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Evaluating Gender Stereotyping Essay writing essay helpWatch a childrens cartoonorobtain a childrens storybook.
Tell me what cartoon your watchedorwhat storybook you selected.
In one paragraph, using examples from the cartoonorstorybook, describe how males and females are represented:

Are characters portrayed in gender-stereotyped roles?
Are males and females equally represented in exciting plot activities?
Are behaviors, attitudes, and characteristics of males and females characters strongly gender stereotyped?
Overall, how would you evaluate the cartoon or storybook in terms of gender typing?
What recommendations would you make to counter any influences observed?


Social Influences On Personal Development summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help1,050- to 1,400-word in which you examine the concept of the self. Address the following:

Identify who was in the radius of significant others that shaped your development through your toddler, child, and adolescent years.
Identify verbal messages you recall that suggested situational or dispositional attributions about you.
Describe how you developed your current attitudes toward authority, competitors, subordinates, the opposite sex, or another generation.
Explore the effects your social world has had on your developing professional identity.


Ethical and Professional Issues in Psychological Testing essay help freeCreate a PowerPoint presentation with 16 to 20 slides (not including the title and reference slides) entitledEthical and Professional Issues in Psychological Testing. Your presentation must provide 2 to 3 slides for each of the required topics and include appropriate citations of your referenced sources. Separate reference slides, which follow APA formatting guidelines for a References page, must be included at the end of the presentation. You must create your own template and organize your presentation in the sequence provided. Do not use a font smaller than 20 pt. You are encouraged to insert relevant figures and graphics. Make sure to appropriately cite any images you use. If you include a table or figure from a journal article, cite it according to APA guidelines. The notes section of each slide must include the text for oral comments you would make while presentating the materials to a live audience.
Presentation notes:If you were to give the presentation live, you would not read directly from your slides.Develop speaker notes to accompany each slide and include the speaker notes in the notes section of each slide. These speaker notes must include the script you would use for the oral comments you would make while presenting the materials to a live audience. Do not save your presentation as a PDF. Upload the PowerPoint with the speaker notes included.
References must be cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the. For assistance with creating a visually engaging and readable presentation, you may review.
The presentation must cover each of the following topics in the order presented below.
The Ethical and Social Implications of Testing

Provide an overview and brief evaluation of the ethical and social implications of psychological assessment.

Professional Responsibilities

Describe the responsibilities of both test publishers and test users.

Testing Individuals Representing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

Analyze and describe issues related to the testing of cultural and linguistic minorities.


Explain the common sources of measurement error and how measurement error can impact reliability.


Create a diagram or figure to compare the types of validity discussed in the textbook.
Describe the extravalidity concerns related to testing.
Review the articles by Fergus (2013), Kosson, et al. (2013) and Mathieu, Hare, Jones, Babiak, & Neumann (2013). Analyze the information presented in these articles on factor analysis and describe how it is used to validate the constructs of the instruments.

Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

Compare clinical and statistical prediction of mental health decisions based on the work of gisdttir, et al. (2006) and Grove & Lloyd (2006).

Application One: An Ethical and Professional Quandry

Select one of the Ethical and Professional Quandries in Testing from Case Exhibit 1.2 in your textbook and describe the ethical issues specific to the scenario you selected. Include an analysis of the relevant principles from
Taking on the role of the psychologist or counselor in the chosen scenario, describe how you might respond to the challenge you selected and provide a brief rationale for your decision.

Application Two: Evidence-Based Medicine

Summarize Youngstroms (2013) recommendations for linking assessment directly to clinical decision making in evidence-based medicine.
Elaborate on each of Youngstroms recommendations by providing practical examples that illustrate the relevance of the recommendations in a clinical setting.

Application Three: Selecting Valid Instruments

Create a research hypothesis or brief clinical case scenario in which you must select an instrument to measure intolerance for uncertainty.
Use the information in the Fergus (2013) article to support which measure to use.

The presentation

Must consist of 16 to 20 slides (not including title and reference slides) that are formatted according to APA style as outlined in the.
Must include a separate title slide with the following:

Title of presentation
Students name
Course name and number
Instructors name
Date submitted

Must use the assigned chapters in the course text, Standard 9 from the American Psychological Associations Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, and the 3 required peer-reviewed articles assigned for Week One.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
Must include separate reference slides formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center


How a convicted criminal can appeal their case essay help tips: essay help tipsDiscuss how a convicted criminal can appeal their case. Please be sure to address:

appeal of right,
discretionary appeal,
trialde novo, and
interlocutory appeal.

Please be sure to include at least one limitation associated with each of these appeal processes.
Remember, you must address the following questions in a minimum 2-page Word document. Additionally, this assignment must be completed in APA format (i.e. 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, etc.), and you must validate and support your verbiage (i.e. , facts, opinions, beliefs, etc.) with citations and references of at least two (2) credible sources in addition to the textbook.


Testing scenario on ethical considerations my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help londonAssignment 1
Ethical Issues
For the following testing scenario, identify specific ethical considerations or potential violations committed by Dr. Jefferson as discussed in your textbook and online course material. From an ethical perspective, please consider what Dr. Jefferson has done well and what she could have done differently. If there is a violation of theCanadian Psychological Ethical Guidelines for Psychologists, provide recommendations for a more ethical practice (i.e., what advice would you give to Dr. Jefferson?)
Dr. Jefferson lives and practices psychology in a rural area. She has been a registered psychologist for 5 years (Ph.D. in Child Psychology) and her area of specialization is anxiety disorders and depression.She began to provide psychotherapy to Mr. Giles, a 42-year-old, who was dealing with depression. After three sessions, Mr. Giles suffered a significant head injury while at work. His impairment is noticeable by Dr. Jefferson without any type of testing, although she administers the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery, just in case.
Mr. Giless co-worker, Cynthia, helped him find an attorney so that his rights are protected, especially since the incident occurred at work.Dr. Jefferson had Mr. Giles sign a release to talk with the attorney as well as Cynthia. From a phone call with the attorney, WSIB (Workers Compensation) wants to work out a settlement, but the attorney has little understanding regarding Mr. Giles level of impairment.
Mr. Giles demonstrates a variety of cognitive deficits. He needs assistance and monitoring with daily tasks, such as home care, shopping, transportation, understanding the settlement process, reading his mail, and paying his bills. He will likely need to go into an assisted living facility. His family lives three provinces away and provides minimal help, both emotionally and financially. Mr. Giles doesn’t appear to understand his legal rights or the settlement process.
Prior to providing extra-therapy support, Dr. Jefferson had Mr. Giles sign a document explaining her fees for the additional services. She is not sure that he completely understands what is happening or her version of informed consent for the additional services. The psychologist has been doing much of the case management work on her own, such as locating a long-time friend who is willing to help him at home, engaging in lengthy discussions with his primary care physician and neurologist, participating in multiple conversations with the attorney, and trying to find a guardian or power of attorney. Over dinner and beers, she has also spoken at length to her partner, a neuropsychologist, about how best to serve her client.
This assignment should be approximately four (4) pages, double spaced. It will be graded on your ability to correctly identify the ethical violations (e.g., refer to specific CPA ethical principles), recommendations for more ethical behaviour, and writing style. Use APA format for referencing. Examples of this can be found online at, such as.
I would suggest that students using APA should also follow the following format in the creation of their work:
1. Introduction to the case overview and what ethical standards are according to the Canadian standards for Psychologists.
2. Discussion of Principle 1
3. Discussion of Principle 2
4. Discussion of Principle 3
5. Discussion of Principle 4
6. Recommendations
7. Conclusion


