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Introduction The question becomes less if you will have an incident and more when you will have one. Ignoring

The question becomes less if you will have an incident and more when you will have one. Ignoring this fact will place you and your organization in a precarious position. Proper planning for an incident will indicate to your customers, stakeholders, and key leadership that you take security seriously and will instill confidence in their business systems. Should an incident occur, your preparation will allow you to quickly identify the scope of damage because you will have identified the data that requires special handling and protection, including PII, PHI, intellectual property, corporate confidential information, and financial information about your organization.

However, preparation isn’t just an effort for your security team.

Note: Security Team

Students may find it incredibly helpful to start by defining and creating a graphical representation of the Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT). Definition of the CSIRT should be based upon your understanding of the organization. You may need to conduct some research for illustrative examples.

Starting the exercise with a defined understanding of the CSIRT will result in more a focused, better defined incident response.

It means that you assist organizational leadership in communicating the goals of the security policy and the importance of the employees’ roles in supporting it. Aside from the benefit of having a smoother recovery, having a comprehensive incident-handling process regarding special data may protect you from civil or criminal procedures should your organization be brought to court for failing to protect sensitive data. Once you’ve gotten buy-in from organization leadership for your incident response plan, you need to continue to refine and improve it as threats evolve.

Incident Scenario
For this assignment, you will create an incident response runbook (aka. playbook or “use case”), which is a written guide for identifying, containing, eradicating, and recovering from cybersecurity incidents. The document is usually the output of the preparation phase of the Incident Response process and is a part of your overall Incident Response Plan.

An end-user receives an email from the help desk stating that there was irregular activity associated with their email account and they will not be able to send or receive emails until it is resolved. Several end users click on the link in the email and immediately items on his/her workstation begin to act strangely. Suddenly, none of the files on the workstation can be opened and now end in “.crypt”. A message pops up on the end user’s screen demanding payment of 1.84 Bitcoins as a ransom for the organization’s now encrypted data. As of May 2021, Bitcoin is Approximately $54,301/Bitcoin, making the ransom in this scenario just shy of $100,000.

Soon after that, other employees begin to report they have a strange note popping up on their screen as well. Before long, all computers – workstations and servers – have the popup on their screens and are unable to function. This is where the Incident Response process begins.

Create Your Runbook
There are several Runbooks for several types of threats (Malware, DDoS, Botnet, Social Engineering). Make sure the Runbook is the correct Runbook for the scenario. An Incident Response Playbook (Runbook) is designed to provide a step-by-step walk-through for most probable and impactful cyber threats to your organization. The Playbook will ensure that certain steps of the Incident Response Plan are followed appropriately and serve as a reminder if certain steps in the IRP are not in place.

Your Runbook should consist of:

An overview section of the identified threat details information about the threat.

Preparation steps or triage processes needed to prevent or recover from the threat
Contact information of the in-house IR team
Communication tree

2 2 Security Plan Implementation Memorandum Student’s Name University of Maryland University



Security Plan Implementation Memorandum

Student’s Name

University of Maryland University College

CMP 610 9040

Foundations in Cybersecurity Management

Instructor’s Name

Due Date


To: John Williams (CTO)

From: Student’s name


Subject: Scripps Health’s Security Plan Recommendation

The information technology (IT) industry is constantly developing new software and hardware. As a result, businesses are more likely to purchase IT products like these in order to safeguard their IT infrastructure. These modern IT products are frequently chosen by businesses due to their high levels of security, effectiveness, and productivity. Nevertheless, this does not rule out the possibility of security difficulties with the implementation of these new technologies, since attackers and hackers are constantly looking for new ways to exploit existing vulnerabilities in IT systems. Because of this, firms have a difficult time dealing with IT security issues. In order to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of their IT systems, businesses work hard to put in place security measures. In the same way, attackers always try to breach the CIA of these systems.

The May 1, 2021, ransomware assault on Scripps IT systems that compromised some of the firm’s information security system was an eye-opener on the necessity for the organization to review its information security programs and policies and to improve its information system (Scripps, 2021). Organizations employ information confidentiality policies to ensure that sensitive data such as Personally Identifiable Information (PII) does not get into the wrong hands. In the case of Scripps Health, the primary issue is the confidentiality of the data included in the ransomware-affected documents. The documents include personally identifiable information that must be protected at all times (Scripps, 2021). To preserve the confidentiality of the data included in the documents, Scripps might consider assessing the organization’s information technology security, addressing any gaps, and incorporating some security models.

