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Impact Of Succession Planning On The Productivity Of A Firm African History Assignment Help






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Proposal on the Impact of Succession Planning on the Productivity of a Firm


In the past, some organizations had various managerial levels and their leaders spent a lot of time in different strategic activities including mentoring, training and improvement. Most employees expected that they work for their employer for a long time and this is after providing distinguished services. Thereafter, the employees would be able to achieve the same status as management trainees. Since the employees have ample time on their hands, supervisors could effectively see the direct reports concerning all areas of the workplace. In turn, they could assist in guiding employees with the right resources that will enable them to have exemplarily careers in the future (Reeb, 2005). It is thus recommended that all supervisors ensure that they help identify future leaders. The focus on succession planning lasted in some organizations in the 1970’s, and in the 1980’s. Most of the executives who were prominent at the time are now about to retire. Also, as many as half of the senior government officials in America are set to retire (Richtel, 2010). This also includes top executives working in some of the fortune 500 companies. During the World Trade Center bombing, 172 corporate executives in various companies lost their lives. This means that the work force is greatly affected when talent is lost.


This study will focus on finding out how a firm’s productivity is affected by succession planning. The world economy is growing at an extremely fast rate and thus the reason why its industries are booming. This study will attempt to make an effort so as to measure the processes related to succession planning upon a firm’s productivity. Furthermore, recommendations will be made in order to improve organizational performance and succession planning. The study will be based upon statistical data obtained from business firms. An extensive literature review on succession planning and the impact it has on a firm’s productivity will be conducted. The study will formulate a conceptual framework about the research topic. Lastly, the study will attempt to answer the following research questions:

How does succession planning affect the overall performance of a firm?
When is the right time to introduce potential leaders to succession planning?
What needs to be done to ensure that succession planning is successful?


In the four decades that have passed, there has been a managerial revolution and it has had an impact on planning. Some of the enterprises affected by succession planning include educational institutions, government and business, among others. Succession planning is quite vital as it has been stressed by many researchers. For example, in the past, production managers found out that without prior planning, mistakes showed up shortly after while working on projects. This means that certain projects halted because of the absence or misfit of needed components (Stoner, 1982).

Succession planning dates back to the 1940’s after being conceptualized by Goetz. He believed that planning involves choosing options that will deal with problems that are likely to arise. An alternative solution or action exists in matters that concern succession planning. There is a direct relationship between decision making and succession planning. It is thus recommended that planning is done in advance and it should be done by the right people at the right time. This means that the right alternatives have to be chosen as it will influence future actions. Departmental goals will be effectively achieved because they have been planned for in advance. Succession planning considers the future environments nature whereby planning actions and decisions will operate.

Human productivity is a key issue in the field of business as they are responsible for its success. Human beings are judged upon the quantity and quality of work that they do. It is thus conclusive to claim that productivity is concerned with efficiency and effectiveness (Hirsh, 2011). A management theory founding father Peter Drucker (2003) claimed that in order for success to be achieved effectiveness has to exist. Doing things which are right is associated with effectiveness and efficiency deals with doing things the right way.

In the world’s global organizations, there are quite a number of initiatives based on leadership development. This is known to be an important part of any successful corporate strategy. In a leadership study conducted by Hewitt Associates, a Global Human Resources company, information concerning succession planning was obtained. It was found out that in the top twenty leading companies in the world, 91 percent of them had a way of identifying leaders. This is compared to the rest, which had only a 61 percent success rate of identifying leaders. Also, 82 percent of the world’s top organizations have mentoring programs as compared to the others in the list. In fact, IBM leads as it has eleven leadership competencies at the various management levels (Avanesh, 2011).

The employees who have leadership abilities and are working at IBM are assessed based upon certain competencies. They are then considered when succession planning is taking place in the organization. Secondly, Microsoft came second as it attracts rare talent and potential leaders are identified during the hiring stage. Potential leaders are then groomed later on so that they can take up leadership positions in the future. Cutting Edge, an American research firm dealing in business had a report concerning succession planning (Avanesh, 2011). It found out that a majority of companies have succession plans, but few of them fail to follow through with the implementation requirements. It is estimated that as a result of succession planning, as much as 70 percent of all succession plans fail.

Charles Sawyer (2006) has raised some issues concerning succession planning on a firm’s productivity. The depth at which formal succession plans are part of a firm is not yet known. Crisis management is today used in the selection of leaders in various organizations. The organizations continue to fail to have succession plans and even resources to be used in the implementation of succession plans. Leadership development and succession planning does not have the adequate focus that middle level managers need (Chirico, 2008). The two strategies have to be urgently considered with special emphasize on middle-level managers.


The study in this research will be quantitative and it will be descriptive in nature. The aim of using quantitative data is in order to succeed in fact finding. In order to collect the required data, a questionnaire method will be adapted (Amaratunga & Baldry & Sarshar & Newton, 2002). The sources of data will be secondary data and primary data. The primary data will be collected from the filled questionnaires that the Project Leaders in the various respondent units provide. The secondary data will be collected from the internet, previous research, magazines, journals and books.





Amaratunga, D. & Baldry, D. & Sarshar, M. & Newton, R. (2002). Quantitative and qualitativeresearch in the built environment, Work Study, 51, 1.

Avanesh, Neetha. (2011). A Study on Succession Planning and its Impact on Organizational Performance in the IT Sector. International Refereed Research Journal, 2, 1, 2231-4172.

Chirico, Francesco. (2008). Knowledge Accumulation in Family Firms: Evidence from Four Case Studies International Small Business Journal August, 26, 1, 433-462.

Drucker, P. (2003). The Theory and Practice of Management, a broader perspective. New York: New York Press.

Gabrielsson, Jonas. (2007). Boards of Directors and Entrepreneurial Posture in Medium-size Companies: Putting the Board Demography Approach to a Test International Small Business Journal, 25, 1, 511-537.

Hirsh, Wendy. (2011). Succession Planning: Current Practice and Future Issues. International Journal of Career Management, 3, 2, 345-367.

Reeb, William. (2005). Securing the Future: Building a Succession Plan for Your Firm. New York: AICPA.

Richtel, Matt. (2010).“Growing Up Digital, Wired for Distraction.”  Retrieved from The New York Times.

Sawyer, Charles. (2006). Beyond Leadership: Approaches to Comprehensive Succession Planning. New York: Pearson.