Online career exploration resource medical school essay helpDiscussion Post Requirements:
Responses must be well thought out and well written.
Responses must include 2+ references to the readings, videos, and/or activities assigned for the week.
Responses must focus on both course material and personal reflection.
Initial responses must be between 350-400 words
Review the Online career exploration resource and find one career that would be of interest that you can pursue with your BA in psychology (highlighted in Blue). Were you aware this was an available option? Read the ONET page or other resource link listed associated with that profession. Summarize key points you learned about that career. How do you plan to go up the ladder if you enter this career? Complete the What to ask in an interview

What to ask in an informational interview
Selecting transcript lines in this section will navigate to timestamp in the video
(rock music)– You’ve just scored an informational interview with someone at the very top of your dream employer list. Now what? Are you prepared? Well, you should be. This person’s just agreed to give you a precious commodity here, her time. Don’t make her regret that. Make a plan. And show up with some questions to ask so you don’t look like a dang fool. The first thing you’ll want to do is a little bit of homework. Start with her LinkedIn profile. Where has she worked? Where’d she go to college? What are her interests? After you dig a bit, prepare some questions keeping this top of mind, the purpose of an informational interview is to gather information. Period. Under no circumstance should you walk in and foist your resume on your interviewee. You’re the interviewer. Conduct it accordingly. Here are five great questions you can ask. Number one, how did you get into this field? And how’d you land the role that you’re in? This is an important one because it shows that you’re genuinely interested in her background, which will go a long way and by asking about her career path, you might uncover some hints on how to break into the company. Second question, what’s the best part about working here? You can research that online until you’re blue in the face. But this is your shot at getting first hand perspective. Take full advantage. Alright, question three, what are the most challenging aspects of your job? This is particularly relevant if the person works in the same type of role that you’re targeting. You’ll be able to gauge if those challenges line up with your aspirations or if they fall short, in which case you’ll know to steer clear. Question four, what skills do you think are most important for someone trying to break into this space? By asking this you’ll not only learn what specific skills you need, you also might prompt the other person to say hey, tell me a little bit about your skills. Or, do you have a resume I could take a look at? Yes, I know I just told you not to shove your resume at anyone but for sure bring it so you can share it if you’re invited to. Now the last question I recommend that you ask at every informational interview is this. Based on our discussion, can you think of one or two other people I should chat with? This question is essential if you want to keep that momentum going and of course you want to keep that momentum going. Keep in mind that just one of these interviews might not be the magic bullet but one meeting could spark a chain of introductions that’ll help you dig further and meet other people. People who may pull out the stops to help you land your next job. – Thanks so much for meeting with me. I really appreciate your time, I know how valuable it is. – Yeah, it really is. – Yeah. (both laughing) – It just really is, my time is really valuable.


The study of human genetics Essay custom essay help: custom essay help2. Conduct an online search using the term genetics. Visit several websites toanswer the following questions:

What constitutes the study of genetics?
Who might benefit from genetic counseling?
What kind of information do you find on the Internet?
Are there agencies, universities, or medical centers that are dedicated to the study of human genetics?
Are there certification requirements for genetic counselors?
What are some of the findings of genetics research?


Management versus Leadership college essay help online free300 words
Management versus Leadership
Distinguish between the terms manager and leader. What differences might you expect in the behavior of managers and leaders? Is a manager always a leader? Is a leader always a manager? Classify your own management/leadership tendencies. Do you believe that you tend to be more of a leader or more of a manager? Why?


Theories of Personality Journal Template argumentative essay helpPSY Theories of Personality
Module Four Journal Template

For your journal, complete this template by replacing the bracketed text with the relevant information. Your responses should each be about 2 to 5 sentences in length.
Analyzing Theory
Describe how humanismdiffersfrom the personality theories you have studied so far.
[Insert text]
Explain the role ofnature and nurturein the humanistic approach.
[Insert text]
Describe the role ofemotional intelligencein the humanistic approach.
[Insert text]
Applying Theory to Society
Explain the role ofsystemic issuesin society, such as a lack of equity, access, or opportunityin the hierarchy of needs.
[Insert text]
The final course in your degree program will challenge you to think about your role as an agent of social change. Explain how the humanistic approach generally, or Maslows hierarchy specifically, relates to your initial thoughts about being anagent of social changein your community. You can think about how humanism influences your approach to systemic issues or the role that being an agent of social change has on your views of self-actualization.
[Insert text]
Locate and summarize one external article that investigateslimitationsof Maslows hierarchy and systemic issues in society.
[Insert text]
Applying Theory to Self
Thinking about the top of Maslows hierarchy, explain whatself-actualizationmeans for you. You can focus your answer as narrowly or holistically to your life experience as you would like. Consider what role school or your career has on your answer. Does success in those areas help you achieve self-actualization? Is it something else?
[Insert text]


Theories Knowledge Program Transcript online essay help: online essay help“Theories Knowledge Check, Part 1” Program Transcript Instructions:
Earn 2 points by matching each focus words to the correct theory on the first attempt. Earn 1 point for any matches that take more than one attempt. There are 20 maximum points possibletry to earn them all.
Role theory
Attachment theory
Psychoanalytical theory
Systems theory
Psychosocial theory
Interaction with environment
Person-in situation
Defense mechanisms
Focus on client story or narrative
Ecological approach
Norms and scripts
Unconscious mental activity
Social positioning
Laureate Education, Inc. 1


Personality Theories and Approaches computer science essay helpPSY Theories of Personality
Project One Milestone Template

To begin your milestone, first select two personality theories from the left column of the following table that you think contrast in meaningful ways. Next, from the right column of the table, select three topics that you will use to contrast your theories. Complete this template by replacing the bracketed text with the relevant information.

Personality Theories and Approaches

Humanistic psychology
Psychoanalytic theory
Neo-Freudian/object relations theory
Trait approach
Biological perspective
A. Scientific nature
B. Nature versus nurture
C. Origin of problems
D. Pathology
E. Free will
F. Environmental influences
G. Internal versus external stimuli

1. Identify whichtwo theories or approachesyou will compare and contrast and explain why you chose them. Your response should be about 2 to 4 sentences.
[Insert text]
2. Describe how your two chosen theoriesdifferon 3 topics. See the details for topics A through G in the assignment guidelines and rubric document. Your response for each topic should be about 3 to 5 sentences.
Topic 1
[Insert text]
Topic 2
[Insert text]
Topic 3
[Insert text]
3. Describe at least onesimilaritybetween your two selected theories. Your response should be about 3 to 5 sentences.
[Insert text]
[Insert text if needed]


Identifying your leadership style essay essay help app: essay help app300 words
identify the style that you think you are, then explain why you believe that is your leadership style. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the style? Next, expand on how to improve upon the areas where there is weakness in your leadership style.


The big five personality Dimensions research essay help: research essay helpPERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY 1991,44
MURRAY R. BARRICK, MICHAEL K. MOUNT Department of Management and Organizations
University of Iowa
This study investigated the relation of the “Big Five” personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
Over the past 25 years, a number of researchers have investigated the validity of personality measures for personnel selection purposes. The overall conclusion from these studies is that the validity of personality as a predictor of job performance is quite low (e.g., Ghiselli, 1973; Guion & Gottier, 1965; Locke & Hulin, 1962; Reilly & Chao, 1982; Schmitt,
Both authors contributed equally to this study. We would like to thank Frank Schmidt, Ralph Alexander, Paul Costa, Mike Judiesch, Wendy Dunn, and Jacob Sines for thoughtful comments about the article and some of the data analyses. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mike Judiesch, Wendy Dunn, Eric Neumann, Val Arnold, and Duane Thompson in categorizing the personality scales.
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Murray R. Barrick, Department of Management and Organizations, College of Business Administration, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242.


