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Introduction to the Reflective Journal A reflective journal is simply a record of your thoughts. It is a reflection

Introduction to the Reflective Journal
A reflective journal is simply a record of your thoughts. It is a reflection of the way you think and the
manner in which you respond to your learning.
Journals can consist of traditional note taking, mind maps, pictures, stream-of-consciousness writing,
recordings, quotes, sketches, or drawings: whatever you choose to include. Experiment and have fun.
The purpose of journaling is to make you an active participant in your learning experiences as you
engage in the various activities throughout the course’s readings, activities, and discussions with your
instructor and your fellow students. Reflecting upon these learning events will help you gain a deeper
understanding of the course materials and help integrate your learning into applied practice in your
everyday life and work.
Throughout the course, we will remind you to write in your journal, as we want to be sure you are
actively learning the material. To assist you, we have provided you with questions you can ask yourself
in order to get your creative energies flowing. Reflective journaling is an activity you can and should
complete on a regular or daily basis, even outside of our scheduled course activities.
Common Questions Used for Reflective Journaling
• In your view, what were the most important points in the readings, videoclips, or discussions
with your fellow students and instructor?
• What information did you already know?
• What new knowledge, ideas, or perspectives have you gained?
• What information was easy to remember or learn? Why?
• What concepts did you find more difficult? Why?
• How can you apply this knowledge to your work or current experience?
• How has this knowledge helped you to make sense of your current or previous experience?
• Has your understanding of a personal or work-related situation changed after studying these
• Did you agree or disagree with any of the material? If yes, how did you react and why?
• If you could have the opportunity to engage in further learning, what would it be?
• What further questions would like to ask the author of your readings?
• What other articles, books or discussions would be of interest?
For any journal assignments in your courses, please refer to the specific questions and/or grading
criteria to help you in your writing.





NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Impaired Skin Integrity r/t physical immobility and malnutrition AEB pressure wound (red in color, tender to touch, warm, and nonblanchable) on left hip and coccyx






Subjective and Objective Data

1 Client Goal

(Goal must be timed and measurable) SMART


(3 Nursing Interventions with Rationale and Reference for each)

Actual Completion of Nursing Interventions

Goal Evaluation

(met, not met, partially met and explanation)



“I have a spot on my lower hip that hurts”

“I don’t like to lay on my left side, it is too painful”

“laying on my back for a long time is uncomfortable”

“I don’t want to turn to either side”

“I just want to be left alone and not move”

HR: 95

BP: 114/76

O2 sat: 100

Braden scale: 11

Localized wound on left hip and coccyx. The wound is red, nonblanchable, tender to the touch, and warm. It was documented as a stage 2 pressure ulcer.

Poor appetite, eats only 30% of meals

BMI- 14.4

Weight- 44.3 kg

Albumin- 2.5

Patient will verbalize understanding of at least two (2) measures to prevent further skin breakdown by end of shift.

Assess the site and determine the extent of skin impairment

– determining the extent of wound is important to determine the appropriate interventions that will be implemented further on in care for the patient. This will provide a baseline for future assessments

(Ackley, Ladwig, Makic, Martinez-Kratz, & Zanotti, 2020, p. 230).

Discuss attitudes and cultural issues related to patient condition and skin care and address any misconceptions.

This will help identify areas to emphasize in client’s teaching plan for discharge (Ackley et al, 2020, p. 230).

Explain the need to turn the patient every 2 hours to help relieve pressure on bony prominences.

– by repositioning the patient every 2 hours, this greatly decreased the amount of pressure on one location at a time. This will help reduce the likelihood of the pressure ulcer getting worse and help promote wound healing (Ackley et al, 2020, p. 230).

Assessed and measured wounds. During assessment, it was determined that the wound is a stage 2 pressure ulcer. During the assessment, it was noted that the area was warm, tender to the touch, red in color, and it was not blanchable.

Attempted to discuss condition with patient while turning and providing care. Explained to patient the importance of asking questions if any areas were not well understood – provided a pencil and paper to use to write questions down.

Student RN and RN worked together to log roll the patient to either side in order to relieve pressure every 2 hours.

