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UNDERSTANDING MARRIAGE AND FAMILY do my history homework: do my history homework

 

Marriage and Family

 

 

Discussion

The research findings indicated that conflict/disagreements, communication, intimacy, affection, companionship, affects of children leaving the home, time away from children, health issues and finances inclusive of demographic information of gender, ethnicity, education level, number of years married, marital status  all have an effect on  the level of  marital satisfaction. This study has no doubt revealed the complex interplay between the various variables affecting marital satisfaction in manner that has never been done before among the Trinidadian population and to some extent the global population. For instance, the correlation between correlation between intimacy and affection, intimacy and fun, communication and love and number of children and feelings after the children left. This study indicated that all Trinidadians (Afro Trinidadian, East Indians, and those of mixed ethnicity) reported reasonably high levels of marital satisfaction.  In other words, in overall, marital satisfaction was generally high among all three races. This finding is quite similar to the outcome of Bryant’s (2008) study on marital satisfaction among Black Caribbeans and African Americans. Bryant’s study also found quite high levels of marital satisfaction among the entire population under study. Interestingly, women reported a higher level of marital satisfaction than men (No other studies exists to dispute or corroborate this finding).

The levels of intimacy, affection and companionship was however different among the groups. Overall, all the groups indicated that a very strong positive association between overall marital satisfaction and level of companionship and understanding. This indicated that an increase in the levels of companionship and understanding leads to greater overall satisfaction among all Trinidadian households. The strongest predictors of marital satisfaction in Trinidad and Tobago (all factors (e.g ethnicity, gender, educational level) remaining constant) are affection and companionship. This is in line with the findings of Fouquereau and Baudoin (2002) that found strong correlation between   communication/companionship scores with marital satisfaction among French couples.

Educational attainment

The study indicated that education level is a significant factor in Trinidadian marital relations. Overall however, it has no had no significant impact on marital satisfaction among Trinidadians of all races.  This contrary to Khan’s (2004) research on marital instability that indicated that working wives who are better to their husbands in terms of both educational and income levels were more likely to experience increased pressure and dissatisfaction in their matrimonial/marital life. My findings also contradict those of Tampieri (2010) and that of Mirfardi and Redzuan (2010) that found a positive relationship between the level of educational attainment and marital satisfaction. Trinidadian women are however indicated to have a higher level of educational attainment (at tertiary level of education) than their male counterparts. Even so, other research suggested a similar findings with ours, as revealed in a research that was done by Huber and Spitze (1980). They studied the effect of the relative income of husbands and wives in relation to the thought of divorce. In that study, it was found that the marital quality is not reduced by the wife’s achievements exceeding the husband’s. Rogers (1999) also found in his research that increases in wives’ income does not significantly affect either husbands’ or wives’ perception of marital discord.

Conflict/disagreement

            This study statistically indicated that overall, women handled conflict better than men. This finding concurs with what had earlier been reported by Faulkner et al (2005) on conflict as a gender-related predictor of marital satisfaction. According to Faulkner et al (2005), wives’ marital as well as interpersonal functioning is a greater predictor for their husbands’ marital satisfaction as well as marital conflict. Women are therefore, less physiologically affected by marital conflict as confirmed by Kiecolt-Glaser et al (1996). This study confirmed the notion that there is a positive correlation between marital satisfaction and handling of conflict thus indicating that those couples who handle conflict better have higher levels of marital satisfaction. Similar findings were presented by Fischam (2001) when he attempted to explain negative partner behavior in marriages that ultimately led to marital conflicts. According to Fuscham (2001), marital conflict ultimately leads to an increase in negative communication during problem-solving deliberations, anger, and ultimately to a reduction in the level of marital satisfaction over a period of time.

Communication and marital satisfaction

The relationship or correlation between communication and marital satisfaction has been widely explored. Our study found a positive correlation between communication on a daily basis and handling of conflict indicating that those couples who communicate well also handle conflict well. Rehman et al (2011) noted that manner in which couples communicate during their conflict discussions is a strong predictor of marital satisfaction. They were also quick to point out that in previous studies; there has been very little tentative control over the selection of topics.

