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Impact Of Instagram On Body Image Apus History Essay Help

Impact of Instagram on body image and how it impacts mental health
The 21st century has witnessed an exponential rate of advancement in technology. One of the greatest inventions in the history of humanity and is considered a revolutionary aspect of the future is the invention of the internet. Through the invention of the internet, there has been a rise in the internet community through social media platforms. The social media platforms include Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, and LinkedIn. These social media platforms have facilitated an easier way of communicating, conducting business, entertainment, and individualistic expression. However, they have brought with them a menace that has dramatically negatively affected the development of communities. For instance, Instagram, being one of the biggest social media platforms, has been witnessed to bring detrimental effects to its users.
To a newspaper study by oxford university researchers, Instagram, which Facebook officially purchased in 2012, has attracted more than one billion young users. As a social media platform, the research showed that Instagram contributed to severe damage to mental health and body image, especially among the young demography. Also, according to the guardian magazine, platforms such as Instagram can contribute to issues regarding body image. The magazine also found out that Instagram contributed to an increase in depression cases. This is fundamentally attributed to the innate desire of humans to compare themselves to others. Generally, Instagram has been associated with the escalating issues of body shaming of individuals and body awareness which have been detrimental to the mental health of the victims. Therefore, this paper will focus on the impacts of Instagram on body image and how it has laid significant impacts on the mental health of individuals.

Research questions
a) How has Instagram impacted the way women perceive their bodies?
b) How has Instagram impacted the way men perceive their bodies?
c) What are the impacts of Instagram on the mental health of its users?
d) How has Instagram bridged the gap between body image and mental health?
In this research, various qualitative data analysis methods were used to gather relevant information regarding the impacts of Instagram on individuals’ body image and the impacts it had on mental health. Two methods were employed in the collection of data. The research employed interviews and ethnographic research to facilitate data collection. Also, the study employed textual analysis to gain further understanding of the impacts of Instagram on both body image and mental health.
An interview is a subjective research method. It involves conducting a concentrated individual conversation with the respondents of a study. The research employed various interview designs, including personal interviews, telephonic interviews, and email interviews.
The research involved the direct interviewing of individuals, both men, and women, who fondly used Instagram in the personal interviews. To achieve the desired response for the research, purposive sampling was carried out to obtain the number of people to participate in the study. A sample of 20 women and 20 men was selected to participate in the research. The consent of the participants was obtained as they had been made to be aware of the goals that the study aimed to achieve.
The interviews were conducted through the issuance of questionnaires. In this research, questionnaires were essential in ensuring confidentiality in the responses that the participants issued. The participants were allowed to give their responses to the research questions. After the research interview was completed, the data obtained were analyzed. The analysis of the research questions involved the use of thematic data analysis. Thematic analysis of data analysis entailed being familiar with the response received, generating coded the answers, searching for patterns on the responses, and categorizing the responses to give clear insights into Instagram’s impacts on the societal body image and mental health.
Ethnographic observation
As a qualitative data collection method, ethnographic observation entails a deep study of the field to document people’s lives, interactions, and behaviors systematically. The research involved the use of ethnographic observation was used in the study as it assisted in the observance of individuals who fondly used Instagram. The ethnographic observation was used to observe the behavior and interactions of a selected sample of people who used Instagram. The sample involved seven men and seven women addicted to using Instagram. The observations were made and recorded, emphasizing the observation being laid on the behavior and interactions that the participants demonstrated. For practical analysis of the observed data, selective categorizing was used to highlight different concepts and gain the relationship between observations through collation and classification analysis.
Textual analysis
In data collection, textual analysis involves understanding the languages and pictures present within a text to gain information concerning the subject being researched. Textual analysis was employed in this study to learn how Instagram influencers created trend analysis and how the general audience followed the trend. The research analyzed texts and pictures that the study participant was putting out to gain insights into the influence that Instagram had on them based on texts from their thought and picture that they deemed fit to share on the internet. The images and images recorded during the textual analysis were then analyzed. The thematic analysis put the data into categories that enabled the trends to be identified. The categories of the texts and pictures displayed relevance in addressing the impacts that Instagram had on body image and, consequently, mental health.
After analyzing the research conducted on the study participants, the following finding was obtained. First, from the interview carried out with 20 female participants, their responses were analyzed, and 17 out of the 20 women who participated in the research responded that Instagram had significantly affected how they perceived their body image. Their responses also indicated that they had difficulties in posting pictures that the Instagram user deemed not to be fit. Their responses also suggested that they had faced so many obstacles to maintain proper mental health conditions. This was primarily because of the social pressure they had received from the Instagram users who were tempting them to share pictures that displayed most parts of their bodies. This social pressure that they received originated from the internet users who followed the trends set by the Instagram influencers.
Moreover, in the textual analysis, most of the women, as seen in their online texts, were conscious of how their body image appeared on the internet. Also, the pictures analyzed from the textual analysis demonstrated women received satisfaction from having many likes on their pictures. It was fundamentally attributed to the lack of confidence in their body, thereby seeking validation from the Instagram users. This had severe effects on their mental health as some women felt socially left out because their pictures were not liked. The textual analysis also shows that some women had committed suicide due to a few Instagram likes.
Finding from the interviews conducted during the research, the responses of the 20 men who had participated were analyzed. It was clear that the majority of the men were not confident in their body image. The lack of confidence originated from the social pressure that expected them to look like models living glamorous lives. Moreover, from the ethnographic observation results, most men felt insecure in the social setting due to the prejudice that they experienced as a result of body image comparison with the Instagram influencers. Moreover, the textual analysis results indicated that the majority of the men were not free to express themselves on Instagram. The pictures posted by men were also few since most Instagram followers focused on liking photographs in which the owner had a specific body type set as a standard by the Instagram society.
From the interview, which involved 20 men and 20 women, the results from the analysis indicated that more than 75% of the participants were battling a mental health condition due to the frequent use of Instagram. The mental health effects that the research participants were going through were attributed to the peer pressure from most of the Instagram users. The contextual analysis also indicates that most Instagram users whose body image did not meet the Instagram set standards were likely to develop mental health conditions such as depression and schizophrenia. This was attributed to the significant levels of exclusion that they received from the social media platform due to their body appearance.
In summary, the effects of Instagram are detrimental to the body appearance of individuals due to the body-profiling that is experienced by the majority of its users. Instagram also has severe impacts on people’s mental well-being due to the frequent comparisons shared on the platform. Therefore, caution should be taken by most Instagram users due to the ever-increasing risk of being profiled and discriminated against due to their body appearance. Although social media platforms have globalized the world through faster and more efficient information transfer, their effects on the physical and mental health of individuals have been detrimental.