Attributes & Security Models

Scripps should apply a variety of security models to ensure system security. Clinical Information System Security and Bell-LaPadula models should be considered in the case of Scripps Health.

Clinical Information System Security

Using this model, you can figure out what information is most important and why it has to be safeguarded. Medical ethics are the driving force behind this concept because of the sensitive nature of the data it protects. Security policies and rules for clinical information are described in detail in the clinical information systems security model. The model identifies best practices for safeguarding health information, as well as privacy issues that could arise if these policies are not followed (Haraty & Naous, 2013). Because patient’s data is sensitive and should only be accessed by a limited number of people, the clinical information system security document outlines the policies and procedures that must be followed in respect to health information, including how it should be handled, preserved, and processed.

Clinic Information System Security models enable users to access data through encryption management or access control. This ensures the privacy and accountability of what the views or edits is guaranteed. Individuals are permitted access based on their role within the organization in the Clinical Information System Security model. This guarantees that employees have access to only the information necessary to carry out their job duties (Haraty & Naous, 2013). Scripps implementation of the clinical information system security model will ensure that only the appropriate individuals have access to the information they require to perform their job tasks.


Implementing this security model will assist in ensuring the confidentiality of data stored on storage devices. To access data via the Bell-LaPadula security paradigm, a user must obtain a security clearance (Cristiá Maximiliano, & Rossi, 2021). If this is accomplished, the attacker will be required to possess a security clearance in order to gain access to the data. This paradigm makes extensive use of both required and discretionary access control.

In the Scripps IT system, this paradigm ensures that an unauthorized person or an attacker cannot access the system’s data. Attempting to obtain access to sensitive information without the proper security clearance will result in the system being shut down. Strict data confidentiality will be maintained if the Bell-LaPudula application is implemented on all storage devices.

Security Assessment

The evaluation of security procedures and the entire IT infrastructure at Scripps will aid in the identification of areas that require improvement. To identify existing flaws in Scripps’s IT systems, detailed penetration testing should be performed on Scripps’s IT environment. The use of Network Forensic Analysis Tools (NFAT) enables the detection of employees abusing the organization’s network, the enhancement of security investigations, the detection of exploit attempts, the protection of intellectual property, the detection of anomalies, the proper assessment of risk, the assistance in recovering from incidents, the improvement of network performance, and the determination of network and hardware protocols in use (Murphy, 2015). The usage of NFAT simplifies penetration testing and enables recommendations to close any flaws in an organization’s information technology system.

Areas of Improvement

Operating Systems: Scripps’ operations can be safeguarded only if their operating systems are patched routinely and their software and hardware are upgraded to the current version. To ensure this, Scripps systems should be assessed, and operating systems should be upgraded and patched to meet requirements. By upgrading operating systems, it will ensure that encryption software is present on all of its products.

Personnel Training: Scripps Health should place a high value on the education and training of its employees. Employee training assists employees in gaining awareness of current IT security problems and how to avoid or mitigate them. Employee training will help to address all of the organization’s flaws while also assisting in the improvement of employee performance.

Policies and procedures: In order to prevent unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information, Scripps should guarantee that the adoption of encryption is enforced throughout the organization and this can be achieved by;

Adhere to HIPAA standards when it comes to backups and the transmission of sensitive information, and make certain that all HIPAA regulations that apply to Scripps systems are met.

All present security policies and procedures should be examined and modified to ensure that they match the security measures that are being planned.


Finally, confidentiality is the focal point of Scripps, and the adoption of the evaluation and improvement areas identified in this memorandum will enable the organization to improve its overall security posture. Although the cost of implementing these recommendations may be too expensive, it is preferable to safeguard Scripps’ information technology infrastructure from future attacks than to allow an attack to occur and then try to find a solution.


Cristiá Maximiliano, & Rossi, G. (2021). Automated proof of Bell–LaPadula security properties. Journal of Automated Reasoning, 65(4), 463-478.

Haraty, R. A., & Naous, M. (2013). Modeling and validating the clinical information systems policy using alloy. Health Information Science, 1-17.

Murphy, S. P. (2015). Healthcare information security and privacy (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill Education LLC.

Scripps. (2021, June 1). Update on cyber incident. Scripps Health.