Discussion on Personnel Psychology admission essay help
Gooding, Noe, & Kirsch, 1984). However, at the time these studies were conducted, no well-accepted taxonomy existed for classifying personality traits. Consequently, it was not possible to determine whether there were consistent, meaningful relationships between particular personality constructs and performance criteria in different occupations.
In the past 10 years, the views of many personalify psychologists have converged regarding the structure and concepts of personalify. Gener- ally, researchers agree that there are five robust factors of personalify (described below) which can serve as a meaningful taxonomy for classi- fying personalify attributes (Digman, 1990). Our purpose in the present study is to examine the relationship of these five personalify constructs to job performance measures for different occupations, rather than to focus on the overall validify of personalify as previous researchers have done.
Emergence of the 5-Factor Model
Systematic efforts to organize the taxonomy of personalify began shortly after McDougall (1932) wrote that, “Personalify may to advan- tage be broadly analyzed into five distinguishable but separate factors, namely intellect, character, temperament, disposition, and temper…” (p. 15). About 10 years later, Cattell (1943, 1946, 1947, 1948) devel- oped a relatively complex taxonomy of individual differences that con- sisted of 16 primary factors and 8 second-order factors. However, re- peated attempts by researchers to replicate his work were unsuccessful (Fiske, 1949; Tupes, 1957; Tupes & Christal, 1961) and, in each case, researchers found that the 5-factor model accounted for the data quite well. For example, Tupes and Christal (1961) reanalyzed the correlations reported by Cattell and Fiske and found that there was good support for five factors: Surgency, Emotional Stabilify, Agreeableness, Dependabil- ify, and Culture. As it would turn out later, these factors (and those of McDougall 35 years before) were remarkably similar to those generally accepted by researchers today. However, as Digman (1990) points out, the work of Tupes and Christal had only a minor impact because their study was published in an obscure Air Force technical report. The 5- factor model obtained by Fiske (1949) and Tupes and Christal (1961) was corroborated in four subsequent studies (Borgatta, 1964; Hakel, 1974; Norman, 1963; Smith 1967). Borgatta’s findings are noteworthy because he obtained five stable factors across five methods of data gath- ering. Norman’s work is especially significant because his labels (Ex- traversion. Emotional Stabilify, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Culture) are used commonly in the literature and have been referred to, subsequently, as “Norman’s Big Five” or simply as the “Big Five.”

During the past decade, an impressive body of literature has accu- mulated which provides compelling evidence for the robustness of the 5- factor model: across different theoretical frameworks (Goldberg, 1981); using different instruments (e.g., Conley, 1985; Costa & McCrae, 1988; Lorr & Youniss, 1973; McCrae, 1989; McCrae & Costa, 1985, 1987, 1989); in different cultures (e.g.. Bond, Nakazato, & Shiraishi, 1975; Noller, Law, & Comrey, 1987); using ratings obtained from different sources (e.g., Digman & Inouye, 1986; Digman & Takemoto-Chock, 1981; Fiske, 1949; McCrae & Costa, 1987; Norman, 1963; Norman & Goldberg, 1966; Watson, 1989); and with a variety of samples (see Dig- man, 1990, for a more detailed discussion). An important consideration for the field of personnel psychology is that these dimensions are also rel- atively independent of measures of cognitive ability (McCrae & Costa, 1987).
It should be pointed out that some researchers have reservations about the 5-factor model, particularly the imprecise specification of these dimensions (Briggs, 1989; John, 1989; Livneh & Livneh, 1989; Waller & Ben-Porath, 1987). Some researchers suggest that more than five dimensions are needed to encompass the domain of personality. For example, Hogan (1986) advocates six dimensions (Sociability, Ambition, Adjustment, Likability, Prudence, and Intellectance). The principle dif- ference seems to be the splitting of the Extraversion dimension into So- ciability and Ambition.
Interpretations of the “Big Five”
While there is general agreement among researchers concerning the number of factors, there is some disagreement about their precise mean- ing, particularly Norman’s Conscientiousness and Culture factors. Of course, some variation from study to study is to be expected with factors as broad and inclusive as the 5-factor model. As shown below, however, there is a great deal of commonality in the traits that define each factor, even though the name attached to the factor differs.
It is widely agreed that the first dimension is Eysenck’s Extraver- sion/Intraversion. Most frequently this dimension has been called Ex- traversion or Surgency (Botwin & Buss, 1989; Digman & Takemoto- Chock, 1981; Hakel, 1974; Hogan, 1983; Howarth, 1976; John, 1989; Krug & Johns, 1986; McCrae & Costa, 1985; Noller et al., 1987; Nor- man, 1963; Smith, 1967). Traits frequently associated with it include be- ing sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative, and active. As mentioned above, Hogan (1986) interprets this dimension as consisting of two com- ponents. Ambition (initiative, surgency, ambition, and impetuous) and Sociability (sociable, exhibitionist, and expressive).

There is also general agreement about the second dimension. This factor has been most frequently called Emotional Stability, Stability, Emotionality, or Neuroticism (Borgatta, 1964; Conley, 1985; Hakel, 1974; John, 1989; Lorr & Manning, 1978; McCrae & Costa, 1985; Noller et al., 1987; Norman, 1963; Smith, 1967). Common traits associated with this factor include being anxious, depressed, angry, embarrassed, emo- tional, worried, and insecure. These two dimensions (Extraversion and Emotional Stability) represent the “Big Two” described by Eysenck over 40 years ago.
The third dimension has generally been interpreted as Agreeable- ness or Likability (Borgatta, 1964; Conley, 1985; Goldberg, 1981; Hakel, 1974; Hogan, 1983; John, 1989; McCrae & Costa, 1985; Noller et al., 1987; Norman, 1963; Smith, 1967; Tupes & Christal, 1961). Others have labeled it Friendliness (Guilford & Zimmerman, 1949), Social Confor- mity (Fiske, 1949), Compliance versus Hostile Non-Compliance (Dig- man & Thkemoto-Chock, 1981), or Love (Peabody & Goldberg, 1989). Traits associated with this dimension include being courteous, flexible, trusting, good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, soft-hearted, and toler- ant.
The fourth dimension has most frequently been called Conscien- tiousness or Conscience (Botwin & Buss, 1989; Hakel, 1974; John, 1989; McCrae & Costa, 1985; Noller et al., 1987; Norman, 1963;), although it has also been called Conformity or Dependability (Fiske, 1949; Hogan, 1983). Because of its relationship to a variety of educational achieve- ment measures and its association with volition, it has also been called Will to Achieve or Will (Digman, 1989; Smith, 1967; Wiggins, Black- burn, & Hackman, 1969), and Work (Peabody & Goldberg, 1989). As the disparity in labels suggests, there is some disagreement regarding the essence of this dimension. Some writers (Botwin & Buss, 1989; Fiske, 1949; Hogan, 1983; John, 1989; Noller et al., 1987) have suggested that Conscientiousness reflects dependability; that is, being careful, thor- ough, responsible, organized, and planful. Others have suggested that in addition to these traits, it incorporates volitional variables, such as hardworking, achievement-oriented, and persevering. Based on the evi- dence cited by Digman (1990), the preponderance of evidence supports the definition of conscientiousness as including these volitional aspects (Bernstein, Garbin, & McClellan, 1983; Borgatta, 1964; Conley, 1985; Costa & McCrae, 1988; Digman & Inouye, 1986; Digman & Takemoto- Chock, 1981; Howarth, 1976; Krug & Johns, 1986; Lei & Skinner, 1982; Lorr & Manning, 1978; McCrae & Costa, 1985, 1987, 1989; Norman, 1963; Peabody & Goldberg, 1989; Smith, 1967).
The last dimension has been the most difficult to identify. It has been interpreted most frequently as Intellect or Intellectence (Borgatta, 1964;