Introduction to Nutrition Program Intervention online history assignment help: online history assignment help


New York State has a primarily urban population, with more than 60% of the states population living in the New York City metropolitan area. New York has a high percentage of foreign-born residents, making it very diverse. New York State has the 2nd highest American Asian population in the nation. The high percentage of Hispanics in the state is comprised mainly of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. According to the 2020 Census, 55% of the New York State population were non-Hispanic White, 17.6% Black or African American, 9% Asian, and almost 20% Hispanic or Latino (, n.d.).
Across the nation and in New York State, obesity has reached epidemic rates. The percentage of overweight or obese adults in New York State has increased from 42% in 1997 to 63% in 2019. Childhood and adolescent obesity have tripled in the past three decades (, 2021). New York State’s children are considered overweight or obese.
Obesity may harm the body in various ways, including the risk of developing high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular disease, increased risk of diabetes, asthma, and muscle and joint problems. Obesity is a chronic health issue which may turn into a lifelong condition if not addressed in childhood. In addition to physical health risks, obesity negatively affects one’s emotional state. Children with obesity tend to be teased and bullied more than their normal-weight peers. Obese children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from depression, social isolation, lower self-esteem, and negative body images. These feelings, in turn, may prompt stress-eating and contribute to the health issue, resulting in a vicious cycle of overeating and feeling depressed.
There is no magic pill or vaccine to reverse this epidemic. The prevention and reversal of the obesity epidemic will take changes across multiple systems, current state and federal policies, and built environments. The communities need access to nutritious and affordable foods and opportunities for safe physical activities in places where people live, work, and learn. A healthy diet may reduce the risks of many chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, and even some cancers. According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a healthy eating pattern includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; and limits intake of saturated fats, Trans fats, added sugars and sodium. Unfortunately, more than a third of New York State students report unhealthy dietary habits, such as consuming fresh fruit less than once daily. The prevalence of obesity risk factors is even more, pronounces in low-income and minority populations.
In New York City, nearly half of elementary school and Head Start children are reported to have an unhealthy weight, and one in five kindergarten students and one in four Head Start children are reported to be obese (, n.d.). According to Health Department data, the rate of obesity among Black students is 65% greater than among white students. The rate is 97% greater than among White students among Latino students. Moreover, only 20% of parents reported their children eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Given the alarming rates of obesity and overweight, there is a clear need in New York City for a nutrition program aimed at school-age children and their families, particularly among African American and Hispanic populations, that would help accelerate the efforts to reverse the obesity epidemic.
The dramatic increase in obesity rates in New York City and other places presents a clear danger to public health. Obesity’s association with other health conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, etc., burdens local, state, federal, and global economies. Obesity-related chronic conditions become contributing factors in the socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities. Additionally, obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the healthcare system, with CDC estimating the obesity-related healthcare costs to be $147 billion (, 2021). Obesity and related health conditions thus pose an economic burden and translate to more days missed from work and school, decreased productivity while at work and school, and premature disability or death. It is important to take action to prevent and reduce the obesity rates in children today so that we can have healthy adults tomorrow!
Mission Statement
The research question chosen for this study is what actions can be taken within Bronx County, New York, to address the issue of obesity among children effectively. After completing a brief systematic review, the answer to the research questions was established. A systematic review is a piece of study on its own, and it is aimed to address a broader question, and a single empirical study cannot describe it. To achieve the best purpose for the systematic review, adopting policies which had practical methods of addressing the issue of obesity was necessary.
Work Plan
Integrated Action to Prevent Obesity
To prevent the increasing cases of obesity in the state of New York, integrated action is necessary. Integrated actions start from conception, through the pregnancy and to the early childhood period. Integrated action enables the prevention of the causes of obesity before they become severely detrimental to the health of the majority of the children. Also, through the integrated action, the research can address the issue in most Bronx County communities. As the majority of the children affected by obesity are from the Latino and the African American communities, integrating the action of addressing the problem is necessary to ensure that it becomes effective.
Prevent preconception causes that may result in children being born with complexities that lead to obesity.
Addressing the issue surrounding obesity at a societal level to ensure societal engagement.
It was challenging to convince the members of the African American communities of the dangers of post-conception and how it may result in the child developing obesity. However, through extensive action of raising their awareness on the matter, it came to their consciousness that it would be necessary to take action to counter the cases of child obesity.
Similarly, with the stigma surrounding obesity, it was challenging to address the issue among the Latino community in Bronx County. Even though it was difficult, some of the individuals who were aware of the impacts of obesity on children’s health helped in addressing the matter.

Fiscal policy to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages
A study carried out in Australia modelled that a 30 percent tax on the beverages that were sweetened estimated that it would likely reduce the purchasing and consumption of these products. Thereby, this was seen to bring health care gains positively. Therefore, to protect the number of obese children who are obese in New York, it is necessary to employ the use of policies which aim at reducing the consumption of sweetened beverages. Since the children are not aware of the obesity dangers of these products, using fiscal policy to ensure that their supply to the children in Bronx County does not get access to them may be an effective way to manage obesity.
Promote sustainable fiscal policies to curb obesity among children.
Enlighten communities in the Bronx County about the dangers of sweetened sugar on children’s health.
Implementing fiscal policy at a county level is difficult due to a large number of stakeholders’ sweet beverages business. Also, the marketing technics of the businesses that took part in the sweetened sugars were significant. However, by informing the authorities of the detrimental effects of the sweetened sugars on children’s health, significant fiscal regulatory actions were taken.