Goal partially met. Patient verbalized understanding of need to turn and allow for staff to provide skin care but remained reluctant to be moved, changed, cleaned, and turned.

* Cite all interventions/rationales per APA format

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Impaired physical mobility r/t decreased muscle mass, decreased muscle strength, and malnutrition AEB unsteady gait and bilateral weakened grip strength.






Subjective and Objective Data

1 Client Goal

(Goal must be timed and measurable) SMART


(3 Nursing Interventions with Rationale and Reference for each)

Actual Completion of Nursing Interventions

Goal Evaluation

(met, not met, partially met and explanation)



Patient states:

“I am tired and don’t feel like walking far”

“I’m not sure if I can make it by myself”

“I could probably make it to the recliner”

“I’m going to need your help walking”

“all of a sudden I couldn’t walk, I was too weak

HR: 95

BP: 114/76

O2 sat: 100

Braden scale: 11

Unsteady gait, requires assistance in turning and ambulating.

Limited mobility due to fatigue, decreased muscle mass.

Patient has bilateral weakened grip strength.

BMI- 14.4

Weight- 44.3 kg

Albumin- 2.5

Pain level a “8” on 1-10 scale while lying in bed.

Patient will ambulate to chair with assistance from student RN by the end of shift.

Assess the patient’s level of mobility

– It is important to know the patient’s level of mobility in order to design a treatment regimen (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2017, p. 697).

Assess pain and administer pain medication before ambulation

– For the patient to perform at his best, in is in his best interest to give pain medication first. This allows them to focus on ambulation instead of their pain (Potter et al, 2017, p. 697).

Educate patient on taking rests and breaks while ambulating and performing ROM exercises.

– rests and breaks are important to keep the patient safe. If they ambulate while fatigued, they can become injured accidentally (Potter et al, 2017, p. 697).

Assessed the patient’s level of mobility (level 3). Using the Banner Mobility Assessment Tool – the patient is at a level 3 which means: The patient can ambulate but requires assistive devices or help from the student RN.

Patient’s pain level was assessed at an 8/10. The patient was given Morphine 30 minutes prior to ambulation by RN (0900). Also, the patient was assessed for dizziness and sedation (because of Morphine side effects) prior to ambulation.

Educated the patient on rest breaks and encouraged to take them during ambulation which allowed him to complete the task and not become too fatigued.

Patient met goal of being able to ambulate (with assistance from student RN) by the end of shift (1930). The patient took slow, steady steps while the student RN made sure he kept his balance. The patient took an adequate number of rests during ambulation and did not become too fatigued. Also, the patient reported a pain level of 4/10 prior to and after ambulation. The Morphine was effective for this patient.

* Cite all interventions/rationales per APA format


Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Makic, M. B., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2020). Nursing diagnosis handbook: An evidence-

based guide to planning care. (12th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Potter, P.A., Perry, A.G., Stockert, P.A. & Hall, A.M. (2017). Fundamentals of nursing (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

7/2019 RMR

false convictions7 Running head: false convictions1 False Convictions: Why Innocent People are

Introduction to the Reflective Journal A reflective journal is simply a record of your thoughts. It is a reflection Religion and Theology Assignment Help false convictions7

Running head: false convictions1

False Convictions: Why Innocent People are Imprisoned, and How to Stop it

Michael Pirrotta

Monmouth University

Note to students: This document takes from a larger paper that I wrote a few years back. It is intended as an example of how your papers should be formatted – with proper citations, a proper reference list, and everything else used correctly. The “full” paper is 32 pages long – this includes just one section of it. Make sure to notice how direct quotations are avoided, and instead research is always paraphrased, followed by a citation.


The American criminal justice system holds that all accused are innocent until proven guilty. However, with some frequency, the guilty are later proven innocent. There are many reasons why false convictions happen, but this research explores causes of false convictions due to witness identification errors, false memories, false confessions, and flawed forensic science. Suggestions are also given for how to improve in these areas, and a review of how the state of New Jersey handles these issues is provided.

