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Informative research paper discussing perception of pain and cognition/beliefs which Elaborate how people carry out the direction of pain. Essay

Informative research paper discussing perception of pain and cognition/beliefs which Elaborate how people carry out the direction of pain.
Needs to include:
Intro with a clear informative thesis.
Body paragraphs discussing topics, supporting information and discussion
Ending with conclusion.

Bibliography with At least 3 sources required
Double spaced 12 pt font times new Roman.
MLA or APA style.

Tense errors in English among the English second language immigrant learners in

Tense errors in English among the English second language immigrant learners in America.

Tense errors in English among the English second language immigrant learners in America.

Immigrant students in the United States need a solid foundation in English grammar to communicate effectively, read well and comprehend what they are reading. Most immigrants struggle to process what they are reading without a solid foundation in grammar. This makes it difficult for them to excel in their academic and working pursuits. Speaking the language can also help immigrants fit in with American society. It can help immigrants be better understood by others, which can help them connect with people and build relationships. The American education structure has the Evel to try and educate the native immigrant on how to read, write and understand English. Although, A lot of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students have many difficulties learning the language, and as a result, they make many mistakes in writing contests and competence examinations. Failure to have sensitivity in grammatical prototypes might affect an immigrant’s ability to acquire EFL, as can other variables such as tenses, learning method, and other background circumstances.

Tense is a linguistic term that refers to the time of an event. Tenses can either be passed, present, future, and conditional. Each tense has rules that must be followed to ensure the proper meaning is conveyed. Second language learners are often confused about the proper use of tense, leading to errors in their communication. Immigrants often don’t know the proper use of the present perfect tense and make tense errors in their communication. When it comes to mastering the English tense might be a challenging task for EFL students. One of the most difficult areas for English language learners to grasp is the usage of verb forms, according to Mocciaro and Young-Scholten (2022). Because of this, students of English as a Second Language (EFL) may make errors when trying to communicate the timing of an event in the target language. EFL students have been shown to articulate themselves in a way that confuses the concept of time.

Moreover, EFL students’ inability to master the tenses of the target language may be attributed in part to the effect of their native language (L1) (TL). As a result, Chinese ESL learners often make mistakes such as employing ‘bare infinitive forms’ rather than ‘verbs inflected for the simple present and past. Other than Chinese EFL students, Dutch English learners exhibit L1 impact. FL students in the Netherlands are expected to know the distinction between simple past and past progressive in English. Therefore, even skilled L2 learners might be influenced by L1 impact.

On the other hand, the bangle speakers suffer the exact impact of L1; they may use their L1 sequence of tense rules in forming English sentences. Tense plays a critical role in ensuring proper and effective communication. In addition to difficulties with tense, EFL students may have difficulty grasping the event-oriented nature of the language they are learning. The English language is a complex language that can be difficult to learn for non-native speakers. One of the significant challenges that EFL students face is that the language lacks a system for representing the order of events in time. Without this system, EFL students have difficulty understanding the language’s structure and flow. This can make it challenging for EFL students to absorb the meaning of their sentences. However, with the right help, EFL students can learn how to use tense to express their meaning in the language.

Many students make tense mistakes due to their inability to discern the various relationships between a verb type and its group, which results in tense errors (Sabra, 2020). To make matters worse, many L1 students from a wide range of ethnicities studying English as second language neglect or ignore the inflection in verbs. Students with tense mistakes do not know how to utilize suppletive inflection and instead use affixal inflection together with the auxiliary form “be,” making it impossible for them to produce progressive participles, resulting in tense errors. While the affixal inflection has a set of rules for its stem word class, the suppletive inflection may use any word as the inflected form of another, even if the two words are different. Improper use of inflection (suppletive or affixal) may lead to tense problems by giving the improper voice and tense. Tense mistakes are less common among bilingual learners in the second language (L2) because they are more advanced in the two categories above. These results corroborate those who found that the second language acquisition processes of students of all ages and educational backgrounds followed similar developmental patterns.

More likely to know how to use the past tense correctly and can help others learn how to use it too.