Regulating unhealthy food marketing to children
Limiting the exposure of children to the high cost but unhealthy market through which supplies foods which are poor in nutrition are effective in managing obesity. Therefore, regulation of unhealthy foods may be a significant move in ensuring that the obese nature of the children is reduced. The consumption of junk and unhealthy foods is the biggest promoter of obesity among children.
Plan to prevent the consumption of unhealthy foods by children
Encourage the consumption of foods that promote a balanced diet.
Acknowledge the contribution that unhealthy food has to the increasing obesity of children.
As most parents favour the consumption of unhealthy fast foods, a barrier arises in trying to inform them of the dangers that unhealthy foods present to their children. Similarly, it was difficult for the parents who were committed to their daily tasks. The only alternative was to provide the unhealthy foods readily available to their children. To overcome the barriers which were presented with the provision of the unhealthy foods, developing a clear method that aided the understanding of parents on the presence of other alternatives was necessary to help them make the shift from the unhealthy foods to the healthy foods, which efficiently helped in reducing the risk of diabetes.
Urban planning approaches to support active communities.
Cross-sectional studies have found that the higher the number of neighbourhood parks and playgrounds within a community, the higher the number of children actively involved in recreational activities. As playgrounds also serve as the ground through which children get a chance to indulge in physical activities, in the Bronx County, there is a significant deficit in the number of urban facilities in which children could get involved in the physical and extracurricular activities. Mostly witnessed in the poorly developed area, which the African Americans and the Latinos occupy, it has resulted in an increase in the rates of obesity among the children in these communities.
Promote participation of obese children and adolescents in physical activities
Raise awareness of the positive health impacts of physical activities
Support the development of recreational facilities in the poorly developed parts of the Bronx County.
Physical activities are tiring, and therefore encouraging children’s participation in these activities is difficult. Additionally, due to the lack of such facilities in most parts of Bronx County, it would be challenging to promote children’s participation. Consequently, most parents are skeptical about allowing their children to indulge in strenuous physical activities. Although, through collective action with county authorities, facilities development is possible. Moreover, informing parents of the positive attributes of exercise in preventing and managing obesity raised their awareness, encouraging more participation of their children in such activities.
Logic model
In this program, the resources required are essential and need to be addressed. To achieve success in this program, resource inputs are necessary. The resources are the staff within the program, which consists of nurses, nutritionists, physicians and other specialists and the program coordinators. Next are children and adolescents who are experiencing obesity. Additionally, the technology used in the program can be considered a resource as well. The technology includes emails, telehealth visits and zoom calls. Finances are also a vital resource. Primarily, finances would include the cost of running the program and the funds necessary for any program incidentals. Grants and donations can also be considered as funds. Incidentals would include the materials needed to run the program in the program.
The activities in the program include consultation with the doctors to identify the extent of obesity among the patients. It would be followed by meeting with the physical therapists and nutritionists to develop exercise and meal plans for the children who have been identified to be obese. Plans must be developed to cater for each child independently. Also, the nutritionists will set up training to advise both children and their parents regarding their eating habits and food preparation training.
Outputs are connected to the primary stakeholders. It includes the number of children and adolescents who are considered eligible participants in addressing the obesity management program versus the number that stick to the program and make positive steps towards losing weight and maintaining that weight. The parents who participate in the program with the children and the members of the communities within Bronx county benefit from the knowledge that the participants use to improve their health. In the program, the output is connected to the outcomes, both long term and short term. The outcomes are the expected changes that result from the program and program activities, both long term and short term results. The short term results of the research will be the ability of the children and adolescents involved in the research to learn new and healthy ways of exercising and eating to counter the obesity challenge facing them. The long-term outputs would be accounted for by the children and adolescents who lose weight, learn new ways of efficient nutrition, and continuously maintain their activities.
Table Indicating the Input, Output and Outcomes
Inputs Outputs Outcomes
Program staff (nurses, Nutritionists)
Parents and guardians
Children and adolescents
Training and technology
Materials Consultation
Nutritional and physical therapy
Meal program design
Exercise design
Workshops on nutrition
Workshops on physical activities Short term
Families learn new ways of eating healthy
Families learn to exercise together
Long term
Participants lose weight
Participants maintain a healthy weight in the long run.


Gantt chart
The Gantt chart of the program shows the program’s activities being displayed against time. It helps the program identify the time frame to offer a service to the children who are experiencing obesity. The time of the Gantt chart is in months.