Digman & Takemoto-Chock, 1981; Hogan, 1983; John, 1989; Peabody and Goldberg, 1989). It has also been called Openness to Experience (McCrae & Costa, 1985) or Culture (Hakel, 1974; Norman, 1963). Dig- man (1990) points out that it is most likely all of these. Itaits commonly associated with this dimension include being imaginative, cultured, curi- ous, original, broad-minded, intelligent, and artistically sensitive.
The emergence of the 5-factor model has important implications for the field of personnel psychology. It illustrates that personality consists of five relatively independent dimensions which provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying individual differences. In any field of science, the availability of such an orderly classification scheme is essential for the communication and accumulation of empirical findings. For purposes of this study, we adopted names and definitions similar to those used by Digman (1990): Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.
Expected Relations Between PersonaUty Dimensions and Job Performance
In the present study, we investigate the validity of the five dimen- sions of personality for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled) and for three types of job per- formance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) using meta-analytic methods. We also investigate the validity of the five personality dimensions for objective versus subjective criteria.
We hypothesize that two of the dimensions of personality. Consci- entiousness and Emotional Stability, will be valid predictors of all job performance criteria for all jobs. Conscientiousness is expected to be related to job performance because it assesses personal characteristics such as persistent, planful, careful, responsible, and hardworking, which are important attributes for accomplishing work tasks in all jobs. There is some evidence that in educational settings there are consistent cor- relations between scores on this dimension and educational achieve- ment (Digman & Takemoto-Chock, 1981; Smith, 1967). Thus, we ex- pect that the validity of this dimension will generalize across all occupa- tional groups and criterion categories. We also expect that the validity of Emotional Stability will generalize across occupations and criterion types. Viewing this dimension from its negative pole, we expect that em- ployees exhibiting neurotic characteristics, such as worry, nervousness, temperamentalness, high-strungness, and self-pity, will tend to be less successful than more emotionally stable individuals in all occupations studied because these traits tend to inhibit rather than facilitate the ac- complishment of work tasks.

We expect that other personality dimensions may be related to job performance, but only for some occupations or some criteria. For ex- ample, in those occupations that involve frequent interaction or cooper- ation with others, we expect that two personality dimensions, Extraver- sion and Agreeableness, will be valid predictors. These two dimensions should be predictive of performance criteria for occupations such as management and sales, but would not be expected to be valid predic- tors for occupations such as production worker or engineer.
In a similar vein, we expect that Openness to Experience will be a valid predictor of one of the performance criteria, training proficiency. This dimension is expected to be related to training proficiency because it assesses personal characteristics such as curious, broadminded, cultured, and intelligent, which are attributes associated with positive attitudes toward learning experiences. We believe that such individuals are more likely to be motivated to learn upon entry into the training program and, consequently, are more likely to benefit from the training.
Finally, we investigated a research question of general interest to per- sonnel psychologists for which we are not testing a specific hypothesis. The question is whether the validity coefficients for the five personality dimensions diflfer for two types of criteria, objective and subjective. A recent meta-analysis by Nathan and Alexander (1988) indicates that, in general, there is no difference between the magnitude of the validities for cognitive ability tests obtained for objective and subjective criteria for clerical jobs. In another study, Schmitt et al. (1984) investigated the va- lidity of personality measures (across dimensions and occupations) for different types of criteria, but no definitive conclusions were apparent from the data. The average validity for the subjective criterion (perfor- mance ratings) was .206. Validities for three of four objective criteria were lower (.121 for turnover, .152 for achievement/grades, and .126 for status change), whereas the validity was higher for wages (.268). Thus, conclusions regarding whether the validities for personality measures are higher for objective, compared to subjective, criteria depend to a large extent on which objective measures are used. Because our study exam- ines personality using a 5-factor model, we are able to assess whether dimensions have differential relationships to various objective and sub- jective criteria.
In summary, the following hypotheses will be tested in this study. Of the five dimensions of personality. Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are expected to be valid predictors of job performance for all jobs and all criteria because Conscientiousness measures those personal characteristics that are important for accomplishing work tasks in all jobs, while Emotional Stability (when viewed from the negative pole) measures those characteristics that may hinder successful performance.

In contrast, Extraversion and Agreeableness are expected to correlate with job performance for two occupations, sales and management, be- cause interpersonal dispositions are likely to be important determinants of success in those occupations. Finally, Openness to Experience is ex- pected to correlate with one of the criterion types, training proficiency, because Openness to Experience appears to assess individuals’ readiness to participate in learning experiences. In addition, we investigated the validity of various objective and subjective criteria for the five personality dimensions.
Literature Review
A literature search was conducted to identify published and unpub- lished criterion-related validity studies of personality for selection pur- poses between 1952 and 1988. Three strategies were used to search the relevant literature. First, a computer search was done of PsycINFO (1967-1988) and Dissertation Abstracts (1952-1988) in order to find all references to personality in occupational selection. Second, a manual search was conducted that consisted of checking the sources cited in the reference section of literature reviews, articles, and books on this topic, as well as personality inventory manuals, Buros Tests in Print (volumes 4- 9,1953-1985), and journals that may have included such articles (includ- ing the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Pro- cesses/Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Journal of Man- agement, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Personality, and Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology). Finally, personality test publishers and over 60 practition- ers known to utilize personalify inventories in selection contexts were contacted by letter, requesting their assistance in sending or locating ad- ditional published or unpublished validation studies.
Overall, these searches yielded 231 criterion-related validify studies, 117 of which were acceptable for inclusion in this analysis. The remain- ing 114 studies were excluded for several reasons: 44 reported results for interest and value inventories only and were excluded because they did not focus on the validity of personality measures; 24 used composite scores or, conversely, extracted specific items from difi erent scales and instruments; 19 reported only significant validity coefficients; 15 used military or laboratory “subjects”; and 12 either were not selection stud- ies or provided insufficient information.

A total of 162 samples were obtained from the 117 studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 1,401 (M = 148.11; SD = 185.79), yielding a total sample of 23,994. Thirty-nine samples were reported in the 1950s, 52 in the 1960s, 33 in the 1970s, and 38 in the 1980s. Fifty samples (31%) were collected from unpublished sources, most of which were unpublished dissertations.
The studies were categorized into five major occupational groupings and three criterion types. The occupational groups were professionals (5% of the samples), which consisted of engineers, architects, attorneys, accountants, teachers, doctors, and ministers; police (13% of the sam- ples); managers (41% of the samples), which ranged from foremen to top executives; sales (17% of the samples); and skilledlsemi-skilled (24% of the samples), which consisted of jobs such as clerical, nurses aides, farmers, flight attendants, medical assistants, orderlies, airline baggage handlers, assemblers, telephone operators, grocery clerks, truck drivers, and production workers.
The three criterion types were fob proficiency (included in 68% of the samples), training proficiency (12% of the samples), and personnel data (33% of the samples). It should be noted that in 21 samples, data were available from two of the three criterion categories, which explains why the total percent of sample for the three criterion types exceeds 100%. Similarly, the total sample size on which these analyses are based will be larger than those for analyses by occupation. Job proficiency measures primarily included performance ratings (approximately 85% of the mea- sures) as well as productivity data; training proficiency measures con- sisted mostly of training performance ratings (approximately 90% of the measures) in addition to productivity data, such as work sample data and time to complete training results; and personnel data included data from employee files, such as salary level, turnover, status change, and tenure.
Key variables of interest in this study were the validity coefficients, sample sizes, range restriction data for those samples, reliability esti- mates for the predictors and criteria, the personality scales (and the in- ventories used), and the types of occupations. A subsample of approx- imately 25% of the studies was selected to assess interrater agreement on the coding of the key variables of interest. Agreement was 95% for these variables and disagreement between coders was resolved by refer- ring back to the original study.
Scales from all the inventories were classified into the five dimensions defined earlier (i.e., Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) or a sixth Miscella- neous dimension. The personality scales were categorized into these di- mensions by six trained raters. Five of these raters had received Ph.D.s in

