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UNCERTAINTY THEORY INTRODUCTION. art history essay help: art history essay help



The uncertainty theory looks into the interaction between people that happens between people before communication takes place. The uncertainty theory was introduced by Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese in the year 1975. Uncertainty theory establishes the development of a relationship between two strangers. When two strangers meet, there are steps that they go through to establish their liking towards each other. Communication presents alternatives, and when the other options seem few in the initial interaction, then uncertainty increases. The assumptions in uncertainty theory are: initial interaction gives a certain level of uncertainty, uncertainty causes stress when interpersonal communication begins, then uncertainty reduces, with time, people can look into the information they share, and it is possible to predict behaviour (Lund,2020).  Uncertainty theory focuses mainly on: prior information people have towards others determines how uncertain they become (Gómez-Barroso, 2018). It is unpleasant to be unsure of the other person’s actions and behaviour and reduce the unpleasant feeling countered by interpersonal communication.

According to Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese, the uncertainty theory follows the following steps: The entry phase is usually about learning the behaviour norms and is mainly influenced by the places of origin of and the exchange of information between the strangers. The second stage is the personal phase, which is when strangers learn attitude, and their trust in each other grows in this phase. In the personal phase, values of the stranger and their moral and personal issues are established while their emotional involvement also increases in the personal phase. The exit phase is the last step in the development of a relationship between strangers and in this step future interaction is determined whether to pursue the relationship or not meet any further. Negotiation on the direction of the relationship is to take happens at this phase and for say a romantic relationship the strangers can decide on dating each other.  This chapter addresses friendships as relationships that have been affected by interpersonal communication in light of the uncertainty theory.

Concepts of uncertainty theory. world history essay help

Concepts of uncertainty theory

When verbal communication in a relationship begins, then uncertainty decreases. Strangers are uncertain on what to expect from the other person and they ask a lot of questions revolving around behavior and what is acceptable to them determines the direction the relationship will take. Before we went on our first date with my friend, I was uncertain about different things. I was not sure whether to gift her flowers or chocolates because, over the text, you cannot be confident on the likings of a person, and it is possible to miss on what someone prefers on behavior and actions (Cemalcilar et al., 2018). At the onset of verbal communication, uncertainty was reduced significantly. Smiles, eye contact, nodding the head, and other nonverbal warmth help in reducing uncertainty. On our first date, I had to smile often and become expressive in agreeing with my friend’s points by nodding my head. It is important to consider on avoiding actions that interfere with the verbal communication process like chatting while talking with your date as the act shows a certain level of rudeness and also shows less concern towards the other party in a discussion. I had to set my phone on flight mode to so that I had a maximum attention towards my date.

Information is critical in reducing uncertainty. ‘breaking of the ice’ between two strangers occurs when they begin to share their personal information. A certain level of knowing someone is arrived at when you know a little bit about them. A good example is basic information; it helps knowing of the person’s name their place of origin, their family and career and there could be a common ground which aids in achieving a sense of knowing someone similarities between strangers lessens uncertainty. My first date with my friend was not with so many uncertainties per se as we used to chat on the phone, and occasionally we would call each other (Jiang, Zheng & Lu, 2020). The date presented an avenue for me to get to know more of her, which helped lower my uncertainty level. Obtaining personal information as she explained how a single mother brought her up was a sign that she had started trusting me and helped me in decreasing my uncertainty. As I smiled in our conversation, I noticed that she was reciprocating the smiles and eye contact, which helped. Sharing with her about my hobbies and realizing that she likes going to the movies and hanging out with friends then my uncertainty reduced as those were some of my hobbies (Lantagne & Furman, 2017). She seemed to like me as a person, as I could tell from the flow of the conversation and the laughs in between, and this liking helped me calm down.

Why uncertainty is a regular occurrence? global history essay help: global history essay help


In conclusion, uncertainty is a regular occurrence. Not knowing a person well helps fuel uncertainty. Asking questions is a way of reducing uncertainty between strangers. it is however important to learn the strategic ways of asking the questions so that intimidation may not be a case in the process of interaction. As you progress into talking with the person and having conversations over and over, either one on one or via the phone, uncertainty is reduced. High levels of intimacy and sharing of information is achieved with less uncertainty but people who are uncertain hold back personal information and stories. People tend to have amental representation of the actions sequential arranged and ways to approach conversation in later times are improved. When people are uncertain they will always work out a plan B when things do not go expected. The uncertainty levels can be a stressing factor and may lead to one not acting normaly.

Uncertainty theory assumes that uncertainty can cause stress; it occurs in the initial interpersonal communication, strangers want to be predictable in interaction, communication between the two people reduces uncertainty, and predicting people’s behavior is a possible thing. Uncertainty can also be reduced greatly by using passive ways of knowing a person into active strategies to interactive strategies. When the other person is open and takes part in the conversation, then the uncertainty reduces.  Intentionality and genuinely improves friendships more and encourages trust and a stronger bond.

Uncertainty reduction theory Review. history assignment help online


This chapter talks about uncertainty reduction theory which focuses on the initial interactions before interpersonal communication.  Uncertainty reduction will depend on the liking of the two people towards each other, their verbal communication and nonverbal expressions, their openness and vulnerability, similarities in their thinking and actions, and how each reciprocates the other’s activities. A critique of the uncertainty theory is that people interact genuinely to know the other person, not to reduce uncertainty. Not all behavioral uncertainty are negative some are able to influence positive attitude towards the other person in the relationship.

The other critique towards the uncertainity theory of interaction is that one has a fixed self this is not particularly true as during the interaction self changes with time. The theory does not also capture intercultural differences and occurrence and also assumes that communication is all about sharing information which is not true.