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Locate a research study that utilized experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Briefly summarize the study. For example, discuss the inclusion

Locate a research study that utilized experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Briefly summarize the study. For example, discuss the inclusion of 2-group tests, regression analysis, and time-series analysis in terms of the study design’s strengths, weaknesses, or limitations. What challenges or limitations did the researcher identify they encountered by choosing this method?

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (which require supporting citations) in your initial response along with at least one scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article. APA style guidelines.

BUS315 Week 8 SolarCal Case Analysis Overhead Expenses and General and Administrative

BUS315 Week 8 SolarCal Case Analysis

Overhead Expenses and General and Administrative Expenses

 

Participants:

Sally- Intern 

Dominic- CEO of SolarCal

Luke- Head of Productions 

Jake- Head of Accounting/Finance 

Melissa- Head of Government Contracting

 

Dominic: Good morning Sally! Good to see you again. I hope you had a productive week with Luke as you assisted him with his special project.

 

Sally: Hello Dominic! Last week was very productive indeed. Luke went over a lot of the fundamentals involving direct costs and I really got a firsthand look at the project he was working on. I left Luke’s office with a really good understanding of the key concepts he went over with me.

 

Dominic: I’m glad you feel that way! I’m sure that the newfound knowledge will come in handy with future projects I assign you to work on. I’m pretty excited to see what Luke comes up with when I go over his project plan. I’m happy to hear he was a valuable resource for you during your time in his department.

 

Sally: I’m ready to learn more about these various government contracting concepts. What should I expect for this week?

 

Dominic: I like your enthusiasm! This week you will be working with me; I have a project that needs to be worked on, and I thought it would be beneficial if you worked alongside me this week. 

 

Sally: That is fantastic! I’m ready to get started. 

Dominic: The project we will be working on will be dealing with indirect costs. With that being said, I’d like to get you up to speed by going over some key concepts dealing with these indirect costs. Based on your schooling, do you recall anything about indirect costs?

 

Sally: Yes, I actually do! I recall that an indirect cost is any cost not directly identified with a single, final cost objective, but identified with two or more cost objectives or an intermediate cost objective. I also remember learning that indirect costs can be accumulated by logical cost groupings.

 

Dominic: That is great that you’ve heard of this term before, this overview may be easier than I thought.

 

It is also important to note that overhead and general and administrative are two categories of indirect expenses. There are several small companies, like ours, that have indirect costs that cannot be identified with various contract jobs, whether they are government or private. 

 

Sally: Is this why you put these various indirect costs into overhead and general and administrative cost categories? 

 

Dominic: You are absolutely correct! But keep in mind that the government agrees that one overhead account is enough in such situations. 

 

Sally: That is great to know! I also hear a lot about the size of our overhead expenses during our weekly update meetings. Is this something you monitor closely?

 

Dominic: We absolutely monitor our overhead expenses. I believe that good management is always properly concerned with the close control of overhead costs. For obvious reasons, overhead costs should not become too large. Keep in mind that our company increased its overhead costs when we purchased all of the modern equipment and other technical advances to our assembly process, such as higher quality supervision. 

 

Sally: Why did you elect to raise your overhead costs? Couldn’t you have continued using the equipment that was being currently used?

 

Dominic: That could have been an option for us. However, if we continued using the outdated equipment it would have driven up our direct costs in the process. The trick is to control the overhead to achieve effective and efficient operations. At our company some of our overhead costs include: 

 

Indirect labor; 

Costs associated with labor; 

Indirect Supplies; and 

Fixed Charges. 

 

Sally: That is very interesting! So, it seems that by modernizing your equipment it saved you money in the long run. Is this correct?

 

Dominic: You are quite right! When you factor in tax deductions, we ended up with a net savings of eighteen percent by modernizing our equipment. 

 

Sally: That is quite a savings! I can definitely see why you chose to modernize your equipment.

Dominic: Let’s now talk about the methods of allocation. There are many ways to allocate overhead costs, but some basic principles apply to these methods. One of these methods deals with the overhead costs being allocated based on the total overhead cost for a year. Sally, do you know of any other methods for allocation?

 

Sally: I recall that there are two more methods that can be used. I know that overhead costs can be allocated based on estimates of the total overhead costs for the present accounting year. I also remember the estimated overhead costs can be divided by a factor called the basis of allocation. 

