Get help from the best in academic writing.

Narcan Training And Relationship To Public Health History Essay Help


Opioid overdoses caused by heroin, oxycodone, and Vicodin can be reversed using naloxone, which is not a prohibited substance and does not pose a risk of misuse. naloxone is now available via prescription in 47 states and the District of Columbia as of January 2017 for persons who may encounter someone who has overdosed (i.e., a third party prescription) or on standing order from their health care practitioner. (Kahn, 2022) Additional ways for states and municipalities to make naloxone more widely available to drug users and the people who care about them include implementing programs to train first responders in administering the drug, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), firefighter/police department personnel, and others.
Fighting the present drug pandemic will take years of dedicated effort. Six hundred thousand people have an OUD from heroin and 2 million from prescription opioids. Whatever efforts are taken, these figures are expected to rise. Surprisingly, a third of those treated with heroin for OUD died from a heroin overdose or other OUD-related issues. Even if the government greatly increased therapeutic access, death rates would continue to rise. Reducing new cases of prescription opioid-induced OUD and reducing opioid addiction will involve consistent and targeted. What can be done to avoid iatrogenic addiction, overdose, and death? This chapter examines opioid use, OUD, and mortality. Evidence from policies adopted at the jurisdictional level (usually a state or nation) differs from clinical therapies targeting individual patients and encouraging prescribers to use opioids responsibly and educate the public about the hazards of opioid misuse.
It is possible to recognize, treat and manage substance use disorders effectively. The best method to treat a substance abuse issue is to intervene early. Because of this awareness, health care practitioners are screening for substance abuse and acting early on when necessary. Today’s treatment options include drugs, counseling, and other forms of assistance. These services have not been extensively implemented because of a lack of financing, training, and staffing. 5. Attention should be paid to substance abuse disorders and physical or mental health issues. About 10% of those with a substance use disorder receive any form of specialized treatment. With little or no primary or general health care involvement, a large portion of treatment is in specialized substance use disorder programs (Drainoni, 2022). However, a change is taking place to integrate early intervention and treatment services into the mainstream of health care delivery.
Methods employed in the fight against disease (this may include actions to improve health through changing the impact of social and economic determinants on health; the provision of information on behavioral and medical health risks (Williams-Hall, 2022)alongside consultation and measures to decrease them at the personal and community level; nutritional and food supplementation; oral and dental hygiene education; and clinical preventive services such as immunization and vaccination of children, adults and the elderly, as well as vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to a communicable disease).

Early discovery of health problems as a result of secondary prevention leads to better health outcomes (this comprises activities such as evidence-based screening programs for early detection of diseases or prevention of congenital malformations; and preventive drug therapies of proven effectiveness when administered early stage of the disease). Primary prevention must always come first if secondary prevention is to be effective. (James, 2022) Patients may be put at risk if abnormalities are not swiftly recognized or treated by other healthcare practitioners unaware of them. A well-functioning primary health care system with a registered patient population is essential for implementing effective population screening programs.
The goal of secondary prevention is to lessen the harm that has already been done due to an existing disease or injury. As quickly as feasible, this is done to halt or limit its progression, encourage personal measures to prevent reinjury or recurrence, and create programs to return people to their former health and function. (Hoskote, 2022)Regular physical examinations and screening tests for early disease detection are two examples of this (e.g., mammograms to detect breast cancer). Aspirin at a modest dose taken every day, together with a healthy diet and regular exercise, can help prevent another heart attack or stroke. Workers who have been injured or unwell can return to their occupations with appropriate work modifications.

Kahn, L. S., Wozniak, M., Vest, B. M., & Moore, C. (2022). Narcan encounters: overdose and naloxone rescue experiences among people who use opioids. Substance Abuse, 43(1), 113-126.
Drainoni, M. L., Knudsen, H. K., Adams, K., Andrews-Higgins, S. A., Auritt, V., Back, S., … & McAlearney, A. S. (2022). Before an intensive community-level intervention, community coalition and key stakeholder perceptions of the community opioid epidemic. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 108731.
Williams-Hall, S. L. (2022). Development and Evaluation of a Nurse-Directed Opioid Education Discharge Process to Bridge the GAP to Outpatient Services (Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University (Delaware)).
James, C. (2022). Moral Distress in the Care of People Living with Moderate to Advanced Dementia: A Narrative Exploration of Family Carers Experience of Home-Based Care Provision towards the End of Life (Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University).
Hoskote, A. R., Croce, E., & Johnson, K. E. (2022). The Evolution of the Role of US School Nurses in Adolescent Mental Health at the Individual, Community, and Systems Level: An Integrative Review. The Journal of School Nursing, 10598405211068120.