Stoner, J. (1982). Management and Planning, a broader perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publication limited.




Proposal with Literature Review: Virtual supply Chain a level history essay help: a level history essay help


Proposal with Literature Review: Virtual supply Chain













The research will be carried out to determine the importance of good virtual supply chains. The dynamic supply chain alignment is based on four types of the supply chains based on the four types of customer behavior and thus is viewed as the ultimate formula for streamlining the supply chain for the utmost performance of the business organization. The research will be important in determine the level of success due to better virtual supply chains and its applicability in various organizations in UK. The four components of the dynamic supply chain management which include the continuous replenishment type, lean, agile and the fully flexible supply chain will be analyzed. The supply chain adopted in the dynamic alignment model is open-ended and can therefore be applied basing on the customer, supplier or the product that is being delivered to the consumers from the suppliers to the consumers through the dynamic supply chain alignment model. The paper will thus be important in determining the advantages of virtual supply chains taking key organizations in the United Kingdom.



The operations of a successful business organization should be successful and proficient, especially in the way the needs of the consumers are responded to. Given that the consumers are the main spring board towards the attainment of the organization’s set mission or objectives, it thus becomes vital that all the activities conducted by the business organizations relating to the supply of the commodities to the consumers be well tackled so that the needs of the customers can be met and also aid in the facilitation of the increase in the sales and the profits realized from sale of the commodities produced by the business organizations. This account has an insinuation that the supply chain that is to be adopted by a given business organization should be able to meet the customers’ needs basing on the customers’ behavior. This will ensure that the model of the supply chain adopted by the business firm delivers the products and the services to the consumers in the most effective and proficient manner (Slack et al, 2007, p. 29). The introduction will introduce the reader to the topic by illustrating the importance of carrying out the research, aims and objectives of the study.


Aims and Objectives

In this section the aims of the proposed research would be discussed. The main objective of the research will be to;

To identify the various advantages and disadvantages of virtual supply chain in various UK organizations.
To identify the applicability of virtual supply chain in various organizations in UK.
To identify the factors that influence virtual supply chains in the United Kingdom’s market and beyond.
To determine how virtual supply chains influences successful marketing and customer satisfaction.


Literature review

According to Marquez 2009, the benefits of virtual supply chain model in relation to the satisfaction of the needs of the consumers and the attainment of the set goals or objectives of the business organization which basically are the increase of the sales and the maximization of the profits will be discussed (p.97). It is noted that because the virtual supply chain model comprises a variety of the supply chains that are incorporated to meet the needs of the consumers basing on their behaviors and the types of the commodities that are supplied for sale. The types that encompass the dynamic supply chain and the associated characteristics include:

Continuous Replenishment Supply chains

This is a supply chain in which the relationships of the customers and the business organization offering or using the supply chain matter most.

Lean Supply Chains

This supply chain focuses on efficiency and lowest cost to serve the customers. This is an imperative component of the dynamic alignment supply chain model as it minimizes the cost of cost of production of the company and thus at the same time facilitate the attainment of the set goals as the net out come between the input and the out put is positive indicating that the strategy is cost effective and thus can be used to increase the generation of the profits by the company or business organizations.

Agile Supply Chain

This involves urgent or quick response to the consumer behavior or needs which will also at the same time aid in the attainment of the goals or the missions of the business organization.

Fully Flexible Supply Chain

Reimold & Reimold, 2007 asserts that the supply chain as indicated by the name, is flexible and thus encompasses all the other discussed models and thus nothing is impossible in this supply chain. Basing on this account it becomes clear that the dynamic alignment model is the best to be applied in a business organization (Reimold & Reimold, 2007).


MacDonald 2006 argues that the virtual alignment model seeks to identify and define the behavioral forces of cooperation and good customer relationships with the business organization so as to create brand loyalty and cohesion, force for creativity and flexibility, force for analysis systems and control and eventually the force for energy action and results that will eventually promote the efficient delivery of the commodities to the consumers (MacDonald, 2006). This should be done in a consistent manner where by the customer is assured of access to the products due to the reliability, predictability and the consistency that the business organization could have created in the consumers, this will definitely lead to the success of the business organization. On the other hand, Boyer & Verma, 2009 says that with this application of the customer service logics and the responsiveness of the business organization to the desires of the consumers then it is possible that the supply chain will yield forth to the increased sales and the profits and thus facilitate the attainment of the set goals of the business organization (p. 18).


Dewe and Cooper, 2007 records that the assessment or the evaluation of the behavioral segments of the consumers that can assist the managers or the leaders of the business organizations to determine the most suitable supply chain method will also be brought to light and the incorporation of the cross functional teams in the driving for the use of a better supply chain method and then fight for the enhancement of the effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of the products and the services to the customers (p. 56). This paper will further argue or state that there is no need of having to establish a new supply chain method with reference to the prevailing dynamic alignment model.


Gratton & Erickson 2007 argues that organizational culture is an important tool and a determinant of an organizational success and therefore developing a strong organizational culture is essential for success in a business organization. In this regard, each organization have different social s that link organizational culture and the effectiveness in an organization and therefore the s always drive individual behaviors in an organization thereby becoming effective (p. 67). This paper will look into what managers perceive of organization and the context of influence in their utilization of transactions and transformations of their leadership in relation to the behavior of the employees in relation to virtual supply chains.


Advantages of good supply virtual chains


Leads to a Strong Market Domination

Good supply chains help in creating up policies of becoming and gaining considerable market proportional domination. This is because the companies are seeking to be most important suppliers of their products. It increases the market position as seen in a company’s supply of products to major retail chains. Companies with good supply chains with varying assortments of accessories provide favorable prices, that are notable but not those found at the lowest level in any supply industry. It helps companies in successfully harmonizing their products and services quality so that they become in line with the supply price (Gratton & Erickson, 2007). This should couple with the consistent delivery that enables companies to acquire loyalty among retail chains.


According to Supply Townsley 2009, chains provide ways forward for marketing a companies produce since retail chains across which the markets operates heavily rely on the information technology and supply chains in all their operations. This helps in providing companies with opportunities to invest in modern technologies advanced equipment like computers and other communicational equipment so as to be in line with the demand of the customers and the demands of the organization as a whole (p. 78). The company has to present and invest heavily on technology. For example they should adopt a modern electronic management system, the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), which will enable an easy transmission, purchase of orders, invoices and making of payment from its retail customers across markets.