 

Dominic: Very good Sally, you properly identified two other methods for allocation. Let me tell you about one more method that can be used as well. The direct labor cost method is another widely used method and works better than a base of direct labor hours when there is a wide range of direct labor pay rates. This method can also be used in a highly mechanized production operation where material cost is the major part and labor costs are minor. 

 

Sally: I never knew about that method until now. I will definitely keep this methodology in mind for future projects I may encounter. 

 

Dominic: I’m glad I shared that information with you; this method does come in handy for certain situations. Take notice that the allocation of overhead is nothing more than a way to divide overhead cost. However, a proper overhead rate is essential for a company to determine its costs and, ultimately, the price to charge for each of its products or services. 

 

Sally: What happens if the overhead rate is set too low?

 

Dominic: Great question! When the overhead rate is set too low, the company will not get enough money from its customers to meet its actual overhead cost. This shortfall can happen for a variety of reasons including the estimate of overhead costs being lower than the actual overhead. On the flipside, if the overhead rate is set too high, the company will include more for overhead in its charges than is needed to meet the actual overhead costs. The extra money received during the course of the year adds to the company’s profit. However, the chance of absorbing the exact amount of overhead by a series of many customer billings throughout the year is rare. 

 

Sally: That makes a lot of sense now; your explanation definitely made things a lot clearer. Aren’t there also overhead accounts that often show line items for the cost of holidays, vacation time, and sick time?

 

Dominic: Right you are! These line items are referred to by the Cost Accounting Standards as compensated personal absences. It requires that these items be segregated into an indirect cost account and allocated to all cost objectives. Keep in mind that when a firm projects overhead costs for the current year, it estimates the hours that employees will be out for the holidays, paid vacations, and sick leave. 

 

Sally: I thought I was on to something but am glad I confirmed this with you. I did have a question about overhead analyses that I was hoping you could clear up for me. I know that once the government awards a firm-fixed-price contract to a company, it is committed to pay that price. I recall that since the overhead cost is part of the price, the government analysis of the overhead rate must be as precise as is possible under the circumstances. Am I correct with my understanding of this?

 

Dominic: You are correct Sally. Let me just add a couple things to your response and see if this ties up any loose ends for you. If you recall, the purpose of the analysis is to come up with a bottom line price that is reasonable, remembering that we can never predict future costs with total accuracy. We will want to use a cost reimbursement contract for this process because the costs of performance cannot be predicted with high accuracy. Keep in mind as well that the government is protected by cost reimbursement contracts because they are finally settled based on actual costs incurred.

 

Sally: I’m glad we are on the same page and you absolutely filled in some gaps I had with my understanding of this subject.

Dominic: Let’s now turn our attention to General and Administrative, or G&A Expenses. Have you heard of this concept before Sally and if so, can you provide me with an explanation?

 

Sally: I actually have heard about this topic while I was in school. I recall that the Cost Accounting Standards define general and administrative expenses as any management, financial, or other expense which is incurred by, or allocated to, a business unit. It is to the best of my knowledge that general and administrative expenses are also a type of indirect cost one wouldprobably see any time a pricing proposal from a company with several operating divisions is received.

 

Dominic: Very good Sally, I am impressed! You must have been really paying attention in that class. You are correct though; these expenses are the indirect costs incurred at the top level of a larger company. A company like that would have overhead cost pools for each of its operating divisions. In addition, the company would also have top level costs for operating its corporateheadquarters. These top level costs involve general and administrative costs and represent a layer of indirect costs in addition to overhead. 

 

Sally: Let me share one more thing with you, Dominic. I remember that the government views general and administrative expenses as a cost of doing business. It seems that the government is willing to pay a fair share of the firm’s general and administrative expense, subject to certain rules. I recall that the firm must allocate G&A expenses by acceptable methods, and the allocation base must be the same as that used for other customers.

 

Dominic: Great work and thank you for sharing that with me, you brought up a valuable concept for discussion. Let me expand on your response a little bit and talk about the allocation of these G&A expenses. The accounting profession considers allocation of General and Administrative expense to be a very difficult area. Even though it is a category of indirect cost, it does not behave in the same way as overhead costs. Make a note that General and Administrative expenses are different from other indirect costs. Many of them are more fixed in nature than overhead costs. They do not vary as much with changes in business volume and sometimes, they do not vary at all. Sally, since you seem to have a good grasp of these concepts, do you recall anything about the three methods for allocating General and Administrative costs?