How Cyber Security Concerns Amidst Covid 19 Pandemic history assignment help online: history assignment help online


Bhatt et al. (2022, pp.1-16) conclude that the increasing prevalence of the viral coronavirus (COVID-19) has compelled organizations to reconsider their data collection, use, and release methods to mitigate the outbreak’s effect on organizations and businesses. The pressing urge to control and combat the coronavirus’s consequences needs large-scale data collection. On the contrary, data collection and storage seem to endanger persons’ privacy. However, they assist in making informed choices that are critical for COVID-19 prevention. Information security and personal information privacy issues are being raised due to the pandemic response.
Statement of the problem
Governments reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic by instituting biosurveillance, censorship, and propaganda measures that could significantly impact privacy. Individuals’ actions, communications, and health information have lately been regulated by laws governing telecommunications, camera footage, transit reservations, financial data, and social networks. Another important argument advanced in this study is that the epidemic has been exploited as a justification for implementing additional broad monitoring techniques without people’s permission. Cybersecurity during the coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant concern, given the growing number of cyber-threats and security incidents impacting vulnerable persons and systems globally. COVID19 introduced new cybersecurity concerns. Working and studying from home due to COVID-19 boosts Internet use, encourages more consumers to spend substantial time online, and raises the likelihood of cybercrime. Phishing emails, fake websites, ransomware, rogue domains, distributed denial-of-service attacks, business email penetration, and poor social media communication are fatal cybersecurity threats. Information technology’s risk and resilience have been emphasized as a defensive response to COVID 19 privacy issues (Pranggono and Arabo,2020, p.247).
Objectives of the study
To identify and analyze students’ cyber risk and threats during working or remote learning in this pandemic period.
The potential digital privacy risk or issues amid COVID 19 outbreak.
Analyze the effect of cybercrime on the global economy and sectors such as online education security while the whole globe fights and attempts to contain the spread of the Virus.
To ascertain how the government and companies react to cyber-threats during the COVID 19 epidemic.
Theoretical framework
Practice theory is a widely used analytical method for understanding modern organizations, which are widely recognized to be complex, dynamic, dispersed, and transitory. The practice has enhanced risk management, policy creation, and information security training. These results suggest that although workers may not always follow corporate policies, appropriate information security measures are still important. When information security laws and business goals collide, individuals must devise novel ways to achieve business goals without jeopardizing information security.
COVID 19 was officially declared an epidemic in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, but ever since, scholars, researchers, and other writers have written and published information on the issue. As the COVID-19 epidemic spreads, there is an increasing requirement for fast and reliable health data. Clinicians demand health information to map diseases, pharmaceutical businesses depend on data to segment the market, and scientific institutions focus on clinical examination of vaccination trials using health statistics information. These monitoring, preventive, and response duties define the cybersecurity element of health information management in the COVID-19 era and far beyond, and they are highly dependent on the classification of health information according to its value, privacy susceptibility, and significance to life (Bozkurt et al.,2020, pp.1-126).
Cybersecurity crimes and risks during Coronavirus Disease-2019
According to Weil and Murugesan (2020, pp.4-10), they imply that Data exploitation of privacy data, discrimination against infected people, limiting information and technology access, unnecessary regulations, and regulations that don’t anticipate the advances in digital collection seen during the COVID 19 crisis are all potential threats to privacy rights that have been identified in this literature.
When teachers and students are not in that physical location, such as a classroom, remote learning, also known as virtual learning, is used. Online learning and the inclusion of technology into the educational environment became more popular among academics before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Everyone’s adjustment to online learning was hastened by the fact that they were forced to live apart from one another. Students’ preparation, infrastructural support, and student accessibility were all evaluated by researchers to determine how COVID-19 will affect higher education. They also examined opinions against online learning in universities and colleges. However, even though our research explores parents’ viewpoints, our focus is on their correlation with their children and their comprehension of their activities in a virtual learning environment, rather than the influence that this distant learning experience has on parents. It is also important to look at parents, educators, and caregivers’ opinions in this study (Ali,2020, p.20).
A literature review facilitated the formulation of research questions, the establishment of inclusions and exclusions, and the analysis, formulating, and dissemination of research findings. The literature study is consistent in locating and recovering worldwide evidence about cybercrime perpetrated during the COVID 19 pandemic. The review of relevant literature was selected due to the explanatory character of the key research issues (Tazi et al.,2021, pp. 1-5).
A survey was utilized to assess parents’, educators’, and caregivers’ perceptions of online education’s privacy and security. The following research questions (RQs) were addressed:
RQ1: How do instructors, parents, and caregivers see cybersecurity and privacy in virtual learning for children in their care?
RQ2: What techniques or approaches are utilized on the user side of virtual learning, involving parents, instructors, and caretakers, to ensure privacy and security?
RQ3: How can adults responsible for students’ future communicate these principles to students in online education?
Participants were recruited using Google forms, which allowed for collecting responses from 300 participants. Participants indicated whether they were an educator (professor, lecturer, or teaching assistant), a parent, or a caregiver during the online survey. The teaching assistant position was added to the usual teaching responsibilities since these persons may have insight into and influence over the technologies, techniques, and communication used in cybersecurity education.
The caregiver’s classification was established to prevent eliminating other caregivers who perform a similar function and are heavily involved in online student learning. Similarly, each individual was asked to mention the student’s age group in their care, up to a maximum of three age/groups of children. This challenge was used to see if there was a difference in the variables and behavior in cyberspace and online safety among students of different ages.
We performed two pilot surveys throughout the preparation of this survey, on two different dates and with two distinct populations. Eighteen individuals participated in the first pilot survey and offered preliminary comments through the Zoom platform. The second pilot research surveyed ten respondents. The pilot research found the projected period to be ten minutes. Following the exclusion of responses that did not fulfill the criteria, the final sample data comprised 300 persons from all three groups (Parents, Educators, and Other Caregivers). Although the initial limits for these subcategories were set at 100 due to a person’s propensity to fulfill many tasks, the real figures were 150 Parents, 72 Educators, and 78 Caregivers.
Survey Themes
The survey includes closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires to collect information about the respondents’ specific and general opinions. It’s crucial to keep in mind that all open-ended questions were self-selected by Participants. The research aimed to reach out to parents, educators, and other caregivers who may have children enrolled in distance education. Participants’ statistics, including age and gender, where Ed denotes educators, Aug denotes ‘other Caregiver,’ Cg denotes caregiver, and Pt denotes parents.
Attributes Ed Ed & Aug Aug Pt Pt & Ed All Pt & Cg
18-24 5(15%) 0(0%) 9(16%) 3(3%) 2(5%) 8(14%) 2(11%)
25-30 12(36%) 9(36%) 24(43%) 35(44%) 15(44%) 16(28%) 2(11%)
31-40 9(27%) 13(52%) 13(23%) 25(31%) 8(23%) 24(42%) 7(41%)
41-50 5(15%) 2(8%) 8(14%) 12(15%) 5(14%) 7(12%) 4(23%)
51-60 1(3%) 0 1(1%) 3(3%) 2(5%) 1(1%) 2(11%)
61-70 1(3%) 1(4%) 0 1(1%) 2(5%) 1(1%) 0
Female 20(60%) 15(60%) 39(70%) 55(65%) 14(41%) 30(52%) 8(47%)
Male 13(40%) 10(40%) 16(30%) 29(35%) 20(59%) 27(48%) 9(53%)