Global Expansion and Strategic Management

Sparrow, 2007 also says that the supply chains creates the company’s policy of acquisition which is favorable because it seeks to modify the operations of any acquired company so as to fit in the preset standards of their mother company, therefore organization of annual general meeting follow new acquisitions and developments are easy. This is undertaken under the strict supervision of high ranking company personnel such as the CEO (p. 34).


Brewster & Vernon, 2007 suggests that the process therefore enables any acquired company to undergo transformation into adopting the management. In the process of developing globally, the supply chains  helps people realize the benefits of developing an instrument that will help in assessing their managers’ perception of the organization and the s of their department as organic and therefore implementing the relationships within the employee (p. 116). For a company to accomplish this, the supply chains helps their managers on a seven-item scale which requires them to indicate the extent to which an item on the scale characterizes the organization or departmental.


MacDonald  asserts that, the items should include whether a departments have highly d culture and an open channels of communication between workers and the managers, a strong unit of a uniformed managerial style where the managers are allowed to operate on a range freely from being very formal one that is very informal and lastly, the s contain and insist on a strong emphasis getting a line and a staff personnel who will adhere or may try to closely adhere to formal descriptions of jobs as well as those with strong tendency of letting the requirements of the situation of the institution define the behavior that is proper for a job in a company (MacDonald, 2006, p. 201).


Favorable Organizational and Culture

This supply chains contain disciplined and an aggressive culture so as to have major acquisition and steady expansion. To maintain this, the communication system shows that the company has had a strategy that utilized and make possible a plan whose mandate is to create a vision for the team stating their expectations from individuals and ended up setting up an open door policy to help conduct an open house sessions to make it easy in addressing employees’ issues on satisfaction and therefore making clear goals for individuals and teams as a whole. Supply chains help people to know that the good feedback from the managements is as a result of productivity which grows (Hesketh, 2006). The chains of supply together with good communication system, according to Wright, 2005, should show teams and help them to be in a position to know that the previous plans of action was mix of leadership and transformation strategy and therefore identified the competencies of the employee and the gaps that were available then gave propositions on training more personnel to fill the gaps and then redesign the role of most jobs and augment skills (Wright, 2005). This leads to establishing productivity measures which are comparable with industry figures.


Fleetwood, 2006 says that the other strategy that this supply chains performs is that they are involved in calling all members for team meetings to take inputs on achieved goals set and establish common goals for the team. It therefore became successful in influencing the web development tea, logistic teams and functional heads so as to implement all decisions thus leading to an expansion of customer base as a result implementation of online relation which grow instantly (Fleetwood, 2006, p. 123). The plan of actions are successful because of the use of transformational leadership style because the decision to identify crucial employees and empower the teams that enables the employees to have a focus on achieving goals because they were included in the decision making process and the setting of common subordinate goals helped the specialist to combine well with existing teams.


All these makes the companies to acquire over major businesses. Hellmann, 2005 argues that the target was companies that manufactured relatively low technology and non-fashionable products and then transform them through streamlining and focus on improving efficiency and profitability (Hellmann, 2005, p. 143). The team is helped to focus on a strategy that increases its operational margins of the company above situated marks of minimum expectation from any form businesses. The supply chains provide the company with plans in major organizational transformation that help in changing dominant systems of centralization to reorganization into separate divisions (Frederick, 2006). All these will be advantageous to the company in their bid to be the prime supplier to major retail outfits.

Assessment and evaluation of the dynamic supply chain model

According to Cotta & Hemert 2007, the business model of the supply chain that is to be adopted by the organizations is the dynamic alignment supply chain model. This model operated in manner such that the aspects relating to the customers, the manufacturers and the retailers who in essence link up in the effective delivery of the products the consumers. The dynamic alignment model has a diversity of the components that have to work in correlation with each other so as to enhance the effectiveness in the delivery of the commodities to the consumers (p. 106).


For instance the factors like the leadership or the management of the business organization in question, the culture of both the business organization and the customers to be served, the strategy or the technological factors and the market place have to be considered and scrutinized or assessed so as to facilitate the satisfaction of the wants of the customers through the well-organized supply of the commodities to them. All these aspects encompass the human activities, the business processes and the internal capabilities through the use of technology Chandra & Grabis, 2007, p. 71).


The methodology involves the rapid response to the unpredictable supply and demand conditions and therefore because the necessities of the customers tend to change basing on the changes in the economic factors of the individuals. This therefore has an implication that this model (the dynamic alignment model) is of great significance to the business organization and will thus incorporate all the activities that aid in the success in the achievement of the set goals for the business organization under question.


It involves conducting the business activities as far as the supply of the commodities is concerned; though the supply may be viewed as being done in an ad hoc manner, this is basically meant to meet the wishes of the customers and thus in turn facilitate the attainment of the set goals of the business organization (Zimmermann, 2008). The method is also cost effectual and therefore economical to use as it involves fewer process in the supply of the products, it is out come oriented and its commercial deals of the supply of the products to the consumers is done on a pragmatism context/basis.


Cohen & Roussel, 2005 says that the success in the attainment of the suitable supply chain method in any given business organization is dependant on appropriateness of the strategies in each customer segment or behavior. The supply chain strategies that can be applied are diverse depending on the product mix which involves the innovation of the new products and the services that are developed through collaboration or working in cooperation with other firms and the consumers so that the tastes and preferences of the consumers can be met. This module also presents its imperativeness by the way it adopts a variety of the distribution channels; it is not restricted to only one method but is flexible and thus can be used in supplying commodities to the consumers in even the cases of emergence and thus builds a good image of the organization (p. 124).


The fact that the method makes the good use of the cross-functional teams so as to facilitate the collaboration in the delivery of the products and then maximize the profist of the consumers, it follows that the dynamic alignment model is the best model to be adopted by the business organizations. According to Chopra & Meindl, 2009, the module is the pivotal one as it can be used to link the insights and the perceptions of the customers in relation to the operations of the business organization and the ways through which it supplies its commodities to the market, this will ensure that the business organization acts in accordance with the requirements of the consumers and thus aid in the attainment of the set goals. This therefore has an insinuation that the culture and the leadership styles and the organizational to be used in the business organizations as far as the implementation of the strategy of the dynamic or the continually changing supply chain must also be considered so that the customers can feel culturally and socially linked to the business organizations and thus develop brand loyalty that will in turn be benevolent to the company or the business organization being investigated (p. 75).