psychology (three were practicing consulting psychologists with respon- sibilities for individual assessment; the other two were professors of psy- chology and human resources management, respectively, and both had taught personnel selection courses) and the other taught similar courses while completing his Ph.D. in human resources management and was very familiar with the literature on personality. A short training session was provided to the raters to familiarize them with the rating task and examples were provided. The description of the five factors provided to the raters corresponded to those presented by Digman (1990) and as de- scribed above. Raters were provided a list of the personality scales and their definitions for each inventory and were instructed to assign each to the dimension to which it best fit. A sixth category. Miscellaneous, was used in those cases where the scale could not be assigned clearly into one of the five categories. If at least five of the six raters agreed on a dimension, the scale was coded in that dimension. If four of the six raters agreed and the two authors’ ratings (completed independently of the raters) agreed with the raters, the scale was coded into that di- mension. If three or fewer raters agreed, the scale was coded into the Miscellaneous dimension. At least five of six raters agreed in 68% of the cases, four of six raters agreed in 23% of the cases, and three or fewer raters agreed on 9% of the cases. Of the 191 scales, 39 were categorized as representing Emotional Stability; 32 as Extraversion; 31 as Openness to Experience; 29 as Agreeableness; 32 as Conscientiousness; 28 as Mis- cellaneous. (A list of the inventories, their respective scales, and dimen- sional category assigned are available from the first author.) It should be noted that an alternative method for assigning the scales would be to use empirical data, such as factor analyses of inventories or correlations among scales from different inventories. However, we were unable to locate sufficient factor analytic studies or correlational data to allow us to use these approaches because in both cases data was available for only about half of the variables.
To arrive at an overall validity coefficient for each scale from an in- ventory, the following decision rules were applied in situations where more than one validity coefficient was reported from a sample: (a) If an overall criterion was provided, that coefficient was used and (b) when multiple criteria were provided, they were assigned to the appropriate criterion category (job proficiency, training proficiency, or personnel data). If there were multiple measures from a criterion category, the coefficients were averaged. However, because our analyses focused on personality dimensions rather than individual personality scales (from various inventories), the following decision rules were applied to estab- lish the validity coefficient for each personality dimension from a sample: (a) If a personality dimension had only one scale categorized into that

dimension for that sample, the overall validify coefficient from that scale (calculated as previously explained) was used and (b) if multiple scales were available for a dimension, the coefficients from each of these scales from that sample were averaged and the resulting average validify coef- ficient was used in all analyses.
A number of analyses were conducted. The first was an analysis of the validities for the five personalify dimensions for each occupational group (across criterion types). The second was an analysis of personalify dimensions for the three criterion types (across occupations). The final analysis investigated the validify of the dimensions for objective versus subjective criteria (across occupations and criterion fypes).
The meta-analytic procedure adopted in this study used the formu- las available in Hunter and Schmidt (1990)-‘ and corrected the mean and variance of validify coefficients across studies for artifactual variance due to sampling error, range restriction, and attenuation due to measure- ment error. However, because the vast majorify of studies did not report information on range restriction and measurement error, particularly predictor reliabilities, it was necessary to use artifact distributions to es- timate artifactually induced variance on the validify coefficients (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990).
Because reliabilify coefficients for predictors were only rarely pre- sented in the validify studies, the distributions were based upon informa- tion obtained from the inventories’ manuals. The mean of the predictor reliabilify distribution was .76 (SD = .08). Similarly, because informa- tion for the criterion reliabilities was available in less than one-third of the studies, we developed an artifact distribution for criterion reliabili- ties based on data provided by Hunter, Schmidt, and Judiesch (1990) for productivify data (with a mean of .92, SD = .05) and Rothstein (1990) for performance ratings (with a mean of .52, SD = .05). It should be noted, however, that 30 studies included criteria which were categorized as per- sonnel data. For these criteria (e.g., turnover, tenure, accidents, wages, etc.), reliabilify estimates were unknown because no estimates have been provided in the literature. Therefore, the artifact distributions for crite- rion reliabilities did not include reliabilify estimates for these criteria. Thus, for the objective versus subjective analysis, the productivity and performance rating artifact distributions were used in each analysis, re- spectively, for each personalify dimension. For all other analyses, the two criterion distributions were combined (with a mean value of .56, SD = .10). Finally, the artifact distribution for range restriction data was based upon those studies that reported both restricted and unrestricted
^All analyses were conducted using a microcomputer program developed by Frank Schmidt and reported in Hunter and Schmidt, 1990.

Standard deviation data (i.e., from accepted and rejected applicants). The effects on the mean validities due to range restriction were relatively small because the mean range restriction was .94 (SD = .05).
As previously stated, the Schmidt-Hunter non-interactive validity generalization procedure (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990) was applied to the data for assumed (predictors and criteria) and sample-based artifact dis- tributions (range restriction). (These distributions are available from the first author.) However, because the purpose of our study is to enhance theoretical understanding of the five personality constructs, we present fully corrected correlations that correct for unreliability in the predictor as well as the criterion.
Finally, there has been some confusion regarding the use and inter- pretation of confidence and credibility values in meta-analysis (Whitener, 1990). The confidence interval is centered around the sample-size weighted mean effects sizes (r, before being corrected for measurement error or range restriction) and is used to assess the influence of sampling error on the uncorrected estimate. In contrast, the credibility value is centered around the estimated true score correlations (generated from the corrected standard deviation) and is used to assess the influence of moderators. Our purpose in the present study is to understand the true score correlations between the personality dimensions and job perfor- mance criteria for different occupations and to assess the presence of moderators. Therefore, the focus in this study is on p and the corre- sponding credibility values.
Analysis by Occupational Group
The number of correlations upon which the meta-analysis is based is shown in Table 1 for the five personality dimensions, five occupational types, and three criterion types. It can be seen that the frequencies differ substantially from cell to cell. For example, the number of correlations for the job proficiency criterion is generally larger for all personality dimensions and occupations than for the other criterion types. It can also be seen that the number of correlations for the management occupation is greater than for the other occupations. The table also shows that for some cells there are two or fewer correlations for professionals and sales for the training proficiency criterion, and for professionals and police for the personnel data criterion. Consequently, we were unable to