According to the International Telecommunication Union’s 2020 Regulations for Parents and Educators, “it is crucial to publicly describe the threats that young people experience while online, to educate them on how to detect risk, and to prevent or deal with liability that does happen, without over-alarming or overstating the hazards.”. Multiple-choice questions and open-ended questionnaires allow the researcher to collect data about children’s awareness of internet security and privacy in virtual learning as motivated by this focus on open, safe, and enabling communication channels among children, parents, and educators.

Available tools:
According to a study on cybersecurity safety awareness among teachers and parents, people are often upset because technology advances rapidly, and their efforts sometimes seem insufficient. These results aid in formulating questions about the resources accessible to parents, teachers, and educators addressing cybersecurity and student privacy, particularly during the COVID 19 epidemic.
With a survey as the primary data collecting instrument for this study, most participants were between the ages of 25 and 40, with the gender disparity skewed more towards female representation, with females accounting for 60.3 percent of participants and males accounting for males 15. (39. 7 percent). The great majority of participants were working full-time, and the majority were enrolled in post-secondary education; yet, all participants were dedicated to responding to the survey questions.
As specified in the study questions, 213 respondents responded to a question on their view of the significance of cybersecurity and cyber safety and the privacy issues that have surfaced as a result of the COVID 19 epidemic. All participants agreed that the matter was critical and required quick attention. The major privacy problems associated with online learning are gathering and using student information by third-party academic software vendors, malware or ransom attacks, illegal material, and the suitability of on-camera interaction among students and professors. All respondents acknowledged that the talks should proceed expeditiously in light of the rising emphasis on online education and the growth of video conferencing technologies and other virtual learning platforms during the epidemic.
It has been determined that the majority of institutions of learning that embrace remote online education should adhere to the Family education rights and privacy act and the children’s privacy protection act, which establishes privacy safeguards for students’ educational data.
Additionally, another interesting response offered by instructors in response to cybersecurity concerns during the pandemic is the threat and security of institution networks, where ransomware attacks on schools occurred at a high rate during the 2019 academic year, aligning with findings from the Joint Cybersecurity Advisory Agency(Weil and Murugeran,2020, pp.1-10).
Open-ended questions were utilized to gather additional information on features of distance education not specifically addressed in the closed-ended questions. Parents, teachers, and other caregivers received 18 open-ended questions and were encouraged to share their experiences and concerns regarding cybersecurity and cyber safety related to the children in their care.
Private Information:
Parents, teachers, and caregivers were concerned that malicious actackers might get personal information about their children via the internet activity. Several comments focused on the students’ online privacy. Images, locations, and phone numbers were used to describe personal data. They include identifiable or confidential personal details that a malicious actor may use to harm the victim, whether a child or an adult. Never provide personal information, such as your address or phone number. Parents and caregivers are concerned about malicious actors gaining this data. In addition to privacy concerns, several parents or caregivers voiced concerns about applications collecting personal data such video conferencing tools.