The research project will use various practical and theoretical methods to do full justice to the research. The practical methods encompass the use of a Web-based questionnaire distributed among the United Kingdom employees and customers. The chapter discusses the various research methods and their importance. The chapter also provides the justification for choosing a particular research method. The chapter explains the questionnaire design as well.


There are a variety of research approaches available, and there is no standardized method to go about the research. It is acknowledged that many approaches to the generation and analysis of qualitative data are available in studying information systems, in this case mobile banking, due to their complex, multidisciplinary nature (Capozzoli, 1995). This chapter intends to demonstrate the research methodology used in the dissertation to scrutinize the main concepts that constitute the intersection between trust, perceived risk, and technology acceptance within the supply chains.


Research approach

The study will be conducted by collecting secondary and primary data. Secondary data was collected from books, journals, and government Web sites, whereas primary data was collected by means of a survey distributed among bank customers. In order to select the participants, the study made use of the stratified random sampling method.


Justification of the research approach

Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses, and the study made use of both methods as the need arose. In order to collect quantitative data, primary information was collected through the medium of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to friends and relatives who made use of various banking services in order to learn about the perceived risk, trust, and technology acceptance in order to determine mobile banking acceptance in the UK market (Hesketh, 2006). A qualitative research method was used to study the unstructured information collected through secondary data collection from journals, government Web sites, and bank reports. This helped in understanding the competitiveness of the local and international banks in UK and their readiness to face future challenges.

Primary data

In general, there are various techniques through which primary data can be collected such as face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, questionnaires, observations and many more. This study made use of an online questionnaire in order to collect primary data. The questionnaires focused on getting socio dynamic information about the respondents. This method was selected because of its ease of use and comprehension in terms of results derivation. Primary data is extremely important when it comes to satisfying the various research objectives.

Secondary data

Secondary data is easier to collect since it is already available in a format that is easy to understand and organize. Information was collected based on the credibility of the authors. Journals, books, and magazines were used to collect facts and literature to support and analyze the findings of the study.


Research instruments

Detailed questionnaires and interviews will be used as research instruments.

The questionnaires will be aimed at identifying the various advantages and disadvantages of virtual supply chain in various UK organizations. It will also seek to identify the applicability of virtual supply chain in various organizations in UK referring to spread of its application.



The dynamic alignment model, unlike the other means of product supply such as the lean, the continuous replenishment and the agile methods, it uses all the cultural and the organizational s that are applied in all of them thus enhances the effectiveness in the management of the resources and the supply of the products to the market; this increases the sales and the profits which eventually leads to the facilitation of the success of the business organization. It can therefore be deduced that the logistics applied by the dynamic model are overall and thus there will be no need of establishing another model; the modification of the operations of the existing supply chain model will be sufficient to enhance the success of the business organization (Bozarth & Handfield, 2007, p. 42).  Basing on the account or the assertion of the dynamic alignment supply chain model, it follows that there is no need of a new supply chain model.




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Bozarth, C & Handfield, R, 2007, Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, Edition2, Pearson Prentice Hall.


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Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. 218.


Capozzoli, T.K. (1995 December). Resolving conflict within teams. Journal for Quality & Participation, 18(7), 28-30. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from EbscoHost database.


Chandra, C & Grabis, J, 2007, Supply chain configuration: concepts, solutions and applications, Springer publishers.


Chopra, S & Meindl, P, 2009, Supply chain management: strategy, planning, and operation, Edition4, Prentice Hall.


Clegg, C Sparrow, P.R. (2007). Predicting future proficiency supplies: a three-phase tactic.

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Cohen, S & Roussel, J, 2005, Strategic supply chain management: the five disciplines for top performance, McGraw-Hill Professional.


Cotta, C & Hemert, J, 2007, Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization: 7th European Conference, Evocop 2007, Valencia, Spain, April 11-13, 2007, Proceedings

Volume 4446 of Lecture notes in computer science LNCS sublibrary, Springer.

Critical Realism, 5 (2): 228-250


Dewe, P. and Cooper, C.L. (2007). Managing Research and Measurement of Work Related.

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Contemporary Hospitality Management. pp. 100-106.


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Psychosocial Problems among Single Mothers world history essay help





Psychosocial Problems among Single Mothers

Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair (Hughes)


Single parenthood culture seems appealing to many married people. However, married individuals are forced to battle with elements like faithfulness and life-long commitment to one individual, which may be boring in some cases. However, single parents, especially single mothers encounter serious challenges related to parenting. Single parenting is a succession of constant mental torture because of ineptness, self-scrutiny, and remorse. At some point, single parents will often encounter serious psychological problems some graduating to stress and eventual depression. Again, there are far-reaching problems that force single mothers to a set of economic or social hardships. Social hardships are evident as address in this research.

Nonetheless, the study will still cover economic hardships since the two are closely related. The study will attempt to prove that single mothers are disadvantaged socially and economically. The study is segmented into two main sections; firstly, a background depicting researches in this field. Secondly, the study will present an argumentative literature attempting to clarify that single mothers do have a genuine problem not only economically, but as well socially in upbringing their children. To achieve this, the essay appoints Langston Hughes Poem ‘Mother to Son’ as a derivative reference point in developing this study.



Research has traditionally focused in examining the emancipation of the female gender during their development. However, few researchers have intrinsically examined on the adult-life of single parents, more so in relation to women. The few efforts relating to this field like Williams (179) exemplifies that women suffer the greatest menace while trying support their single-parented families. Other researchers like Balter et al. (435) have examined the role of gender in raising children. In Balter et al’s studies, qualitative analysis examined the emotional difficulties of children being raised by single mothers. Further to the studies, attention has been directed towards examining the income level and other factors revolving around the quality of lives of single mothers.

Dickey et al (22) presents statistical information that compares the quality of lives between a single mother and that of a standard family (father and mother actively involved). In the US, single mothers are often poorer compared to single fathers and considerably poorer than average families (Dickey et al, 22). According to the 2002 national census, a significant proportionate of 80 percent of single parents ‘who are poor’ are women. Poverty, money or lack of it, is a source of many social and economic problems. R has sought to examine that social support for a single parent may also be categorically lacking. These opinions are supported by a public wide cry of literature content from agitators like Langston Hughes, who through a poem, expresses the devastation of being a single mother (Pattnaik 167).