Keywords: False convictions, innocence, eyewitness testimony, false memories, false confessions, forensic science.

False Convictions: Why Innocent People are Imprisoned, and How to Stop it

Martin Tankleff was 17 years old, a senior in high school, when he woke up to find his mother dead and his father unconscious, both having been stabbed and beaten (Zimmerman, 2014). Tankleff called the police, who believed he was the murder, and they brought him in for questioning. Over the course of a 6-hour interrogation, Tankleff repeatedly denied the charges, until the police (falsely) told him that his father had woken up at the hospital and said that he’d done it. Tankleff said that his father wouldn’t lie, so he must have committed the murders and then blacked out. He recanted his confession shortly after, but was still convicted for the murder of both of his parents. The physical evidence did not match Martin being the murder – the “bloody” knife in the house was covered in watermelon, he had no blood on him, nor was there any evidence of blood in the shower. In actuality, the Tankleffs had been murdered by Seymour Tankleff’s business partner, who had attacked them earlier in the night. Martin had said the business partner was the likely culprit, only to be ignored by the police. The business partner even bragged about the crime at poker games during ensuing years! Tankleff is by no means a lone case, either. On April 19, 1989, a Trisha Meili was jogging in Central Park when she was attacked, raped, and brutally beaten (Schanberg, 2002). The “Central Park Jogger” case became a major story, burning into the mind of a four-year-old future researcher. Five youths were interrogated by police for as long as eight straight hours, until they all confessed to the crime (giving significantly different accounts). Prosecutors moved quickly in the case, which dominated headlines and prompted a prominent Manhattan real estate developer (later turned politician) to put out a full-page ad in four major news papers urging the death penalty for all five. They were each convicted, four as juveniles serving five to 10-year terms, one as an adult with a 15-year sentence. Twelve years later, a serial rapist (already in prison for his other crimes) who had repented from his ways confessed to the crimes, and his DNA was a spot-on match.

The field of false confession research has largely been shaped by the research of Saul M. Kassin. In his 1985 book, he lays out three types of false confessions – voluntary (made without external pressure), coerced-complaint (confessing to end an uncomfortable interrogation, gain a benefit, or avoid some sort of harm), and coerced-internalized (a suspect believing they are, falsely, guilty) (Kassin & Wrightsman, 1985). Tankleff’s case illustrates a coerced-internalized confession, while the Central Park 5, promised they could leave if they could confess, fall into the coerced-complaint scenario. While the Supreme Court holds that a confession must be given voluntarily, coercive techniques are completely legal, and Kassin & Wrightsman hold many police departments (along with depictions in pop culture) use methods based on Inbau & Reid’s Criminal Interrogation and Confessions. Techniques from this manual include keeping the suspect away from any sort of stimulation, deny contact with friends and family, interrogators invading their personal space, suggest motives for why a suspect committed crimes (and mention that they’ve seen it “thousands of times”), scare the suspect with inflated punishments, to falsely present nonexistent evidence (like Tankleff’s father identifying him), deny access to bathrooms, or to pretend to be their friend and convince them confessing is in their best interest (Kassin & Wrightsman, 1985). In subsequent studies, mock jurors were given trials where confessions were elicited under high or low degrees of coercive pressure, and reported that high pressure techniques were less credible (Kassin & Sukel, 1997). However, they then voted to convict at a higher rate than low pressure confessions and did so even when the case’s judge ordered the confession inadmissible and stricken from the record. Other studies, using similar methodology, show the effect of coerced confessions on juries is inconsistent and that they may be less likely to convict, if they believe the confession was coerced (Woestehoff & Meissner, 2016; Horgan, Russano, Meissner, & Evans, 2012). That relies, however, on the juror’s perception of the confession, which can be highly subjective.

