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It is best if you actually write your SOAP similar to the attachment that I will place here. The Essay

It is best if you actually write your SOAP similar to the attachment that I will place here. The rationale is this: on systems that do not pertain, you will not write N/A, Deferred, or leave Blank. Why is that? Recall in your nursing career when you wrote your documentation and then drew a LINE and then placed your name and credentials. This is very similar. If you leave it blank, someone could falsify your documentation. If you write N/A or Deferred and your documentation shows up in court, you might have to justify why you didn’t ask and perform certain items.

Remember:

Keep it simple.
One complaint.
Do not write WNL or Normal (WNL to me means “We Never Looked”: you are novices, describe what the throat looks like)
Your Subjective Data is only what the patient reports…it is not where you place your evaluations
The Objective data is what you observe: not what the patient reports
Any lab values (Rapid Strep Test, Urinalysis, etc) should be placed with the results in the Objective Data because that helps you decide your diagnosis
Assessment: Is Your Diagnosis (Include ICD 10)
You will then provide 3 Differential Diagnoses (diagnoses that it could be if your Primary is not correct) (Include ICD 10)
Your Differential Diagnoses Cannot be your Actual Diagnosis
Plan
Treatment: document exactly what you give the patient
Patient education
Always remind the patient if symptoms persist or worsen to RTC PRN (this will save you legally)
Reflection
What were your thoughts? Would you do things differently?
References in APA format

2 Artificial intelligence and Sustainability in Tesla Supply Chain Name Institution Course

2

Artificial intelligence and Sustainability in Tesla Supply Chain

Name

Institution

Course

Date

Introduction

Tesla is an American-based company that specializes in the manufacture of electric cars. The company was founded by Elon Musk and Martin Eberhard in 2003 and has remained at the forefront of everything electric ever since (Kumari & Bhat, 2021). Tesla’s first production car, Model S, a luxury sedan known for its speed, performance, and innovative design, was released on July 19, 2012 (Kumari & Bhat, 2021). In 2013, Tesla introduced their most recent Model: Model X. Models S and X are among the fastest accelerating cars today. The Model X goes from 0-to 60 in 3.2 seconds, making it the third-fastest car in its class. In addition to being recognized for their speed and performance, Tesla vehicles are also known for their safety ratings which far exceed those of conventional cars. Tests have shown that during a collision, the impact is dispersed across the entire vehicle’s width rather than at specific points like crumple zones in conventional cars. It is achieved by having rails between each of its four wheels extending from front to back to absorb impacts, thus reducing damage to key parts responsible for driving and braking (Kumari & Bhat, 2021).

Tesla has produced several different models. These vehicles include the Model S, Model X, and the Roadster, built-in 2008 until it was discontinued in 2012. In 2015, Tesla introduced the lower-priced Model 3. The introduction of this car caused a major change for Tesla as they began to move away from premium cars and into mass-market cars by drastically decreasing the price point (Kumari & Bhat, 2021). Today, Tesla’s primary focus is on producing electric cars, but many of their other models are being used as stepping stones to making their electric cars more reliable and appealing to customers alike.

Tesla’s long-term goal is to create a fully electric car that would run on a battery that stores energy from renewable resources such as solar and wind. They have begun working on the Gigafactory in Nevada, USA, which is designed to produce the batteries for their cars. The Gigafactory will be capable of producing batteries for 500,000 vehicles per year (Kumari & Bhat, 2021). The Gigafactory has been cited as one of the largest projects undertaken by an American start-up company, and it is expected to be highly profitable, with an annualized gross profit of $5 billion.

Tesla’s business model can be summarized as follows:

The Model is based on a referral system where customers refer friends and family as a marketing method to existing customers. As a result, Tesla can continually generate new revenue streams. Although Tesla does not have to satisfy their initial customers through direct advertising costs, it does have to build markets for its products by paying for each sale; higher volumes from new sales should eventually offset this cost (EBITDA) (Kumari & Bhat, 2021).

Current Supply Chain Framework

To better understand the current supply chain structure at Tesla, a brief overview of the design of Tesla’s supply chain can be given. With the development of a few core exceptions, Tesla’s supply chain is generally vertical integration in design. It means that the company’s suppliers provide parts and services for multiple production steps instead of having multiple tiers of suppliers. A horizontal supply chain was an intentional goal for Tesla due to its need for rapid development and high production rates. During the design phase of the production process, Tesla will ask suppliers to perform a few tasks to allow them to allocate the supply chain appropriately. One such task is batch-to-batch tracking, whereby all parts are tracked from beginning to end through each produced order. It allows Tesla to capture data such as how long each step takes and how much electricity each step uses for this data to be analyzed for future optimizations. Another task that suppliers will perform during the design phase: is routing, which involves mapping out where all parts are located throughout their facilities to be distributed accordingly based on demand and production rates.

Suppliers

Tesla’s main components are made in various countries. One of the companies that will supply the batteries for the company’s Model 3 is China’s Ganfeng Lithium. Other companies that provide Tesla include Australia’s BHP and Switzerland’s Glencore (Maverick, 2022). These suppliers have been selected as they produce goods superior to those made in the United States. The effect of this supply chain is that when a part or component is imported from overseas, the cost will be far below the cost of production in the United States. To attain a high-quality product at a low price, Tesla has imported its suppliers’ human resources and workers. For example, Tesla has had to import key personnel from Europe, such as its head of engineering and vice president of manufacturing, who oversees its supply chain. The production costs for this wave of employees came at $100 million, which led Tesla to hire more than 800 workers at an average salary level of $114,000 annually.

Tesla’s main manufacturing unit is in Fremont, California, US, with a 5.5 million square meters total floor area. The facility encompasses operational activities such as Assembly of parts, painting, and stamping. The assembly plant requires over two thousand parts from over three hundred suppliers for the Model S only. Most of the design and build are maintained in-house. It benefits the company as they can keep the quality while achieving economies of scale while reducing the dependency on external suppliers. However, this supply chain management plan impacts flexibility.

Tesla’s value chain is composed of various components and services. The company’s main business model is to disrupt the traditional manufacturing industry by developing and delivering innovative products. Its massive Gigafactory 1 is in Nevada and can produce over 500,000 batteries a year. This plant’s vertical integration ensures that its operations are maintained.

Tesla’s base camp is in Fremont, California, with creation and gathering offices in Lathrop, California, and Tilburg, the Netherlands. They work their special Tesla retail storefronts without the need of sellers or promotional firms, disturbing the vehicle business’ conventional deals approach. In 2016, the office delivered only 83,922 autos, bringing about efficiency of under 20% compared to the Toyota-GM organization’s earlier result (which fabricated around 400,000 vehicles). The two Gigafactory facilities in Nevada and New York are helping with the sub-gathering of battery packs.

Through its partnership with Toyota, Tesla has reduced its inventory costs by implementing the Just in time philosophy, which allows it to keep its outbound inventory at a minimal level as it assembles (Boggild, 2016). It eliminates the need for additional space in the finished products. The information system is very important to improve the processes involved in a company’s production and supply chain. It can be used for various purposes such as planning projects, managing contracts, and ensuring that the facility is functioning properly.

Tesla’s core competencies are its people. The company has many highly skilled individuals who are responsible for its various operations. Its collaboration with other tech companies has helped it develop new technologies. Tesla’s vehicles are also equipped with a sophisticated software system called the Computer on Wheels. It makes them incredibly intelligent. The company has partnered with other companies to develop new products and solutions.

Current Supply Chain Challenges

Despite a disruptive and profitable supply chain framework, Tesla faces several challenges in its current supply chain.

Inventory: Tesla’s most pressing issue is insufficient on-hand inventory. It stems from the company’s failure to forecast demand and manufacturing capabilities accurately due to a lack of historical data. Tesla says this has led to significant overstocking, an oversupply of shipments and a loss in revenue, and operational costs that are too high and unsustainable.

Forecasting: Tesla is not employing forecasting tools effectively because its forecasting methods were highly volatile and inconsistent and did not follow accepted scientific standards for best practices. The company also lacked an effective way for cross-functional team collaboration on forecasting. As a result, Tesla was frequently experiencing over shocks in demand and manufacturing, which caused the company financial losses.

Supply Chain Planning: Tesla failed to set realistic targets in its inventory planning and production planning practices. When developing its manufacturing plant, the company did not effectively align capacity, labor, and material requirements. The company also did not have an effective method for forecasting demand that ensured a true understanding of the market. Finally, Tesla did not effectively utilize demand signals to plan accordingly.

Supply and Demand Chain Integration: Tesla is experiencing issues with operational coordination among different supply chain teams and departments. It has led to the uncoupling of its supply chain and demand chain functions, such as inventory management and production planning, resulting in a lack of visibility into demand.