The last couple of decades have seen a significant amount of literature investigate the influence of communication behavior and marital interactions on marital satisfaction (Matthews, Wickrama, & Conger, 1996). Marital communication is a great determinant of marital quality and satisfaction (McCubbin, Barnes, & Hill, 1983). Our research concurs with these findings. Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of apparently complex interplay between communication and marital satisfaction and quality (Wickrama,  & Conger, 1996; Bradbury, Fincham, & Beach).  Marital communication has been indicated to be a greater predictor of marital satisfaction.  The work of Karney and Bradbury (1995) clearly indicated that marital satisfaction affects in one way or the other, couple’s interaction. Very minimal attempts have been made in clarifying whether communication is a consequence or antecedent of marital satisfaction. Most studies in this regard have been longitudinal in design.  The work of Noller and Feeney (1994) for instance investigated means of encoding as well as decoding spousal behaviors.  Their study indicated that marital satisfaction is a rather stronger predictor of marital satisfaction. The antecedent-consequence behavior of the relationship between marital satisfaction and communication has not been captured by most literature.

The work of Karney and Bradbury (1995) clearly indicated that the general lack of evidence on the relative contribution of the concept of marital satisfaction to marital communication leave sopen a gaping possibility that “marital quality accounts for variation in marital behavior more than marital behavior leads to changes in marital quality (p.52)”. It is important to note that a longitudinal correlation of the association is better since it is critical to note that certain patterns of marital communications like disagreements may only be harmful for the present level of marital satisfaction and not for the later cases as pointed out by Gottman and Krokoff (1989). Certain communication behaviors like interrupting each other during communication or heated exchanges and getting angry are noted to adversely affect the current levels of marital satisfaction (Kerkstra, 1985).  It however remains to be proved if such sets of behaviors (commonly referred to as negative communication) could adversely impact future levels of marital satisfaction.

In our study, we considered elements of open communication that occurs on a daily basis and its correlation with conflict resolution and love. The behavior that was considered involved the monitoring of two main relational maintenance tendencies. The initial behavior involves to the talking by marital partners on the events that happened at the end of a particular day. This type of talk is functional and instrumental talk whose role is to sustain a given relationship or marriage (Wood,1993). The work of Honeycutt and Wiemann (1999) provided a solid support for the reinforcing effects of  this daily talk on spousal satisfaction.  The other behavior that is important in sustaining a relationship is the adoption of an ‘openness’ approach (Canary & Stafford, 1992). The work of Canary, Stafford and Semic (1992) indicated that the “openness”  strategy, that involves the discussing of  the relationship as well as sharing of thoughts and feelings about a given marriage or certain happens is a perfect way of marinating a healthy and highly satisfying relationship.

Intimacy and affection

The relationship between intimacy and affection has generally not been explored in any extant literature. Their nature and differences are however widely explored in extant literature. The work of Sternberg (1986) presented it as one of three major components of love; the other two are passion and commitment. It refers to “sharing that which is inmost with others” (McAdams 1988, p. 18). Helgeson, Shaver and Dyer (1987) found that people perceive intimacy as feelings and expressions of closeness, appreciation, and affection. McAdams (1982, p. 19) defined the intimacy motive as “a recurrent preference or readiness for experiences of warm, close, and communicative interaction with others -interpersonal exchange perceived as an end in itself rather than a means to another end.” In summary, it is clear that affection for family members is a deep-seated emotion, represented by intimate, long-term relationships which are unique in comparison to other social relationships. In the remainder of the paper, the aforementioned concepts will be referred to as affection. In this study, there was a positive correlation between intimacy and affection indicating that those couples with a greater lever of affection also experience a greater level of intimacy.

A positive correlation between intimacy and fun since the children left was found in our study indicating that those couples experiencing more fun since the children left are also sharing a greater level of intimacy.

There was a positive correlation between communication and love (Rho=0.476; p=0.002) indicating that those couples who communicate well also have retained a greater level of love in the relationship.

There was a negative association between the number of children and feelings after the children left indicating that couples with smaller families felt happier when their child/children left compared to those with larger families. This could imply that so called “empty nest syndrome” is felt more strongly amongst parents with larger families.

Empty nest refers to the home environment once children have matured and left to make their way in the world, but also includes the concept of them returning Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of depression and loneliness that parents/other guardian relatives feel when one or more of their children leave home. While more common in women, it can happen to both sexes. The marriage of a child can lead to similar feelings, with the role and influence of the parents often becoming less important compared to the new spouse.

A strong maternal or paternal bond between the parent and child can make the condition worse. The role of the parent while the child is still living with them is more hands-on and immediate than is possible when they have moved out, particularly if the distance means that visits are difficult.