 

Sally: I sure do and would be delighted to share this with you! The first method is referred to as total cost input, which should include all significant costs representing the total business activity. The second method would be value added, which may be used if the inclusion of materials and subcontract costs would significantly distort the allocation of the General and Administrative expense pools. The final method I remember is the single element cost input, which may be appropriate for a company that primarily produces labor intensive services, with very small material and subcontracted expenses. 

 

Dominic: Excellent job recalling those three methods of allocation. You have done great, and your knowledge base is vast in this subject area.

 

Before we get ready for our weekly review, I would like for you to go through a review activity I have prepared to help you better grasp some of the concepts we covered this week.

Dominic: Indirect Costs is any cost not directly identified with a single, final cost objective, but identified with two or more cost objectives or an intermediate cost objective. Secondly, indirect costs shall be accumulated by logical cost groupings with due consideration of the reasons for incurring such costs. 

 

Dominic: Overhead Expenses must be monitored to ensure that overhead costs don’t become too large. However, a company also increases its overhead costs when it buys modern equipment and makes other technical advances, such as higher quality supervision. It is also important to note that these expenses can have low overhead costs by continuing the use of outdated equipment and facilities, thus driving up the direct costs in the process. The trick is to control the overhead to achieve effective and efficient operations. 

 

Dominic: Importance of Overhead Analysis deals with the government awarding a firm-fixed-price contract and requiring the end user to be committed to pay that price. Because overhead cost is part of the price, the government analysis of the overhead rate must be as precise as is possible under the circumstances. The purpose of the analysis is to come up with a bottom line price that is reasonable, remembering that we can never predict future costs with total accuracy. 

 

Dominic: General and Administrative Expenses are defined as any management, financial, and other expense which is incurred by, or allocated to, a business unit and which is for the general management and administration of the business unit as whole. General and administrative expenses are also a type of indirect cost you will probably see any time you get a pricing proposal from a company with several operating divisions. 

 

Dominic: Great work on the review materials. You did excellent and I think you really have a solid foundation for the concepts we discussed this week. 

 

I would now like to summarize what we went over this week to fill in any gaps you may have had. Please feel free to add on to anything I say as we go through.

 

Sally, do you want to begin this review?

 

Sally: Sure thing! First, we learned that an indirect cost is any cost not directly identified with a single, final cost objective, but identified with two or more cost objectives or an intermediate cost objective. I learned that overhead and general and administrative are the two categories of indirect expenses. 

  

Dominic: I then talked about some methods that can be used to allocate overhead costs. I also went over some basic principles that applied to the methods we covered. 

 

Sally: After that, we talked about conducting an analysis for the overhead rate. We also talked about some of the overhead costs, like vacation, holiday, and sick pays which I learned was referred to as compensated personal absences. 

 

Dominic: I also stressed the importance of carefully analyzing overhead costs. I told you to keep in mind that once the government awards a firm-fixed-price contract, it is committed to pay that price. I also explained that the overhead cost is part of the price and the government analysis of the overhead rate must be as precise as is possible under certain circumstances. 

 

Sally: I definitely took notes when we went over that section, there was a lot of information I thought was important. I then learned that the General and Administrative Expenses are any management, financial, or other expenses which are incurred by, or allocated to, a business unit. I also noted that the government views general and administrative expenses as a cost of doing business and is willing to pay a fair share of the firm’s general and administrative expense, subject to certain rules.

 

Dominic: Glad to see you were paying attention when we went over that concept! We continued our discussion by addressing the allocation of General and Administrative expenses. We talked about this area being very difficult since it is a category of indirect cost, yet does not behave in the same way as overhead costs. 

 

Sally: I recall the last thing we went over were the three allocation methods of General and Administrative expenses. I went over these three methods with you and determined that the methods consisted of: total cost input, value added, and single element cost input. 

 

Dominic: Good work with the review Sally. You did really well this week with the concepts we went over.

 

Sally: Thank you Dominic! This review was very helpful, and I feel that I have really grasped the key concepts discussed this week. I believe I am very confident assisting you with future projects!

 

Dominic: I would gladly have your assistance on other projects; you have done a great job thus far during your internship. I look forward to working with you again.

 

Until we meet again don’t forget to complete your weekly discussion questions based on the key concepts we covered this week.

 

Have a good rest of the day and I will see you next week!

 

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For this assignment, you will submit an edited version of the research

Locate a research study that utilized experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Briefly summarize the study. For example, discuss the inclusion Religion and Theology Assignment Help For this assignment, you will submit an edited version of the research proposal that was the final project for PSY 510. Editing and incorporating feedback are two of the key skills that researchers need to master in order to produce high-quality writing. Indeed, all peer-reviewed articles have been written and rewritten many times; they are never completed in only one draft!