Body Positive Packaging Dove’s positive body image “Real Beauty” campaign, which featured

Introduction The question becomes less if you will have an incident and more when you will have one. Ignoring Computer Science Assignment Help Body Positive Packaging

Dove’s positive body image “Real Beauty” campaign, which featured real women in a positive light, was a success. It was a motivating campaign.Indeed, the campaign has already been running for fifteen years and therefore is widely regarded as one of the most promotional campaigns of all time. The company’s goal is to help women maintain a positive body image.

Dove then made their money dirty. In the United Kingdom, they released limited edition packaging depicting various representations of female bodies. Women’s figures were compared to abstract, shapeless soap bottles on their packaging.

Simple terms, the packaging conveyed the incorrect message.On social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, the release became a punchline as well as a source of genuine concern. Participants only released 7 different shapes from which to choose.

“Racist” Facebook Ad

In 2017, Unilever had a poor year. Another Dove ad posted to Social media was a period of 4 months image of a young African American woman attempting to remove her shirt over three items. The the forth panel features a scene white woman. A ad finally turned up in Google search results as “Dove racist ad.” While no agency has chosen to take “credit,” Unilever just said that the ad was supposed to illustrate “the diversity of real beauty.” Dove issued an apology (for the second attempt in 2017), and Brad Jakeman received his second strike.

DO FAKE IDS WORK IN VEGAS? Fake IDs work in Vegas to


Fake IDs work in Vegas to the same degree they work in other major cities: barely. There are strict rules and hefty penalties for people who use phony IDs and establishments that let in people with fake IDs. Therefore, it would be a huge risk to try gaining entry into a Vegas club or casino with a fake ID.

As with most establishments that sell alcohol and indulge in other forms of adult entertainment, there is an age limit below which it is illegal for someone to participate. In the USA, the age limit is 21. Therefore, one must produce a valid ID to show that they are legally adults.

Also known as Sin City, Vegas boasts a reputation for being the nightlife haven. Therefore, people who do not own valid IDs, such as minors and aliens, turn to fake IDs in an attempt to be part of the debauchery.

How Strict Is Vegas with Fake IDs?

To put it simply, Vegas is super strict when it comes to identification documents. While some establishments are stricter than others, it is very unlikely to make it through security with a counterfeit ID. The main reason Vegas is very strict with fake IDs is that the state of Nevada has stringent statutes against the use of phony IDs. If found with one, an individual and an establishment are subject to hefty fines and possible jail time.

The severity of the punishment depends on the activities for which a person the fake ID. People that use counterfeit IDs for fraud are charged as criminals and face the harshest charges. If you use it to access a club as a minor, you will probably be charged a fine or/ and a short jail term.

Joints such as bars and casinos run the risk of their licenses being revoked by authorities if and when found serving clients with fake IDs. Without operational establishments, the staff will lose their jobs and lack a source of livelihood. Therefore, these establishments tend to be extremely keen to determine the authenticity of customers’ identification cards.

Can I Use a Fake ID In a Vegas Club?

The success rate of using a fake ID in a Vegas club is generally low, but it also depends on the club’s status. If it is a big city club, then the chances of making it through security are next to zero. Bouncers and barristers undergo a compulsory TAM course that enables them to differentiate a counterfeit ID from a genuine one.

You stand a better chance of pulling off the fake ID stunt at smaller clubs where the security team and bartenders are not keen enough. Even then, you would have to be sleek about it. For one, your ID would have to look as real as possible. Also, you should act confident and like you belong to avoid drawing attention to yourself. If you can find a group of party-goers that you can blend in with, the better. Even then, it is not advisable because you can always get caught and face legal charges.

Generally, it is easier to get into a gambling joint or a tattoo parlor in Vegas with a fake ID than a club. The merchants in these joints do not pay that much attention, if at all. However, you have to produce your identification card if you procure any winnings while gambling, and that is the catch.

Can I Get a Fake ID In Vegas?

It is possible to get a fake ID in Vegas. One way of doing it is through the black market, where merchants are skilled enough to produce identification documents that appear real. Another way of getting a fake ID in Vegas is bribing personnel with access to materials required to make fake IDs. Such personnel includes the staff of the United States post office, banks, and military bases.

While technology has simplified life a lot, it has also catalyzed crime, as is the case with the production of fake IDs. The major ingredients for producing a fake ID are a sophisticated software, color printers, and the necessary skills.

Furthermore, there are templates on the internet that are easily accessible to people who wish to recreate counterfeit IDs. Also, the materials required, such as holograms and ‘blanks,’ are available in the black market- you just need to know the right people to ask.

Do Establishments in Vegas Always Check IDs?