Like any other program, this program entails concessions. As the program continues, items will wear and break. Since the budget of this project is not large, the concessions will be made on space. In cases where therapy is needed to address the conditions such as mental health illnesses brought by obesity, offices will be shared at certain hours of the day. Since the research involves children, sessions will not be held on the weekends, enabling the program to save some finances from its budget. Therefore, it is used to cater to some vital needs in the program. The weekends also help in the saving of materials which would have been used during the study. Moreover, the daily allowances paid to the staff would be saved.
The program will also be a non-profit program aimed at serving the residents of Bronx county. Being a non-profit, it would allow the program to apply for private donations and grants to enable its operation. Also, funds were obtained from philanthropic ventures interested in the course addressing the childhood obesity epidemic. The profits made from the program will be used to cater to the program’s expenses, such as paying employees and improving the technological aspect of the research. As the program’s future is to expand and serve other counties in the state of New York, there will be no fixed expenses that the program will record. Therefore, for the program’s sustainability, creating a budget is necessary for the management of the program’s operation. After the rigorous task of accounting, the program’s budget is as follows.

Nutrition Intervention Program-Budget for the year 2021
2021 budget Budgeted ($) Actual ($) Variance ($)
Fixed expenses
Staff 237,000 208,560 (28,440)
Training 320,225 329,832 9,607
Variable expenses
Technology 437,525 476,902 39,377
Materials 125,000 81,250 (43,750)
Total 1,119,750 888,192 (231,558)


Evaluation Plan
To acknowledge the program’s effectiveness, there needs to be an effective measurement of the outcomes of the participants in the research. Measuring data helps in measuring, comparing, and reporting health care outcomes. This plays a significant role in achieving the quadruple aim of healthcare, which entails improving the experience of care, reducing the cost of healthcare, reducing the burnout in medical staff, and improving populations’ health. The world health organization defines outcome measure as the change in people’s health and groups of people attributed to a series of interventions. For this program, my measurements will focus on the safety and effectiveness of care. Safety refers to mistakes. Hence each patient makes, we will measure how well the program was tailored to cater for the needs of every child who was suffering from obesity. Also, the inherent medical conditions that the obese children were facing were considered, including chronic illnesses and physical restraints that the children might face. For the participants’ experience, a survey would be given periodically and randomly given to the families of the children who were obese to acknowledge their thoughts on the program. For effectiveness, it can be shown by how well the program was followed by the participant and how they managed to lose weight.
The disparities in health care are essential to consider when planning for a community-based health care program. To accommodate the disparities present in the community, it is essential to consider the aspects of the program that need to be modified. For example, in our study, the Latino being the majority of the Bronx county members, it is essential to identify the language disparity as most Latinos are Spanish speakers. In dealing with children from Spanish backgrounds, the staff in the research would be accompanied by Spanish interpreters and handout materials. Also, culture may rise as a disparity. When dealing with children from the African American community, culture will affect the exercise and meal preparation plan. Therefore, since the research deals with children from diverse backgrounds, the study must provide a positive experience. Part of the satisfaction in the research will include accommodation for language and research.
Evaluation Success
This program aims to address the issue of obesity in children by changing their behaviour for children regarding food and exercise. The data gathered during the evaluation enables the staff to formulate the best possible programs, make necessary modifications, and judge the program’s success in achieving the short term and long term outcomes. The data from the participants will be gathered using activity apps, classes and surveys to monitor individual surveys as well as the success of the program. The children tackling obesity will follow the program for three months to show how the successful intervention has been achieved. Consequently, watching the children over the long term will enable monitoring the program’s long term success.
Health Care Equity
Inequality, as defined by the world health organization, is a systematic difference in the health status of different populations. According to the Robert wood foundation, equity in health is when everyone has achieved full health potential, and no one is disadvantaged due to their social position or any other defined circumstances. This program will be a community-based program, which means that all the families from the Bronx county whose child is suffering from obesity and need possible interventions in eating healthy and working to achieve more weight will be included. This program will meet the needs of all children and will not exclude participants based on their social and cultural positions.
In conclusion, the program will help introduce the aspect of family-based education and provide interventions and assistance in curbing childhood obesity in the Bronx county community. This program will help families within the Bronx county community make good food choices and regular physical activities to prevent their children from becoming obese. By starting with children at home, families will become stronger and learn healthily and develop regular exercise for life.