U.S. studies indicate that children tend to stabilize marriage but, paradoxically, to reduce marital satisfaction. To explore whether this finding exists in a similar fashion in other cultures, the authors studied the impact of number of children on spousal love in the United States, United Kingdom, and Turkey, while accounting for other marital demographics (such as duration of marriage and the ages of wives and husbands). The number of children predicted diminished marital satisfaction in couples from all three cultures, although this effect arguably was not present in Turkish wives. In addition, marital satisfaction in couples from all three cultures was generally negatively predicted by the duration of marriage. Marital satisfaction was generally unrelated to wife’s age. There was also a negative association between feelings after the children left and communication on a daily basis

Empty nest and marital satisfaction

Many married individuals experience significant changes in their lives after they become parents, including identity changes, shifting roles in the marriage and outside the family, and changes in the relationship with their own parents. How do couple relationships fare over time after partners become parents, and what are the factors that predict the long-term marital success of these couples? Over the past 50 years, a number of researchers have proposed that marital satisfaction peaks around the time of the wedding and tends to decline from that point on (e.g., Burgess & Wallin, 1953; Vailliant & Vailliant, 1993). Nonetheless, some recent evidence suggests that when children leave home couples experience an increase in their marital satisfaction (Gorchoff, John, & Helson, 2008). The transition to parenthood is a particularly important milestone event in a marriage that provides excitement and joy, but is also often related to distress in the individual parents. Thus, the period following this transition may be a critical time for determining the health and longevity of the marital relationship.

 

 

 

The birth of a first child presents a significant challenge for married couples, as their relationship undergoes a transition from a dyadic unit to a family of three or more. This transition may affect the family system in many different ways, both positive and negative. On the positive side, parents often experience a sense of gratification and joy over having a new baby. On the negative side, they may also experience exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, and more disagreement over issues pertaining to care of the baby and the division of family labor (e.g., Belsky & Pensky, 1988; Cowan & Cowan, 2000; Twenge, Campbell, & Foster, 2003). These strains and difficulties may affect the quality of their relationship as a couple adversely.

One of the earliest findings in the marital satisfaction literature is that partners’ satisfaction tends to be high around the time of the wedding, after which it begins a slow but steady decline (Burgess & Wallin, 1953; see Gottman & Notarius, 2002 and Karney & Bradbury, 1995 for reviews of subsequent research). The birth of the first child is not the only factor responsible for the decline in marital satisfaction. It is possible that some of the decline in marital satisfaction is a function of time and erosion in the relationship that may characterize childless couples as well (MacDermid, Huston, & McHale, 1990). Nevertheless, the period following childbirth is a time that merits special attention because the transition seems to introduce additional stress and strife into the couple relationship, which may accelerate the decline in marital satisfaction (e.g., Belsky & Kelly, 1994). Indeed, a recent meta-analysis reveals that although childless couples experience a decline in marital satisfaction over time, parents are significantly less satisfied than non-parents are, and number of children is reliably related to marital dissatisfaction (Twenge et al., 2003). Since the pioneering study of LeMasters (1957), research has consistently shown that the transition to parenthood poses a serious challenge if not a crisis for marriage (Belsky & Pensky, 1988; Cowan & Cowan, 1995; Cowan & Cowan, 1988; Twenge et al., 2003). Given the high rates of divorce in contemporary marriages (Schoen & Canudas-Romo, 2006), it seems imperative that we understand the key risks and buffers to marital stability.

It is also interesting to note that the number of children was the strongest predictor of marital satisfaction even when compared to other variables like wealth and education. Our results suggest that the negative relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction is not culturally universal and probably only characterizes developed, individualistic Western countries. We discuss our findings from a sociocultural and evolutionary perspective (Ernest et al, 2012).If the transition to an empty nest affected marital satisfaction positively, there should be a significant interaction of age with empty nest status, with the empty–nest .

A very strong positive association was observed between overall marital satisfaction and level of companionship and understanding indicating increasing levels of companionship and understanding leads to greater overall satisfaction.

Relationship between ethnicity and the quality of relationship

There was a significant relationship between ethnicity and the level of intimacy with East Indians generally experiencing a high level intimacy.

There was also a significant relationship between ethnicity and feelings after the children left with East Indians generally experiencing happier feelings once their children had left home.