Many people would like to believe that only a truly guilty person would ever confess to a crime – coerced or not, nobody would confess to something they flat out did not do. However, research shows that is unlikely to be the case. One study put normal undergraduate students into an experiment where they were explicitly not to touch the “ALT” key on their computer, because it would cause a severe crash (Kassin & Keichel, 1996). The experiment was rigged to simulate a crash a minute in, and the experimenters accused participants of hitting the forbidden key. To manipulate participants, they were in high or low pressure conditions, dictated by the speed of the task before the crash, and there was a confederate present who claimed that they either did or did not see the participant hit the button. Participants were accused and asked to sign a confession, and after they left the room, were approached by a second confederate asking what happened (to see if they internalized their confession). Finally, they were brought back in, and asked to give a detailed description of what happened when the computer crashed (using techniques similar to prior mentioned studies that implanted false memories). They found that overall 69% of participants confessed, including 100% when they were working at a fast pace with a witness. In that combination of conditions, 65% of participants came to believe they were guilty, and 35% generated details for just “how they did it”. In a follow up study using near identical procedures, researchers also added in false evidence – they claimed that the computer was connected to another computer, which recorded all keystrokes, checked it, and claimed it had shown an ALT press (Perillo & Kassin, 2011). While not replicating 100% confession rates, participants still showed higher rates of confession with witnesses and pressure, and rates elevated with the false evidence. Another experiment within that study modified the task to have participants take a test, then be asked for answers by a confederate – effectively helping another student cheat. Regardless to weather they helped or not, they were accused of cheating, taken to another room and “interrogated”, with the researcher sometimes (falsely) claiming there was hidden camera evidence. Actually guilty participants confessed at high rates in both conditions, but the false evidence created a 50% false confession rate among innocent participants. Confessions aren’t a sign of a guilty conscience, nor are false ones something that only happens in an extremely small subset of people. The research seems to clearly indicate that, under the right conditions, a decent percent of the population would confess to a crime they did not commit, and the experimental conditions are very much lower stakes versions of the situations police interrogators put suspects into every day.


Horgan, A., Russano, M., Meissner, C., & Evans, J. (2012). Minimzation and maximazition techniques: Assessing the percieved consequences of confessing and confession diagnosticity. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 65-78.

Kassin, S., & Keichel, K. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, interalization, and confabulation. Psychological Science, 125-128.

Kassin, S., & Sukel, H. (1997). Coerced confessions and the jury: An experimental test of the “harmless error” rule. Law and Human Behavior, 27-46.

Kassin, S., & Wrightsman, L. (1985). The Psychology of Evidence and Trial Procedure. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Perillo, J., & Kassin, S. (2011). Inside interrogation: The lie, the bluff, and false confessions. Law and Human Behavior, 327-337.

Schanberg, S. (2002, November 19). A journey through the tangled case of the central park jogger. Retrieved from The Village Voice:

Woestehoff, S., & Meissner, C. (2016). Juror sensativity to false confession risk factors: Dispositional vs situation attributions for a confession. Law and Human Behavior, 564-579.

Zimmerman, G. (2014, January 8). Marty Tankleff, wrongfully imprisoned, wins $3.4M settlement. Retrieved from CBS News:

Unacceptable (Below standard) Acceptable (Meets standard) Good (Occasionally Exceeds) Excellent (Exceeds standard)

Unacceptable (Below standard)

Acceptable (Meets standard)

Good (Occasionally Exceeds)

Excellent (Exceeds standard)


Introduction/summary of research objectives

Does not adequately convene topic. Does not describe goal and objectives of the study. Lacks adequate thesis statement

(7-10) Conveys topic, but not key questions. Describes research objectives. General thesis statement

(11-13) Conveys topic and key questions. Clearly delineates research objectives. General thesis statement

Strong introduction of topic’s key questions, terms. Clearly delineates research objectives. Specific thesis statement

15 pts

Literature Review Discussion

(0-25) Demonstrates very weak understanding of the topic, lacks summary and synthesis of literature.

(25-35) Demonstrates some understanding of the literature as it relates to the topic, weak summary and synthesis of research

(36- 44.5) Demonstrates adequate understanding of the topic, Adequate summary of literature and some synthesis of literature

(45-50) Demonstrates understanding of topic, summarizes and insightfully synthesizes the literature, including analysis of gaps in the literature

50 pts

Research Question/Hypothesis

Question lacks focus and specificity

(6-7) General research question/ hypothesis

(8-9) Research question/ Hypothesis clearly state variables of study

(9.1-10) Research question /hypothesis clearly state the research objective/ directionality of variable relationships

10 pts

Research Design: conceptualizatio n of variables, survey) operationalizatio n of variable, data collection, and recommended statistical analyses

(0-25) Conceptualizatio n and operationalizatio n do not match, Survey has incorrect wording, procedures and data analysis are absent or wrong.