Strategies Inventory control: Tesla’s ability to effectively manage its inventory is one of the prime reasons for its overstocking. As a result of differing departmental effort levels and poor allocation strategies, Tesla’s inventory levels remain excessively high. The company also failed to generate accurate forecasts for raw materials and finished goods, which led to excess inventory during the quarter (Sathish, 2019).

Globalization: Tesla’s need for rapid international growth requires the company to work with many more partners. However, its current supply chain cannot keep up with Tesla’s growing manufacturing needs. As a result, the company is often experiencing operational delays leading to lost revenue and opportunity. Tesla is working to implement new processes and procedures that are more efficient, effective, and scalable. The company is also exploring ways to leverage its vast network of suppliers and distribution centers to reduce costs and increase the pace of innovation.

Supply Chain Processes: The supply chain at Tesla has inefficient processes and procedures and a lack of appropriate analytical tools and expertise to allow for effective coordination at all levels of the supply chain. It has resulted in silos of information and data, which has impeded the cross-functional collaboration necessary to identify and resolve supply chain issues. Supply chain processes also lack visibility into demand signals, which has limited the company’s ability to adjust production and inventory as needed (Sathish, 2019). Tesla needs to invest in its supply chain processes to ensure appropriate visibility and communication throughout the entire supply chain and identify and resolve supply chain issues.

Strategic Sourcing: Tesla has not developed a strategic sourcing strategy. Rather than sourcing strategically, the company is focused on reducing overall cost per unit, which is a reactive approach to purchasing rather than a proactive one. It is an issue as it doesn’t allow all the companies in its supply chain to have an equal opportunity to provide products and services at a fair price.

Transparency: A lack of transparency in Tesla’s supply chain results in mistrust within the company and its supply chain partners, decreasing transparency among industry stakeholders. Its lack of transparency leads to inefficient and unproductive collaboration among stakeholder groups.

Despite putting a lot of effort into eliminating manual interventions during the production stage, Tesla does not seem to be effective in its use of automation. Artificial intelligence is known for being easily manipulated, eliminating all traces of human error. While some companies rely on manual processes, Tesla believes that automation is necessary for their current production line. It may be true as there are certain instances where human intervention and decision making is needed during the process. However, most of their operations rely heavily on individual skills and tasks that require machines to perform those tasks through artificial intelligence. It can be seen in the early stages of production where they are still adding more devices to their facility. It means that Tesla will have to invest a lot in training the machines and operating them correctly.

Tesla is known for its efforts in making eco-friendly products. However, they must be aware that their products are only as green as their electricity. Also, the manufacturing of their batteries and other components must be considered. One of the most important factors that companies can consider when addressing climate change is using renewable energy sources such as wind and solar (Sathish, 2019). It can help reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and improve the supply chain.

Tesla has a significant international presence and is currently penetrating various countries like China, the Netherlands, and China. It may face challenges in these regions due to the potential impact of political instability on its supply chain (Sathish, 2019). For example, in the past, there have been reports of strikes, protests, and other labor-related disruptions in Tesla’s major manufacturing facilities in China. If these events continue to occur, it could significantly impact Tesla’s supply chain. In addition, if there is a political event in the Netherlands, such as the current Dutch government crisis, it could also significantly impact Tesla’s supply chain. (For example, Tesla’s only car production plant in Europe has been in the Netherlands.)

In China, for example, Tesla recently encountered delays in the delivery of Model 3 vehicles from the factory to the distribution centers. The company’s ability to maintain its current production rate in growing demand is critical to its future operating margins. If the company cannot increase its manufacturing capacity, it will risk losing sales to its competitors, who can better manage their supply chains in the face of disruptions in their respective regions.

Implementing Artificial intelligence in Tesla

Artificial intelligence poses advantage in overcoming challenges in supply chain management. Applying AI in supply chain management plays an important role in optimizing supply chains. Tesla can implement artificial intelligence in the following ways:

First, Tesla can create a machine that can learn incrementally rather than being taught everything simultaneously. It would make the process more efficient since it does not have to take up time from the employees. The machine itself will be able to detect problem areas and fix them through its advanced algorithm (Pournader et al., 2021). Therefore, some experts believe that artificial intelligence is a better alternative to human labor because of its ability to solve problems independently and learn continuously.

Tesla has a massive database of big data on its suppliers that can be leveraged to form deep learning neural networks and algorithms for forecasting. The neural network will be able to identify patterns in these data sets and predict future events that may have a long-term impact on their supply chain. Artificial intelligence can also manage the supplier’s capacity utilization rate. It is possible through predictive analytics and machine learning. Tesla can use this when they encounter situations where they need to shift production from one supplier to another (Sathish, 2019). It would involve deep prediction of the future sales and demand for their products. Tesla’s opened an office in China to manage its supply chain operations there.

Tesla is working to improve its forecasting capabilities and reduce overstocking through more accurate planning, more advanced manufacturing, and more efficient logistics. Tesla is also experimenting with new business models and supply chain structures optimized for rapid production and delivery, such as just-in-time manufacturing and fully automated distribution. Tesla is also exploring new ways to utilize its massive network of suppliers and distribution centers, such as manufacturing and delivering parts directly to end customers. Tesla is working to improve its forecasting capabilities and reduce overstocking through more accurate planning, more advanced manufacturing, and more efficient logistics. Tesla is also experimenting with new business models and supply chain structures optimized for rapid production and delivery, such as just-in-time manufacturing and fully automated distribution. Tesla is also exploring new ways to utilize its massive network of suppliers and distribution centers, such as manufacturing and delivering parts directly to end customers. It would allow the company to reduce costs, improve service and increase the pace of innovation (Kumari & Bhat, 2021). It would enable the company to reduce costs, improve service and increase the rate of innovation.

Tesla is known for its eco-friendly approach to vehicle technology. As a result, the company has avoided using toxic chemicals and low-grade materials in the production of its cars, such as batteries, glass, and paint. These factors lead to the production of 100% recyclable and recyclable materials that can be used over again. It has helped the company achieve sustainable business practices important to environmentally conscious companies like Tesla.

Tesla’s “Master Plan, Part Deux,” is an example of its commitment to its environmental responsibility (Boggild, 2016). It talked about the company’s goal to rely on renewable energy to meet its electricity needs for manufacturing and energy storage. The company also expressed its plans to expand into other areas of sustainable energy, such as biotechnology and storage.

Tesla expressed its commitment to be a catalyst in global warming measures by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to zero, one of the objectives outlined in President Obama’s Climate Action Plan. In addition to its green approach, Tesla introduces smart technology in its vehicles for convenience purposes. It includes autonomous driving, allowing car owners to pick up and drop off their passengers without ever touching or interacting with them. It can save a lot of time spent on human interaction and increase the quality of life for people on the road all day.

Tesla has already proven that it can create sustainable products by introducing new technologies into the electric vehicle industry and is one of the fastest-growing car companies today. Tesla has invested in the development of manufacturing processes and is now concentrating on the research and development of new energy-efficient technologies that are crucial to the success of its electric car business.

The supply chain’s long-term viability

A few of the emerging technologies currently in use or under development are relevant to the supply chain. These technologies or trends include Artificial intelligence, Blockchain, Augmented reality and Virtual reality, and the Internet of things. All these technologies will benefit a supply chain in one way or another. And as these technologies develop and become more widespread, there will be many more ways to satisfy our supply chains today and in the future (Holdowsky & Hanley2018, 2018). These technologies can be applied in supply chain management and are described in the following sections. They will provide enhanced capabilities for tracking and managing products, improving efficiencies, automating processes, reducing costs, and increasing productivity.

We can get more out of our existing data sets and make them more useful to supply chain managers with Artificial Intelligence. The benefits include:

Speech recognition is used in the shipping industry. Companies like IBM use speech recognition systems to collate and analyze a large volume of voice data in real-time, for example, to monitor ship-to-shore communications and make them more efficient (Pournader et al., 2021). Speech recognition can also be used onboard ships or trucks as mobile phone apps, translating speech into English or other languages. It can be useful for drivers or seafarers who have difficulty reading maps or operating their phones with flags. It could save lives.

Computer vision (also called visual perception) is the science of controlling machines by feeding information from cameras into a computer system capable of analyzing and interpreting that information or handling some device according to what it sees through the camera lens. Computer vision is processing images, such as photographs, motion pictures, and other information from visual sensors to extract useful information or perform tasks based on what is being seen through the camera lens (Pournader et al., 2021).

Artificial intelligence can be used in supply chains by monitoring and analyzing data collected through the various sensors or devices attached to a supply chain. Certain products or parts could have sensors that monitor temperature, humidity, location, vibration, and movement. The introduction of AI into supply chains will be beneficial for several reasons. The first is that it can save resources by reducing the effort and human expertise required to perform certain tasks (Holdowsky & Hanley2018, 2018). AI algorithms can also be trained to handle different kinds of data sets, so they can do things that are impossible or very difficult with what humans alone could do. Artificial Intelligence will increase efficiency in supply chain management while reducing costs and increasing productivity.