Many second language learners are more familiar with the present perfect tense than the past tense. This is because many of them are from countries where the present perfect tense is used correctly. They are also exposed to the present perfect tense in their education and at home. This means they are more likely to know the proper use of the present perfect tense and can help others learn how to use it, too Jacobson and Yu (2018). Teaching the tenses of a language involves teaching the language’s grammar simultaneously. “The way words are put together to make correct sentences” is how defines grammar, according to Lennon (2020). Grammar is the study of the principles that govern word, phrase, and sentence structure. Systematic linguistic analysis is according to what grammarians do. Morphology and syntax are the traditional divisions in grammar. Grammar is abstract in mind, and it becomes concrete in its use. That is to say; it Is a mental concept that manifests itself in the real world. Moreover, it is the study of grammatical which means tacitly knowing about the grammar of a language numero Wood (2022); for the English learners’ errors in grammar directly imply that it would also reflect on the tenses.

Most immigrants struggle to process what they are reading without a solid foundation in grammar. This makes it difficult for them to excel in academic and working pursuits. Immigrants who learn English can also have a better life by connecting with other people more effectively. EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students articulate themselves in a way that confuses the concept of time. EFL students’ inability to master the tenses of the target language may be attributed in part to the effect of their native language (L1) (TL) on their tenses. Many students from a wide range of ethnicities neglect or ignore the inflection in verbs. Improper inflection (suppletive or affixal) may lead to tense problems. Tense mistakes are less common among bilingual learners in the second language (L2). Teaching the tenses of a language involves teaching the language’s grammar simultaneously. Grammar is abstract in the mind and concrete in its use. Many second language learners are more familiar with the present perfect tense than the past tense because they grew up in countries where it is taught correctly. All these challenges encountered in the learning of English by immigrants can be corrected, and they will improve their English proficiency.


Fumero, K., & Wood, C. (2022). Grammatical Verb Errors: Differences Between English Learners with and Without Diagnosed Language-Based Learning Disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 53(1), 122-132.

Jacobson, P. F., & Yu, Y. H. (2018). Changes in English past tense use by bilingual school-age children with and without developmental language disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(10), 2532-2546.

Lennon, P. (2020). The foundations of teaching English as a foreign language. Routledge.

Mocciaro, E., & Young-Scholten, M. (2022). Why and How Grammar Matters for Post-puberty Immigrants with Limited Formal Schooling. In English and Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (pp. 321-339). Springer, Cham.

Sabra, A. (2020). Tense and Aspect in the English Language: A study about newly arrived students with Arabic as their mother tongue.

Case Example: Texting and Teen Driving By Charles R. Gueli, Esq.Updated /

Informative research paper discussing perception of pain and cognition/beliefs which Elaborate how people carry out the direction of pain. Essay Writing Assignment Help Case Example: Texting and Teen Driving

By Charles R. Gueli, Esq.Updated / Reviewed Jul 20, 2020


Take a look at injury claims following a single-car collision caused by a texting teen. Learn about passenger claims and coverage for teen drivers.

On This Page

How the Collision Occurred

Single Vehicle Accident Injuries

Liability for Teen Texting Accidents

Damages and Claim Negotiations

Important Points About Texting and Driving

Here we present a fictional case study drawn from the fact patterns in actual car accidents caused by texting and driving.

Our study deals with a single-vehicle collision that left several passengers suffering from crash-related injuries.

We’ll discuss how the crash occurred, liability, injuries, negotiations, and the final claim resolutions.

We wrap up with a list of important points you should know about car accidents caused by texting and teen drivers.

How the Collision Occurred

Sixteen-year-old Emily and four of her teenage friends piled into Emily’s mother’s minivan to drive to a high school football game.

Emily had just gotten her license and was excited to drive to her first event. She made sure that everyone was wearing their safety belts before departing.

Once on the road, Emily cranked up the stereo. The girls began singing to the music at the top of their lungs. Emily was driving safely and within the speed limit as she sang along with her friends.

Five minutes into Emily’s drive, she received a text message from her boyfriend, Brian. Glancing down at her phone, Emily was shocked to see that Brian was breaking up with her.

Rather than pull over, or wait until she reached her destination, Emily started texting back and forth with Brian as she drove.

In the time it took for Emily to read a long message from Brian, the minivan was veering off the road. By the time she heard one of the girls shouting over the stereo, it was too late. Panicked and inexperienced, Emily couldn’t correct her course. She drove off the road into a fence.

Single Vehicle Accident Injuries

Motor vehicle accidents are the second leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States. A carload of kids with a distracted, texting driver is usually a recipe for disaster.

