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May 20th, 2021 PLSC 345 Jesse Kimotho Dr. Maria Jose Hierro Research

May 20th, 2021 PLSC 345

Jesse Kimotho Dr. Maria Jose Hierro

Research question: Where did Africa go wrong? For such a resource-rich landmass, how did it get so much in its own way to prevent the immense potential it had at independence from being realized?

Hypothesis: Corruption is not endemic in Africa; the biggest problem facing African countries is the immense political corruption that fails them.

Introduction and background.

Shortly after most African countries achieved success in their struggles for independence, it was expected that they would embrace nationalist values, and uphold progressive behaviors that would herald development on a socioeconomic scale, and prove that they were capable of self-advancement without European rule. This has proven to not be the case since corruption has been, for the longest time, undermining the development that the African states so desperately needed after independence. It is the continent’s biggest stumbling block, in spite of its possession of a vast expanse of natural resources. African political leaders have been known to routinely loot public coffers and go scot-free due to their ability to quite literally buy justice. This incentivizes even more corruption. Political corruption in Africa can be generally defined as the abuse and misuse of political power to promote personal gain. Political corruption involves both the abuse of power by elected political representatives and appointed officials who manipulate the existing bureaucracy and the laws of the land to achieve personal gain.

The current political climate in Africa cannot be explained without tracing it back to pre-colonial power structures. The African traditional ruling system was democratic in its nature and approach, with all community members collectively and actively participating in the making of decisions that concerned them. In contemporary African society, accountability was paramount. Any political leader found having contravened societal ethos in the course of their administration had to go on exile or take their own life (Ake, 1991). Thus, pre-colonial administration in Africa was quintessentially an absolute democracy. Political power systems that came into being during the postcolonialism era led to the citizenry being excluded from directly participating in democratic rule. Thus, the modernization of political rule was tainted by colonialist exclusionary political rhetoric. It, therefore, follows that the elite Africans to whom power was handed over at independence kept the same system so as to subjugate the people, keeping them in power. Due to the lack of direct participation of the citizenry in affairs concerning their own governance, they are now dealing with abject poverty, underdevelopment, misplaced priorities by political leaders, weak institutions, and sometimes dictatorial leadership.

During the colonial era, local African chiefs were incentivized to persuade them to allow easier colonial governance and resource exploitation through collaboration. The colonialists used a highly effective divide-and-conquer policy to weaken African unity (Mulinge & Lesetedi, 1998). Ethnic groups with higher populations were incentivized to subdue the smaller groups. This planted the seeds for the current crisis in Africa, between ethnic majorities and minorities in the struggle for state power. African chiefs and home guards in Kenya, during the MAU MAU fight for land and African self-governance, were bribed with money to capture and kill their fellow Africans. It was one of these home guards on British payroll that successfully captured Dedan Kimathi, Kenya’s premier freedom fighter, in 1956. Thus, it can be seen how corruption, as a tool, was already being used to further political agendas in the colonial era. Corruption is not endemic to Africa; it is an imported concept. Just before the independence of African states, around the 1950s and 1960s, from amongst freedom fighters, political elites were selected to be groomed to be handed political power, which would grant them control of the new all-African governments. It was believed that these individuals embodied the best interests of the Africans at the time. They were charged with coming up with people-oriented policies so as to end poverty, create favorable opportunities for business, integrate the inherent ethnic diversity endemic to most African nations, and set up a true democracy for African rule, whereby the citizens decided their fate (Mbaku, 2009). Their elevation led to the development of a political class that is the source of all of Africa’s present problems. It is against this backdrop of how colonialism and its wake essentially abolished African governance values and left the continent in the hands of power-hungry politicians who will sell the very soul of their nations to get money for selfish interests that the essence of this research study is based. Where did Africa go wrong? For such a resource-rich continent, how did it get so much in its own way to prevent innovation, advancement, and poverty alleviation? This research study hopes to analyze the existing literature and knowledge about the extent of corruption in African countries and conduct extensive ground research into the proportions of corruption in African political leadership.

Some currently available information on the political corruption in Africa.