Rather than merely submitting the same version of the assignment that you submitted in PSY 510, it is important that you edit and improve the paper based on the feedback provided by your PSY 510 instructor. In addition to that feedback, please also refer to the Milestone One Guidelines PDF document.

It is OK to make changes to your research question, hypothesis, or research methods, but please clear any substantial changes such as completely changing the problem statement with your instructor.

Week Six External and Internal Environment Assignment Jeremy Taylor Strayer University Business

Week Six External and Internal Environment Assignment

Jeremy Taylor

Strayer University

Business 499

Dr. Grizzell

15 August 2022

Week Six External and Internal Environment Assignment

Introduction

The biggest e-commerce site in the world is Amazon. The business was created by Jeff Bezos and initially focused on selling books. Amazon has increased the range of their goods and services over time and has had great success. The firm has succeeded in fulfilling its aim to “provide the Earth’s largest assortment of items and to be the Earth’s most customer focused company where consumers can search and discover everything that they may desire to purchase” and has achieved this today. Amazon.com offers a wide variety of commodities, including books, furniture, electronics, clothing, and about anything else a buyer would be searching for. To retain clients shopping with them, the firm attempts to provide the finest assortment of items at the best pricing. Products are available on Amazon and are sold by both Amazon and independent sellers. On Amazon, customers may also sell products. Amazon’s business approach has proven to be effective throughout the course of the company’s more than 20-year history.

General, Economic and Political Environment

The term “general environment” refers to a larger system that may be broken down into a total of six subsystems: political, economic, environmental, legal, socio-cultural, and technological. Amazon is influenced by all of the sectors, but the economic and technical segments are the ones that would rank the top in terms of their effect on Amazon.com. Economic variables have an impact on the market and the circumstances of the market in every kind of company (Bennett et al., 2018). Amazon.com places a significant emphasis on a variety of economic considerations. When the economy is in healthy shape, businesses are rewarded with higher earnings. If the economy is in poor shape, it might have a negative impact on Amazon’s business, leading to decreased sales and revenues. Amazon is fortunate in that it operates as an online commerce company that offers a variety of products that people are willing to purchase regardless of the state of the economy.

Because Amazon conducts all of its business on the internet, the corporation is very dependent on many forms of technology. They cannot do business or interact with consumers without the assistance of technology. In order for business to continue normally, it is necessary for the organization to be current with developing technologies. Marketing, social media, and sales all benefit from the use of technology. Because members of the millennial age depend so heavily on modern technology, businesses are being forced to keep pace with technological advancements. In today’s world, technological innovation has emerged as one of the most important factors in business success.

Five Forces of Competition

The competitive rivalry, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of consumers, the threat of new entrants, and the danger of alternative goods or services are the five forces of competition. The possibility of competitors offering items and services that are identical to Amazon’s is, in my view, the least important of the five competitive factors it faces. Although Amazon does produce and sell its own items (such as the Amazon Echo and the Amazon Fire), the firm does not depend largely on the sales of these products, and they offer hundreds of other products as well. The possibility of new competitors entering any industry is always an important factor to consider. According to Amazon’s annual report, “business is susceptible to fast change and the creation of new business models as well as the entrance to new and well-funded rivals.” [Citation needed] In light of this, I don’t think the corporation places a lot of importance on the possibility of new competitors entering the market. Competitor strength and the influence of customers are, in my opinion, the two aspects of the competitive environment that are most crucial for Amazon’s business.

The quick expansion of the e-commerce sector has resulted in a competitive riverly that is exceedingly intense. This is owing to the rapid growth of the e-commerce industry. The corporation competes in the global market and must deal with competition from a broad variety of sectors originating from all over the globe. The firm faces competition from a number of other businesses, like Walmart.com and EBay, to mention just two examples. Both of these organizations provide items that are similar to those offered by the company in question and have growing e-commerce websites. These two companies are Amazon’s rivals, and they both have a lengthy history, or perhaps a longer history, and they may have more customers or more brand awareness (Dastin, 2018). In the past, Amazon has differentiated itself from other retailers in the retail industry by variety, price, and convenience, which are the three primary key competitive criteria.