Literature Review

After reading the Mother to Son Poem, one will not fail to notice the anger of the mother in trying to present the problems associated with single motherhood. Primarily, the mother tries to encourage the son to pursue his life broadly. This is the only means that she will get satisfaction. Deeper in the poem, the desperate tone in the mother’s voice is evident. While it is common knowledge that women are currently in better economic positions, it is sad to note that the status silently revolves around social depression. Dickey et al (22-23) seconds the ideas presented in what he ratifies as roles of single-mothers role in providing emotional support and sustenance for their children. Of course, it is common knowledge that, there are volunteers who give the single-mothers financial help, pick-up children from school or even do the cleaning and cooking. Furthermore, in the 21st century, women are equally competing for jobs, and their incomes are sufficient for their maintenance and development of their children. However, just like a mother, the parenting gap cannot be filled by material substitutions. The literature review will attempt to clarify that researchers do get it right in their depiction that single motherhood is a psychological uphill task (Dickey et al, 22).

Langston Hughes could have held the widest decision in what he clarified as a lost hope for single mothers. Hughes wrote, “And sometimes going’ in the dark w there ain’t been no light“. This is a clear assessment that desperation is the leading cause of mental failures of single mothers. Although Huston does not specify psychological detriments relating to regressive parenting methods like punitive strategies, psychosocial models of single mothers are primarily responsible in nurturing deconstructive families.

Golombok (6) reflects on a regressive mother-child relationship caused by the absence of a father. In his analysis, he attempts to relate single parenthood as a primary factor that leads to poorer grades in school and the development of rebellious attitudes. A further support to Hughes’s opinion is the comparison of happy and unhappy families, with the unhappy ones coming from single mothers. In fact, this study shows that children from single mothers were often slow while respond to social abruptness.

In respect to these divergent patterns, it is good to investigate the emotional situation of parents and its effects on their children. The background research has shown that adults with various economic problems also encounter serious mental-health problems. This practically expands the poverty cycle. Balter et al (438) showed that single mothers who are exposed to more acute chronic stressors due to parenting are considerably weak and cannot conduct parenting effectively because of pervasive debilitating effects. Hughes’ literature syntax shows that life change scores, and deconstructive impairment have a strong effect on a single mother. The mother in the poem has considerably lost hope of building constructive social life. As a result, the mother requests the son to hold on collectively as this was the only way of rebuilding their shattered life (Balter et al, 435).

Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the role of fathers in upbringing children. Strong et al (95) argue that fathers act as role models and their inherent roles cannot be altered. In fact, the probability of fathers engaging in their young ones life is naturally centered inspiring, motivating, and facilitating various stages of growth. Besides, mothers differ significantly with fathers who performed masculine activities that mothers could not. Hughes explains this scarcity as the primary causing the problem of ineptness and inability of mothers to fill the gap constructively. On the wider national economics, the lack of the father care grounds subsequent social and economic cost. Although initiatives meant to reduce the scarcity have focused strongly on low-income fathers; there have been growing interests to ensure that fathers participate positively in the upbringing process with intent to minimize the direct negatives resulted by single-mother parenting methodologies (Balter et al, 435).




Single Women Careers and Addiction

There has been recent attempt to examine single mothers’ career patterns. Inversely, parallel research has delved to examine single mothers and their list of addictions. Thirdly, an interesting outcome of a much elaborated research has attempted interrelate the two researchers in what is can be defined as a failed state of mental resolutions. Single mothers often lead divergent lifestyles that attract serious scrutiny in their lives. One of the serious causes of traumatic events in women is single parenthood. Especially, it can be vicious if the woman in question is coming from an emotional aftermath of divorce. Divorce is primarily responsible for creating self-doubt, anger and hopelessness. In fact, some women regress to divergent lifestyles; for instance, lesbianism, drug addiction and eventual life of crime due to a failed marriage.


In divorce incidences, women end up much poorer and, in fact, there has been growing patterns of drops in the general standards of living of the divorced women. Williams (57) argues that a divorced woman is 80 percent likely to regress to poverty than a single, married woman. Not to mention that, in vital cases, the alimonies from ex-husband is often constrained by the ever increasing defense court cases. According to research conducted in the state of New Jersey, out of the 100 percent divorced women, only 29 percent gained full support from their former husbands, another 31 percent gained partial support and the rest did not get any support.


Also in this relation, Gao (167) conducts a research where she compares heroin addiction between single women and married women. According to Gao’s report, it is clear that single women were subjects to addiction to heroin because of considerable marital problems. The report also depicted that amongst drug users, that 44 percent began drug abuse while still married because of their husband extra marital or punitive behaviors. A further 21 percent were divorced, separated or were living as widows. This is a clear analysis that women or single women drug addiction were as a result of psychosocial problems resulted by the absence of a man in their lives; physically or psychologically.

In relation to divorce, it is positive to examine the available statistics seconding the research. Demographers have found that parental divorce increased inclines of daughters getting divorced from a magnitude of 70%. Similarly, odds of divorced are accelerated in a case where the wife parents have been previously divorced by a magnitude of 69%, and the figure was alarming at 189% if both spouses’ parents were divorced. Parental divorce has been suggested to have impacts on an individual relationship and characteristics. Now seconding this research, it is positive to note that women (daughter or mother) are adversely affected by a divorce scenario, and the degree of affection could be so severe that it ends up initiating traumatic conditions.


Also seconding this research, Goldman (687) argues that the marriage is a beneficial to mental and physical health since, in any case, marriage provides an individual with economic resources and social support reduces vulnerability to stressors. In any case, meta-analysis a psychosocial tool is more important to women more than it is men. Therefore, poor instances of meta-analysis expose women to a higher probability of psychological distress and, therefore, undermining the quality of their lifestyles. This then explains in detail why the boy’s mother categorically suffers psychosocial problem. Also, in a close examination of the strain between the boy and the mother, studies have found out that the complexity in a marital relationship is primarily responsible constraining other innate relationships between a single mother and other people who make a significance debut in her life.