Description on drug addiction in teenagers ap art history homework help

Drug addiction in teenagers
this article revolves around O’Brien’s document on drug addiction. Drug addiction has emerged as a great struggle and a crippling problem in our community. Addiction does not choose, and it could be a poor person, a popular celebrity, someone in an upper class, or even your next-door neighbor. Drugs have existed since the beginning of time. However, sufficient attention has not been prioritized, and addiction is greatly affecting the nation. Through this article, we will analyze the causes of drug addiction and how social media has influenced the increase of drug substances.
Social media has provided a great opportunity for young teenagers to be exposed to drugs. Sites such as Snapchat, Instagram, and Facebook have created an environment where kids can witness drugs and alcohol being abused. Celebrities like Cardi B, Justin Bieber, and drake constantly show videos and pictures being high. Can we agree that social media has glamorized and normalized the use of drugs and alcohol? How can we even change the mentality of young kids that using drugs is wrong, yet they see their role models constantly using? Ironically, having good morals is now old-fashioned, and being a drug user is considered “cool .”Columbia University studied and found that using social media platforms regularly is more likely for teenagers to drink, smoke, and use drugs. Social media is a great catalyst for mental health problems. It creates pressure for young people to live a certain lifestyle and afford original expensive brands such as Gucci and Prada. Such content creates low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, negative thoughts, and feelings, and the easiest way to temporarily solve this problem is to use drugs and be high. What kind of society are we trying to build? Is having good morals not a priority to our children anymore. What regulations are the government putting in place to ensure our children are shielded from falling under this fate.
As a medical practitioner, I am deeply hurt by our young people’s direction. Having no choice of choosing whether to use a drug o not is abused, smoking tobacco is particularly normalized to the extent where advertisements incorporate smoking as a lifestyle. Having a good time can only be perceived when one is using marijuana or alcohol In today’s time. As a doctor, patients have greatly had cancer, stroke, arthritis, diabetes, and chronic diseases from tobacco use (et al. 2021). Self-awareness programs. To all the parents and teenagers, it is important to protect our children and ourselves from this kind of content. Always walk in the right crowd, between living a healthy long life or looking cool kind of lifestyle which fhese is more important? The government is my first audience, regulations on social media should be established to protect our children however, I acknowledge the effort to ban advertisement of drugs that can cause addiction or withdrawal and also indicating warnings on the alcohol labels(Julia 2021).
The government greatly values the incomes they receive from alcohol and drugs such as cigarettes as they gain a lot of revenue. Nevertheless, the government is also keen on ensuring the citizens health is a priority by banning illicit brews that are harmful, also the government does not allow children under 18years to drink or smoke. In this article we are able to note the dangers of drug abuse in our health. In addition, social media has proved to be a major influence for drug abuse solicit and be regulated as required.

Work cited

Balfour, David JK, et al. “Balancing consideration of the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.” American journal of public health 111.9 (2021): 1661-1672.
Stafford, Julia, et al. “An evaluation of the evidence submitted to Australian alcohol advertising policy consultations.” PloS one 16.12 (2021): e0261280.


The transactions of trading illegal drugs ap world history homework help: ap world history homework help