Technology as a challenge
Many teachers explored the logistical obstacles to developing an efficient remote learning experience. This information was not captured in previous questions on the student’s device accessibility. The Personal Computer was the most frequent device type, followed by the Personal Tablet and Personal Smartphone. But this does not address all of the issues with having a device. Internet and network connectivity, where these circumstances, may be factors. This underscores the difficulty of student and instructor access to infrastructure and the devices and software tools typically employed. Difficulties with network connections constitute a severe cybersecurity risk, enabling DDoS attacks (Pranggono and Arabo,2020, p.247).
Ethical considerations
Tazi et al. (2021, pp.1-5) emphasize that data privacy is a top priority due to the ethical issues surrounding cybercrime that arose as a result of the COVID 19 pandemic. Social isolation has compelled people to rely on the internet, and the requirement for students to study remotely has compelled them to embrace online education.
The majority of ethical concerns raised by this trend stem from malicious cyberspace actors who have been trying to capitalize on vulnerabilities to their advantage. Another ethical dilemma concerns cybersecurity measures, the complexities of enhanced or inadequate security measures, and the inescapable trade-off between safeguarding one’s privacy and assisting government agencies in combating the coronavirus. Another ethical consideration is ransomware, which infects a computer, encrypts the user’s data, and demands a ransom for the system to work again. Cybercriminals may gain access to and potentially compromise student data during virtual classroom sessions or use it as ransom.

Online education has grown to unprecedented heights due to the limits imposed by a continuous pandemic. While online education has improved academic achievement, it has also generated severe issues about privacy and cybersecurity. The research presents light on cybersecurity and cyber safety inside an online learning environment from the viewpoint of the people who train and engage children throughout the process. We examined popular opinions on cybersecurity and privacy by deriving findings from data acquired through our survey-based research approach. The topic was important to all three groups of participants: parents, educators, and caregivers. Because everything has moved to the internet domain as the new normal due to the COVID 19 pandemic, privacy and cybersecurity issues have increased.






Ali, W., 2020. Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher education studies, 10(3), pp.16-25.
Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., Lambert, S., Al-Freih, M., Pete, J., Olcott Jr, D. and Rodes, V., 2020. A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), pp.1-126.
Pranggono, B. and Arabo, A., 2021. COVID19 pandemic cybersecurity issues. Internet Technology Letters, 4(2), p.e247.
Weil, T. and Murugesan, S., 2020. IT risk and resilienceCybersecurity response to COVID-19. IT professional, 22(3), pp.4-10.
Bhatt, P., Vemprala, N., Valecha, R., Hariharan, G. and Rao, H.R., 2022. User Privacy, Surveillance, and Public Health during COVID-19An Examination of Twitterverse. Information Systems Frontiers, pp.1-16.
Tazi, F., Shrestha, S., Norton, D., Walsh, K. and Das, S., 2021, November. Parents, Educators, & Caregivers Cybersecurity & Privacy Concerns for Remote Learning During COVID-19. In CHI Greece 2021: 1st International Conference of the ACM Greek SIGCHI Chapter (pp. 1-5).





Challenges affects cultural competence in community history assignment help company

Apart from being value-driven, the social policy also addresses how a society should be driven. In the past, most government policies challenges are intractable. Policies applicable in the past are cultural competence, Evidence, and taking symbols seriously. Social workers can identify their affiliations to the culture and recognition. In current government policies, social justice, service, integrity, and dignity worth of the person are addressed in social works of service and are set by the employer as an ideal for every social worker to aspire to.
Cultural competence is a vast literature value that shapes past government policies whereby social workers exercise the whole premise of democracy that employers derive the right to rule freely chosen by the social workers. A rule is translated into government, and the employer’s actions shall depend on the citizens based on their culture. Evidence is another value exercise in the social workplace. Social workers do not act responsibly and professionally to promote the ethical practices they are affiliated with (Perry and Szalavitz, 2017). However, in the current policy, social work is rooted in values such as social justice, wherein every social worker carries social challenges on behalf of vulnerable individuals or groups. The main aim of social workers is to eradicate poverty, unemployment, and discrimination. They are pursuing a social change to promote sensitivity and understanding of oppression and ethnic diversity.
Further, recognizing the importance of human relationship is another value social workers considers (Lundahl,2014). Social workers know that relationship among them is significant for the change. They engage workers to be friends, thus strengthening relations to promote and maintain social groups.
As a social worker, the ideal values that I aspire to are honesty and respect for every individual. It aligns with this profession’s values since its mission is to practice consistently to ensure workers act in a trustworthy manner. Furthermore, work also encourages social workers to treat their fellow with respect and inherent way. These values will not interfere with the performance of the workplace, but rather it will continuously strive to increase knowledge, thus enhancing professional expertise in the workplace.