However, in-depth interviews revealed differences in the pathways by which these two groups arrived at a similar level of intimacy. Intramarried couples appear to experience greater personal similarity and mutual understanding rooted in their ethnic bond, which aids the development of intimacy. Intermarried couples appear to find that the very process of negotiating ethnic differences leads to greater mutual understanding and intimacy.

There was a strong relationship with ethnicity and health issues impacting the relationship with Afro-Trinidadians experiencing less health problems.No other significant interactions between ethnicity and the other relationship questions were observed.

Since Burgess (1926) highlighted the importance of studying life-cycle transitions in order to understand families and individuals, numerous family scholars have examined family transitions in order to understand how families cope with change (Cowan, 1991). Each major transition requires the family system to reorganize and accommodate change, as well as to renegotiate existing boundaries with regard to interpersonal power and emotional closeness (Mattessich & Hill, 1987). The transition to parenthood has been pinpointed as a key transition in the family life cycle (Birchler, 1992). Thus, it is an important time to study marriages. Also, given the high time demands of a new infant, it is an intriguing time to study changes in leisure patterns.

Having a baby has been found to be a significant stressor for many couples (Pistrang & Barker, 2005; Ventura, 1987); there is some debate, however, concerning the specific nature of marital functioning during this time. On one side, there has been a consistent amount of research documenting a deterioration of marital functioning that occurs with the birth of a child, from which couple members may never fully recover (e.g., Belsky, Spanier, & Rovine, 1983; Cowan & Cowan, 1995; Crohan, 1996; Levy-Shiff, 1994). There has been some evidence that spouses place less importance on and devote less energy to their marital relationship after the birth of a child. In Cowan and Cowan’s (1992) study involving the self-concept of spouses undergoing the transition to parenthood, they found that when participants rated their parent role as increasing after the birth of their first child, the roles that underwent a corresponding decrease were the partner and lover roles. These changes support the idea that key dimensions of the marital relationship may change following the birth of a child.

On the other side of the debate, researchers have posited that the documented decline in marital satisfaction following the birth of a child is actually a brief adjustment period from which most couples recover (Cowan & Cowan, 1988). Also, some have argued that the observed decline in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood is merely capturing a piece of the normative decline that all couples experience over time, regardless of their decision to have children (Clements & Markman, 1996;Huston & Vangelisti, 1995). It has been argued that measurement issues surrounding constructs such as marital satisfaction and marital quality may be one explanation for the discrepant results. For example, some measures used in transition to parenthood studies are capturing a decrease in certain marital maintenance behaviors or an increase in instrumentality that occurs following the birth of a child; these changes may not be reflected in an actual decline in relationship satisfaction (Clements & Markman). Further, apart from the debate over marital satisfaction, it has been found that the birth of children makes it less likely that a couple will separate or divorce (Bradbury et al., 2000). Therefore, it is important to learn more about marriages during this transition to determine how some couples cope and others experience substantial distress as they transition from couple to family life (Cowan & Cowan).

Fun and marital interaction

The notion that shared leisure participation might improve marital satisfaction is not new. Locke (1951) tested this supposition by comparing couples who were divorced or contemplating divorce with happily married couples. He found that the happily married couples reported more enjoyment of leisure activities. Throughout the next few decades, many researchers published similar findings, perpetuating the belief that shared leisure activities between spouses is beneficial for relationships (Klausner, 1968; West & Merriam, 1970).

Since then, a number of researchers have examined the connection between participation in leisure activities and marital satisfaction. Most have recorded a positive relationship between time spent in leisure and marital satisfaction (e.g., Holman & Jacquart, 1988; Surra, 1985; Zabriskie & McCormick, 2003), although some have reported only weak correlations between these constructs (Crawford, Houts, Huston, & George, 2002; Huston et al., 1986; Huston & Vangelisti, 1995).

Orthner (1975) proposed that different types of leisure might differentially affect marriage; specifically, he posited that it would be important to know whether couple members participate in leisure activities in the company of their spouse or independently. Orthner also suggested that leisure’s function in a marriage was to facilitate communication. Therefore, fewer shared leisure activities during stressful life events would be likely to influence the ability of couples to adjust to change, which could result in lower perceived marital satisfaction. Additionally, in their qualitative study of family leisure experiences, Shaw and Dawson (2001) found that participation in family leisure led to improved interaction and cohesion within families. Therefore, shared leisure activities may be especially important for maintaining both a satisfactory marriage and family life.