TABLE 1 Call Frequencies of Correlations for Personality Dimensions,
Occupational Groups, and Criterion Types
Occupational group
Job proficiency Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-skilled
Training proficiency Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-skilled
Personnel data Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-skilled
4 10 29 16 16
0 6 9 1 3
0 0
21 5 4
Personality dimensions
Emotional stability
5 12 26 14 15
0 6
10 1 4
0 0
19 4 7
Agree- ableness
7 8
25 11 17
0 6 9 I 4
0 0
13 4 5
Conscien- tiousness
6 12 25 17 16
0 5
10 1 3
0 2
17 3 6
Openness to experience
4 8
19 8
0 5 7 I 1
0 0
11 3 5
analyze the data using the 3-way categorization (personalify dimension by occupational type by criterion fype).
Table 2 presents the results of the meta-analysis for the five person- alify dimensions across the occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled labor). The first six columns of the table contain, respectively, the total sample size, the number of correlation coefficients on which each distribution was based, the un- corrected (i.e., observed) mean validify, the estimated true correlation (p), the estimated true residual standard deviation (SDp), and the lower bound of the 90% credibilify value for each distribution, based on its true correlation and SDp estimates. The true SDp is the square root of the variance that was not attributed to the four artifacts (i.e., sampling error and between-study differences in test unreliabilify, criterion unreliabil- ify, and degree of range restriction), after correcting for those artifacts. The last column in Table 2 reports the percentage of observed variance that was accounted for by the four artifacts.
As shown in Table 2, the correlations for the occupational categories differed across the five personalify dimensions. Consistent with our hy- pothesis, the Conscientiousness dimension was a valid predictor for all occupational groupings. It can be seen that the estimated true score cor- relations are noticeably larger for Conscientiousness compared to the

TABLE 2 Meta-Analysis Results for Personality Dimension-Occupation
Combinations (all Criterion Types Included)
Occupational group
Extraversion Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-Skilled Mean (across occupations)
Emotional stability
Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/ Semi-Skilled Mean (across occupations)
Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-Skilled Mean (across occupations)
Conscientiousness Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-Skilled
Mean (across occupations)
Openness to experience
Professionals Police Managers Sales Skilled/Semi-Skilled Mean (across occupations)
Total N
476 1,496
11,335 2,316 3,888
518 1,697
10,324 2,486 3,694
557 1,437 8,597 2,344 4,585
767 2,045
10,058 2,263 4,588
476 1,364 7,611 1,566 3,219
Number of r’s
4 16 59 22 23
5 18 55 19 26
7 14 47 16 28
6 19 52 21 25
4 13 37 12 16
Obs r
– . 0 5 .05 .11 .09 .01 .08
– . 0 7 .06 .05 .04 .05 .05
– . 0 5 .00 .05
– . 0 1 .01 .03
– . 0 9 .09 .18 .15 .01 .13
– . 1 3 .10 .08 .07 .12 .08
– . 0 8 .00 .08
– . 0 2 .01 .04
0 0
90% C.V
– . 0 3 .09 .01
– . 0 5 – . 1 0 – . 0 1
– . 0 7 .10
– . 0 4 – . 1 8 – . 0 6 – . 0 5
.06 – . 3 1 – . 1 6 – . 0 5
.20 – . 0 3
– . 0 3 .00
– . 1 2 .18
– . 1 5 .13
% Variance accounted
92 127 48 54 72 69
92 138 65 38 50 63
158 121 94 25 37 54
106 40 64
150 67
94 181 37 46 49 59
An unbiased estimate of mean percentage of variance accounted for across meta- analyses, calculated by taking the reciprocal of the average of reciprocals of individual predicted to observed variance ratios (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990).
Other personality dimensions and are remarkably consistent across the five occupational groups (p ranges from .20 to .23).


Discuss thetheoretical perspective extended essay help biology: extended essay help biologySOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
A.Thoroughlydescribe theFocus Conceptidentified in A (cite your sources using APA style)(15pts):
B. Describe theCurrent Event(cite your sources using APA style)(15 pts):
C. Describehow/whythecurrent eventis anexample (represents) of thefocus concept identified in A (25pts):
D. Discuss thetheoretical perspective, described in Lecture one, that bestexplains the issues addressedby this current event assignment (10 pts).
F. Conclusions: Identifypositive and negative consequences,possible solutionsrelevant to this current event (15 pts).
Reference: (10 pts) / Citation Quality (10 pt)


Current Events in Social Psychology writing essay helpCurrent Events in Social Psychology
Current Event Focus Concept:
Name: Date:
The purpose of this assignmentis for the student toshowthat they are a student in aSocial Psychology classwho haslearnedsome information that can be applied to a current issue in society.
The2 Current Event Assignmentsask the student to APPLY information gained through their readings and study within section two, three and four to current events within the community, society, culture or world.
Students shouldNot Just Offer Opinionsbut MUST demonstrate that they have read and understood the chapter and readings. Student MUST therefore,use statements from the text to corroborate, explain, or illustrate their statements.Students should show their knowledge by utilizing course specific vocabulary.
Each assignment should be a minimum of 500 words.
CurrentEventOnemust reflect yourlearningassociated to the concept of Social Perception/Thinking.
CurrentEventTwomust reflect yourlearningassociated to the concept of Social Influence/ Social Behavior.
FILL IN THE Current Events FORM AND SUBMIT THE FORM FOR YOUR GRADE. You will need to fill in the same FORM 2 times to submit Current Event 1 and 2.
For each current event the student will:
A.FIRST: DESCRIBEtheFocus Concept(Social Perception or Social Influence or Social Behavior (interactions) under consideration.Include information from your textthat gives acomplete overviewof the focus concept.Do not just definethe concepts.Show your learning! Cite and reference to the sources of your information.(15 points)
B. THEN: State and thendescribethe current eventusing information obtained from newspapers, magazines, internet sources etc. Be sure to cite and reference your sources. You could even include a Screen Shot if the source is from the internet. (15 points)
C. Discuss HOW your current event is anEXAMPLEof the Focus Concept under consideration. Be specific; support your argument withevidencefrom your reading or research. Cite and reference your sources.(25 points)
D.Identify atheoretical perspectivein Social Psychology, Sociology or Psychology that you feel best explains the main issue addressed by your current event (see Lecture 1, chapter 6, 9, 11. Be sure to identify a theoretical perspective and not a field of study.).Why?Support your answers with evidence from the text or other resource. Cite and reference your sources. (10 points)
E.What conclusions can you draw based on your analysis of this current event? What solutions do you foresee? What impact might this current event have on individuals, communities, society, and/or culture?What positive consequences vs. negative consequences could be associated to this current event?(15 points)
F.References (APA style) (10 points)
G.Quality of citations (10 points)


Components in care of a patient discussion buy essay helpDiscussion 1
In your discussion post discuss various topics related to a cultural,psychological,and spiritual components in care of a patient. Please do not use previous course work. Include evidence base practice- what does the literature tell us we should be doing. What Health promotion would you discuss and advocate for.
Give examples from yourpractice.How have youutilized cultural,psychologicaland spiritual components in your patient’s care. If you are not working in practiceat the moment– look back to your previous clinical experiences.
Use 2 scholarly resources (peer reviewed journal). Please do not ever use the dictionary or websites likeWebMD,theseare not scholarly sources
Word count 500
Correct APA,grammarand spelling.
Discussion 2
A Health promotion topic in greater detail. Discuss how your health promotion topic is influenced by developmental variations such as age.
For example healthy people 2030, addressing tobacco consumption, childhood obesity, stroke awareness – there aremany .You can see the connection between childhood obesity as a developmentalvariation as it occurs in childhood. When you look at smoking what group or groups of people does this affect? Can you see the connection between mental health and smoking? & also older generation of adults smoke?why wouldthis occur? I think about how the older generation of adults did not know all the bad consequences of smoking. Young adults/ children’ today get education to prevent them from smoking. Mychildren’sin middle school had to take a health education course where they learned about smoking and drugs.
2.Address how you will apply the broad learning outcomes / course learning outcomes in your practice. ( These were listed in discussion post one and on your syllabus) .
Please reach out to the professor if you need assistance.
500 word minimum
Use of two peer reviewed articles ( minimum)
correct APA


Examining psychological research admission essay help: admission essay helpCreate a PowerPoint Presentation to illustrate the following questions:
In examining psychological research;What are the strengths and weaknesses of descriptive, experimental, and correlational research?What areInstitutional Review Boards?What are the common ethical guidelines for doing research with people?
PowerPoint Requirements.Include title slide with name and course, include citations and reference slide, insert illustrations as pictures, graphs, and/or videos (optional).Slide count: 6-8 slides. You may use PowerPoint, Keynote or Google Slide (Submit as PDF, if needed).Use This Sample PowerPoint Presentation as a Guide to Complete The Assignment.
Note:References and citations (in-text) are required to be in American Psychological Association (APA) format. Click the following hyperlinks to use theAPA Reference Guide for Assistance,&for assistance.