In American high schools, the transactions of trading illegal drugs have been established, including being offered, sold, or given among students 12-18 years old. According to a survey conducted by a professional institute, it is reported that in every survey year from 2001-to 2015, at least 1 in 5 youth had drug transactions experiences at school, with boys having significantly higher rates compared with girls (Brombacher & Westerbarkei, 2019, pg.88). Although every school in America have strict rules against students using and trading drugs in schools, few students are being prosecuted. In the United States of America, federal policies have been put in place to combat the manufacture, ownership, and distribution of drugs that are considered illegal (Sacco, 2014, pg.1).
However, teens can easily hide under the surveillance and trade-controlled drugs illegally in their lockers, at private parties, or on occasions outside of the campus where they consider it safe to exchange, trade, and use drugs. Moreover, since the drugs are easily accessible in social settings and with vulnerable self-control, teens may abuse or misuse drugs, leading them to undertake dangerous risks. These deviant behaviors will turn into crime when the teens have become dependent on drugs and show abnormal behaviors, when the teens start to possess and trade drugs for profits, or when they commit other crimes such as rape or deliberate maiming. As long as they are not caught, these illegal behaviors would be considered a slip or deviance until they are arrested and prosecuted by local police and prosecutors.
Different sociological views of crime try to describe the motivation behind unlawful behavior, while non-sociological perspectives, including psychological and biological theories, try to explain crime rates for a group or an area at the macro level. Sociologists are currently using three approaches, including rational choice theory, social conflict theory, and social disorganization theory to analyze why the reason to commit a crime. (, 2017, pg 2) While other scientists are working on biological factors and psychological factors, including genetics and personality disorders.
Drug trafficking is the universal illicit trade of drugs prohibited by the law. The business includes its cultivation, the manufacture of the drug, its distribution, and its sale. The crime is also inclusive of the sale of prescription drugs illegally. The offense is also linked to drug possession since a person cannot traffic a drug without knowing that they are in control of the drug. The crime is criminalized under both state and federal laws. A trafficker can serve a jail term of up to 25years imprisonment depending on the sale scale and the drug one traffics (Jones & Winterdyk, 2018, pg.1). For instance, trafficking marijuana can attract up to 10yrs in prison, while heroin can attract up to 25years of imprisonment.
The four fundamental theories of crime can explain why human trafficking as a crime exists. The classical theory proposes that crime is caused by an individual’s free will since humans make their decisions of free will with a complete understanding of the consequences. Therefore, the offense is preventable through punishments. As such, people involve themselves in the sales of illicit drugs, knowing well what they are into for its benefit and knowing well that it is illegal and can lead to jail terms. The biological theory states that human behaviors are determined by genetics, where they are inherited. Suppose a parent, for instance, abused drugs such as alcohol during pregnancy. In that case, the offspring is prone to having criminal behaviors hence drug abusers and subsequent traffickers do so not out of their own will (Ling et al., 2019 pg.626). The theory borrows from Charles Darwins evolution and natural selection theory, which proposed that traits can be passed down biologically to offspring. The sociological theory explains drug abuse and trafficking that occurs due to the environment one interacts. The proposers of the idea mainly oppose the biological notion by claiming that nobody can be born a criminal and that crime is more socially defined. They feel that engaging in crime improves their social and financial problems. Finally, the interactionists theory explains that corruption results from associating with other criminals. In contrast, most victims do so due to a lost sense of self-direction, seeking acceptance and power within a group. Drug abuse, hence, is a result of interacting with drug abusers and traffickers, genetic influence, and free will to engage in the crime and the environment in which one engages.
Drug trafficking is the leading organized crime and is the leading illegal business that leads when it comes to profits. The drugs have an estimated retail price of over $320billion each year. American market accounts for close to 50% of the total drug market. The most abused illegal drug in the world is cannabis, Sativa. Around 147 million people worldwide, which accounts for more than 2% of the world population, consume unlawful medicines. The prevalence is compared to cocaine and opiates, which stands at around 0.5% (Natarajan, 2019, pg.5).