The costs associated with Artificial Intelligence are mainly associated with the time taken to develop it, but they will be beneficial once created and put into use. They include a huge cost in the development of AI software. The initial investment in this can be as much or more than developing a new application for the software. The hardware will also be costly, especially for environments where Artificial Intelligence would run 24/7, so power costs and space are likely to increase (Sathish, 2019). Accelerated processing is another cost associated with Artificial Intelligence: to enable more complex tasks and complex data sets to be analyzed faster, more computing power and memory resources must be added to a system.

Certain externalities support AI technology adoption in supply chain management, including economics, environmental and societal, pollution reduction, natural environment preservation, how we use resources, and the 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle). Societal and ecological perspectives on implementing AI tell us that AI requires the consideration of ethical and legal issues and how to address the impact on human capabilities. One example of how AI is currently being used negatively is in autonomous weapons systems. Another good example is AI being used in robotic cars, which can deliver goods without any assistance or input from a human driver (Holdowsky & Hanley2018, 2018). The ability to decide what to do with the car and where to go also improves efficiency.

Sustainable Practices

Tesla should adopt the Sustainable Supply Chain Management framework, which focuses on the triple-bottom-line concept. This approach involves considering the various domains of the economy and the environment. The three pillars of this framework are risk management, transparency, and strategy & culture. Tesla has also applied the social and environmental performance framework.

Additionally, the company should avoid its suppliers who damage the environment and workers’ rights. Having a proactive supply chain system is very important for Tesla as it will help it manage its risks and improve its efficiency. It can also help it reduce its carbon footprint. It can also involve various stakeholder groups to improve performance.

The company should also implement a social and environmental performance framework and a self-publishing strategy. Tesla should also avoid its suppliers who damage the environment and workers’ rights. The quality management system of Tesla should be based on ISO 9001:2015 standard, which is a specific system for the development of an assurance process to develop goods or services that meet customer requirements.

Developing a culture that is aligned with sustainability initiatives is also a must. Tesla should also invest in developing new materials that can be used to produce more energy-efficient batteries. Doing so will help address the challenge of depleting the lithium reserves.

Tesla should also employ a supply chain management system to facilitate its sustainable practices. The company should improve its existing production capabilities and reduce the cost of manufacturing by producing low-volume models to avoid large losses. It will also help Tesla avoid direct advertising costs.

Tesla has implemented sustainable practices in many areas ranging from quality to their marketing strategies, and is continuously working on other areas such as their supply chain management system and environmental sustainability. Tesla should minimize its carbon emissions by switching to renewable energy. Switching to solar power will help reduce their carbon footprint, and it can be achieved through a service called Powerpacks. Through its subsidiaries, such as SolarCity, Tesla is working on creating an ecosystem that supports sustainable energy options (Boggild, 2016). It should also encourage its customers to use renewable energy sources to recharge their cars.

Tesla has already invested in Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and the Internet of Things. These technologies will help improve the efficiency of its processes. The future of transportation will involve the use of autonomous vehicles. Out of 5 levels of autonomous cars, Tesla has already reached level 3 and is still pushing the envelope further. It contributes to sustainable practices that support the company’s growth (Sathish, 2019).

Tesla has expanded its services to include diverse areas such as energy storage and renewable energy, and hence, it has a diversified business portfolio. Implementing sustainable practices in these areas will help Tesla reduce costs while at the same time maintaining its profitability.

Tesla’s self-publishing strategy is another area where they are helping the environment. It enables them to communicate directly to their customers without spending too much on advertisement costs. Tesla must also adopt policies and procedures that complement its value chain strategies to be environmentally and socially conscious. Employees must be given priority as they are the company’s most lucrative asset (Sathish, 2019). Suppliers must also be involved in the loop between in-house manufacturers and customers to develop a holistic approach. It will help the company consider the three Ps: Planet People and Profit.

Conclusion

Tesla has a vertical integration and a horizontal supply chain that is unique and profitable. However, the company has experienced some bottlenecks in its supply chain framework stemming mainly from a lack of forecasting tools for smooth manufacturing, production, and delivery of its highly sought-after products. Adoption of Artificial Intelligence can avoid the listed bottlenecks and ensure that Tesla becomes a sustainable, environmentally and socially conscious company. There should be close collaboration between the production network’s partners, especially its strategic suppliers. Using the triple bottom line method to have a comprehensive view of the manufacturing network can benefit Tesla in the long run.

References

Boggild, L. (2016). Investors Watch Tesla. Alternatives Journal, 42(3), 11.

Holdowsky, J., & Hanley2018, T. (2018). The supply chain paradox. Deloitte Insights. Retrieved April 23, 2022, from https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/focus/industry-4-0/challenges-on-path-to-digital-transformation/supply-chain-paradox.html

Kumari, D., & Bhat, S. (2021). Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Tesla-A Case Study. International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML), 5(2), 205-218.

Maverick, J. B. (2022, March 16). Who are Tesla’s main suppliers? Investopedia. Retrieved April 23, 2022, from https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/052815/who-are-teslas-tsla-main-suppliers.asp

Pournader, M., Ghaderi, H., Hassanzadegan, A., & Fahimnia, B. (2021). Artificial intelligence applications in supply chain management. International Journal of Production Economics, 241, 108250.

Sathish, S. (2019). Case Study of Tesla.

Artificial intelligence and Sustainability in Tesla Supply Chain Name Institution Course Date

It is best if you actually write your SOAP similar to the attachment that I will place here. The Essay Nursing Assignment Help Artificial intelligence and Sustainability in Tesla Supply Chain

Name

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Date

Introduction

Tesla is an American-based company that specializes in the manufacture of electric cars. The company was founded by Elon Musk and Martin Eberhard in 2003 and has remained at the forefront of everything electric ever since. Tesla’s first production car, Model S, a luxury sedan known for its speed, performance, and innovative design, was released on July 19th, 2012. In 2013, Tesla introduced their most recent Model: Model X. Models S and X are among the fastest accelerating cars today. The Model X goes from 0-to 60 in 3.2 seconds, making it the third-fastest car in its class. In addition to being recognized for their speed and performance, Tesla vehicles are also known for their safety ratings which far exceed those of conventional cars. Tests have shown that during a collision, the impact is dispersed across the entire vehicle’s width rather than at specific points in a manner like crumple zones in conventional cars. It is achieved by having rails between each of its four wheels extending from front to back to absorb impacts, thus reducing damage to key parts responsible for driving and braking.

Tesla has produced several different models. These vehicles include the Model S, Model X, and the Roadster, built-in 2008 until it was discontinued in 2012. In 2015, Tesla introduced the lower-priced Model 3. The introduction of this car caused a major change for Tesla as they began to move away from premium cars and into mass-market cars by drastically decreasing the price point. Today, Tesla’s primary focus is on producing electric cars, but many of their other models are being used as stepping stones to making their electric cars more reliable and appealing to customers alike.

Tesla’s long-term goal is to create a fully electric car that would run on a battery that stores energy from renewable resources such as solar and wind. They have begun working on the Gigafactory in Nevada, USA, which is designed to produce the batteries for their cars. The Gigafactory will be capable of producing batteries for 500,000 vehicles per year. The Gigafactory has been cited as one of the largest projects undertaken by an American start-up company, and it is expected to be highly profitable, with an annualized gross profit of $5 billion.

Tesla’s business model can be summarized as follows:

The Model is based on a referral system where customers refer friends and family as a marketing method to existing customers. As a result, Tesla can continually generate new revenue streams. Although Tesla does not have to satisfy their initial customers through direct advertising costs, it does have to build markets for its products by paying for each sale; higher volumes from new sales should eventually offset this cost (EBITDA).

Current Supply Chain Framework

To better understand the current supply chain structure at Tesla, a brief overview of the design of Tesla’s supply chain can be given. With the development of a few core exceptions, Tesla’s supply chain is generally vertical integration in design. It means that the company’s suppliers provide parts and services for multiple production steps instead of having multiple tiers of suppliers. A horizontal supply chain was an intentional goal for Tesla due to its need for rapid development and high production rates. During the design phase of the production process, Tesla will ask suppliers to perform a few tasks to allow them to allocate the supply chain appropriately. One such task is batch-to-batch tracking, whereby all parts are tracked from beginning to end through each produced order. It allows Tesla to capture data such as how long each step takes and how much electricity each step uses for this data to be analyzed for future optimizations. Another task that suppliers will perform during the design phase: is routing, which involves mapping out where all parts are located throughout their facilities to be distributed accordingly based on demand and production rates.