Just like in other cities of the United States, establishments in Vegas are quite disciplined when it comes to checking their customers’ IDs. Failure to check IDs may attract legal actions, which may put the establishment out of business.

Casinos and joints that sell alcohol and tobacco are the most adamant about checking IDs and weeding out the fake ones. As aforementioned, security teams and staff members are trained to spot fake IDs from afar.

Some gambling joints may not always check for IDs when one is getting in. However, if you win any prize money, you must produce an authentic ID before you can receive the prize. If your ID is counterfeit, then you will lose out on the prize ad possibly face legal repercussions. At the end of the day, it is not worth the risk.

Why Do People Use Fake IDs?

People acquire and use fake IDs for different reasons. Essentially, people use fake IDs to hide their true identity and information so that they gain access to places they would otherwise not. People who are notorious for using fake IDs include minors, aliens, and fraudsters.

As aforementioned in this article, the legal age for someone to take part in the debauchery of the Vegas nightlife like drinking and gambling, is 21. Most high school and some college students have not attained that age, so they resort to fake IDs to gain enter clubs and casinos. The form of fake IDs that minors mostly use is phony drivers’ licenses.

Similarly, in the United States, you have to be at least 18 to qualify for tattoos and body piercings. Wild sixteen and eighteen-year-olds who can easily pass for adults use fake IDs to get these services. As we have already established in the article, tattoo merchants are not keen on checking ID authenticity, so it would be easy for a minor to get away with it.

Another group of people that use fake IDs is undocumented citizens. Also termed aliens, these people use fake IDs to acquire jobs that they would not get with their alien status. The IDs afford them good-paying jobs that are meant for legal citizens only.

People also use fake IDs to get independent contractor jobs and escape tax expenses because the tax will not be deducted from their paycheck. Veterans use fake IDs to acquire illegal benefits, and criminals use them to commit fraud in banks.

What Are the Repercussions of Using Fake IDs in Vegas?

The penalty for using a fake ID in Vegas varies according to the seriousness of the crime. The use of fake IDs that attracts the harshest of punishments is forgery or fraud. Using a fake ID for fraudulent activities is classified as a Class C felony and invites up to 10 years in prison and a $10,000 fine.

You will be sentenced to up to 4 years if you use a counterfeit ID to create a fake identity. This is classified as a class R felony by the Nevada state statute. When a minor is caught buying alcohol or gambling using a fake ID, they face up to 6 months of jail time and a fine not exceeding $1000.

Clubs and casinos that let in people with fake IDs risk losing their operating licenses. The staff members become unemployed and, in some cases, may even face prison time. The establishments also face hefty fines whereby a casino may be required to pay $1000000 before they are allowed to continue with operations.

Aliens who use fake IDs to get jobs or even access establishments are deported immediately. If they manage to stay, it becomes so much harder for them to get jobs and attain American citizenship. Similarly, making and issuing fake IDs in Vegas leads to gross demeanor charges where the offender faces a year in jail and $2000 worth of fines.

The good news is that you can get away with minimal punishment if you have an efficient legal representative. A good criminal lawyer will ensure you get minimal time or face no charges at all if they can prove that the defendant did not intend to commit fraud with a fake ID or the ID was found through an unwarranted search by the police.

In Conclusion

Fake IDs barely work in Vegas. Nevada state has put in place statutes to curb the use of counterfeit IDs. The use and supply of phony IDs in Vegas attracts legal action, including jail time and hefty fines. Therefore, security personnel and staff members are diligent in checking for IDs and weeding out the fake ones. Bringing a fake ID to a Vegas club or casino is a risk not worth taking.

2 Do Selfish Genes Cause Selfish Behavior? Student’s Name Course Professor’s Name


Do Selfish Genes Cause Selfish Behavior?

Student’s Name


Professor’s Name

Assignment Due Date


The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins was inspired by George C. Williams’s Adaptation and Natural Selection in 1976. (1966). As a method to popularize concepts popularized in the 1960s by W. D. Hamilton and others, Richard Dawkins used the phrase “selfish gene” to represent the gene-centered perspective of evolution. The closer two people are genetically linked, the more likely they are to cooperate, according to the gene-centric approach.