Victims of drug trafficking often tend to be drug users. When drugs are used in excess, the persons tend to make informed decisions, exposing them to risks such as HIV and other preventable diseases. Approximately 50% of drug abusers test positive for HIV, which is a tremendous negative impact. Additionally, about 30% of the global HIV infections result from injecting drugs, especially in Europe, Asia, and America (Natarajan, 2019, pg.5).
Drug trafficking leads to increased new criminal activities. The drug traffickers organize organizations and invest in coming up with new illegal activities. Additionally, most drug traffickers are involved in organized crimes such as human trafficking and money laundry.
Drug trafficking also affects society in that the prices of goods and services are distorted. The money laundering schemes, which are aimed not only at profit-making but also at hiding criminal sources, lead to distortion of prices due to the emergence or creation of economic bubbles. The trade of illegal drugs also leads to depressing the financial system, saving through the reduced savings interest rates. On an occasion where legal savers make reasonable interest rates on deposits, illegal drugs lead to flooding of money; therefore, banks reduce interests for all deposits.
Trafficking of drugs leads to fostering corruption. The flooded money makes it easy for traders to freely dispose of funds to corrupt officials and people in the private sector. When the system is corrupt, the crime rates will go up. The armed forces and law enforcers are involved in organizations that traffic drug substances.
An increase in flowing money, which comes about when organized crimes occur, leads to diminished competitiveness. The currency appreciates, which affects legitimate activities making them less competitive, and the society fails to afford the current cost of living.
Many countries have focused on detecting and prosecuting traffickers, identifying ad protecting traffic victims, especially the underaged, and initiating policies that prevent drugs from being trafficked (Turner et al., 2022, pg.177). Countries have adopted increased penalties for traffickers and have adopted the anti-trafficking law. Additionally, states have made agreements at regional levels on the issue of drug trafficking.
Countries have also established many institutions to combat trafficking. The institutions are aimed at responding to cases of drug trafficking, detecting and prosecuting the perpetrators of drug trafficking, and coming up with policies about trafficking.
Several countries have also come together at a regional level to combat crime. Regional intergovernmental organizations such as ECOWAS and OSCE have adopted several declarations and plans to stop drug trafficking. Central African States’ Economic Community also has a joint union that intends to eradicate drug sales, especially in the African regions. Bodies such as the US-run programs stop drug trafficking at an international level. Other non-governmental organizations fund anti-trafficking organizations, especially in countries mainly trafficked drugs.
Additionally, countries improve the prosecution of drug traffickers by using victim-friendly techniques where law enforcers try to reach the traffickers. The United Nations provides recommended principles to ensure appropriate treatment of victims to enable them to be at the frontline of fighting crime (Turner et al., 2022, pg.177). Victims are granted a reflection period to heal and decide whether they wish to cooperate with law enforcement or would want not.
Lastly, nations come together to assist in facilitating prosecutions legally. The United Nations has come up with conventions contrary to multinational organized crime that intends to combat drug trafficking, among other organized crimes. States can hence detect trafficking even on foreigners in their countries, collect evidence and bring them to justice. Meeting with representatives in the justice system in different countries helps ensure mutual trust and confidence and ensures cooperation.
However, the efforts to combat human trafficking face challenges since most reformed drug traffickers usually do not come out due to fear of stigmatization and prosecution. Additionally, the immigration officers who should be at the frontline of helping combat trafficking have made this quite impossible due to corruption. Even in the presence of legislative laws and tighter measures to prevent the vice, acceptance of bribes to transport drugs prevents eradicating the crime (Belhabib et al., 2020, pg.1). Additionally, some countries fail to cooperate to eliminate corruption, especially in countries with higher demand for drugs and in the counties where drugs originate. The nations fail to impose stricter measures and policies to discourage crime. Most importantly, the increase in poverty levels, lack of access to education, and marginalization remains significant factors hindering the effective combating of drug trafficking.