Starting from the post-colonial era, African countries have since come up with an absolutely minimalist iteration of democracy, just enough to give the world and gullible citizens the illusion of democratic participation and to maintain diplomatic relations so as to avoid sanctions while consolidating the real power that could be used to bring about transformative change in the hands of very few. State power and its pursuit in the African context have changed in objectives from governance and spearheading of development to sure ways of getting rich. The honorific pursuit of leadership might no longer exist. State power is seen as a leeway to accumulating as much wealth as possible, legally or illegally, with no repercussions (Gumede, 2015). This also explains the exceedingly large number of political parties in Africa; everyone wants a piece of the national cake so as to use dubious means to accrue as much wealth as they can for themselves. African democracy is, essentially speaking, unfounded since the countries lack solid institutional foundations to ensure that democratic ideals and requirements are followed through to the letter. Countries like the US have tacit institutions in place to keep state power in check and facilitate swift removal of retrogressive or corrupt governance. In Africa, the institutions set up to tackle corruption are in bed with the corrupt political elite itself, enabling an unbroken cycle of corruption. The situation has deteriorated so badly that most countries rely on the goodwill of existing political leaders to be willing to vacate their seats of power once their terms expire. This is an aspect this research will be focusing on by interviewing random citizens in countries with upcoming elections and whether they believe that the outcomes are predetermined. It has become common knowledge in most African countries that most elections are just for show; the will of the people, as indicated on the ballot box, never accounts for anything. African electoral processes are rife with buying of votes through voter bribery, electoral violence, rigging of elections, voter intimidation, and other malpractices that have made the notion of democracy redundant. The countries, democracy, the rule of law, and justice are available to the highest bidder. Thus, capitalist cronies are in full control of all ‘democratic’ processes in the region. Most democracy in Africa is just kept above a certain threshold so as to stave off international intervention and to attract donor funding to finance the politics. For as long as the state has good international standing, the citizenry is damned. To this end, this research covers the African countries that have had markedly high scores on the world corruption index: these countries Kenya, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

Research methodology and some expected findings.

The research process for this study is rather simplistic. It will involve data collection through oral interviews with the young citizenry in these countries, those who have managed to complete their studies but are yet to find employment due to rampant corruption. Arguably, these youths have faced the brunt of corruption and bureaucracy in their governments which are nothing but obstacles to them. Routine looting of government funds has seen to it that there are no advancements in industrialization and investments that would give them work. Exorbitant taxation policies on foreign firms discourage investment, furthering unemployment. High corruption levels and mismanagement of foreign loans have led to the countries accumulating large amounts of debt which become the taxpayers’ burden. High charges on establishing and maintaining business establishments have discouraged self-employment amongst the youth. It is these youths, the primary victims of the corruption in their governments, who will be the focus of this research effort.

Another angle will be attempting to interview some of the more accessible political leaders in these countries so as to establish their point of view on the situation. This will establish their level of awareness of the corruption in their governments and check for any elements of denial or willful ignorance.

Another approach that the research process will take will be the perusal and close examination of available government expenditure records and budget reports. This close examination of financial records and tracing them to their endpoints will reveal the amounts of money lost to corruption at all levels of governance.

An easily available source of information on corruption in the news. Granted, some countries may place restrictions on press reporting of corruption and bad governance, but most media is unbiased and does not shy away from exposing corruption. Most countries in the region grant the press their freedom because there is not much that they can do beyond reporting.

Corruption with regard to elections can also be easily observed. Election centers and tallying centers, as well as the entire campaign, can be put under close watch to examine any irregularities. Some of these governments openly announce false results at the behest of corrupt administrations.

The financial and tax records of tycoons who also happen to be politically involved will also be examined to establish the sources of their accrued wealth. For most of them, their net worth and earnings do not add up even after working for many years. Most of them originally got their wealth through looting taxpayer funds meant for development projects.

This research study will be extensive and will require continental and intercity transportation throughout Africa. Ideally, it should take between three and five years, during which several elections in different countries are bound to happen. These periods would be ripe for data collection on political corruption. The study will need to cover different demographics of citizens in different settings, both urban and rural. All of these are to ensure the feasibility and consistency of the research results.

The expected findings from this research are fairly straightforward, as they will essentially be confirming an existing truth. This research hopes to put names, dates, facts, figures, and tables on display to document the rot that is in Africa’s politics.

Current debates on corruption ideologies.

Corruption is ideologically complex. This is because it stems all the way from giving a police officer a bribe to overlook a minor traffic offense to misuse of power at the highest offices in the land. A vast majority of African countries have emulated the political style of their former colonial masters. British colonies such as Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda set up their governments following in British footsteps. The same applied to the former French colonies (Ozor, 2009). In spite of the implementation of the political styles from the West, African democracy, as mentioned before, is semi-authoritarian, or a pseudo-democracy at best (Cranenburgh, 2011). In Zimbabwe, according to a research study conducted by Transparency International, local government officials connived with the housing department officials to purchase government-owned houses and then sell them to citizens at exorbitant prices. The Liberian government reported the looting of public coffers to the tune of a hundred million dollars a year (Ellis, 2006). In 2021, Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta admitted on public radio that his government lost Ksh. 2 billion (USD 20 million) to corruption every day. So great is the corruption in African countries that they are surprised when the government does its job. Such rampant corruption has led to terrorism, civil conflict, poverty, political instability, and developmental cynicism. As per existing literature, most African citizens have completely lost faith in their national governments.