Lundahl, B. W., & Hull, G. (2014). Applied Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Pearson Education (US).
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog (3rd Edition). Hachette.


Data Analysis of Psychological Experiment Results advanced higher history essay help: advanced higher history essay help

The central claim concerning the impact of physical activities and sports on mental health is that the integration of these activities into the treatment and prevention plan for psychological disorders can achieve better results with time than medications. Physical activities are presumed to have a profound positive impact on stress, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and other psychological disorders. Individuals who engage in physical exercise not only benefit from improved physical health but also from improved memory, mood, better sleep, and general psychological health. This indicates that physical activities have an indisputable potential to enhance the physical and mental health of an individual.
For instance, depression, which has become a health burden, can be resolved with physical exercise and sporting activities. Mental disorders are treated using a combination of medications and psychotherapy. However, these interventions do not always yield the anticipated results. The limitations of pharmacotherapy have, thus, necessitated the search for more potent and less risky interventions. Research has led to the identification of exercise as one of the alternative therapies for mental health disorders. Only 65% of young people have access to psychotherapy and other mental healthcare services, and over 70% of this population has access to physical and sporting activities. Distressed people should, therefore, be encouraged to take part in simple physical activities to improve their mental health. The research noted that adults with chronic mental conditions need to take part in physical activities more regularly as compared to healthy people to enable them to cope with the distress associated with their health.
Research on the impact of sports on the mental health and well-being of prisoners revealed that physical activities enabled many people to deal effectively with psychologically distressing issues. Sporting activities were shown to increase social interactions between prisoners, consequently allowing them to forget their prison problems temporarily. Physical activities are not only enjoyable but also tend to increase the confidence of a person, thus making it easy to regain internal self-control.
Harris M. A. . The relationship between physical inactivity and mental well-being: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention. Health Psychology Open, 5(1), 1
Jetzke, M., & Mutz, M. (2019). Sport for pleasure, fitness, medals, or slenderness? Differential effects of sports activities on well-being. Applied Research in Quality of Life 1-16
Liddle, S. K., Deane, F. P., & Vella, S. A. (2017). Addressing mental health through sport: a review of sporting organizations’ websites. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 11(2), 93- 103



Research methods in any domain are not an independent entity but rather embedded in the domain-related network of methodological assumptions, historical traditions, and research themes. This perspective is reflected in the organization of this report. Specifically, we start by clarifying key terminologies and by expressing our methodological position in the domain of sport and exercise psychology. Following this stage, we briefly overview the domains history, and we name research themes that facilitate specific research questions. After laying out the background, we introduce research methods selected to best represent the domains intellectual properties. It is beyond the chapters scope and our intention to offer a complete account of research methods in sport and exercise this report, we use the experimental approach to get our findings
Experimental Approach
The first category of research method in sport and exercise psychology is the experimental approach. When using this method, the research purpose is to make inferences. That is, researchers conduct experiments to answer questions like whether X (i.e., independent variable) causes Y (i.e., dependent variable). Knowing whether a change in one variable causes a change in another variable is considered a challenge in science. Testing hypotheses via an experimental approach is a viable solution to challenges such as causal inference. An experiment holds features, such as control group and random allocation, so that, if Y demonstrates a measurable effect, X is a more plausible cause than all other covariates. The interest in studying causal relationships in sport and exercise psychology is not different than that of other scientific domains. However, representative method features exist in the domain when answering domain-specific questions.
Study of mental health level of college students, On single and Double sports
Material: The tested group consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates from Ouargla University, Algeria; 80 students athletes from the Institute of Physical Education and Sports, and 80 students-non-athletes from the Department of Psychology, English, and Mathematics. In the study, we used the mental health scale, adapted by Diab to the Arab version scale, formed from five dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self-rating, and aspects of natural deficiencies). Results: The findings indicated that university students have a high level of mental health. And the mean of the responses of the students-athletes group by mental health scale reached (M = 32.40), with a standard deviation (STD =5.83), while the mean of the responses of the students-none athletes group by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47), with standard deviation (STD=7.88). T-value required to know the significance of differences between means of students athletes and students-non athletes has reached (T=4.51), (DF=185, p < 0.01), So there are significant statistical differences between student-athletes and non-athletes in their responses to mental health scale in favor of the student-athletes.
Although it has been known for some time that physical exercises are good for physical health, it has been within the past decade that it has become commonplace to read in magazines and health newsletters that exercises can also be valuable in promoting sound psychological health. This optimistic appraisal has attracted a great deal of attention from the public. However, for the most part, the scientific community has been much more cautious in offering such unsubstantiated endorsements. Until recent time, assessment of the research literature on psychological outcomes associated with exercise, such as reduced anxiety and depression, current state have been equivocal.
People have a regular tendency to do Physical activity because it gives them an enormous sense of well-being. They feel more energetic throughout the day, sleep better at night, have a sharper memory, and feel more relaxed and positive about themselves and their lives. And it’s also powerful medicine for many common mental health challenges. Most previous research does conclude that sports, physical activity, and exercises do have beneficial effects on general mental health. Within the higher education environment, it is surprising that little research has explored the potential benefits of sports in a cohort of individuals who are at risk of mental health problems, i.e., university students. Of the few studies that have been conducted in 2015 referred that viewing the site resulted in enhanced mental health referral knowledge and efficacy relative to a control group. Results suggest that tailored online programming can affect outcomes for student-athletes across geographic regions and resource availability levels. Tyson, 2001 conducted a study on physical activity and mental health in the student population. Results indicated that significant differences were observed between the low, medium, and high exercise groups on the mental health scales, indicating better mental health for those who engaged in more intensive exercises practicing. Whilst Ahmadi 2002 reported that engaging in bodybuilding and swimming reduced scores on the Beck Depression Inventory in female students, other searchers found that students engaging in dynamic Taekwondo also reported lower levels of depression than in the control group.