Suppliers

Most of Tesla’s parts are sourced from abroad. Tesla has plans to make its batteries. An enormous provider of lithium expected for these batteries is China’s Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. Australian mining organization BHP supplies required nickel. Anglo-Swiss organization Glencore gives cobalt. Every one of the three is a Tesla provider. These suppliers have been selected as they produce goods superior to those made in the United States. The effect of this supply chain is that when a part or component is imported from overseas, the cost will be far below the cost of production in the United States. To attain a high-quality product at a low price, Tesla has imported its suppliers’ human resources and workers. For example, Tesla has had to import key personnel from Europe, such as its head of engineering and vice president of manufacturing, who oversees its supply chain. The production costs for this wave of employees came at $100 million, which led Tesla to hire more than 800 workers at an average salary level of $114,000 annually.

Tesla’s main manufacturing unit is in Fremont, California, US, with a 5.5 million square meters total floor area. The facility encompasses operational activities such as Assembly of parts, painting, and stamping. The assembly plant requires over two thousand parts from over three hundred suppliers for the Model S only. Most of the design and build are maintained in-house. It benefits the company as they can keep the quality while achieving economies of scale while reducing the dependency on external suppliers. However, this supply chain management plan impacts flexibility.

Tesla’s value chain consists of design, manufacturing, sales, and distribution service. It poses a unique and disruptive business model. The Tesla Gigafactory 1 is approximately 3.5 million square feet and can produce batteries for over 500,000 automobiles per year. They have lithium-ion battery packs, gearboxes, electric motors, and other components for their numerous automobile models through vertical integration. It guarantees that the plant’s production and operational efficiency are maintained.

Tesla’s base camp is in Fremont, California, with creation and gathering offices in Lathrop, California, and Tilburg, the Netherlands. They work their special Tesla retail storefronts without the need of sellers or promotional firms, disturbing the vehicle business’ conventional deals approach. In 2016, the office delivered only 83,922 autos, bringing about efficiency of under 20% compared to the Toyota-GM organization’s earlier result (which fabricated around 400,000 vehicles). The Gigafactory 1 and 2 in Nevada, California, and The Gigafactory 2 in Buffalo, New York, progressively help in the sub-gathering of battery packs.

Through its partnership with Toyota, Tesla has reduced its inventory costs by implementing the Just in time philosophy, which allows it to keep its outbound inventory at a minimal level as it assembles. It eliminates the need for additional space in the finished products. The information system is very important to improve the processes involved in a company’s production and supply chain. It can be used for various purposes such as planning projects, managing contracts, and ensuring that the facility is functioning properly.

One of Tesla’s core competencies is its people. The company’s main manufacturing facilities are in California’s Silicon Valley. There are a lot of highly skilled and smart individuals working for Tesla. Its collaboration with other companies, such as SpaceX, has been very helpful in helping the company develop new technology. Tesla vehicles are also equipped with an advanced software system known as the Computer on Wheels. It makes them incredibly intelligent. Through its open innovation policy, Tesla has been able to work with other companies that are not traditional auto producers. It allows the company to create new products and solutions for its customers.

Current Supply Chain Challenges

Despite a disruptive and profitable supply chain framework, Tesla faces several challenges in its current supply chain.

Inventory: Tesla’s most pressing issue is insufficient on-hand inventory. It stems from the company’s failure to forecast demand and manufacturing capabilities accurately due to a lack of historical data. Tesla says this has led to significant overstocking, an oversupply of shipments and a loss in revenue, and operational costs that are too high and unsustainable. Tesla is working to improve its forecasting capabilities and reduce overstocking through more accurate planning, more advanced manufacturing, and more efficient logistics. Tesla is also experimenting with new business models and supply chain structures optimized for rapid production and delivery, such as just-in-time manufacturing and fully automated distribution. Tesla is also exploring new ways to utilize its massive network of suppliers and distribution centers, such as manufacturing and delivering parts directly to end customers. It would allow the company to reduce costs, improve service and increase the pace of innovation.

Forecasting: Tesla is not employing forecasting tools effectively because its forecasting methods were highly volatile and inconsistent and did not follow accepted scientific standards for best practices. The company also lacked an effective way for cross-functional team collaboration on forecasting. As a result, Tesla was frequently experiencing over shocks in demand and manufacturing, which caused the company financial losses.

Supply Chain Planning: Tesla failed to set realistic targets in its inventory planning and production planning practices. When developing its manufacturing plant, the company did not effectively align capacity, labor, and material requirements. The company also did not have an effective method for forecasting demand that ensured a true understanding of the market. Finally, Tesla did not effectively utilize demand signals to plan accordingly.

Supply and Demand Chain Integration: Tesla is experiencing issues with operational coordination among different supply chain teams and departments. It has led to the uncoupling of its supply chain and demand chain functions, such as inventory management and production planning, resulting in a lack of visibility into demand.

Strategies Inventory control: Tesla’s ability to effectively manage its inventory is one of the prime reasons for its overstocking. As a result of differing departmental effort levels and poor allocation strategies, Tesla’s inventory levels remain excessively high. The company also failed to generate accurate forecasts for raw materials and finished goods, which led to excess inventory during the quarter.

Globalization: Tesla’s need for rapid international growth requires the company to work with many more partners. However, its current supply chain cannot keep up with Tesla’s growing manufacturing needs. As a result, the company is often experiencing operational delays leading to lost revenue and opportunity. Tesla is working to implement new processes and procedures that are more efficient, effective, and scalable. The company is also exploring ways to leverage its vast network of suppliers and distribution centers to reduce costs and increase the pace of innovation.

Supply Chain Processes: The supply chain at Tesla has inefficient processes and procedures and a lack of appropriate analytical tools and expertise to allow for effective coordination at all levels of the supply chain. It has resulted in silos of information and data, which has impeded the cross-functional collaboration necessary to identify and resolve supply chain issues. Supply chain processes also lack visibility into demand signals, which has limited the company’s ability to adjust production and inventory as needed. Tesla needs to invest in its supply chain processes to ensure appropriate visibility and communication throughout the entire supply chain and identify and resolve supply chain issues as they arise.

Strategic Sourcing: Tesla has not developed a strategic sourcing strategy. Rather than sourcing strategically, the company is focused on reducing overall cost per unit, which is a reactive approach to purchasing rather than a proactive one. It is an issue as it doesn’t allow all the companies in its supply chain to have an equal opportunity to provide products and services at a fair price.

Transparency: A lack of transparency in Tesla’s supply chain results in mistrust within the company and its supply chain partners, but it also decreases transparency among stakeholders in the industry. Its lack of transparency leads to inefficient and unproductive collaboration among stakeholder groups.

Despite putting a lot of effort into eliminating manual interventions during the production stage, Tesla does not seem to be effective in its use of automation. Artificial intelligence is known for being easily manipulated, eliminating all traces of human error. While some companies rely on manual processes, Tesla believes that automation is necessary for their current production line. It may be true as there are certain instances where human intervention and decision making is needed during the process. However, most of their processes rely heavily on individual skills and tasks that require machines to perform those tasks through artificial intelligence. It can be seen in the early stages of production where they are still adding more devices to their facility. It means that Tesla will have to invest a lot in training the machines and operating them correctly.

Tesla is known for its efforts in making eco-friendly products. However, they must be aware that their products are only as green as their electricity. Also, the manufacturing of their batteries and other components must be considered. One of the most important factors that companies can consider when addressing climate change is the use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. It can help reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and improve the supply chain.

Tesla has a significant international presence and is currently penetrating various countries like China, the Netherlands, and China. It may face challenges in these regions due to the potential impact of political instability on its supply chain. For example, in the past, there have been reports of strikes, protests, and other labor-related disruptions in Tesla’s major manufacturing facilities in China. If these events continue to occur, it could significantly impact Tesla’s supply chain. In addition, if there is a political event in the Netherlands, such as the current Dutch government crisis, it could also significantly impact Tesla’s supply chain. (For example, Tesla’s only car production plant in Europe has been in the Netherlands.)

In China, for example, Tesla recently encountered delays in the delivery of Model 3 vehicles from the factory to the distribution centers. The company’s ability to maintain its current production rate in growing demand is critical to its future operating margins. If the company cannot increase its manufacturing capacity, it will be at risk of losing sales to its competitors, who can better manage their supply chains in the face of disruptions in their respective regions.

Implementing Artificial intelligence in Tesla

Artificial intelligence poses advantage in overcoming challenges in supply chain management. Applying AI in supply chain management plays an important role in optimizing supply chains. Tesla can implement artificial intelligence in the following ways:

First, Tesla can create a machine that can learn incrementally rather than being taught everything simultaneously. It would make the process more efficient since it does not have to take up time from the employees. The machine itself will be able to detect problem areas and fix them through its advanced algorithm. Therefore, some experts believe that artificial intelligence is a better alternative to human labor because of its ability to solve problems independently and learn continuously.