Car accident injuries can range from nothing at all to whiplash, broken bones, internal injuries, cuts due to broken glass, head trauma, and even death.

Fortunately, in this case, all the teens were wearing their seatbelts, and there were no fatalities. Emily was not speeding at the time of the crash, and the vehicle did not hit an immovable object or rollover.

Another motorist saw the minivan leave the road and plow through the picket fence before coming to a stop in someone’s yard. The alert motorist immediately called 911 for help.

All five girls were treated by paramedics at the scene and transported to the hospital emergency room by ambulance.

Emily walked away from the accident with stiff and sore muscles and bruises from the safety belts.

Passenger 1: Sharon was in the front passenger seat. She was injured when a flying fence board came through the windshield and hit her in the face. She suffered a broken nose and had dozens of stitches to her right cheek and chin. She would require future surgical revisions of her scars.

Passenger 2: Kate was sitting behind Emily. She sustained a mild concussion from her head slamming into the passenger window during the crash. She was back in school the following week.

Passenger 3: Ashley was sitting behind Sharon. Her right arm was broken from hitting the passenger door. She also suffered mild whiplash from being jolted from side to side during the crash. Ashley’s whiplash resolved after a week of rest. Her arm healed without complications after six weeks in a cast.

Passenger 4: Dawn was sitting in the middle of the back seat, between Kate and Ashley. Because the other girls’ bodies cushioned her, Dawn only had a few minor cuts from flying glass and some bruising from her safety belt. She required no further treatment after being checked out at the emergency room.

Liability for Teen Texting Accidents

Almost every state’s traffic laws prohibit texting while driving. Some states specifically ban texting by underage drivers.

Emily admitted to the police officer at the accident scene that she had been texting while driving. The police report showed Emily was liable for the accident.

The officer ticketed Emily for:

Failing to maintain control of her vehicle

Texting while driving

Violating Graduated Drivers Licensing laws limiting the number of passengers for teen drivers

Emily later appeared in traffic court, where her driver’s license was suspended until she reached the age of 18.

Available Insurance Coverage

Emily lived primarily with her mother and stepfather. She was driving her mother’s vehicle and was covered under her mother’s auto insurance policy.

Emily’s mother carried bodily injury liability coverage of $25,000 per person and $50,000 per accident on her auto insurance policy.

Because Emily’s parents shared custody, Emily was also a member of her father’s household. As a member of her father’s household, she was also covered by her dad’s auto insurance policy.

Emily’s dad carried car insurance with bodily injury liability limits of $50,000 per person and $100,000 per accident.

In a no-fault car insurance state, passengers can file an injury claim with the driver’s insurance company, no matter who caused the accident.

Damages and Claim Negotiations

Bodily injury damages include:

Ambulance expenses

Medical bills

Mental health treatment bills

Out-of-pocket medical expenses

Lost wages

Transportation costs to medical appointments

Pain and suffering

Passenger 1: Sharon was the most severely injured occupant of the vehicle. She was injured when a flying fence board came through the windshield and hit her in the face. In addition to a concussion and mild whiplash, Sharon’s nose was broken. She sustained several deep, jagged gashes to her right cheek and chin.

A plastic surgeon was called in to stitch her face and treat the nose fracture at the hospital, but she would require and least three rounds of reconstructive facial surgery in the future. Despite medical intervention, there was no doubt that Sharon’s face was permanently scarred.

Sharon became deeply depressed after the crash. She was tormented by nightmares of the crash and required a tranquilizer to be able to ride in a vehicle to medical appointments. Sharon was ashamed and repulsed by the changes to her face.

Sharon required intense mental health treatment for the first three months after the crash, with ongoing counseling expected to continue.

Because Sharon’s current and future medical expenses totaled $40,000, her attorney sought $75,000 to cover Sharon’s hard costs, extreme emotional distress, and permanent facial scarring.

Sharon’s attorney demanded $25,000 per-person policy limits from Emily’s mother’s auto insurance and the $50,000 per-person limits from Emily’s father’s policy.

Both insurance companies paid their policy limits to Sharon, rather than fight a losing battle in court.

Passenger 2: Kate sustained a mild concussion that gave her a headache went away by the next day. She was back in school the following week.