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder english essay helpAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is a developmental disorder involving behavioral and cognitive aspects of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Despite what many people have been told over the years, it is not due to bad parenting, too much junk food, or certain types of food coloring, and while symptoms may change somewhat, people do not outgrow the disorder. ADHD is a biological disorder that is related to genetics, environmental influences, and variations in brain structure and function.Answer The Following Discussion Questions:
If a student has ADHD, how will their academic performance be impacted with problems as inattentiveness, difficulty focusing, agitation and/or impulsive behavior?How can the student manage or reduce ADHD symptoms?


Professional approaches to assessment english essay help: english essay helpFor your initial post, you will present at least two viewpoints debating professional approaches to assessment used in psychology for your assigned age group. Please see the list below for your assigned age group. In addition to the required reading, research a minimum of one peer-reviewed article from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library on ability testing research at is pertains to your assigned age group.
In your initial post, you must

Briefly compare and discuss at least two theories of intelligence and the most-up-to-date version of two intelligence tests related to those theories.
Analyze challenges related to testing individuals in your assigned age group and describe any special ethical and sociocultural issues which must be considered.
Analyze and provide evidence from research on the validity of the tests you selected that supports or opposed using those specific intelligence tests with your assigned populations.
Present the pros and cons of individual versus group intelligence testing.
Summarize the implications of labelling and mislabeling individuals in your assigned age group as a result of testing and assessment.

Last name begins with

A through E: Preschool-aged children through age 7


Comparing virtual to face-to-face interactions essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writersYou are to gather and analyze conversations comparing virtual to face-to-face interactions.
Begin by creating a brief 5 question opinion survey/interview on a topic of interest. This should include open-ended questions so that the people surveyed can elaborate on their answers. Please be mindful of using open questions in your survey. These are questions that require an explanation / more than a few words. Here are some examples: What are some of the things you like about this class? What are the challenges of going to school while working full time? How is an online class different from a face-to-face class? What types of activities do you enjoy in your class? Describe the consequences of getting behind. Avoid closed questions. These are questions that can be answered with a couple words and offer no explanation. Here are examples: How many classes are you taking this semester? What classes are you taking this semester? When do you have class? Do you think you are going to pass? Did you turn in all your assignments? Are the tests hard? When is the semester over?
Complete the survey/interview with 3 people face-to-face then complete the same survey/interview with 3 people using virtual communication such as email, text messaging, chat room, discussion board, or any other virtual means that you wish to use.
To prepare your essay, think critically about your results. Determine what your thesis is and state it clearly and concisely. It should briefly introduce your topic but more importantly should indicate how virtual interaction compares and contrasts with face-to-face interaction. This will be the first sentence of your essay.
In the body of your essay, you should include your survey-interview questions but it is not necessary to include your participants answers. Focus on the answers to these questions and compare and contrast the 2 sets of information. Were your results what you expected? How were they similar; how were they different? Was it easier to interact virtually or face-to-face? What were the challenges? What were the advantages of meeting face-to-face verses meeting virtually? What were the disadvantages of each way? How did the differences in the following seem to influence the nature of the responses: physical distance, anonymity, richness of communication, visual cues, time? You will want to be very thorough in the body as this is a very large percentage of your grade on the essay.
Your conclusion should summarize how virtual interaction with people compares and contrasts with face-to-face interaction reaffirming your thesis without restating it. This is where you conclude with an overall summary describing your insight into what the findings mean to you and what you learned about yourself in reference to your psychological well-being and the method of communication that proves more effective.
You are to write 500 words / 2 pages. A 50 word leeway will be accepted; otherwise points may be deducted. Use basic APA style guidelines such as 1 margins, 12 point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, and when citing your sources and listing your References


Why men and women act so differently online essay helpAccording to the course materials, if men and women are not naturally opposite, then why do they act so differently so much of the time?
include and bold termssex v. gender, socialization, doing gender, gender rules, and gender policing. Use course materials ONLY (attached). 3-4 pages in length, double-spaced, using 1-inch margins, and 12-point Times New Roman or Arial font. Citations APA.


Role of biology in the gender binary high school essay help: high school essay help
In the last chapter, we reviewed what we know about the role of biology in contributing to the gender binary. After searching our genes, hormones, and brains for the source of our di!erences, we concluded that while men and women may not be biologically iden- tical, were not particularly dimorphic either. This may be because, while there are some biological forces pushing us apart, there are likely othersthe potential evolutionary benefits of similarity, the responsiveness of our bodies to cultural influences, and the inter- sections of our identities, for instancethat bring us closer together.
Weve also conceded that we do act in gendered ways much of the time, leading us to pose the question:
I f m e n a n d w o m e n a r e n t n a t u r a l l y o p p o s i t e , t h e n w h y d o t h e y a c t s o d i f f e r e n t l y s o m u c h o f t h e t i m e ?
Indeed, men and women do seem to be quite di!erent in their choices about how to use their time and e!ort, often in ways that match ste- reotypical expectations. Women, for example, are 3.9 times as likely to major in education as men, while men are 4.3 times more likely to major in engineering.1 Men prefer to play sports for exercise, while women are more likely to do Pilates, yoga, or dance.2 Women are

Chapter 4 p e r f o r m a n c e s68
more likely than men to say that religion is very important to them and participate actively in religious activities.3
Even though we are rather similar, then, we often make divergent choices. These choices apply to an amazing range of activities and are both obvious and subtle. Its not just in careers and activities. We embody gender in little ways, too. Its in how we look at our fingernails, for example (with our hand held out and fingers splayed or with the palm turned toward us and the fin gers curled in), how we hold a cigarette (between the thumb and forefinger or between two forefingers with the palm facing in), or how we hold hands with a partner of the other sex (mens palms are usually pointed backward and womens pointed forward such that her body is placed just slightly behind his as they walk). So, there are many differences between men and women in practice.
In this chapter, we explain such gendered social patterns as a consequence of social interaction, working on, through, and sometimes against individual biological or psychological predispositions. We argue that we learn complex sets of gendered expectations that tell us how to behave as men and women in varying situations. We sometimes act in gendered ways out of habit, but also come to understand that if we fail to do so, others may tease, hassle, or hurt us. We arent simply socialized as children into gendered roles that we
W hen men and women hold hands, who leads and who follows? how do we learn to hold hands right ? gender becomes part of how we inhabit the world, sometimes in the subtlest of ways.