Tesla has a massive database of big data on its suppliers that can be leveraged to form deep learning neural networks and algorithms for forecasting. The neural network will be able to identify patterns in these data sets and predict future events that may have a long-term impact on their supply chain.

Artificial intelligence can also manage the supplier’s capacity utilization rate. It is possible through predictive analytics and machine learning. Tesla can use this when they encounter situations where they need to shift production from one supplier to another. It would involve deep prediction of the future sales and demand for their products. Tesla’s opened an office in China to manage its supply chain operations there.

Tesla is known for its eco-friendly approach to vehicle technology. As a result, the company has avoided using toxic chemicals and low-grade materials in the production of its cars, such as batteries, glass, and paint. These factors lead to the production of 100% recyclable and recyclable materials that can be used over again. It has helped the company achieve sustainable business practices important to environmentally conscious companies such as Tesla.

Tesla’s “Master Plan, Part Deux” is an example of its commitment to its environmental responsibility. It talked about the company’s goal to rely on renewable energy to meet its electricity needs for manufacturing and energy storage. The company also expressed its plans to expand into other areas of sustainable energy, such as biotechnology and storage.

Tesla expressed its commitment to be a catalyst in global warming measures by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to zero, one of the objectives outlined in President Obama’s Climate Action Plan. In addition to its green approach, Tesla introduces smart technology in its vehicles for convenience purposes. It includes autonomous driving, which can allow car owners to pick up and drop off their passengers without ever touching or interacting with them. It can save a lot of time spent on human interaction and increase the quality of life for people on the road all day.

Tesla has already proven that it can create sustainable products by introducing new technologies into the electric vehicle industry and is one of the fastest-growing car companies today. Tesla has invested in the development of manufacturing processes and is now concentrating on the research and development of new energy-efficient technologies that are crucial to the success of its electric car business.

The supply chain’s long-term viability

A few of the emerging technologies that are currently in use or under development are relevant to the supply chain. These technologies or trends include Artificial intelligence, Blockchain, Augmented reality and Virtual reality, and the Internet of things. All these technologies will benefit a supply chain in one way or another. And as these technologies develop and become more widespread, there will be many more ways to satisfy our supply chains today and in the future. These technologies can be applied in supply chain management in various ways and are described in the following sections. They will provide enhanced capabilities for tracking and managing products, improving efficiencies, automating processes, reducing costs, and increasing productivity.

We can get more out of our existing data sets and make them more useful to supply chain managers with Artificial Intelligence. The benefits include:

Speech recognition is used in the shipping industry. Companies like IBM use speech recognition systems to collate and analyze a large volume of voice data in real time, for example, to monitor ship-to-shore communications and make them more efficient. Speech recognition can also be used onboard ships or trucks as mobile phone apps, translating speech into English or other languages. It can be useful for drivers or seafarers who have difficulty reading maps or operating their phones with flags. It could save lives.

Computer vision (also called visual perception) is the science of controlling machines by feeding information from cameras into a computer system capable of analyzing and interpreting that information or handling some device according to what it sees through the camera lens. Computer vision is processing images, such as photographs, motion pictures, and other information from visual sensors to extract useful information or perform tasks based on what is being seen through the camera lens.

Artificial intelligence can be used in supply chains by monitoring and analyzing data collected through the various sensors or devices attached to a supply chain. Certain products or parts could have sensors that monitor temperature, humidity, location, vibration, and movement. The introduction of AI into supply chains will be beneficial for several reasons. The first is that it can save resources by reducing the effort and human expertise required to perform certain tasks. AI algorithms can also be trained to handle different kinds of data sets, so they can do things that are not possible or very difficult with what humans alone could do. Artificial Intelligence will increase efficiency in supply chain management while reducing costs and increasing productivity.

The costs associated with Artificial Intelligence are mainly associated with the time taken to develop the Artificial Intelligence, but they will be beneficial once created and put into use. They include: A huge cost is the development of the AI software. The initial investment in this can be as much or more than developing a new application for the software. The hardware will also be costly, especially for environments where Artificial Intelligence would run 24/7, so power costs and space are likely to increase. Accelerated processing is another cost associated with Artificial Intelligence: to enable more complex tasks and complex data sets to be analyzed faster, more computing power and memory resources must be added to a system.

Certain externalities support AI technology adoption in supply chain management, including economics, environmental and societal, pollution reduction, natural environment preservation, how we use resources, and the 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle). Societal and ecological perspectives on implementing AI tell us that AI requires the consideration of ethical and legal issues and how to address the impact on human capabilities. One example of how AI is currently being used negatively is in autonomous weapons systems. Another good example is expert systems that doctors use to make certain decisions about treatment plans for patients.

An example is AI being used in robotic cars, which can deliver goods without any assistance or input from a human driver. The ability to make decisions about what to do with the car and where to go also improves efficiency.

Sustainable Practices

Tesla should adopt the Sustainable Supply Chain Management framework, which focuses on the triple-bottom-line concept. This approach involves considering the various domains of the economy and the environment. The three pillars of this framework are risk management, transparency, and strategy & culture. Tesla has also applied the social and environmental performance framework.

Additionally, the company should avoid its suppliers who damage the environment and workers’ rights. Having a proactive supply chain system is very important for Tesla as it will help it manage its risks and improve its efficiency. It can also help it reduce its carbon footprint. It can also involve various stakeholder groups to improve performance.

The company should also implement a social and environmental performance framework and a self-publishing strategy. Tesla should also avoid its suppliers who damage the environment and workers’ rights. The quality management system of Tesla should be based on ISO 9001:2015 standard, which is a specific system for the development of an assurance process to develop goods or services that meet customer requirements.

Developing a culture that is aligned with sustainability initiatives is also a must. Tesla should also invest in developing new materials that can be used to produce more energy-efficient batteries. Doing so will help address the challenge of depleting the lithium reserves.

Tesla should also employ a supply chain management system to facilitate its sustainable practices. The company should improve its existing production capabilities and reduce the cost of manufacturing by producing low-volume models to avoid large losses. It will also help Tesla avoid direct advertising costs.

Tesla has implemented sustainable practices in many areas ranging from quality to their marketing strategies, and is continuously working on other areas such as their supply chain management system and environmental sustainability.

Tesla should minimize its carbon emissions by switching to renewable energy. Switching to solar power will help reduce their carbon footprint, and It can be achieved through a service called Powerpacks. Through its subsidiaries, such as SolarCity, Tesla is working on creating an ecosystem that supports sustainable energy options. It should also encourage its customers to use renewable energy sources to recharge their cars.

Tesla has already invested in Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and the Internet of Things. These technologies will help improve the efficiency of its processes. The future of transportation will involve the use of autonomous vehicles. Out of 5 levels of autonomous cars, Tesla has already reached level 3 and is still pushing the envelope further. It contributes to sustainable practices that support the growth of the company.

Tesla has expanded its services to include diverse areas such as energy storage and renewable energy, and hence, it has a diversified business portfolio. Implementing sustainable practices in these areas will help Tesla reduce costs while at the same time maintaining its profitability.

Tesla’s self-publishing strategy is another area where they are helping the environment. It enables them to communicate directly to their customers without spending too much on advertisement costs.

Tesla must also adopt policies and procedures that complement its value chain strategies to be environmentally and socially conscious. Employees must be given priority as they are the company’s most lucrative asset. Suppliers must also be involved in the loop between in-house manufacturers and customers to develop a holistic approach. It will help the company consider the three Ps; Planet People and Profit.

4 1 Intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education Student’s Name Institutional

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Intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Number and Name

Instructor Name

Date

Introduction

Background

The world is turning into a global village, hence the need of understanding different languages to foster knowledge and communication among individuals. Foreign language education has become a significant part of the education curriculum in different countries across the globe. However, intercultural communication competencies have become essential in foreign language education. However, other studies have disputed the relationship between intercultural communication competencies and foreign language education, thus the need of exploring the area.

Components of intercultural communication competence

Intercultural communication competence (ICC) refers to communicating effectively and appropriately in diversified cultural contexts. Different components make up ICC. One of the most outstanding ones includes motivation, self and other knowledge, and the ability to tolerate uncertainty. 

Motivation refers to the cause of a person’s urge to foster intercultural relationships. These can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. When a person has a healthy curiosity that makes them want to be part of a particular culture, they will be willing to learn about themselves and others. It means that they have an intrinsic type of motivation. It is also evident that motivation can also be extrinsic (Young & Sachdev, 2011). It occurs when one desires intercultural communication because of rewards associated with the same, such as money, recognition, and power. Studies have shown that members that come from dominated groups have a lower level of motivation to engage in intercultural communication competence education than those from non-dominant groups. They always don’t see the benefits associated with doing such. 