Shared fun versus independent fun

As researchers began to examine how different types of leisure affect couples in different ways, two groupings of leisure have consistently emerged: leisure time spent with one’s spouse and leisure time spent without one’s spouse. Some researchers have found that wives who report higher frequencies of leisure without their spouse also report less marital satisfaction (Crawford et al., 2002; Orthner, 1975). Marks, Huston, Johnson, and MacDermid (2001) found that husbands with more independent leisure time experience more role strain. Also, couple members who report high marital satisfaction report more shared leisure time with their spouse (Crawford et al). Crawford et al. found that husbands’ independent leisure activities negatively affect marital satisfaction, but that wives’ independent leisure activities have no effect on marital satisfaction. These studies raise two important points. First, independent leisure might be detrimental to marriage. Second, leisure activity patterns might affect husbands and wives differently.

Crawford et al. (2002) point out that, because they did not differentiate between single- and dual-earner couples, their results might partially reflect differences in leisure opportunity. For example, when only one spouse is employed, the other might have more opportunity to pursue independent leisure activities and consequently may demand that more of their spouse’s available leisure time be used in shared leisure instead of independent leisure (Crawford et al.; Kalmijn & Bernasco, 2001). Thus, they suggest that future work should take spouses’ employment status into account.

As researchers began to examine how different types of leisure affect couples in different ways, two groupings of leisure have consistently emerged: leisure time spent with one’s spouse and leisure time spent without one’s spouse. Some researchers have found that wives who report higher frequencies of leisure without their spouse also report less marital satisfaction (Crawford et al., 2002; Orthner, 1975). Marks, Huston, Johnson, and MacDermid (2001) found that husbands with more independent leisure time experience more role strain. Also, couple members who report high marital satisfaction report more shared leisure time with their spouse (Crawford et al). Crawford et al. found that husbands’ independent leisure activities negatively affect marital satisfaction, but that wives’ independent leisure activities have no effect on marital satisfaction. These studies raise two important points. First, independent leisure might be detrimental to marriage. Second, leisure activity patterns might affect husbands and wives differently.

Crawford et al. (2002) point out that, because they did not differentiate between single- and dual-earner couples, their results might partially reflect differences in leisure opportunity. For example, when only one spouse is employed, the other might have more opportunity to pursue independent leisure activities and consequently may demand that more of their spouse’s available leisure time be used in shared leisure instead of independent leisure (Crawford et al.; Kalmijn & Bernasco, 2001).Thus, they suggest that future work should take spouses’ employment status into account. . Crawford et al. found that husbands’ independent leisure activities negatively affect marital satisfaction, but that wives’ independent leisure activities have no effect on marital satisfaction. These studies raise two important points. First, independent leisure might be detrimental to marriage. Second, leisure activity patterns might affect husbands and wives differently.

ABOUT COMPUTING IN MATHEMATICS ib history essay help

 

Mathematics

Name

Affiliation

 

We shall use the following functions in our computations

f(x) = 2x + 5

g(x) = x2 – 3

h(x) =

(f-h)(4)

Evaluating each separately then subtracting, we have

f(4) = 2(4) + 5 = 8 + 5 =13

f(4) = 13

h(4) = (7-4)/3 = 3/3 =1

h(4)=1

Therefore,

(f-h)(4) = 13-1 = 12

(fog)(x) = f(g(x))

= f(x2-3)

= 2(x2-3) + 5

= 2×2-6+5

= 2×2-1

(gof)(x) = g(f(x))

= g(2x+5)

= (2x+5)2-3

= 4×2 + 20x + 25 – 3

= 4×2 + 20x + 22

Transform g(x) function so that the graph is moved 6 units to the right and 7 units downwards. 6 units to the right means to put (-6) in with x to be squared. 7 units downwards means to put (-7) outside of the squaring. The new function becomes,

G(x) = (x-6)2 – 3 – 7

= x2-12x+36-10

=x2-12x+26

f-1(x)

f(x) = 2x+5

Let f(x) be Y, therefore

Y = 2x+5

Then switch the Y and the x to become,

x=2Y+5,

making Y the subject we obtain,

Y=

f-1(x) =

h-1(x)

h(x) =

Let H

h(x) be Y, therefore

Y =

Then switch the Y and the x to become,

x=,

Making Y the subject we obtain,

Y= -3x+7

H =h-1(x) = -3x+7

 

Reference

Berdal, T. (2009). Calculus. New York: Survival Vol.