Conclusion: Sports are beneficial with respect to mental health among university students and emphasize the importance of the mental health of university students through its integration into various recreational and competitive activities. Future qualitative research covering multi-variable tests on mental health and other psychological characteristics could be performed in the sports area.


Results and data analysis
The data of the first group are the data before the experiment, and the data of the second group to the fifth group are the data during the experiment. The expected test results are that No. 1-10 is the blank group, and the data has no significant change; No. 11-20 is the single person exercise group, the data is reduced, indicating that it is effective; No. 21-30 is the double person exercise group, the data is significantly reduced, indicating that it is more effective than the second group.
Experimental significance: in the case that the epidemic situation affects the normal physical education courses of college students, by comparing the changes of bad emotions of the two groups of subjects before and after the same project and different numbers of sports for a period of time, this paper reflects the impact of single and double sports on College Students’ bad emotions.
Subjects: college students aged 18-22 who are not majoring in physical education and have no physical and psychological diseases
Experimental design: pre-survey the subjects, score the current stress status of the patients with the PSTR psychological stress test scale and evaluate the stress level of the patients (there is no study on the difference between patients’ stress causes and the causes of patients’ stress do not exist as relevant influencing factors). Select 30 college students with a score of more than 70, 15 men and 15 women.
During the two-month experiment, 30 subjects were required not to carry out other emotional interventions, including music therapy, manual acupuncture therapy, relaxation therapy, traditional Chinese medicine regulation, etc. they were divided into blank group, single jogging group, and double jogging group, with five males and five females in each group. The blank group did not perform any exercise. The single jogging group shall jog 3-4 times a week for 20-30 minutes each time, and the exercise intensity shall be 40% – 60% of the maximum function of the individual body; that is, the heart rate shall be maintained at 40% – 60% of the maximum heart rate during exercise. The double jogging group shall jog 3-4 times a week for 20-30 minutes each time, and the exercise intensity shall be 40% – 60% of the maximum function of the individual body; that is, the heart rate shall be maintained at 40% – 60% of the maximum heart rate during exercise.
In the two-month experiment, the subjects were tested for PSTR psychological stress every two weeks, and a total of 5 groups of data were obtained. Finally, the experimental data were statistically analyzed.

Step by step how we use SPSS in this report
1. Defining the variables. In order to enter data using SPSS, you need to have some variables. These are the columns of the spreadsheet when using “Data View,” and each one will contain data that is all in the same format.
2. We created a multiple choice variable. When defining a variable that has two or more set possibilities, you can set labels for the values. For example, if one of your variables is whether or not an employee is active, your only two options for that variable might be active and former.
3. In the first case, we Click the empty cell directly underneath the leftmost column. Enter in the value that matches the variable type into the cell.
4. Continue filling out variables; move to the next empty cell to the right and fill out the appropriate value. We filled one complete record at a time.
5. We finished filling out our cases. After each case is finished, we move down to the next row and enter the next. Make sure each case has an entry for every variable.
6. Next, we Manipulate your data. Once we are done entering all of the data. We then used the tools built-in to SPSS to start manipulating your data. Such as;
Create a frequency table
Run a regression analysis
Run an analysis of variance
Create a scatter plot graph


Experimental results: Exercise can effectively improve the psychological pressure of college students during the epidemic, and the improvement effect of double exercise is more obvious than single exercise.