Knowledge improves motivation and forms an essential part of building ICC. Knowledge always includes self and other awareness. It also involves being mindful and having cognitive flexibility. Developing knowledge about own culture, identities, and communication patterns are more than just having a passive experience. The most important way of developing other knowledge has been through direct interaction with people from other cultures. However, individuals may not have these chances available because of a number of reasons. People tend to group themselves depending on their cultural differences. Those with similar cultures tend to relate well with one another compared to people from other cultures. With the limited chances of appreciating other cultures, one of the fundamental ways of doing so has been through learning other people’s languages through scholarly sources. Learning another language is an excellent way one can use to have more information about a particular culture. With a proper understanding of a language, one can interact with news or watch movies people’s first language, thus helping get insights usually lost through translation. 

Intercultural Competence vs intercultural communication competencies

Intercultural Competence refers to the ability to function effectively across different cultures, think, act accordingly, communicate and work with people from different cultural backgrounds, whether at home or abroad. It is a valuable asset globally that is significantly becoming globalized (Gong et al., 2018). People are more likely to interact with people from different cultures and countries. Different experiences, values and beliefs shape people from different parts of the world. 

Intercultural Competence is part of different concepts, including global Competence, employability skills, global citizenship, and education for sustainable development. Recognition of globalization as a force for change is one aspect that brings about the need for intercultural competencies among individuals. 

On the other hand, intercultural communication competencies refer to the skills that one requires for them to be in a position to share information with other people from different social groups. It requires an understanding that various cultures have different standards, social norms and thought patterns (Piątkowska, 2015). It is, therefore, essential for one to be in a position to understand these differences and accept them to improve communication. Therefore, one should be able to adapt to all the differences that those from other cultures might exhibit to improve cooperation and collaboration. 

Intercultural contact vs study abroad

Studying abroad is one of the essential components of globalization. People are moving from one country to another and continent to another to undertake their studies. In the process, they interact with people from different cultures, which leads to intercultural contact. Intercultural contact occurs when people from different cultural backgrounds have political or economic exchanges in a different cultural space (Romanowski, 2017). Institutions of learning have been the places where people from different cultures have been in a position to interact. Every person comes into contact with the perceptions they have been living with for a long time about themselves and others. 

Foreign language education

Foreign language education refers to teaching a modern language that is not official and the mother tongue of a given population where it is taught. Studies have shown that teaching a foreign language can ensure that people respect other people. It can easily help one understand one’s culture and appreciate the differences among various cultures. It expands one’s view of the world, and one’s experiences are liberalized and made more flexible. 

Problem statement

The chances of meeting people from different cultures have increased rapidly due to globalization. The action has led to the need for foreign language education to enhance communication and interaction among people. Learning the most dominant languages is an area being pursued by different people across the globe. However, the learning has been dramatically affected by cultures exhibited by the natives of these cultures. Their studies showed that some people are not willing to study a particular foreign language because of the cultural differences they perceive natives in those respective foreign languages have, which do not match their daily values, beliefs, and norms. However, specific studies have refuted the fact that the urge to learn a particular foreign language can be associated with intercultural competencies. There has, therefore, been a gap in understanding the relationship between intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education, thus the need to undertake the study. 

Including or not including intercultural communication competencies in foreign education has also been a significant issue surrounding foreign language education (Reid, 2015). Other studies have explained that learning a foreign language is not only about mastery of the linguistics of the language but also involves considering cultural dimensions. For instance, in a study that involved 424 teachers across the globe, others appreciated the intercultural competencies being part of the foreign language education while others had a contrary opinion. It was, therefore, not clear to have a final finding on the position that reflected the truth. It was a study that left a gap that needed to be addressed. Understanding how intercultural communication competencies are essential in foreign education is something worth pursuing to help in addressing different views that have been noted in previous studies. 

Significance of the study

As the world evolves and becomes a global village, things are moving from just understanding one’s language to appreciating their language and culture. Therefore, intercultural communication competencies become of great importance in foreign language education. It is essential to undertake studies that will help provide positive feedback and dispel any myths surrounding intercultural communication in foreign language education. Therefore, the study is of great importance in finding the need to involve intercultural communication competencies in teaching a foreign language. 

The study is essential as it will help in determining whether it is essential to involve intercultural communication competencies in teaching and learning foreign languages or not. It will help assess previous studies and try to fill the gap in the differences encountered. 

General objectives

To determine the importance of integrating intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education 

Specific objectives

To determine teachers’ views on including the intercultural dimension in foreign language education.

To assess the knowledge of the importance of including intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education.

To assess understanding of intercultural competencies and intercultural communication competencies.

Scope of the literature review

The literature review will focus on the relationship between intercultural communication competencies and foreign language education. It will focus on understanding various studies undertaken to integrate intercultural competencies in foreign language education. Studies that touch on foreign language education and its focus on intercultural recognition will be considered. Initially, foreign education focused on linguistic competencies. Today, intercultural competencies are also becoming a significant issue of concern based on different undertaken studies. 

Literature review

One of the most significant changes that have occurred in teaching and learning foreign languages has been the understanding and appreciation of cultural dimensions as a critical factor in learning. The change has played a significant role in transforming the nature of the experience in teaching and learning a foreign language. The objective of teaching and learning a foreign language has shifted from defining it in terms of acquisition of communicative Competence in a foreign language. Rather, it has also centered on intercultural Competence. The ability of an individual to learn a given language has been associated with the ability of the person to behave in a flexible way when encountered with actions, attitudes, and expectations of the foreign language being represented. It is, therefore, evidence that for a person to be said to know a particular language, one should be in a person to have communication competencies and intercultural competencies in the same language. As explained by Byram et al. (2013), the success of interaction means good interchange of information and the ability to decenter and take up other people’s perspectives based on their culture.

The intercultural dimension in learning and teaching foreign languages has become a significant concern among teachers and researchers. Studies of intercultural communication and those in social psychology have provided meaningful insights into the linguistic, social skills, and essential knowledge required to communicate effectively and appropriately in areas where intercultural contact occurs. 

The intercultural aspect of teaching and learning a foreign language emphasizes effective cross-cultural communication based on the acquisition of critical competencies in intercultural communication. 

According to Jokikokko (2005), intercultural Competence refers to the ethical orientation where specific morally right ways of thinking and acting correctly are stated. Other studies have also pointed out that the primary goal of teaching based on the intercultural approach is on the target cultures and includes comparisons between the learner’s own country and that of a target country. The action plays a role in helping learners to develop a reflective attitude on their culture and that of their countries. Educating students in a second language means preparing them to look at other people’s cultures and the need to respect and live with them. Another study pointed out that only students who accept other cultures and feel they can freely interact with other people become successful in learning a second or foreign language. 

In foreign education, a learner is looked at as an intercultural speaker who is specialized in one way or another in the transit of cultural property as well as symbolic norms and values. Changing to focus on the intercultural aspect of foreign language education, according to Yueqin (2013), entails a change in the expectations given to foreign language teachers. Teachers have a role of not only teaching the foreign linguistic code but also helping the learners understand the code in relation to the socio-cultural background associated with the foreign languages and play a role in the acquisition of intercultural communicative competencies (Derin et al., 2009). The teacher has the role of acting as a mediator between the native language and the target language cultures to help the learners realize their goals. As a way of supporting the intercultural learning process Galante (2015) explains that teachers need to have additional knowledge, attitudes, competencies and skills that will help them integrate intercultural communication competencies in the teaching of foreign languages. They need to have basic insights from cultural anthropology and intercultural communication to teach intercultural Competence and know-how to orient and lead their students into the same.

In a study that involved 16 Chinese teachers in getting their views on teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), it came out clear that these teachers supported the role of culture in their EPL learning but insisted on the need to provide a greater understanding on how to pay a lot of attention ion how to focus on culture in their EFL classes. Sercu (2002) also went ahead in assessing how foreign language teachers advocate for the integration of intercultural communication competencies in the teaching of foreign languages. In a study that involved Flemish, French, German, and English teachers, it came out clear that teachers supported adding intercultural objectives and were willing to support the aim of the acquisition of intercultural communication competencies through the teaching of foreign languages. The analysis of data showed that Flemish teachers were willing to support the aim of undertaking interculturizing of foreign language and were willing to become teachers who supported intercultural communication competencies among students. In a study undertaken by Castro et al. (2004), the extent of Spanish teachers’ involvement in trying to attain intercultural competencies among students was evaluated. It came out clear that Spanish teachers in foreign education were working hard to attain intercultural objectives in foreign language education. 

Another study by Sercu et al. (2005) was undertaken to describe teachers in terms of how they perceive intercultural competence teaching and actual teaching practices without considering the country of origin of these teachers. The international study comprised a total of 424 teachers from seven different countries (Sercu et al., 2005). The result findings portrayed two important profiles of teachers. The first was a profile comprised of teachers who were favorably disposed and who believed in the need to integrate culture into the teaching of students. Another profile was made up of teachers who were unfavorably disposed of and did not believe in the need to integrate intercultural education into foreign language teaching. The study, therefore, depicted that there was no clear understanding of what teachers preferred as far as integrating intercultural practices in the teaching of foreign language. 