In the book, Dawkins explores a way of describing all organisms, including people, as “gene machines” or “survival machines” that originated as essential and passive containers for genes. It follows that people are designed to operate in a manner that best suits their genetics and that genetic greed manifests itself in personal actions. Perhaps an individual could inherently have selfish traits due to their genetic composition. I will argue that selfish genes may inevitably lead to selfish behavior. Thereby, a discussion that the gene selections perspective is deterministic concerning human behavior and psychology. I will review the genetic codes’ implication on behavior and review how the second part of the discussion regarding human behavior and psychology uses the concept of Altruism from the Cartwright (2008), Dawkins (1976/1999), and Hagen (2005)

As a case study, Dawkins utilizes the filthy brood phenomenon in honeybees to demonstrate how particular genes may directly produce specific behaviors. Bees are vulnerable to foul brooding, a contagious illness that destroys grubs in the honeybees’ cells. Hygiene practices, which are affected by several genes, may help bees resist this illness. They can remove the wax cover from the cell, remove the sick grub, and toss him outside to get rid of the virus. “Hygienic” kinds of bees can do this. Foulbrood is more likely to occur in bees that do not display this behavior (Dawkins, 2016). By ‘back-crossing’ the first-generation cross with a clean, sanitary breed of bees, W.C. Rothenbhuler discovered the defective genetic causes for this behavior. After these genes were mixed, the daughter hives had three distinct behavioral characteristics: one was utterly hygienic, another was utterly unhygienic, and a third only performed half of the excellent hygiene behavior expected. Last but not least, the sick grub’s wax cap could be removed, but the grub could not be removed from its cage.

There must have been two behavioral genes at work, according to Rothenbhuler: one for removing the cap and the other for tossing away. He also surmised that the individuals who exhibited little sanitary behavior had the tossing away gene, but not the result of these challenges gene. The bees could expel all of the diseased grubs once he demonstrated this by opening the cells himself (Dawkins, 2016). Dawkins has been using this example to demonstrate that genes are not only a symbol for conduct. Nature selects at the gene (in this case, hygiene genes) rather than individual or group level, as this experiment demonstrates. While each gene may be struggling for existence on its own, they typically work together in their survival machinery since they would be unable to function without each other. The bees who contain these hygienic genes have a better probability of reproducing due to natural selection.

It is crucial to note that many behaviors are not governed by one or even a few genes, as can be observed. Many distinct genes have a role in a person’s personality, and these genes all work together to create a person’s personality. The statement “genes for” may not always refer to a one-to-one relationship. A person’s surroundings also have a significant impact on their genetic makeup, which has a comprehensive range of consequences. Even though we are born with the ability to learn another language, our environment plays an essential role in influencing how well we do once we begin (Cartwright, 2008).

Specific forms of Altruism are not genuine Altruism at the genetic level, such as kin-based Altruism. Cartwright underlines this point. Since a gene that helps others at the expense of its survival would quickly go extinct in conflict with a genome that just benefitted itself, an altruistic gene would not develop. A gene’s survival and remorseless logic drive the development of its vehicle, which in humans includes a wide range of emotions and the ability to show empathy for others, even if they are not linked to the gene’s owner or inheritor. Kin selection, which frequently correctly predicts creature and social interactions, clearly demonstrates the link between particular genetic selfishness and its vehicle’s conduct.

There may be a good balance between selfishness and Altruism at the genetic level, as long as the genes profit from the actions. Because we are more inclined to be friendly to our kin if we are connected to them, Hamilton’s rule explains kin selection (Cartwright, 2008). The degree of connectedness is at the heart of the kin selection hypothesis, which may accurately predict parent-child conflict and sibling rivalry. The percentage of a person’s genome shared with another person is expressed as a coefficient of relatedness. It is possible to perceive selfishness in the gene domain as charity at the stage of the people because of kin selection, which allows the gene to help its descendants in various ways.   All of the children born to the father’s wives were treated equally by society, which was reinforced through the church and schools. Despite this orthodoxy, complete siblings were more likely than half-siblings to have feelings of compassion and empathy for one another. For example, full-sibling babysitting was more common than half-sibling babysitting, and weddings were attended (Cartwright, 2008).

Animal moms are well-known for going to tremendous efforts and even killing themselves to safeguard and nourish their young, as seen across the animal world. When a mother spider’s brood is done, her spiderlings will eat her. This is one of the most severe instances of motherly care. W.D. Hamilton’s concept of inclusion fitness explains this occurrence, arguing that parents adore their children because it raises their inclusive fitness, the number of children they can create and sustain. As a result, although the action described above may seem like a selfless act, it is an evolutionary strategy to guarantee that as many of the mother spider’s genes as possible are passed down to the next generation.