Crone D. Walking back to health: A qualitative investigation into service users experiences of a walking project. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2007;28(2): 167183
Crone D, Smith A, & Gough B. I feel totally alive, totally happy and totally at one: A psycho-social explanation of the physical activity and mental health relationship from the experiences of participants on exercise referral schemes. Health Education Research, 2005; 20(5): 600611.
Diab AAM. Social Support as a Mediating Factor between Stressful Events and Mental Health for Palestinian Adolescents. Unpublished master thesis. The psychology Department University of Gaza. Palestine; 2006.
Fogarty M, & Happell B. Exploring the benefits of an exercise program for people with schizophrenia: A qualitative study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2005; 26, 341351.
Ganellen R. Hardiness and Social Support as Moderators of the Effect of Life Stress. Journal of Personality and Psychology, 1984;47(1): 156-163.
Laforge RG, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Levesque DA, & McHorney CA. Stage of Exercise and health-related quality of life. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2002;28(4): 349360.
Landers MD, & Arent MS. physical activity and mental health. In: RN Singer, HA Hausenblas and CM Janelle. (Ed). Handbook of sport psychology.
John Wiley and Sons: New York;2001. Larry AT. Muscular Strength and Mental Health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983;45(6): 1355- 1360.
Samin ZB. Personal compatibility and its relationship of exercise among university students. Journal of College of Basic Education, 2012;74:100-115.
Boskovic N. Alterations in selected measures of mood with a single bout of dynamic Taekwondo exercise in college-age students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2001; 92(3): 10311038.

Egyptian Infitah Policy Term Paper history essay help

Egyptian Infitah Policy (1973, Sadat)


Anwar Sadats Infitah policy was a reversal of Nassers policies. Nasser had presided over a command economy in which market economics were centralized and controlled by the government, with little to no private sector. Egypt had been influenced by the Soviet Union under Nasser, and its economic policies reflected the characteristics of the Communist state with its immense public sector and entrenched bureaucracy (Osman, 2010). Sadat wanted to shift away from the Soviet Union and develop a better relationship with the US. Sadat thus moved away from war with Israel to adopt a spirit of openness with its Middle East neighbor. In this manner, Sadat sought to open the private sector in Egypt, establish ties with the West, and cultivate a more diplomatic demeanor in the Middle East. However, Infitah did not go very far in the way of establishing a free market with an open economy. By the 1980s, it was vastly dependent on foreign assistance just to sustain itselfa stark reversal from the 1960s when Egypt imported only 7% of its food from abroad (Weinbaum, 1985). In 1981, the year of Sadats assassination, Egypt imports exceeded exports by more than $3 billion. Thus, Infitah was not an economic success.

The Policy

Infitah of 1973 under Sadat was an Open Door policy that meant to breathe fresh life into Egypt. Sadats political objectives were unattainable through military means, so a socio-economic policy of openness was conceived in order to bring in foreign investment and assistance, particularly from the US (Weinbaum, 1985). Infitah was a realigning of Egypts position in the Middle Eastbut it came with notable risks, such as the fact that by adopting a friendly stance to Israel and the US it estranged itself from the other Arab states. However, it was the intention of the Infitah policy to bring about positive change; as Ates (2005) notes, Sadat aimed not only to transform the economy according to the free-market model, but also to correct the deficiencies of state control and achieve integration with the world economy (p. 134). The privatization of industry would lead to wealth creationbut the risk was that it would also lead to social unrest as the wealth would run in one direction, towards the upper class and foreign investors, leaving little for the lower classes to enjoy.

In the 1970s, Egypt had the potential to be the largest market in the Middle East (McLaughlin, 1978). Its population was increasing; its middle class had grown under Nasser; oil was there to be pumped, and the Suez Canal had reopened. With Sadat at the helm, Egypt appeared poised to attract foreign investment and enhance these possibilities for an economic boom (McLaughlin, 1978). Infitah signified a major economic restructuring that would open the door to outside investment and it was genuinely believed that it would turn Cairo into the major hub of economic activity in the Middle East (Salacuse, 1975).

Impact on Egyptian Economy

Under Infitah, 90% of all public projects were financed by foreign money (Weinbaum, 1985). Abdel-Khalek (1981) states that the impact of Intifah on the Egyptian economy was that it ushered in an era resembling a 19th century type of specializationone emphasizing oil, the Suez Canal, and tourism as the leading sectors (p. 394). The open door policy was an invitation to major foreign players to make use of what Egypt had to offer in terms of resources; in effect, it opened the door for the possibility of corporate neo-colonialism and exploitation.