Part of this restraint is specifically directed towards a work environment. Research has attempted to affiliate the structural model and its individual characteristics on work outcomes. According to several results from quantitative and qualitative analysis, the structural model is vital since it includes individual characteristics and labor market segmentation variables. Reports affirm that women who newly divorced tended to loose authority than before they were divorced. Therefore, in this relation, it is good to argue that women general felt at a greater loss and a dangerous position of psychosocial insecurity if a masculine protection was not guaranteed in their lives.


Again, as part of this research, there has been growing concern about the productivity of divorced women. In any case, a divorced woman will naturally distance from productive economic activities and more of her energy will be directed towards attempting to get to terms with her social life. While men often do not take divorce seriously, women on the other hand, take divorce negatively even if the man was abusive in one way or another. In most cases, women would prefer a separation as compared to divorce (Pattnaik, 133). This seconds an earlier assessment of this research which seeks to portray as the losers in a divorce cycle. This assessment concretes our poem where the woman protagonist harbors unexplainable pain. According to the poem, there is no evidence of poverty cycles affecting the woman, but there is categorical evidence justifying that a woman happens to be subject of masculine brutality. The sidelined sex of women is based on knowledge that women are much weaker economically and therefore socially. As a result, a woman who does not have a partner seconding her will naturally feel stripped of subsequent safety rights.


Pattnaik (168) argues that every single mother (previously married or not) may live alone with her children. However, her living situation changes during several years. Technically, economic circumstances often spills to affect their professional positions; therefore, predisposing them to a series of economic and social hardships. Evidently, there is a wide gap created by the absence of fathers in parenting (Balter et al, 435). In any case, fathers happen to be instigators of a collective social responsibility of guiding, protecting, and encouraging their young ones. In contrast, their absence is primarily responsible for the development of unparalleled families. In most societies, patriarchy or matriarchy fathers’ roles stretch nobly from providing considerate social goals to heading families. Therefore, their lack will often affect negatively to nature of families being developed in that society (Pattnaik 170).


This study has been substantial in proving that single mothers and disadvantaged socially and economically. The study has appointed Langston Hughes Poem Mother to Son as a secondary reference point in relation to the subject of this study. It is proven that the single mothers of the 21st century are psychologically affected. As a result, they are unable to cope with their demanding economic lives. Therefore, future studies must focus on the diversity of single motherhood, and the problems facing single mothers in developing competent young adults, especially males. The concept of parenting is important in the society. Even with the economic challenges that single mothers face, many of them have worked hard and ensured that their children live comfortably like those with both parents.



Work Cited

Balter, Lawrence., & Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine. Child Psychology: A Handbook of

Contemporary Issues. New York; Psychology Press; 2003. Print.

Dickey, Susan B, Cindy S. Greenberg, and Vicky R. Bowden. Children and Their Families: The
Continuum of Care. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. Print.

Gao, Huan. Women Heroin Users in China’s Changing Society: An Analysis of the Careers of

Women Drug Users. London: ProQuest.

Goldman, Marlene B, Rebecca Troisi, and Kathryn M. Rexrode. Women and Health. Amsterdam:

Elsevier Science, 2013. Internet resource.

Golombok, Susan. Parenting: What Really Counts?. London: Routledge 2014. Print.
Hagood, Susan. “Rice Plus”: Widows and Economic Survival in Rural Cambodia. Taylor &
Francis, 2006. Print.

Pattnaik, Jyotsna. Father Involvement in Young Children’s Lives: A Global Analysis. Dordrecht:

Springer, 2013. Internet resource.

Strong, Mark E. Church for the Fatherless: A Ministry Model for Society’s Most Pressing

Problem. Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Books, 2012. Internet resource.

Williams, Reginald. The Voices of Single Parent Mothers who are Homeless in Regard to Their
Parent Child Relationships. London: ProQuest: 2008. Print.



ETHICAL ISSUES IN PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS history homework: history homework


Name: Vash-Ti Paylor

Course Name:

Instructors Name:





A public organization is a government run organization that mainly deals with service delivery to the public. The organization is managed and sponsored by the government meaning the tax payer pays its bills and does the creation of all the policies related to the organization. Employees of such organizations face a lot ethical challenges in the quest for service delivery. The challenges can be in form the policy makers or the politicians to their bosses giving unethical orders. Sometimes it may be a conflict of interest due to friends or relatives having dealings with the organization. The challenges vary over time and the ethics to be applied are quite debatable and which ethical theory should be applied. The decisions to be taken to ensure the proper running of the organization have to be considered and the necessary steps to be taken in this ensuring lack of interference and ensuring that the proper management is put in place. Due to it a public organization the involvement of the public is important to have it from having a negative perception. This will ensure no alienation by the public that can result in the decline of the organization as the target goals include service delivery to them.


A public organization is any institution which offers services by citizens or residents of a specific area or locale and is owned or controlled by the government. The organization in this case study is a government run facility that offers medical service and advice to the residents. This include normal consultation that is done privately and in confidential. Due to the fact that it’s a public organization, the number of clients coming in on a daily basis is quite high due to affordability of services offered in relation to the expensive private institution. Hence the needs to preserve the code of ethics in the organization and maintain fairness while serving all that come ad are in need of attendance. The order and required procedure has to be observed and the first to arrive are the first to be served and vice versa. The organization is run and sponsored by the government and by this it means they employ the staff while also providing all the other equipments and resources (Robert &Vinzant, 2009).

Ethical issues

As a public officer the choices faced daily may be tough especially due to the ethical choices that will be faced, understanding the implications of the decisions made and resolving the dilemmas that may arise poses a big task, at the some time the ability to understand the position of being in a public organization will be essential in the to your success in such a situation. Cases may arise that pushes one to the brink, these may include lying, cheating or feeling compelled to refuse an order given by the boss. In public organization one of the major things to consider includes responsibility as a professional, confidentiality and its limits and public disclosure. Others include the gender issue, institutional norms, loyalty, conflict of interest and reforms in relation to the organizations cultures as to encourage and accommodate equality irrespective of ethnicity or race.  The other issues that always key in all situations s the financial allocation that normally brings about a lot debate and friction. All the above should be observed by all that run the organization irrespective of level or description from the financial officers the administrators in the organization. The need for uniformity and consistency in the system to success in a public organization, this is due to  if the same is lacking then it presents a problem of cumbersome consumer service due to lack of order (Maguire, 1998).