Altruism may occur between people who are not related.   This is a sort of Altruism in which genes benefit from offering help to an unrelated person in the belief that they may benefit from it in the future. Trivers suggests that in order for altruistic behavior to emerge, people need to have at least three things: frequent opportunities to engage, the capability of tracking assistance given and received, and only providing support to those who have helped them (Cartwright, 2008). In nature, such conduct might be mistaken for generosity, and it is always ego since the advantages are evenly distributed over time across the individuals. Perhaps no other species exemplifies reciprocal Altruism and humans who engage in it so often. Reciprocal Altruism: Humans donate our work and knowledge to a firm or the government, assuming that we will be compensated for it in the future. Furthermore, it is well recognized that social cooperation was the driving force behind our ancestors’ early trading and barter activities. It is common to witness reciprocal Altruism between two species, which helps explain symbiotic connections since this sort of Altruism feels right whenever there is a variation in need and a diversity of skills to satisfy it (Cartwright, 2008).

Cleaner fish and larger fish have a symbiotic connection. As many as fifty distinct kinds of tiny fish and shrimp eat the parasites removed from the mouths of larger fish. It is a win-win situation for everyone involved: the giant fish gets cleaned, and the little fish get fed. It is common for reciprocal Altruism to work since it is mutually advantageous for everyone involved, but it is also prone to scams. For example, some fish species imitate smaller species and are allowed to penetrate a considerable fish’s mouth without being detected. This considerable fish takes a bite off its fin and swims away rather than being cleaned (Dawkins, 2016).

According to Trivers, humans’ emotional systems were impacted by reciprocal altruistic action. Making long-term decisions, weighing the pros and cons of trade, and keeping an eye out for dishonesty need tremendous mental and cognitive fortitude. Attributing feelings of guilt, shame, outrage, friendliness, and appreciation to reciprocal action is a standard theory put out by psychologist John Trivers, who believes that these emotions help maintain the system and assure fair play. When it comes to reciprocal trade, guilt might be an effective deterrent. Individuals may be inspired to do altruistic deeds by a sense of kinship or compassion. One might then utilize gratitude to assure that their generosity will be reciprocated inside the past (Cartwright, 2008).

There have been many debates in evolutionary psychology on the role of selfish genes in developing our body’s adaptations. It is not a big deal if the genes that control hair are selfish since no one is worried that it would have led to “selfish” hair. Because all genes are indeed the units of natural selection, all the genes involved in insight, cognition, muscle control, and development are also selfish,’ and no one is worried about this. While acknowledging that selfish genes are responsible for specific behaviors like reciprocal Altruism, Hagen cautions Darwin’s readers to take the word “selfish” with a grain of salt. To him, features like hair are no more selfish than are behaviors like reciprocal Altruism (Hagen, 2005).

As much as we would like it to be accurate, pure Altruism and genuine love do not make intuitive sense and are therefore not how humans are biologically built. A dominant genome is a greedy gene, and all these contribute to selfish actions. The myriad signals and effects available in our surroundings may shape our genetically inherited features, particularly those that deal with behavior (Cartwright, 2008). If we are conscious of our genetic makeup and the motivations of our genes, we will be better able to overcome these tendencies and cultivate genuine kindness in ourselves and others.

In summary, as shown by the honeybees with unclean brood, natural selection operates at the gene level, implying that genes are self-interested or selfish. Individual creatures have indeed been able to develop across generations by acting in a way that is helpful to their survival and reproduction and hence to the spread and reproductive capacity of their genes. Since they would be outcompeted by genes that encoded self-serving behavior, genes which coded for actions that benefit others at the expense of oneself would not be capable of evolving. Several instances of kin and reciprocal Altruism show that pure Altruism is not a recurrent biological phenomenon. Assisting those in need is often motivated by the hope that it will return to their family members (and hence, copies of their genes). It is impossible for genes that benefit a group to persist if the individual suffers from their actions. This does not imply that humans are just selfish robots lacking in empathy or shame, though, since our brains are predisposed to certain self-centered activities. We are endowed with a wealth of emotional intelligence and a remarkable capacity for moral education. In order to detect and teach selflessness instead of selfish conduct in ourselves and others, let us be mindful of our selfish DNA.


Cartwright J. 2008. Evolution and Human Behavior. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Dawkins, C. R. (2016). The selfish gene. Oxford University Press.

Hagen EH. 2005. Controversies surrounding evolutionary psychology. In, The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, Buss DM (ed). New Jersey: Wiley (Reserve Book Room).