 

The Fast Food Company McDonald’s ap art history homework help: ap art history homework help

Mcdonalds case study

[Document subtitle]

[Date]

[Company name]

[Company address]

 

Question 1

Fast Food Company McDonald’s gone up against criticism around the world. These issues involve wellbeing issues influencing individuals and particularly kids. Mixture puncher (2005), depicted that McDonald’s has been shadowed by a wide blended pack of moral issues. People dealt with an event by the name threatening to McDonald’s day on the sixteenth of October reliably. Sustenance offered in stores is a substitute essential domain of the moral criticism faced by McDonald’s. As showed by the faultfinders McDonald’s is the critical supporter to the stretching level of strength in US. Crane & Matten, (2010) says that remedial studies exhibits that waistlines are developing and adults are unsafely overweight in UK and distinctive countries. According to Mcmans Depression and Bipolar Crane & Matten, (2010) in US due to chubbiness end rate are higher than cigarette smoking. In 2001 it was represented that 300,000 people are kicked the pail in view of weight. As an issue of McDonald’ awful nature of fast food it doesn’t meet the US dietary requirements. The issue raised are particularly identified with the association as they are the makers of the food that influence individuals

Question 2

Though primary stakeholders are the individuals who have an immediate enthusiasm toward an organization, secondary stakeholders are the individuals who have a circuitous investment. Case in point, the workers and speculators who rely on upon an organization’s money related prosperity for their own particular are the primary stakeholders. Optional stakeholders may incorporate occupants who live close to an organization and are hence influenced if the organization chooses to dirty neighborhood conduits or nearby workforce sheets that depend on the business utilizing nearby laborers. The primary stakeholder gathering incorporates individuals who have lawful rights you must honor. For example, your organization’s impact on the nature could be primary to the area, city, and region and even state where you work. At the point when choosing to extend your business, these are primary stakeholder bunches on the grounds that they can influence whether you’ll be permitted to do thus, Secondary stakeholders are the individuals who have no rights that influence your organization (Thompson, Edelsberg, Kinsey & Oster,1998). Case in point, different organizations in your industry are secondary stakeholders, in light of the fact that they have no particular rights to prevent you from working in any way you see fit, the length of you don’t do anything unlawful.

Question 3

Responsibility

Like never before, clients are clamoring for organizations to assume liability for their effect on groups, the nature’s domain and the world. For organizations, this can exhibit a test. For example, its frequently less demanding and less expensive to take the beyond anyone’s ability to see, out-of-mind methodology with collecting results and squanders than to discover approaches to deliver less waste or discard it in ways that minimize the natural effect.

 

References

Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2010). Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and        sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press.

Thompson, D., Edelsberg, J., Kinsey, K. L., & Oster, G. (1998). Estimated economic costs of       obesity to US business. American Journal of Health Promotion, 13(2), 120-127.

 

Media Globalization And Its Effects On Society And Culture art history essay help

Media Globalization And Its Effects On Society And Culture

Introduction

The term globalization is often used to refer to changes in international relationships, particularly in international trade and economics, but cultural and social relationships for which international communications and the media are involved are also important. This term has a variety of definitions depending on the concept of application. Lyons defines globalization as a multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness and deepening connections between people and the local and the distant.

The term media globalization is thus a broad topic which includes radio, the internet, music, film, television, satellite and other forms of digital media. According to Lyons, the developments in communication and infrastructure and growth of global media corporations are some of the fundamental results of media globalization and which have rendered previous national boundaries increasingly irrelevant. This has also seen societies become increasingly integrated in terms of economic, political and cultural order, leading to the diminishing of power of individual nations, especially relative to global corporations. The cultural industry provides a perfect experience of the increasing spread of global culture and diminishing of local cultures as a result of globalization. This paper examines the evolution of global media, the growth of mega-media corporations and the impact of this in the society

The growth of global media

Media globalization has been characterized by certain fundamental changes in global communications such as technological developments and the rise of new media. According to Gorman and McLean (279), the development of the media started to expand on an international scale after post World War II reconstruction, aided by organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Funds (IMF) through financial investment and by 1970s, it started to gain momentum. According to Lozano (68), the media systems were generally national in scope. However, this changed in 1980s following pressure from the United States, the World Bank and IMF to privatize and to deregulate media systems. This coincided with new digital and satellite technologies leading to an emergence of transnational media giants.  According to Lozano (68), privatization, proliferation of new media technologies and deregulation of the media systems have and still continue to guide globalization of the media. This was evidenced in the case of China. Until 1999, had China continued to impose regulations and opposed privatization of the media sector in order to allow foreign investment (Head et al 414). However, according to Head et al (414), the country was allowed to become a party to the World Trade Organization on the condition that “it allows foreign investors to hold up to 49 percent of certain telecommunications companies, including Internet firms.”  The Chinese government responded by deregulating the media sector.