Conflict of interest

This is always an area of ethical problems for any individual working in a public organization. Coming up with a plan to avoid the same is very crucial especially if it involves resources like finance, where even the idea of one having an expenditure not sanctioned by the organization can lead to trouble. Due to the fact that the organization is run by coffers of the public then its only that total integrity is needed to be given to the staff and it’s their duty to honor the same by performing the duties allocate dwell within the specified standards for code of conduct. Some of the standards that have been set include that no one among the organizations employees are entitled to accept gifts given especially in the place of work. The other controversial issues include misuse of the organizations property and the limits to which one is given in relation to seeking or having outside employment concurrently. The limits legally include excluding the members of the organization from being involved in any personal and financial deals that may be involving a family member or close friend as a conflict of interest may arise (Menzel, 2001).

Politics and administration

The administrators in such organizations find themselves in controversy especially if dealing with politics. The politicians with their influence may try to force some interests for public gain and due to the fact of them being opinion makers try and portray a bad image on the organization while blaming on the administrators. This leads to the begging issue of such employees needing some form of protection from such individuals either using legal means or any other possible measure that can be put in place. This protection can be based on the fact that policy making varies greatly the process of policy implementing and the individuals in politics to stick to making of policies while the administrators do the implementation (Stillman, 2006).

Citizen engagement

According to Maguire (2006), citizens who are normally served by the organization reserve a democratic right to be in giving the reforms to be carried out in the organizations they are the main target or reason for the existence of the organization. Hence there ids need to inform and educate the public on important policy issues in relation to the organization. The other issue is the need to better the governments’ supply of information from the decision down to the citizens like the change in certain policies or costs to avoid misunderstanding. The organization also needs to ensure that the voices of the citizens are heard and these are normally given through opinions which should be heard addressed and a feedback given. They should also be given the opportunity to monitor the implementations and outcomes of new policies if need be. Through this method the organization will be able to adopt amore active stance towards the citizen in service delivery and democratic rights.


Privatization of many public organizations has been one of the approaches taken by many governments in the hope of improving the service delivery to the citizens. This involving the sale a certain percentage to private ownership and in the process transferring the control on the organization to an individual or group, these results in changes being made that will benefit these individuals like profits instead of the main goal being service delivery. In this case all the employees in the organization are forced to implement these changes in policies although the policies may not be appropriate in terms of ethics that are relevant in a scene of public organizations or as previously stated (Morgan, 2001).


This normally is the effect of shareholders trying to reduce the risk or cost of the business and it may in terms of the employee number or service delivery. Either way its going to affect the service delivery as a downsize limits the service capacity of any organization and if it used to serve a lot of people then the effect maybe felt by the citizens who will have to wait longer to get the required service or put too much strain on the organizations employees resulting in the drop in terms of quality of service delivery. In the end the citizens who are the clients will be the ones who will suffer from such actions which may also b related to be the effect of privatization (Richter, 2010).


This is another profit aimed action that can be taken in any organization and result in a negative effect on service delivery.  A perfect example be the inclusion of a private section in the organization which may be a profit generating venture. The creation of these will mean that the wealthy and better endowed financially will get services faster and more efficiently albeit in comparison to the other citizens, this will lead it them being put first in all considerations in terms of service where the main principal of equality in service delivery will have been broken and the wealthy favored (Morgan, 2001).


This is a theory that states that what is morally right or wrong will be judged or determined directly or indirectly using the acts consequences and not the intrinsic feature. By this If an act is committed and the consequences are grave then its morally wrong but irrespective of the act and the consequence are not that bad then it’s accepted as morally correct. Applying this theory in the case of a public organization can be quite disastrous in that the organization will not be affected too negatively but the terms of service delivery will be very unfair. The reason of the argument is that in a case of some simple issue like the delivery of service where those who have friends or family will always get attended first an although this wont affect the quality of the service because all persons will be attended to, the biased rate of attendance to these citizens will not be fair in the real sense and neither moral.  In the case of politics the influence in implementation will be affected negatively as the service delivery will not be as planned due to input by the political elite so as to favor one or two of their family members of friends. This changes if effected can result in poor service delivery as they will not an expert kind of input but just a biased one and in terms of the theory in question it will be a great consequence and morally wrong hence not he fields of down sizing and privatizations, the same theory may apply as the service delivery will still be effective just a change in the policy and approach which will not have dire consequences (Adams, 2001).

Deontological Ethics

This holds a different perspective where it states that morals are related to rules. By this it implies that rules are basis of morality so if one takes action within he rules it’s moral but if an action is taken which contradicts the rules set, it qualifies to be declares as immoral. Applying this theory in an organization can be very advantageous to as all the set rules and policies are well within the stated code of morals for them. This will result in the citizens or the people being served loosing because each time the organization especially if its private-public run will always change the set rules to favor them in this case making the financial gains. Some of the rues may include the increase in cost to be served and this will adversely affect the citizens who are to be served (Adams, 2001).

Social justice themes

The case of human rights where they are entitled to many freedoms like expression and this should not be discriminated on any basis. In this case and referring to the relevant points only, every person has the right to be heard and their grievances, no single should be discriminated due to belonging to certain cultures or communities.  In the case of these issues and them being considered the violation of on individual rights are very clear as many decisions affecting the same person occur without any consultation while some policies  like creation of private wing services amounts to discrimination which should not be allowed. The other supporting fact is this is unjust and no human should be treated unjustly in comparison to another (Caiden, 2001).

The equality in this case is affected seriously as the services are no longer fair or just if any of the theories are applied, this is because the treatment varies and some of the employers may be trying to favor friends or family resulting in nepotism which indicates the lack of fairness.

The liberty which is the freedom of any single person will be clearly not adhered to if the governments go ahead and privatize or form partnerships with private developers without consulting the necessary stakeholder in this case those affected and who use the facilities but then again the private developers have the right to exercise this as its in their interest which represents what they plan without being interfered with.

Justice on the other hand is relative to the situation; by this it’s  unfair for the stakeholders not be consulted or treated unequally in getting services but at the same time the service providers also have the right to implement policies believed to favor their organization as they try and make it stay afloat, but if it’s a government organization, the citizens have the right to get the services required which pay through the tax and if this is considered first then  it can said to be just and vice versa(Gellner, 2006).