Amazon places a significant premium on the purchasing power of its customers. Customers may choose from a wide variety of services offered by online retailers. Amazon gives its customers the option of purchasing things (the same products that Amazon sells) from any one of the hundreds of other websites that are available on the internet. Amazon must provide pricing that are either competitive or low in order to keep its consumers happy; otherwise, those customers may go for a business online that offers lower costs and choose to shop there instead (Robischon, 2017). Another issue that has to be addressed is the fact that Amazon is an online retailer, but its consumers may shop at other businesses that are physically located in buildings and avoid having to wait for their purchases to be transported to them.

Future Improvements

Amazon.com, Inc. has said, “Amazon is led by four principles objectives, with one being customer obsession rather than competitive emphasis.” If Amazon wants to stay ahead of the competition in the foreseeable future, I recommend that they maintain prioritizing their customers’ needs above everything else. Customers want more than just high-quality goods; they want amazing service as well. Amazon’s dedication to its clientele ensures its continued patronage since shoppers know they are important to the company. To be competitive in the face of so many rivals, Amazon must maintain rock-bottom pricing, endless product selection, lightning-fast delivery, and first-rate customer service.

If Amazon can keep its customers happy, it will be able to increase its buying power in the not-too-distant future. It is crucial for the company’s survival that its consumers continue to be pleased with its services and products. Amazon has built a loyal customer base thanks to its excellent customer support and competitive pricing policy (Sadq et al., 2018). The low prices may be attributed to the store’s virtual location. The reduced operating costs will allow them to maintain their industry-leading low pricing.

Greatest Opportunity

Amazon has the best chance of succeeding by increasing its foreign presence and opening physical retail locations. Amazon’s e-commerce business may benefit from the addition of physical retail locations. Customers that choose not to purchase online might be attracted to the business by opening a physical location. The firm has great potential for expansion if its brick-and-mortar locations were to match its online rates and provide the same level of customer care that has made it so successful. Increasing the company’s foreign presence may assist it attract clients in underserved regions. Customers in regions where Amazon isn’t yet available will be drawn to the firm as it grows internationally.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Without a doubt, Amazon’s successes have been remarkable. Amazon’s primary competitive advantage is its dominant position in the online retailing market. The corporation has rightfully earned its reputation as the biggest e-commerce company in the world. Amazon’s growth, revenue, and new product introductions are all on the rise. The company’s platform has been shown to be its primary strength.

Amazon’s dependence on shipping instead of having real stores is its greatest flaw. If Amazon had a brick-and-mortar storefront, consumers could save money on shipping and avoid waiting around for their packages by picking them up in person.

Resources Capabilities and Competencies

Amazon’s clients, merchandise, and infrastructure are its most valuable assets. A company’s resources are the things it requires to produce and sell its goods. What creates the capabilities is the sum of these parts. Online retailer can guarantee client pleasure and remain ahead of the competition thanks to Amazon’s resources.

Amazon’s goods, patents (including its one-click payment option), customer database, and technological infrastructure constitute the company’s tangible assets. The company’s unending success is due in large part to their collective athletic ability. Amazon’s ability to sell its wares online has completely disrupted the industry. This company was an early pioneer in the realm of selling goods through the Internet. As part of its cost-leadership strategy, the corporation consistently offers its wares at prices lower than those of its rivals. Even Amazon’s services are top-notch. In addition to being low-cost and easy for clients, they also provide a variety of delivery methods.

References

Dastin, J. (2018). Amazon scraps secret AI recruiting tool that showed bias against women. In Ethics of Data and Analytics (pp. 296-299). Auerbach Publications.

Robischon, N. (2017). Why Amazon is the world’s most innovative company of 2017. Fast Company Magazine, 2.

Sadq, Z. M., Sabir, H. N., & Saeed, V. S. H. (2018). Analyzing the Amazon success strategies. Journal of process management and new technologies, 6(4).

Bennett, A., Ravikumar, A., & Paltán, H. (2018). The Political Ecology of Oil Palm Company-Community partnerships in the Peruvian Amazon: Deforestation consequences of the privatization of rural development. World Development, 109, 29-41.

What is history to you? Why is it good to study history?

What is history to you?

Why is it good to study history? Does it even matter?

Name an important historical event for you. Why do you consider this event important?

The prisoners at Långholmen

When a convict was released from the Central Prison on Långholmen around the turn of the century 1900 so

a biographical sheet was created about the prisoner. The leaves were collected in so-called portrait rolls, and

contains photographs of the convicts. The rolls also contain information about appearance,

date of birth, when the prisoner started serving the sentence, from which prison he was transferred, when he

released and where he was sent as well as how much money he earned during his stay

Långholmen. Your task is to investigate how the portrait rolls can be used as historical ones

sources!