Another research that involved Turkish teachers revealed that little research exists on how the teachers of English look at intercultural competence teaching and how they feel it can help in the general interaction. A study involving 65 teachers from Turkey found that teachers were aware of the importance of integrating cultural dimensions in language learning. However, they also noted that they had insufficient knowledge on how they could go about the teaching culture in the teaching process. They noted that the process was somehow more engaging than they could think (Atay, 2005).   

Research into innovations in education has found that teachers’ perceptions, preferences, and beliefs determine how successful the innovation can become. It is important to understand teachers’ conceptions to have a clear view of why there is an advocacy to integrate intercultural communication competencies in teaching a foreign language. It is essential to get the opinions and how changes need to be initiated to increase foreign language education in a rapidly growing world into a village. 

Different researchers have noted that different teachers do not appreciate the need to teach intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education, as mentioned earlier. Those with this view believe that, in most cases, learning a foreign language is meant to serve the purpose of ensuring communication among people from different cultures. The communication realized in this scenario is meant to meet a particular purpose. For instance, if people engage in study abroad programs, the main of foreign education will only be to ensure good interaction as people continue with their respective studies. The issue of appreciating people’s culture needs to be impeded in other studies, such as culture and diversity but not in foreign language education. It is also clear that some of the teachers who teach foreign languages have little knowledge of cultures in these respective languages. It means that advising them to focus on the intercultural dimension as well will make the teaching process difficult. Studies, therefore, insist that foreign language education and intercultural communication competencies need to be separated and taught differently. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Atay, D. (2005).Reflections on the cultural dimension of language teaching. Language and Intercultural Communication, 5(3, 4), 222-237

Byram, M., Holmes, P., & Savvides, N. (2013). Intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education: Questions of theory, practice and research. The Language Learning Journal, 41(3), 251-253.

Castro, P., Sercu, L. & Garcia, M. C. M. (2004). Integrating language-and-culture teaching: an investigation of Spanish teachers’ perceptions of the objectives of foreign language education. Intercultural Education, 15(1), 91-104.

Derin, A. T. A. Y., Gökçe, K. U. R. T., Çamlibel, Z., & Ersin, P. (2009). The role of intercultural competence in foreign language teaching. İnönü üniversitesi eğitim fakültesi dergisi, 10(3).

Galante, A. (2015). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching: Towards validation of student identity. BELT-Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal, 6(1), 29-39.

Gong, Y., Hu, X., & Lai, C. (2018). Chinese as a second language teachers’ cognition in teaching intercultural communicative competence. System, 78, 224-233.

Jokikokko, J. (2005). Interculturally trained Finnish teachers’ conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence. Intercultural Education, 16, 69-93.

Piątkowska, K. (2015). From cultural knowledge to intercultural communicative competence: changing perspectives on the role of culture in foreign language teaching. Intercultural Education, 26(5), 397-408.

Reid, E. (2015). Techniques developing intercultural communicative competences in English language lessons. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 939-943.

Romanowski, P. (2017). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching in Polish state colleges. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sercu, L. (2002) In-service teacher training and the acquisition of intercultural competence. In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sercu, L., Bandura, E., Castro, P., Davcheva, L., Laskaridou, C., Lundgren, U., Mendez García, M., & Ryan, P. (2005). Foreign language teachers and Intercultural Competence: An international investigation. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education, 10. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Young, T. J., & Sachdev, I. (2011). Intercultural communicative competence: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language awareness, 20(2), 81-98.

Yueqin, H. A. N. (2013). Research on fostering intercultural communication competence of foreign language learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 9(1), 5-12.

13 1 Intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education Student’s Name Institutional

13

1

Intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Number and Name

Instructor Name

Date

Introduction

Background

The world is turning into a global village, hence the need of understanding different languages to foster knowledge and communication among individuals. Foreign language education has become a significant part of the education curriculum in different countries across the globe. However, intercultural communication competencies have become essential in foreign language education. However, other studies have disputed the relationship between intercultural communication competencies and foreign language education, thus the need of exploring the area.

Components of intercultural communication competence

Intercultural communication competence (ICC) refers to communicating effectively and appropriately in diversified cultural contexts. Different components make up ICC. One of the most outstanding ones includes motivation, self and other knowledge, and the ability to tolerate uncertainty. 

Motivation refers to the cause of a person’s urge to foster intercultural relationships. These can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. When a person has a healthy curiosity that makes them want to be part of a particular culture, they will be willing to learn about themselves and others. It means that they have an intrinsic type of motivation. It is also evident that motivation can also be extrinsic (Young & Sachdev, 2011). It occurs when one desires intercultural communication because of rewards associated with the same, such as money, recognition, and power. Studies have shown that members that come from dominated groups have a lower level of motivation to engage in intercultural communication competence education than those from non-dominant groups. They always don’t see the benefits associated with doing such. 

Knowledge improves motivation and forms an essential part of building ICC. Knowledge always includes self and other awareness. It also involves being mindful and having cognitive flexibility. Developing knowledge about own culture, identities, and communication patterns are more than just having a passive experience. The most important way of developing other knowledge has been through direct interaction with people from other cultures. However, individuals may not have these chances available because of a number of reasons. People tend to group themselves depending on their cultural differences. Those with similar cultures tend to relate well with one another compared to people from other cultures. With the limited chances of appreciating other cultures, one of the fundamental ways of doing so has been through learning other people’s languages through scholarly sources. Learning another language is an excellent way one can use to have more information about a particular culture. With a proper understanding of a language, one can interact with news or watch movies people’s first language, thus helping get insights usually lost through translation. 

Intercultural Competence vs intercultural communication competencies

Intercultural Competence refers to the ability to function effectively across different cultures, think, act accordingly, communicate and work with people from different cultural backgrounds, whether at home or abroad. It is a valuable asset globally that is significantly becoming globalized (Gong et al., 2018). People are more likely to interact with people from different cultures and countries. Different experiences, values and beliefs shape people from different parts of the world. 

Intercultural Competence is part of different concepts, including global Competence, employability skills, global citizenship, and education for sustainable development. Recognition of globalization as a force for change is one aspect that brings about the need for intercultural competencies among individuals. 

On the other hand, intercultural communication competencies refer to the skills that one requires for them to be in a position to share information with other people from different social groups. It requires an understanding that various cultures have different standards, social norms and thought patterns (Piątkowska, 2015). It is, therefore, essential for one to be in a position to understand these differences and accept them to improve communication. Therefore, one should be able to adapt to all the differences that those from other cultures might exhibit to improve cooperation and collaboration. 

Intercultural contact vs study abroad

Studying abroad is one of the essential components of globalization. People are moving from one country to another and continent to another to undertake their studies. In the process, they interact with people from different cultures, which leads to intercultural contact. Intercultural contact occurs when people from different cultural backgrounds have political or economic exchanges in a different cultural space (Romanowski, 2017). Institutions of learning have been the places where people from different cultures have been in a position to interact. Every person comes into contact with the perceptions they have been living with for a long time about themselves and others. 

Foreign language education

Foreign language education refers to teaching a modern language that is not official and the mother tongue of a given population where it is taught. Studies have shown that teaching a foreign language can ensure that people respect other people. It can easily help one understand one’s culture and appreciate the differences among various cultures. It expands one’s view of the world, and one’s experiences are liberalized and made more flexible. 

Problem statement

The chances of meeting people from different cultures have increased rapidly due to globalization. The action has led to the need for foreign language education to enhance communication and interaction among people. Learning the most dominant languages is an area being pursued by different people across the globe. However, the learning has been dramatically affected by cultures exhibited by the natives of these cultures. Their studies showed that some people are not willing to study a particular foreign language because of the cultural differences they perceive natives in those respective foreign languages have, which do not match their daily values, beliefs, and norms. However, specific studies have refuted the fact that the urge to learn a particular foreign language can be associated with intercultural competencies. There has, therefore, been a gap in understanding the relationship between intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education, thus the need to undertake the study. 

Including or not including intercultural communication competencies in foreign education has also been a significant issue surrounding foreign language education (Reid, 2015). Other studies have explained that learning a foreign language is not only about mastery of the linguistics of the language but also involves considering cultural dimensions. For instance, in a study that involved 424 teachers across the globe, others appreciated the intercultural competencies being part of the foreign language education while others had a contrary opinion. It was, therefore, not clear to have a final finding on the position that reflected the truth. It was a study that left a gap that needed to be addressed. Understanding how intercultural communication competencies are essential in foreign education is something worth pursuing to help in addressing different views that have been noted in previous studies. 