Kate’s medical bills totaled $350. She was upset after the accident but suffered no long-term effects. Her family did not hire an attorney. Kate’s claim with Emily’s mother’s insurance company settled for $700.

Passenger 3: Ashley’s arm was broken from hitting the passenger door. She also suffered mild whiplash that resolved after a week of rest. She saw an orthopedist for her arm, which healed without complications after six weeks in a cast.

Ashley missed a week of school. Her arm hurt and kept her from sleeping well for several days. She was terribly upset about Sharon’s injuries and considered herself lucky. Ashley’s mom had to help her to bathe, dress, and fix her hair every day until the cast came off.

Ashley’s medical bills came to $2,500. Her attorney demanded $10,000 for Ashley’s medical bills and pain and suffering. Emily’s mother’s insurance company settled Ashley’s claim for $8,000.  

Passenger 4: Dawn only had a few minor cuts from flying glass and some bruising from her safety belt. She required no further treatment after being checked out at the emergency room.

Dawn’s emergency room bill was $350. Emily’s mother’s insurance company paid Dawn’s hospital bill and added a small amount for her inconvenience, settling the claim for $500.

Important Points About Texting and Teen Driving

Vehicle crashes are the leading cause of teen deaths in the United States

Texting while driving is banned in almost every jurisdiction

Injury attorneys don’t hesitate to subpoena the at-fault driver’s cell phone records

Teen drivers of divorced parents are often covered under two auto insurance policies

Severe injury claims should always be handled by an experienced personal injury attorney for the best results

Depending on the state and the amount of money, settlements for underage injury victims might need court approval

How Much is Your Injury Claim Worth?

The Alamo Drafthouse21 CASE 2.2 The Alamo Drafthouse is a different kind

The Alamo Drafthouse21 CASE 2.2

The Alamo Drafthouse is a different kind of business, whether you call it a bar, a restaurant, or a movie theater. Is it a movie theater that serves burgers or a bar that shows movies? The Alamo combines multiple services and makes compromises on several fronts to make the combination work. Alamo customers eat and drink while watching movies. Tim, who owns and operates the business with his wife Carrie, candidly admits that the service is bad at his establishment: “Our service is pretty bad, but intentionally so. It’s a compromise, because we want our service to be as minimal as possible. It’s different from a restaurant, where you want the waiter to ask you if you need anything. We depend on customers to tell us.”


Tim and Carrie met at Rice University in Houston, Texas, where he was majoring in mechanical engineering and art, and she was studying biology and French. After graduation and marriage, the two started their first movie theater in Bakersfield, California. This first venture showed art films and featured page 57live music. Although it was not originally the main focus, the live music made a lot more money than the films. The theater was a failure—Bakersfield did not have a large enough art film audience, and the theater’s location “on the wrong side of the tracks” contributed to its failure as well. Eventually the business was sold to an Evangelical church.

With this lesson under their belts, the couple moved to Austin, Texas, and decided to try again with a new approach—a theater that served food and alcohol.

Movie theaters that serve beer are very common in Europe, but much less so in the United States, which in general has more restrictive drinking laws. Nevertheless, they have been cropping up in many cities including Dallas, Washington, DC, and Portland, Oregon.

Before opening the Alamo, Tim and Carrie visited several of these theaters. The enterprising couple noticed several problems at these theaters. Some offered no in-theater service, forcing patrons who wanted drinks or food to go to the lobby. Other theaters offered too much service and waitstaff constantly asked customers if they needed anything. These interruptions bothered many customers. Tim and Carrie recognized that moviegoers wanted to see a movie first and foremost, and that good service meant that they would have to design a better system.


The Alamo Drafthouse opened in 1996 in downtown Austin’s entertainment district. The Alamo Drafthouse is a single-screen movie theater that serves an assortment of beer and wine and offers a food menu of appetizers, hot sandwiches, individual pizzas, pasta, and dessert. Waiters take orders, serve the food, and collect the bill before and during a movie showing. Traditional movie theater snacks are also available, and patrons can choose self-service in the lobby for all offerings.

The Alamo Drafthouse, like most theaters, has rows of seats. Unlike most theaters, however, there are fewer rows so there is enough space between rows to accommodate long skinny tables where customers can place their food and drinks. Enough space also exists so that personnel can take orders and serve unobtrusively, and customers can slip out to the lobby if desired. Because of this layout, the Alamo offers about half the seating of most auditoriums of similar size and has a capacity of 215 customers.