Media globalization has resulted in the concentration of media business ownership to a small number of transnational media corporations. According to Gorman and McLean (279), during the 1990s, many media businesses merged to form global conglomerates, having global media distributional networks.  The move for integration was driven by the need to achieve cost savings and to take advantages of cross-selling and cross-promotion opportunities, in response to market situations. Media businesses thus moved towards being larger, global and vertically integrated, reducing the possibilities of multiple media ownerships unconstrained by national boundaries. Examples of large global media corporations that were formed then include the Disney, the Viacom, News Corporation, Sony, Bertelsmann and time Warner. Apart from the Japanese Sony and Germany Bertelsmann, the rest are American but all of them are geared around making profits internationally (Gorman and McLean  279).

Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation is a perfect illustration of a corporation that have benefited from the technological changes and deregulation of the media, amidst globalization. According to Martell (88), Murdoch has ownership stakes in the media from satellite networks and TV cable and TV and film production, through newspapers, books publishing, magazines, radio, sport and internet media. For instance, he owns 20th Century Fox TV channels and Fox Movie production as well as a number of other cable and satellite channels such as those offered by sky. In addition, he owns a number of major newspapers in United Kingdom and in Australia, Websites, including MySpace and publishing interests such as HarperCollins. Murdoch is involved in these media across the world, from the UK, United States and Australia, to China, (Martell 88).

Media globalization is also associated it spread and distribution of variety of mass media content around the world. A good illustration of this is the spread of Turkish telenovelas in the Arab world. One unique aspect of the Turkish telenovelas is that they have a cultural proximity that other developed countries do not have. For instance, they label heroes and heroines with local and common names such as Noor and Muhammad rather than giving them foreign names. Further, they incorporate political topics that famous to the Arab countries. For instance, the Ayrilik (Separation) and the Kurtlar Vadisi (Valley of the Wolves) clearly covered the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. In addition, Islamic aspects are part of the settings in the programs.

Akova notes, they speak about the Quran and God and incorporate the traditions of Islam such as wearing of the hijab by women. Aspects such as beauty of the places and actors, and the fact that the movies are dubbed in Islamic dialect play a great role in triggering the interest of the viewers. These marketing strategies helped in quickly attracting a large audience shortly after their introduction in 2007. The Noor, which was aired by Saudi-owned satellite channel, Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC), attracted more than 85 million viewers in 2008 in the Arab world. Today, more than a dozen of soaps and TV series are being aired on the Arab Television.

The above case demonstrates that globalization leads to change in a people’s culture as the increasingly interact and overlap. According to Barker (2004, p. 22) human nature makes this a complex process and thus, poses challenges to practitioners of cultural studies as they analyze the observations regarding cultural or social settings. However, the model of ‘circuit of culture’ presented by Du Gay, provides an avenue through which cultural contexts can be analyzed. This model implies that the increased consumption leads to articulation of levels of practices to the question of culture and economy. It thus entails that media production and consumption goes through five major processes: representation, identity, production, consumption and regulation. According to Barker (2004, p. 22), cultural meaning is produced and embedded at each level of the circuit so that the production of significance at each level of the circuit is articulated to the next level without determining what meanings will be produce or will be taken at each level. Therefore, culture is autonomous but it is articulated to other practices to form the whole.

Barker (2004, p. 22) explains the fact that the circuit of culture illuminates the emergence of a new idea or a product. He describes how the Sony walkman was conceived in terms of the meanings embedded at the level of design and production. It was then represented in a way such that it produced identity for itself and by the time it got to market shelves, it had already been consumed mentally, as part of their personal identity. This was a result of advertisements. Some parts of the society tried to regulate the consumption of the product as it was understood as a threat to cultural values. However, the identity and consumption evidenced by consumers’ demand outweighed the traditions of society and maintained its market. The same case applies to the Turkish soap operas in Arab World.