Significance of the study

As the world evolves and becomes a global village, things are moving from just understanding one’s language to appreciating their language and culture. Therefore, intercultural communication competencies become of great importance in foreign language education. It is essential to undertake studies that will help provide positive feedback and dispel any myths surrounding intercultural communication in foreign language education. Therefore, the study is of great importance in finding the need to involve intercultural communication competencies in teaching a foreign language. 

The study is essential as it will help in determining whether it is essential to involve intercultural communication competencies in teaching and learning foreign languages or not. It will help assess previous studies and try to fill the gap in the differences encountered. 

General objectives

To determine the importance of integrating intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education 

Specific objectives

To determine teachers’ views on including the intercultural dimension in foreign language education.

To assess the knowledge of the importance of including intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education.

To assess understanding of intercultural competencies and intercultural communication competencies.

Scope of the literature review

The literature review will focus on the relationship between intercultural communication competencies and foreign language education. It will focus on understanding various studies undertaken to integrate intercultural competencies in foreign language education. Studies that touch on foreign language education and its focus on intercultural recognition will be considered. Initially, foreign education focused on linguistic competencies. Today, intercultural competencies are also becoming a significant issue of concern based on different undertaken studies. 

Literature review

One of the most significant changes that have occurred in teaching and learning foreign languages has been the understanding and appreciation of cultural dimensions as a critical factor in learning. The change has played a significant role in transforming the nature of the experience in teaching and learning a foreign language. The objective of teaching and learning a foreign language has shifted from defining it in terms of acquisition of communicative Competence in a foreign language. Rather, it has also centered on intercultural Competence. The ability of an individual to learn a given language has been associated with the ability of the person to behave in a flexible way when encountered with actions, attitudes, and expectations of the foreign language being represented. It is, therefore, evidence that for a person to be said to know a particular language, one should be in a person to have communication competencies and intercultural competencies in the same language. As explained by Byram et al. (2013), the success of interaction means good interchange of information and the ability to decenter and take up other people’s perspectives based on their culture.

The intercultural dimension in learning and teaching foreign languages has become a significant concern among teachers and researchers. Studies of intercultural communication and those in social psychology have provided meaningful insights into the linguistic, social skills, and essential knowledge required to communicate effectively and appropriately in areas where intercultural contact occurs. 

The intercultural aspect of teaching and learning a foreign language emphasizes effective cross-cultural communication based on the acquisition of critical competencies in intercultural communication. 

According to Jokikokko (2005), intercultural Competence refers to the ethical orientation where specific morally right ways of thinking and acting correctly are stated. Other studies have also pointed out that the primary goal of teaching based on the intercultural approach is on the target cultures and includes comparisons between the learner’s own country and that of a target country. The action plays a role in helping learners to develop a reflective attitude on their culture and that of their countries. Educating students in a second language means preparing them to look at other people’s cultures and the need to respect and live with them. Another study pointed out that only students who accept other cultures and feel they can freely interact with other people become successful in learning a second or foreign language. 

In foreign education, a learner is looked at as an intercultural speaker who is specialized in one way or another in the transit of cultural property as well as symbolic norms and values. Changing to focus on the intercultural aspect of foreign language education, according to Yueqin (2013), entails a change in the expectations given to foreign language teachers. Teachers have a role of not only teaching the foreign linguistic code but also helping the learners understand the code in relation to the socio-cultural background associated with the foreign languages and play a role in the acquisition of intercultural communicative competencies (Derin et al., 2009). The teacher has the role of acting as a mediator between the native language and the target language cultures to help the learners realize their goals. As a way of supporting the intercultural learning process Galante (2015) explains that teachers need to have additional knowledge, attitudes, competencies and skills that will help them integrate intercultural communication competencies in the teaching of foreign languages. They need to have basic insights from cultural anthropology and intercultural communication to teach intercultural Competence and know-how to orient and lead their students into the same.

In a study that involved 16 Chinese teachers in getting their views on teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), it came out clear that these teachers supported the role of culture in their EPL learning but insisted on the need to provide a greater understanding on how to pay a lot of attention ion how to focus on culture in their EFL classes. Sercu (2002) also went ahead in assessing how foreign language teachers advocate for the integration of intercultural communication competencies in the teaching of foreign languages. In a study that involved Flemish, French, German, and English teachers, it came out clear that teachers supported adding intercultural objectives and were willing to support the aim of the acquisition of intercultural communication competencies through the teaching of foreign languages. The analysis of data showed that Flemish teachers were willing to support the aim of undertaking interculturizing of foreign language and were willing to become teachers who supported intercultural communication competencies among students. In a study undertaken by Castro et al. (2004), the extent of Spanish teachers’ involvement in trying to attain intercultural competencies among students was evaluated. It came out clear that Spanish teachers in foreign education were working hard to attain intercultural objectives in foreign language education. 

Another study by Sercu et al. (2005) was undertaken to describe teachers in terms of how they perceive intercultural competence teaching and actual teaching practices without considering the country of origin of these teachers. The international study comprised a total of 424 teachers from seven different countries (Sercu et al., 2005). The result findings portrayed two important profiles of teachers. The first was a profile comprised of teachers who were favorably disposed and who believed in the need to integrate culture into the teaching of students. Another profile was made up of teachers who were unfavorably disposed of and did not believe in the need to integrate intercultural education into foreign language teaching. The study, therefore, depicted that there was no clear understanding of what teachers preferred as far as integrating intercultural practices in the teaching of foreign language. 

Another research that involved Turkish teachers revealed that little research exists on how the teachers of English look at intercultural competence teaching and how they feel it can help in the general interaction. A study involving 65 teachers from Turkey found that teachers were aware of the importance of integrating cultural dimensions in language learning. However, they also noted that they had insufficient knowledge on how they could go about the teaching culture in the teaching process. They noted that the process was somehow more engaging than they could think (Atay, 2005).   

Research into innovations in education has found that teachers’ perceptions, preferences, and beliefs determine how successful the innovation can become. It is important to understand teachers’ conceptions to have a clear view of why there is an advocacy to integrate intercultural communication competencies in teaching a foreign language. It is essential to get the opinions and how changes need to be initiated to increase foreign language education in a rapidly growing world into a village. 

Different researchers have noted that different teachers do not appreciate the need to teach intercultural communication competencies in foreign language education, as mentioned earlier. Those with this view believe that, in most cases, learning a foreign language is meant to serve the purpose of ensuring communication among people from different cultures. The communication realized in this scenario is meant to meet a particular purpose. For instance, if people engage in study abroad programs, the main of foreign education will only be to ensure good interaction as people continue with their respective studies. The issue of appreciating people’s culture needs to be impeded in other studies, such as culture and diversity but not in foreign language education. It is also clear that some of the teachers who teach foreign languages have little knowledge of cultures in these respective languages. It means that advising them to focus on the intercultural dimension as well will make the teaching process difficult. Studies, therefore, insist that foreign language education and intercultural communication competencies need to be separated and taught differently. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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Byram, M., Holmes, P., & Savvides, N. (2013). Intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education: Questions of theory, practice and research. The Language Learning Journal, 41(3), 251-253.

Castro, P., Sercu, L. & Garcia, M. C. M. (2004). Integrating language-and-culture teaching: an investigation of Spanish teachers’ perceptions of the objectives of foreign language education. Intercultural Education, 15(1), 91-104.

Derin, A. T. A. Y., Gökçe, K. U. R. T., Çamlibel, Z., & Ersin, P. (2009). The role of intercultural competence in foreign language teaching. İnönü üniversitesi eğitim fakültesi dergisi, 10(3).

Galante, A. (2015). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching: Towards validation of student identity. BELT-Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal, 6(1), 29-39.

Gong, Y., Hu, X., & Lai, C. (2018). Chinese as a second language teachers’ cognition in teaching intercultural communicative competence. System, 78, 224-233.

Jokikokko, J. (2005). Interculturally trained Finnish teachers’ conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence. Intercultural Education, 16, 69-93.

Piątkowska, K. (2015). From cultural knowledge to intercultural communicative competence: changing perspectives on the role of culture in foreign language teaching. Intercultural Education, 26(5), 397-408.

Reid, E. (2015). Techniques developing intercultural communicative competences in English language lessons. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 939-943.

Romanowski, P. (2017). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching in Polish state colleges. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sercu, L. (2002) In-service teacher training and the acquisition of intercultural competence. In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sercu, L., Bandura, E., Castro, P., Davcheva, L., Laskaridou, C., Lundgren, U., Mendez García, M., & Ryan, P. (2005). Foreign language teachers and Intercultural Competence: An international investigation. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education, 10. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Young, T. J., & Sachdev, I. (2011). Intercultural communicative competence: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language awareness, 20(2), 81-98.

Yueqin, H. A. N. (2013). Research on fostering intercultural communication competence of foreign language learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 9(1), 5-12.