(25-35) Conceptualizatio n and operationalizatio n of concepts marginally match, Survey has many wording errors, procedures minimally adequate, analysis of data is wrong

(36-44.5) Conceptualizatio n and operationalizatio n of concepts have adequate fit, Survey has minor wording errors, data collection procedures are adequate, analysis of date is partially correct

(45-50) Conceptualizatio n and operationalizatio n of concepts have perfect conceptual fit, Survey is worded correctly, data collection procedures are strong and analysis of data is correct

50 pts .


Does not summarize research with respect to the research objectives. Does not discuss impact of researched material on topic

Review of key conclusion, Some integration of research objectives, Discusses impact of researched topic

Strong review of key conclusions, Strong integration of research objectives. Discusses impact of researched topic.

Strong review of key conclusions, Strong integration of research objectives. Insightful discussion of impact of research topic.

15 pts

References and Citations

Over three sources are missing or incorrectly written; most sources are considered unreliable and are not trustworthy

At Least 3 sources are missing or incorrectly written; some sources can be considered reliable and trustworthy

Few sources and citations missing or incorrectly written; most sources consider reliable and/or trustworthy

All sources and citations are correctly written and present; courses are reliable and trustworthy

20 pts

APA Style

There is little or no adherence to APA formatting in document

There are some formatting errors in the document.

(16.1-17.8) There are few formatting errors in the document

(17.9-20) Citations are formatted correctly in document

20 pts

Writing Style (Grammar and Mechanics

(0-11) Grammatical errors or spelling and punctuation substantially detract from the paper. Writing is choppy, with many awkward or unclear passages.

Very few grammatical errors, spelling, or punctuation errors interfere with reading the paper. Writing has a few awkward or unclear passages.

(16.1-17.8) Grammatical errors or spelling & punctuation are rare and do not detract from the paper. Writing has minimal awkward or unclear passages.

The paper is free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Writing is flowing and easy to follow.

20 pts .

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Environment KB7052

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Environment

KB7052 Research Project Research Project Proposal

Student Details

Surname or Family Name

Enter your surname(s) or family name(s)

Forename(s) or Given Name(s)

Enter your forename(s) or given name(s)

Student Registration Number

Enter your Northumbria University student registration number

Programme of Study

Enterthe programme you are studying

Research Project Details


State the title of your research project

Project Aim and Research Objectives(500 words)


Research Objectives:

Research Question:

Theoretical Framework:

Evidence-based background and justification:

Research Plan (500 words)

Calculation works:

Code books to be used:

Software’s to be used:

Possible Risks Factors:

Research Methodology:

Research Framework:

Time line:

Contribution of Research:

Research Data

People and Personal Data

Will your work involve people or personal data or both?

Secondary Data

Will your work involve secondary data, not in the public domain?

Commercial Data

Will your work involve commercially sensitive data, not in the public domain?

Environmental Data

Will your work will involve the collection of environmental data?

Anonymising Data

Describe the arrangements you will follow to anonymise data.How will this be covered in the informed consent you will obtain? If this is not appropriate to your work, explain why this is the case?

Storing Data

Describe the arrangements you will follow for the secure transportation and storage of data collected and used during your study. You should explain what kind(s) of storage you intend to use (e.g., cloud-based, portable hard drive, USB stick, U-drive, OneDrive), and the protocols you will put in place to keep the data safe and secure.

Your Programme of Study

Relevance toProgramme of Study

Explain how your proposal is aligned with the educational ethos of your programme of study(maximum 150 words). You will need to read the programme details on the University’s website at

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7052 Research ProjectPage 1 of 6

Prof. James Martin | KB7052 Research ProjectPage 4 of 5