effectively. 
Let’s dive in!
Learn by doing, use live coding
Live coding involves real-time programming in front of students while verbalizing the process. While live programming, ensure you talk about the mental process of identifying the problems. Additionally, troubleshoot errors, pause to ask questions, and let students predict the code.
Live coding is more effective than using slides while teaching programming. Live coding helps students identify and solve a problem step by step. Learners also see that instructors can make mistakes boosting confidence in their abilities. 
Let’s look at other benefits of live coding:
You can follow your learners’ interests and answer any questions about the code.
Students learn to solve problems through real-life examples hence enhancing unintended knowledge transfer.
Live coding makes the instructor slower than using slides, making students understand better. No student will be left behind with the programming course.
Real-life programming helps students learn how to identify and solve problems. Diagnosing and correcting coding errors is left out of most books. 
Students learn and acknowledge that it’s alright to make mistakes while watching you make mistakes. Making mistakes will make you uneasy at first, but it is a crucial part of coding.
Students master content knowledge by asking questions and making predictions during live coding.
How to accomplish live coding
Live coding includes writing a computer program in front of your students. The goal is to show the programming process, not reveal a perfect solution.
Here are the steps to implement live coding:
Gather crucial technology to support real-time programming: Find a projector to project your screen for your students in class. Find a way to share your screen via a video conferencing platform for remote teaching.
Choose a coding problem to solve: Select a programming exercise and language depending on your students’ skill level and age. The language should be challenging to keep the students alert but still be familiar to them.
Describe live coding: Your learner must understand the meaning of live coding. Please describe what you will demonstrate and their input in making predictions.
Execute live coding: There are different ways to execute live coding. The following process is one way of implementing live coding. Here are the steps:
Code a simple part of the program, such as asking for user input. Run the program as you describe the mental process of what is happening to ensure your students follow.
Edit the program for a different result. You can add functionality or make it complex to show different outcomes.
Invite the student to predict an outcome before rerunning the program. Let them discuss in pairs to liven up the classroom.
Run the code while observing the outcome. If the result is not as expected, remark on the surprising development and describe any error. Help students understand how to isolate, test, and rectify the mistake.
Pass off the program to students for them to complete in pairs. You don’t need to complete the live coding. Let students complete the code to enhance understanding.
Assignments and automatic grading
Giving students programming assignments helps them practice and acquire coding skills. However, marking all the coding assignments can prove t be a workload for you. Using automatic grading saves time and helps you teach students effectively.
Why give programming assignments?
Learning coding without practicing is unfruitful for any student that wants to master programming. Assignments are a way of practicing and testing if students understand the content.
Let’s look deeper into the benefits of giving assignments
Handing over assignments and giving deadlines helps prepare students for their careers in the future. Tasks simulate a real-life work environment and help them perfect their skills.
Programming courses with regular assignments help students keep up with the content. You check their understanding of the material as you go through every subtopic. The repetition and practice keep the content fresh in their brains. If they don’t understand a part of the material, it will show in their material. The students will know what to practice more which increases their course mastery. 
Students use the feedback to practice in other course assignments and solve coding problems. Tasks increase the academic performance of your students.
You will understand which part of the course students struggle with and help them out. Focusing and tailoring a learner’s needs creates a dynamic structure and helps students learn. 
The benefit of automatic grading
Automatic grading is where a system automatically grades assignments in scientific computing. Students can access and use the automated grading system to verify their program assignments’ accuracy. The system automatically grades a correct solution.
Automatic grading offers the following benefits:
Saves time for necessary feedback: Automatic grading system frees your time for other student work aspects that need feedback
Improves student performance: The grading system encourages students to make changes to their assignments which enhances their metrics. Standard grading delays results and feedback, but an auto-grading system speeds up the process. 
Eliminates biases: The automatic grading system is objective and limits bias. Human graders can have biases since some are tough graders while others are lenient in marking. The grading system also avoids negative feedback and makes the results less personal. 
Assessing using automated grading and feedback 
You need to craft a tremendous automated grading and feedback system for a rewarding learning experience for students. Let the assignments be authentically challenging and have rich feedback for higher-order thinking. The strategies will help you create practical automated feedback activities:
Write codes and feedback that match with your expected learning outcomes
Set up codes or programming assignments that challenge learners. 
Set up different questions from each topic to offer variety and make it difficult to copy
Write clear and concise questions that focus on critical thinking
Provide feedback and support
Effective feedback is a continuous process of communication, assessment, and adjustment. Providing praise or criticism is not feedback. You need to respond and support your students to improve student performance.
Giving grades, advice, value judgments, assessment, evaluation, or praise is vague and doesn’t show the student where to improve. Effective feedback should have the following characteristics:

Goal-referenced- Learners should be working towards a specific goal that they understand. Feedback will always be about the destination and offer insight into whether the student is headed there.
Transparent- Effective feedback is clear and specific on how to improve towards a goal.
Actionable- Feedback has steps and information for students to act upon and reach a goal or change results. Vague sentences such as ‘you need to improve’ don’t inform the student what to do.
User-friendly- Feedback for students should be concise and carefully crafted for easy understanding. Additionally, make it accessible to every student in your course.
Timely- Delayed feedback is not adequate. Ensure to give immediate feedback with the help of automated grading systems while thoughts are still fresh in students’ minds.
Continuous- Maintaining consistent feedback improves performance by informing students where to change.
Focused- Effective feedback doesn’t change one’s personality but focuses on changing behavior.

How to support learners while teaching programming
Supporting learners through the course ensure that they absorb content effectively. Two ways to help your learners are using peer instruction and pair programming.
Use peer instruction
Peer instruction is an excellent form of teaching in larger-scale classrooms. It is effective for saving time and reaching every student. One way to conduct peer instruction in the following way:
Give a brief introduction to a topic.
Provide students with a multiple-choice question that shows misconceptions rather than facts. The question should be well-crafted.
Learners should choose the answer individually. The next step is to vote the answer to view which misconceptions are popular.
Give the students a few minutes to discuss the answers in small groups, then vote again.
If learners have the correct answer, move on with the topic. However, if there are widespread misconceptions after a group discussion, discuss them with the class.
Peer instruction provides direct mentorship in a scalable method. Letting students discuss in groups will help them understand and clarify their thoughts. The second voting shows you need to discuss the misconceptions or move on with the topic.
Implement pair programming
Pair programming is where two programmers share one computer to program. One student comments and make suggestions while the other types of codes. The two students can switch several times per hour.
Pair programming is an effective way to teach since it helps students practice real-life programming. Students help each other and clarify any false beliefs when errors are rectified. A weaker student can get suggestions or comments from the better one. During the process, the stronger one also masters the concept by explaining.
Save time and teach programming effectively with SIT Almira!
Saving time and effective teaching is crucial in programming because it helps students master concepts.
One way to save time is live coding. Live coding involves real-time programming in front of students while verbalizing the process. Ensure you talk about the mental process of identifying the problems during live programming. Also, troubleshoot errors, pause to ask questions, and let students predict the code for effective teaching.
Do you want to save time and teach programming effectively?
SIT Alemira Coding Lab is an interactive lab environment for all programming courses. The lab provides a code-centric, developer-friendly course authoring experience and automates student assessments. SIT Alemira coding lab is tailor-made improves your training effectiveness. The hands-on evaluation puts your student’s skills to the test and helps them learn through human-MI interaction.
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