Effects of media globalization in society

There are a variety of effects resulting from media globalization. One of the positive impacts is that the giant global media corporations have the potential to spread democratic values empower, challenge governments whose authority and power depends on the control of information and encourage participation by the marginalized groups (Gorman and McLean 279). According to Akova, the importation of soap operas from Turkey by Arab countries has led to a revaluation of the Arab entertainment industry which was for a long time dominated by the states.

Globalization has led to the spread and formalization of global culture and consequently, people have similar experiences in all corners of the world. Akova notes that telenovelas have helped in spreading the Turkish culture and increasing its influence in the Arab World. As a result, people from Arab countries have been associating and adopting cultural values upheld in Turkey and this explains the fact that the number of them travelling to Turkey has risen tremendously. Noor’s Villa, the house where most of the pictures used in the Noor program were taken has been converted into a museum, as a huge number of people tour the place. More than 70,000 Saudi Arabians made cultural pilgrimage to the place in 2008 alone.  

According to Martell (88), the rise of this global media oligopoly has led to a vast restructuring of power relations among media organizations. This has resulted in the concentration of capital and centralization of the power among the media organizations both within nations and globally. Rupert Murdoch’s Media Corporation is a prime example of the limits and imponderables of international flow of capitals and power of the international media. Individuals have less voice compared to the global media corporations. For instance, it is not surprising to find that Rupert Murdoch has more power and influence over the audience compared to the queen in Britain (Hafez and Skinner 165).

Gorman and McLean (279) note that the formation of new giant media corporations has been partly driven by interests beyond media and primarily driven by profit making. As a result of this, the traditional values of the media such as regard for accuracy and objectivity are lost. For instance, as Gorman and McLean (279) point out, the most successful television programs are made for international distribution, rather than for national consumption. Programs such as movies that contain violent material are considered to travel well, compared to programs that do not contain violent material. For instance, as Harris and Morrison (172) note, within just a few years after deregulation of media systems in 1980s,  nine of the best selling and most successful TV shows including ‘Transformers,’ ‘GI Joes’ and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles were the most violent.  ‘Transformers,’ which was sold worldwide, was shown to have 83 violent acts per hour. This development has also raised questions about the role and responsibilities of the media in the contemporary societies.

Durham and Kellner (687) argue that the growth in global media system allows the hybridization of cultural flows rather than disseminating single homogenous culture. According to Durham, and Kellner (687), this is a historical, temporal, reflexive cultural structuring process, whereby cultures interact over time, mediated by technology, migration and institutional and economic forms. This implies that local cultural elements combine with imported ones and create new forms of culture. Often, the impact goes beyond hybridization and leads to extinction of local languages and culture. The telenovelas exported to the Arab world by Turkey make a successful model of hybridization. They are edited and modeled to fit in the in the Arab World and consequently, they have successfully adapted to the conservative Arab environment both by linguistic transformation and through content metamorphosis.

Some scholars such as Herbart Schiller and Chomsky (cited in Gordon 61) have expressed concern that media globalization has led to negative influence on notational cultures and that it generates cultural imperialism. This implies that since the media plays a central role in shaping cultural practices and processes and since it is dominated by western ownership, the distribution, structure and the content of the media in any one nation are subject to pressure from the media interests of other countries without proportionate reciprocation of influence from the nations so affected. According to Gordon (61) this explains the fact that international communication flows follow neo-colonialist patterns which allow the domination of the less powerful nations by western developed nations. Usually, this compromises the local cultural integrity of the recipient nations.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the globalization of the media is evidenced by the restructuring of the media systems into one global media system. As a result, people all over the world have access to a lot of information that is both local and international. This has been driven by privatization and proliferation of new media technologies and deregulation of the media systems. As a result, the development of global media market and its domination by a handful of large companies, most of them from United States, are leading to transformation of media systems around the world. The ‘circuit of culture’ illuminates the emergence and existence of a new idea or product in the market. As noted in this discussion, one of the most significant effects of media globalization has been the spread and the rising and cumulating domination of commercialized media which leads to destruction of alternative models of broadcasting. Further, these companies have gained a lot of capital, giving them a lot of power and influence both within nations and globally. They thus have more influence and power over audience than individuals and governments. This has given them the potential to spread democratic values,  empower, challenge governments whose authority and power depends on the control of information, and encourage participation by the marginalized groups  and has given rise to hybridization of culture. After taking into account how the media shapes culture and considering the fact that American oligopolies largely control globalization of the media, it would not be misplaced to conclude that media globalization is an imperialistic effort on the part of transnational media corporations.

 

 

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