Sources: Go to Stockholmskällan – search for: “Porträttrollor”. Then you will find the portrait series at

people who have been in the prison at Långholmen.

Task: Go through some of the scrolls. Then answer the following questions:

A: What crimes have the prisoners committed? Give ten examples.

B: What do the sources say about the society of the time?

C: Who drew up the portrait scrolls, and why, do you think?

D: How credible are these sources? Is there any information about the prisoners that you can

question? Examine some of the portrait rolls more closely based on the source critical criteria

proximity, dependence and tendency.

E: Is it important to save this type of document? Why or why not?

Q: What can these sources be used for?

Discuss:

A: How do we know what we know about the past?

B: Why is it so important to be critical of sources in today’s society?

www.stockholmskallan.se

A school newspaper from 1946

During the 1940s, the school newspaper VI and our school was published at the Riksby Folk School, with articles of

the students (folk school corresponds to today’s primary school). In Stockholmskällan you can find among

other 1946 edition. What can a school newspaper say about the school, children, youth and

Society?

Source: Go to the Stockholm source – Search at Riksby Folk School – Choose “We and our school …”.

Task: Read the 1946 We and our school and answer the following questions:

A: What does the source say about the school and society in the 1940s?

B: Is there a big difference compared to today?

C: How is the credibility of this source? Evaluate the source based on the source-critical criteria proximity,

dependence and tendency.

D: Is it important to save this type of document? Why or why not?

E: What can this resource be used for?

Discuss:

A: How do we know what we know about the past?

B: Why is it so important to be critical of sources in today’s society?

www.stockholmskallan.se

What is the role of nurses in Pharmacology? What is the importance

What is the role of nurses in Pharmacology?

What is the importance of Pharmacology in a Nurse’s career?

Why is it important to check the patient’s ID and information before administering any medications?

What are the potential consequences of misuse/overuse of drugs?

Administration, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are what we call _________.

Compare “GENERIC” vs. “BRAND-NAME” drugs.

What are “ORPHAN DRUGS”?

What are “FDA” and “DEA”, and what do they do?

How many phases are there on a drug study?

What are “OTCs”?

Why do we have to be very careful when looking up information online?

Pharmacokinetics X Pharmacodynamics

How many phases are there on a drug study?

Define “CRITICAL CONCENTRATION”

Define “PEAK LEVEL”

Define “HALF-LIFE”

What is “LOADING DOSE” and what is it used for?

Name the “FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DRUG EFFECTS” (12)

What is “OPTIMAL THERAPEUTIC EFFECT”?

What are the different measuring systems and which one is the most common?

Which is the most effective way to address treatment dosage in children? If a Nomogram is not available, what other methods can be used? (3)

Why are pediatric and geriatric dosages different from adults? 

Why is it important to dispose unused drugs properly? How should it be done?

What are Pregnancy Categories. Explain.

Which are the classes of drugs (Schedule of controlled substances). Give examples.

List two reasons why adverse effects can occur.

Explain why it is important to always review the contraindications and cautions associated with a drug before administering it.

Identify the most common reason for the development of adverse effects related to drug therapy.

What are The “7 RIGHTS”?

Name some challenges to effective drug therapy and give examples.

What does “OFF LABEL USE” mean?

What are some of the “ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES”?

Are ALL over-the-counter drugs safe to use since they don’t require a prescription to by?

What is the class of drugs that does not require a prescription, but is available only “behind-the-counter” (you have to ask the Pharm Tech to get it for you, and you will have to show your ID to get it)?

Why is it imperative that all drugs be given exactly as prescribed? Why some tablets/capsules should not be split or opened?

Name the 8 different types of administration of drugs, and how can they be affected.

Which route of administration is the fastest to be absorbed? Why?

What is “BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER”?

What is “SELECTIVE TOXICITY”?

Define ‘FIRST-PASS EFFECT”.

What is “BIOTRANSFORMATION”?

Name two areas that need to be addressed when obtaining a patient’s history related to drug therapy. 

Describe one reason why a patient may not reveal the use of over-the-counter drugs or alternative therapies during a history

Explain why it is important to obtain a patient’s weight before beginning drug therapy.

What is necessary to do in case a nurse notes a medication error?

All units in the metric system are determined as multiples of ______.

What is the name of the rule used to determine the correct dose for a child based on the known adult dose?

One gram (g) is equivalent to _______ milligrams (mg)

What is “APOTHECARY SYSTEM”?

Which measuring system is the most widely used?