Before each showing, waitstaff visit customers and explain to them how the Alamo’s service system works. Paper, pencil, and menu are provided along the tables so customers can write their orders on the paper and place the slip of paper in a metal stand where it can be seen by waitstaff who patrol the ends of the aisles. The waiter slips in, picks up the paper, and then goes out to the kitchen to fill the order for the customer. When the order is ready, the waitperson delivers it to the customer. All of this can be done without a single word being exchanged and minimizes disruption to film viewers.

Austin is a fast-growing high-tech town with an extremely young and educated workforce. The film industry–focused Austin Film Festival, which coincides with the live music festival, South-by-Southwest, takes place primarily in downtown Austin every March during the University of Texas at Austin’s spring break holiday.

The theater is located close to the center of downtown nightlife activity and requires only a short walk from one of the main club and restaurant areas. The theater does not have adjacent or free parking for customers, nor is there significant street parking in the vicinity. Most of the other movie theaters in town are located in huge megaplexes in suburbs or in shopping malls.


The Alamo’s programming is divided into two categories, second-run features and special events. Second-runs account for the majority of the Alamo’s programming, about 20 of the 25 screenings per week. These movies are carefully picked to appeal to the Alamo’s customer demographic: smart 25–40-year-olds who have a sophisticated taste in film. Examples of films that fall into this category are Bowling for Columbine, The Italian Connection, and the original The Manchurian Candidate. Unfortunately, the Alamo is somewhat at the mercy of Hollywood for this programming and is occasionally forced to play movies that don’t appeal to its demographic as much as Tim and Carrie would like. At the end of each week Tim and Carrie pick the films that will play for the following week.

Special events are programmed in three-month blocks. These fall into two categories: Austin Film Society events (generally classics or art films) and cult films. The Film Society events usually replace a second-run showing during the week, and cult films play Thursday, Friday, and Saturday at midnight. The cult films appeal to a different (but overlapping) demographic: 18–30-year-olds, predominantly male, who are regular alcohol consumers and are customers of less mainstream, specialty-independent video rental stores such as Vulcan Video and I Luv Video. Special events account for about 5 of the Alamo’s average 25 weekly screenings. Tim sees the special events as a creative outlet, for example, Italian Westerns (commonly known as “spaghetti Westerns”), which feature all-you-can-eat spaghetti, and silent films with live accompaniment by local bands.

Austin’s thriving filmmaking community has been a major boon for special-events programming. Tim regularly gets filmmakers to speak at special engagements. Some guests to the theater include Robert Rodriguez, who hosted a special double feature of El Marciachi and a Hong Kong takeoff of that film. Quentin Tarantino, director of Pulp Fiction, hosts an annual festival of cult movies at the Alamo.


Tim sees the Alamo’s ticket sales as a loss leader to get people into the establishment to consume food and drink, and he keeps ticket prices low, typically $4.00. This price point is below the cost of seeing a first-run film at most typical Austin theaters ($6.50–$7.00), but it is above the price of going to a bargain theater to see a second-run film ($1.00–$1.50). The average Alamo customer spends a total of $5 to $12 per showing. After the ticket is purchased, customers spend about 55 percent of this on food and 45 percent on alcohol. In order to increase spending, they have raised menu prices occasionally since opening and added more high-dollar items to the available selections. Special events account for one-third of revenues.

Although customers are spending more than they do when they go to a typical theater, the Alamo’s profits are limited by its smaller capacity and high labor costs. On a typical Friday page 58night a staff of 15 to 17 people is required, many more than are required to operate a standard theater.


To promote the Alamo, Tim and Carrie use several low-cost methods. They take advertisements out in the three most read Austin papers including the Daily Texan, the University of Texas student newspaper. They also create three-month calendars that list special events. Upcoming showings are announced before every feature. They have formed a close relationship with the Austin Chronicle, an entertainment publication, and consequently get a lot of free public relations exposure in the form of articles previewing their special events.

Tim also engages in some inexpensive but effective loyalty building. He manages the Alamo’s website and answers every piece of e-mail personally. He also announces upcoming films and special events before every show and hangs around after shows to answer questions and talk to his customers. He is very open to suggestions and has used them to plan special events and to modify the menu. He notes that loyalty building has been a lot more effective with the Austin Film Society and cult film crowds.