One of the more significant problems encountered is that of political influence. This is where the policies come from the government and with the interests of the same government changing too often results in regular changes that lead to poor implementation

The size of the organization can also play key as it can become a huge stumbling block if too big, this is due to the fact that before a decision is communicate from the top management to the intended target it will take a long time and if there is to be a feedback, then it may be distorted in the course of communication leading to poor communication that can impede proper running of the organization while implementation of policies will be impaired by the same reason (Pfeffer, 1998).

Public perception will play a key role in any public organization as a poor one will result in a bad review by the public and the same might result in forced policies by the government in an attempt to change this despite the fact that it was true or false and this changes may include management which if done too often can affect the organizations productivity due unstable management. . The same public perception may be an effect of negative media publicity or the public perception can lead to poor media coverage that will result in negative results as the poor outlook will turn away potential clients eventually leading to decline in productivity of the company (Brodie, 2007)


The best course of action to ensure none of these occurs is to ensure the  selection of good policy makers as this will be back bone of all public organizations.

The next cause of action is the ensuring the administrative managers in place are competent enough to avoid scenarios where due to incompetence the implementation of the policies passed is done inappropriately leading to poor service delivery.

The organization to incorporate the public in their activities through he open door policy to ensure a good impression as their opinion can be bring about the organizations success putting into consideration they are the target subject which needs to be serviced and if this is not done the organization will have failed.

The organization to be well structured to ensure the communication process is done sufficiently without any glitches to ensure proper implementation. This will result in poor implementation and poor service delivery hence a poor public impression on the organization.

Some of the factors that may affect the implementation may include:-

Poor management by the administrator may have a wrong interpretation resulting in poor implementation that will be of low standards. The other reason may be lack of political support, them being the policy makers may keep changes the policies to be implemented resulting in lack of implementation. If all these factors are considered ad appropriate measures put in place, the end result will be a well run and successful public organization.



Adams, G. (2001). Administrative Ethics and the Chimera of Professionalism -The

Historical Context of Public Service Ethics. In Cooper, T. Handbook of

Administrative Ethics. 2. Ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.


Brodie D. (2007) 4 Specific Challenges of Leading in Public Sector Organisations. Ezine Articles web retrieved on 12/02/2011 <>

Caiden, G. (2001). Dealing with Administrative Corruption. In Cooper, T. (ed.) :

Handbook of Administrative Ethics. 2. ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.


Gellner, E. (1996) Conditions of Liberty, Civil Society, and its Rivals. London: Penguin



Robert B, Vinzant J. (2009) Public Administration: An Action Orientation Cengage Learning Inc.  Pg 130 137

Maguire, M., (1998) Ethics in the Public Service-Current Issues and Practice. Ethics and Accountability in a Context of Governance and New Public Management, IIAS/EGPA, IOS Press: 23-34.


Menzel, D. (2001). Ethics Management in Public Organizations. In Cooper, T. Handbook of Administrative Ethics. 2. Ed. New York: Marcel Dekker


Morgan, D. (2001). The Public Interest. In Cooper, T. (ed.) Handbook of Administrative

Ethics. 2. Ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.


Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven Practices of Successful Organizations. California Management

Review, 40: 2.




Stillman II, R. (2006). Exploring films about ethical leadership: Can lessons be learned?

Public Administration and Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, ss. 103-305.


Richter L. (2010) Ethical issues Concerning Downsizing. Bright Hub. Retrieved on12/02/2011 web. <>



Yoder, D. & Denhardt, K. (2001). Ethics Education in Public Administration and Affairs.

In Cooper, T. (ed.) : Handbook of Administrative Ethics. 2. ed. New York: Marcel




The Public Administration-Public Policy african history assignment help

Public Administration-Public Policy

(Author’s name)

(Institutional Affiliation)


The American Public Policy Process in the Context of Contemporary Political, Social, and Administrative Realities

Public administration continues to adapt to the ever changing administrative, social and political realities. This has in turn made it quite simple to classify public administration into various facets.  The process of public policy has some distinct features and they all complement each other in order to come up with a desirable outcome. The government and society work together to ensure that democracy prevails with regards to the implementation of public policies.  The American public is now more than ever participating in the process of making polices that will improve their lives. The impact has been seen in various spheres of the American life as people are becoming more informed about its importance (Shafritz & Borick & Russel, 2010).

This topic is quite intriguing and it is of extreme value to the entire American population. Furthermore, it will assist the policy makers in knowing what needs to be done to improve public administration. The subject is closely associated with the ancient roots related to human inquiry.  The evolving field of public policy tries to reflect as well as adapt to the ever changing complex interactions between the society and government. I believe that I live in a society, which is democratic, and people want to always be involved in making policies. Secondly, society continues to have developments and being informed about public administration it will then be possible to incorporate and respond to the demands of the public through government initiatives. There are not many people who are informed about the evolution of public policy in America. This topic is unique and interesting because some questions that constantly face the public will be answered. This will then help in reducing the misconceptions that the public has concerning the making of policies (Shafritz & Borick & Russel, 2010).

The topic I have chosen to research on is closely related to the expected course outcomes.  It will be possible to find out how the ever increasing globalization and increased international cooperation has been revived as a result of comparative administration. The economy has been affected by the global recession and America will have to ration or narrow the scope of services that it provides. It is no wonder that the American government has had to find ways of outsourcing some services from private institutions. As a student of public administration, I am able to know how the mentioned process takes place and thus educate the public. Furthermore, this topic will assist in helping me gain more information and knowledge on some popular theorists and authors in this field. They include; Whiting Williams, Louis Brandeis and Frederick Taylor others (Frederick & Smith &. Larimer & Licarj, 2011).

Lastly, research on this topic will ensure that all the public administration stakeholders are competent in their work. Public management has to be effective and this means training all those who are concerned with it. A solution for privatization and procedural rigidity has to found because it often leads to low quality and productivity efforts. The research will also assist in coming up with cooperative partnerships such as providing equipment or personnel, as well as stimulating development in the economy, among others. Lastly, a solution on how the government will be reinvented can be established in order to ensure that the three realities are affected positively.



Frederick, H. & Smith, Kevin. Larimer, Christopher, & Licarj, Michael. (2011). The Public Administration Theory Primer. New York: West view Press

Shafritz, J. & Borick, C. & Russel, E. (2010). Introducing Public Administration. New York: Pearson.