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Kelshikar, M., Harriet Jacobs: The Crusader of the New Woman. In International Conference on Literature, Society & the Global Media (p. 82).
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Turner, V.E., Demissie, Z., Sliwa, S.A. and Clayton, H.B., 2022. Food Insecurity and Its Association With Alcohol and Other Substance Use Among High School Students in the United States. Journal of School Health, 92(2), pp.177-184.

Discussion response to human services professional as history essay help

Discussion response (Human services professional)
With support from my mother, I chose to venture into the human service field as I desired to positively influence the young generation, especially those from similar backgrounds. Being brought up by a single mother and watching her struggle for my endeavor, I believe there are also similar cases in the current generation. Participation and determination to change the lives of the children are all served. I was raised in a single-parent home, and being raised by a mother as a second child, I missed many opportunities in life. For instance, I lacked the motivation to further my studies, as I saw my mother struggling to make our heads meet. As a result, I am motivated to help children obtain financial support so they cannot be exposed to similar tough and challenging situations.
Having been my father neglecting his responsibilities to provide for my family, I found it essential to protect children from such abuse and negligence. Ephanthy, care, understanding, and open-mindedness are among the skills which have aided me in venturing into Human services. Being a good listener has contributed much to the way I perceive different cultures, thus making a difference in how I relate to different situations. I believe that my characteristics, values, and beliefs back up my future success as a human service professional. Based on the nature of family struggles exposed to while growing up, I can relate the same with the children I am serving. My ability to perceive things differently have equipped me with diverse knowledge needed to understand the difference in the ways of life of different people.
Through self-exploration, I am capable of identifying my areas of strength as they are applicable in the human service profession through accepting constructive condemnation to strengthen my weaknesses. Through participation in workshops and seminars have been able to understand the human service professionals. Finally, interaction with individuals from different cultures can aid in understanding different back ways and means through other things that occur in different ways.