Marketing analysts use market position maps to display visually the customers’ perceptions of a firm in relation to its competitors regarding two attributes. Prepare a market position map for Alamo Drafthouse using “food quality” and “movie selection” as axes.

Use the “Strategic Service Vision” framework to describe Alamo Drafthouse in terms of target market segments, service concept, operating strategy, and service delivery system.

Identify the service qualifiers, winners, and service losers for Alamo Drafthouse. Are the Alamo purchase decision criteria appropriate for the multiplex movie theater market? What do you conclude?

Use Porter’s Five Forces Model to assess the strategic position of Alamo Drafthouse in the “entertainment industry.”

Conduct a SWOT analysis to identify internal strengths and weaknesses as well as threats and opportunities in the external environment.

The Friedman Family Assessment Form The Friedman Family Assessment Model (Short Form)

The Friedman Family Assessment Form

The Friedman Family Assessment Model (Short Form)

modified for this assignment

The following Friedman Family Assessment Short Form is useful as a quick instrument to help highlight areas of family function that will need more exploration. Before using the following guidelines in completing family assessments, two words of caution are noted: First, not all areas included below will be appropriate for the families you interview and assess.

The guidelines are comprehensive and allow depth when probing is necessary. Second, by virtue of the interdependence of the family system, one will find unavoidable redundancy. For the sake of efficiency, please try not to repeat data, but to refer back to sections where this information has already been described.


1. Family Name (Initials only)

2. Family Composition: The Family Genogram

3. Cultural (Ethnic) Background

4. Religious Identification

5. Social Class Status

6. Social Class Mobility


7. Family’s Present Developmental Stage

8. Extent of Family Developmental Tasks Fulfillment

9. Nuclear Family History

10. History of Family of Origin of Both Parents


11. Characteristics of Home

12. Characteristics of Neighborhood and Larger Community

13. Family’s Geographical Mobility

14. Family’s Associations and Transactions With Community

15. Communication Patterns Extent of Functional and Dysfunctional Communication

(types of recurring patterns)

Extent of Emotional (Affective)

Messages and How Expressed

Characteristics of Communication Within Family Subsystems

Types of Dysfunctional Communication Processes Seen in Family

Areas of Closed Communication

18. Power Structure

Decision-making Process

19. Role Structure

Formal Role Structure

Informal Role Structure

Variables Affecting Role Structure

20. Family Values

Identify important family values and their importance (priority) in family.

Presence of Value Conflicts in Family

Effect of the Above Values and Value Conflicts on Health Status of Family


21. Affective Function

Mutual Nurturance, Closeness, and Identification

Separateness and Connectedness

22. Socialization Function

Family Child-rearing Practices

Adaptability of Child-rearing Practices for Family

Value of Children in Family

Cultural Beliefs That Influence Family’s Child-rearing Patterns

Social Class Influence on Child-rearing

23. Health Care Function

Family’s Health Beliefs, Values, and Behavior

Family’s Definitions of Health-Illness and Its Level of Knowledge

Family’s Perceived Health Status and Illness Susceptibility

Family’s Dietary Practices

■ Adequacy of family diet

■ Function of mealtimes and attitudes toward food and mealtimes

Sleep and Rest Habits

Physical Activity and Recreation Practices

Family’s Therapeutic and Recreational Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Practices

Family’s Role in Self-care Practices

Medically Based Preventive Measures (physicals, eye and hearing tests, immunizations, dental care)

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Family Health History (both general and specific diseases—environmentally and genetically related)

Feelings and Perceptions Regarding Health Services


24. Family Stressors, Strengths, and Perceptions

Stressors Family Is Experiencing

Strengths That Counterbalance Stressors

Family’s Definition of the Situation

25. Family Coping Strategies

How the Family Is Reacting to the Stressors

Extent of Family’s Use of Internal Coping Strategies (past/present)

Extent of Family’s Use of External Coping Strategies (past/present)

Dysfunctional Coping Strategies Utilized (past/present; extent of use)

26. Family Adaptation

Overall Family Adaptation

Estimation of Whether Family Is in Crisis

Source: Friedman, M. M., Bowden, V. R., & Jones, E. G. (2003). Family nursing: Research, theory, and practice (5th ed., pp. 593–594). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.