69H O W T O D O G E N D E R
then automatically perform as adults. Instead, the process of acquiring a gen dered sense of self is an active and ongoing one.
None of us, however, simply follows gendered expectations thoughtlessly. We become crafty manipulators. We make exceptions (for ourselves and oth ers), and we apply very different standards depending on the situation and the person. In response, we each develop a way of managing gendered expecta tions that works for us as unique individualssometimes, even, as gender nonconforming ones.
Sometimes its easy to follow the rules and sometimes its incredibly hard. Following rules creates cultural boundaries that are often painful for the peo ple who are on the wrong side of them, by choice or circumstance. Sociologist Michael Kimmel says it beautifully:
For some of us, becoming adult men and women in our society is a smooth and almost effortless drifting into behaviors and attitudes that feel as familiar to us as our skin. And for others of us, becoming masculine or feminine is an interminable torture, a nightmare in which we must brutally suppress some parts of ourselves to please othersor, simply, to survive. For most of us, though, the experience falls somewhere in between.4
The guy who hates football or has a gluten allergy to beer sometimes feels like an outsider. So, too, does the woman who wants to wear a tux to the prom or cant walk in heels. The man whose body is limber and powerful and who loves to dance to classical music may in fact train rigorously to be a ballet dancer, but he pursues these pleasures at the risk of critical assessments from others who question his gender or his sexuality. Likewise, women who are tall and strong and enjoy playing basketball sometimes find that the pleasures of their own bodies can come at a cost to their social life if oth ersjudge them to be unfeminine.
Still, because its easier to obey gender rules than break themand life is challenging enough as it ismany of us behave in gendered ways most of the time. So, we contribute to those gendered patterns that we see around us, sustaining the illusion that the gender binary is natural and inevitable.


Sociologists using the phrase doing gender easy essay help
Sociologists use the phrase doing gender to describe the ways in which we actively obey and break gender rules. Gender rules are instructions for how to appear and behave as a man or a woman. They are, essentially, the social construct of gender restated in the form of an instruction. Such a rule was at the

Chapter 4 p e r f o r m a n c e s70
center of a story told by psychologist Sandra Bem about her fouryearold son, Jeremy, who decided to wear a clip in his hair to preschool one day. Bem recalls:
Several times that day, another little boy insisted that Jeremy must be a girl because only girls wear barrettes. After repeatedly insisting that wearing bar- rettes doesnt matter; being a boy means having a penis and testicles, Jeremy finally pulled down his pants to make his point more convincingly. The other boy was not impressed. He simply said, Everybody has a penis; only girls wear barrettes.5
Jeremys schoolmate stated his objection in the form of a general rule. It wasnt that he didnt like it when boys wore barrettes, or that Jeremy specifically didnt look fetching in a barrette, it was that only girls and no boys under any circum stances should wear one. Jeremys schoolmate articulated a rule for all boys that Jeremy had broken: Only girls wear barrettes.
You could likely brainstorm hundreds of such rules if you tried. They apply to every area of our lives, specifying how we should dress and decorate our bodies and homes, what hobbies and careers we should pursue, with whom we should socialize and how, and much more. Most of us do gender when we get ready in the morning; stand, sit, and walk; choose leisure activities; do our work; curate our personalities; and do routine activities like eating, bathing, driving, and even having sex.
Every day we do thousands of things that signal masculinity or femininity and we do them according to gender rules. When using social media, for exam ple.6 Womens choices tend to reflect the rules that they are supposed to be attractive,social, and sweet. They are more likely than men to try to make them selves appear beautiful or sexy in their pictures and to feature friends and fam ily members. Women also post more pictures overall. Men, in contrast, appear to respond to gender rules that dictate they be active, independent, and anti authority. Their profile pictures often include images of them playing sports, looking tough, and getting into trouble. While women are almost always look ing into the camera, men will sometimes be looking away. Men are also more likely than women to be alone in their pictures or posing with expensive objects. There are gender differences in how men and women react to others online, too. Women are more likely to react and more likely to do so positively, with con gratulations or encouragement. Mens reactions are more likely than womens to be argumentative, insulting, or ironic. These are, of course, only average dif ferences, and the men and women you know may be different, but most people follow the rules much of the time.
Many of us learn a huge variety of gender rules implicitly, gradually absorb ing them as we become increasingly acculturated into our families, communi ties, and societies. Some rules are relatively rigid (e.g., men do not wear eye shadow), while others are more flexible and negotiable (if, in your part of the

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thawb, often with a pinkandwhite head covering. The color pink doesnt have feminine connotations in Arab countries the way it does in the West. And in Belgium, pink isnt for girls, nor is it gender neutral; its for boys. Flowers are another icon of femininity in the West, but certain floral patterns on a kimono clearly signal masculinity in Japan.
What women and men dont wear is also dictated by gender rules. In the United States, its against the rules for women to expose their breasts in public. We take this so seriously that whether women should be allowed to breastfeed in public is still a hot debate. This obsession with hiding womens nipples seems unduly conservative from a European standpoint; in some parts of Europe, it is perfectly acceptable for women to sunbathe topless. Americans might be surprised to hear that Europeans describe Americans as irrationally prudish. Many Americans, as well as Europeans, in turn, condemn the veiling prac tices associated with Islam. Like Europeans judging Americans for covering their breasts, Americans tend to think it is irrationally prudish for women to cover their heads. Only because the idiosyncrasies of our own culture tend to be invisible to us does it seem obvious that women should cover some parts of their bodies but not others.
It often isnt until we read about, travel to, or move to a different country, or otherwise very different cultural milieu, that we encounter rules that are notice ably unfamiliar to us, revealing our own rules as culturally specific. When we do, we become briefly aware of making choices, deciding either to follow or flout these local gender rules, before they again begin to seem normal. For example, one study of Japanese women who went to work at multinational firms abroad found that carrying a briefcase or drinking beer with colleagues was initially alien to their idea of femininity. After becoming more comfortable in their new environment, however, many did not want to be assigned back to Japan, where this would not have been acceptable behavior for a woman.8 We get practice at adapting to new gender rules throughout our lives because the gender rules we encounter are constantly undergoing both subtle and dramatic shifts.
Historical Variation in Gender Rules
While the rules for doing gender often feel timeless, they are, in fact, always changing. Consider the earring.9 In the 1920s, only women of Italian and Span ish descent and sailors pierced their ears. For the women, it was an ethnic practice, similar to the small dot or bindi that Hindu women wear on their fore heads, while sailors wore them in the hope that a gold earring might serve as payment for a proper burial were they to sink, wash ashore, and be found by strangers. An American girl born in the 1930s wouldnt have pierced her ears,

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thawb, often with a pinkandwhite head covering. The color pink doesnt have feminine connotations in Arab countries the way it does in the West. And in Belgium, pink isnt for girls, nor is it gender neutral; its for boys. Flowers are another icon of femininity in the West, but certain floral patterns on a kimono clearly signal masculinity in Japan.
What women and men dont wear is also dictated by gender rules. In the United States, its against the rules for women to expose their breasts in public. We take this so seriously that whether women should be allowed to breastfeed in public is still a hot debate. This obsession with hiding womens nipples seems unduly conservative from a European standpoint; in some parts of Europe, it is perfectly acceptable for women to sunbathe topless. Americans might be surprised to hear that Europeans describe Americans as irrationally prudish. Many Americans, as well as Europeans, in turn, condemn the veiling prac tices associated with Islam. Like Europeans judging Americans for covering their breasts, Americans tend to think it is irrationally prudish for women to cover their heads. Only because the idiosyncrasies of our own culture tend to be invisible to us does it seem obvious that women should cover some parts of their bodies but not others.
It often isnt until we read about, travel to, or move to a different country, or otherwise very different cultural milieu, that we encounter rules that are notice ably unfamiliar to us, revealing our own rules as culturally specific. When we do, we become briefly aware of making choices, deciding either to follow or flout these local gender rules, before they again begin to seem normal. For example, one study of Japanese women who went to work at multinational firms abroad found that carrying a briefcase or drinking beer with colleagues was initially alien to their idea of femininity. After becoming more comfortable in their new environment, however, many did not want to be assigned back to Japan, where this would not have been acceptable behavior for a woman.8 We get practice at adapting to new gender rules throughout our lives because the gender rules we encounter are constantly undergoing both subtle and dramatic shifts.