Investors were not quick to leap at the opportunity, however, because of mistrust of the internal politics of Egypt, its entrenched bureaucracy and red-tape, culture clash, and the states lack of an overall sustainable vision. For instance, conservative Islamic groups in Egypt wanted alcohol banned in tourist centers; but for Western investors and businesses seeking to attract Western tourists this type of intrusion from a religious group was a severe frustration on the economic ambitions of Infitah (Weinbaum, 1985). Egypt could not make up its mind about how it would appeal to the West while simultaneously appeasing its own constituents. By seeking investment and foreign funding, Egypt made itself economically vulnerable. Thus, by 1977, food riots were occurring, as the once largely self-sufficient nation now found itself increasingly at the mercy of other nations for basic food items, having attempted to pivot away from domestic labor to international industrialization (Weinbaum, 1985). The impact on Egypts economy was thus crushing, and the social unrest that resulted was evidence of this.


Although well-intentioned, Sadats Infitah project was criticized for being overly ambitious (Osman, 2010). It also tended to award friends of Sadat and to make the rich even richer. Under Nasser, the middle class of Egypt had grown; but under Sadat it was a change of fortunes for them: they were left stagnating, increasingly becoming marginalized in a new economic system that bordered on feudalism. Nasser had initiated a number of social policies and reforms that benefited the poor, such as free education, nationalization and a progressive tax (Osman, 2010). Yet under Sadat, these policies were rolled back, and by 1977 Sadat had declared that subsidies on basic foods would be phased out. Three years later, Sadat would be assassinated. From this perspective, the legacy of Infitah was failure: it did not lead to the strengthening of the economy that had been envisioned because it largely neglected the poor and middle classes.

Another aspect of Infitah was to increase spending on Egypts military, which meant taking the funds the state borrowed from the West and spending it in turn on Western military products (McLaughlin, 1978). Instead of investing in agricultural development projects in an appropriate manner or important infrastructure, it was spending borrowed money on military machines that made the Western military-industrial complex rich but did nothing to enhance the lives or economic opportunities of Egypts poor and middle classes. By the late 1970s, Egypt had to pay annually a staggering 1,200 million Egyptian pounds in debt service for foreign loans (McLaughlin, 1978, p. 888).

One example of the lack of foresight in the ambitious program was Egypts Aswan Dam project. The goal of the Dam was that it would enhance the economy by increasing agricultural acreage and supplying the state with energy. Yet the Dam eliminated the annual Nile inundation of the land, which in turn drastically reduced the silt content of the soil (McLaughlin, 1978). To fertilize the soil so that it could be used for agricultural purposes, the state had to purchase expensive fertilizers to fill the gap that nature had once filled on its own. Thus, the outcome of the expensive Dam project was neutralized: it increased potential acreage, but the acreage was not fertile because the Dam also cut out the effects of Nile inundation. The end result was an expensive waste of time, energy and money. Even the energy that the Dam was meant to create could not be appropriately exploited because of an inadequate, primitive energy system that was unable to realize the Dams energy potential (McLaughlin, 1978).

While one possible advantage of Infitah was that it would reduce the risk of military conflict with Israel, meaning Egypt could spend less on military than in the past, the reality was that Egypt did not ease up on military spending. Having opened its doors to the West, it had essentially allowed the fox of the military-industrial complex into the hen house. Egypt would be at the mercy of Western lenders, who would stipulate that a certain amount of funds be used to purchase armaments. The peace between Egypt and Israel might have had greater economic utility otherwise.


Infitah was an attempt by Egypt under Sadat to pivot away from Nassers social programs and develop greater economic relationships with the West. It ws viewed as a way to take advantage of Egypts growing population, invite foreign investment, and become the major economic hub of the Middle East. It ushered in an era of peace with Israel, which suggested that Egypt could focus more on domestic development and less on military build-up. None of these hopes and ambitions really came to fruition. Foreign investors were not enamored of Egypts culture values, which placed stipulations on certain types of business practices (like selling alcohol to tourists). The big businesses that came in to develop projects in the energy industry did little to actually help with Egypts economic growth. The lower and middle classes, which had profited under Nasser, soon began to riot over the lack of self-sustainability that Sadats policies ultimately brought about. Sadat himself would be assassinated in 1981, marking the end of the dismal failure that was Infitah.


Abdel-Khalek, G. (1981). Looking Outside, or Turning Northwest? On the Meaning and

External Dimension of Egypt’s Infitah 1971-1980.Social Problems,28(4), 394-409.

Ates, D. (2005). Economic liberalization and changes in fundamentalism: The case of

Egypt.Middle East Policy,12(4), 133-144.

McLaughlin, G. T. (1978). Infitah in Egypt: An Appraisal of Egypt’s Open-Door Policy

for Foreign Investment.Fordham Law Review,46(5), 885.

Osman, T. (2010).Egypt on the Brink: from Nasser to Mubarak. Yale University Press.

Salacuse, J. W. (1975). Egypt’s new law on foreign investment: The framework for

economic openness. Int’l Law, 9, p. 647.

Weinbaum, M. G. (1985). Egypt’s Infitah and the politics of US economic assistance.

Middle Eastern Studies,21(2), 206-222.