In the DRC, the current crop of corruption set off during the reign of Mobutu Seseko. The network of corruption in DR Congo is coordinated through public servants, military personnel, and holders of public office. Corruption is also deeply rooted in the country’s judicial system. Case outcomes are directly linked to social status, affluence, and political pull. Judicial institutionalized corruption is also used to settle personal scores by some judicial officers. Customs officers who are charged with checking the authenticity of goods are the same people who spearhead smuggling. According to a study conducted in the Congo by the Global Corruption Barometer, 62% of Congolese citizens had given bribes to public servants at different levels of government within the year. Private contractors also have to cough up bribes before contract approval. Transparency International reported in 2013 that the public service, the police service, the judiciary, educational institutions, and the military were the most corrupt in the country. For government workers, corruption is mostly attributed to low salaries.

In Tanzania, corruption traces its roots to as early as its colonial era. Colonial officials were known to stash profits overseas to avoid accountability to their home governments. The country inherited this legacy. Public servants routinely demand bribes to speed up the provision of government services since they know that people have no choice. In a similar fashion to the DRC, this can again be attributed to poor salaries. Tenders and contracts are routinely wrongfully awarded. Repeated scandals led to various donors pulling out of the country.

Nigerian corruption ranks among the highest in Africa and in the world. The country has experienced underdevelopment and recession due to endemic corruption. Besides corruption, the country also has to deal with astronomically increasing unemployment rates, ethnic tensions and clashes, bad governance, abject poverty, and terrorism to the North. Political party nominations in Nigeria are cash-heavy, which sidelines any individuals with genuine interests to help the country. Election outcomes are routinely manipulated by the capitalist and political class, using public resources available to them. Due to poverty, the citizens find themselves pandering to the narrative of the political elite in the hope of getting handouts. This empowers the lack of accountability in the political class. Election campaigns somehow never lack funding due to political godfathers and facilitators bankrolling the campaigns of certain politicians who will be used as puppet politicians to implement policy changes that work in favor of the financiers’ business interests.

The small East African country called Kenya has risen to become a hotbed of political corruption in the region. The situation has grown so ridiculous that even ordinary citizens are no longer shocked when news of embezzled funds surface. This research study will highly focus on this country. Its youth are highly educated, but the corruption among the political elite keeps them under their boot. They are also very active on social media and participate in intelligent discourse on the state of affairs in their country, routinely calling out bad governance. This is a commendable attitude, and insights from them will prove useful in this research. Corruption in Kenya is especially rampant in government parastatals. The movement of goods, services, and opportunities is controlled by cartels for whom the state is always seemingly working in favor. The three arms of government, the legislature, executive, and judiciary, are all rife with all manner of corrupt deals. Preliminary data shows that all citizens in Kenya admit to having participated in a corrupt exchange on one or more occasions. It does not necessarily have to involve bribery, but most people have used tribalism and nepotism, which can be cited as forms of corruption, to gain an edge they did not previously have. Most of them bribe policemen to avoid the hassle of a court case. This habit of corruption on all levels, from a small scale to an exorbitant scale, has become so engendered into Kenyan society that they gave up all hope of a squeaky-clean government. Social media reports show that all they want is someone who will not be as ridiculously corrupt as their current leadership, someone who will somehow balance it out with development. There is even corruption in the distribution of bursaries for gifted but needy students. Parents routinely bribe their way into their children getting admitted to top national schools. This makes some children miss out on quality education on merit. Private companies bribe their way into securing lucrative government contracts, establishing a monopoly. Politicians routinely receive bribes from the state to vote in favor of unpopular initiatives and policy changes. This has been admitted by several politicians on several news platforms. In any government office, greasing the right palm is guaranteed to get things done a lot faster in Kenya, even for something as simple as applying for a duplicate identity card or a driving license. Reports hit the news daily of politicians having looted public funds from counties the national treasury. There are also cases of ghost workers in government departments and parastatals. The ruling political class in Kenya, from existing data, is very corruption-prone. All of their corruption is at the expense of the taxpaying citizens. The extent of the rot in Kenyan corruption has been highlighted in its handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health ministry routinely cooks false infection and recovery figures in time for international aid, as well as imposing unnecessary lockdowns. None of the received aid has gone into the improvement of healthcare facilities in the country. This will make for an interesting case study.


This research study expects to make use of the information provided thus far as a baseline for deeper investigation into how far African corruption goes and how much it costs the taxpayers. The countries implement oppressive taxation policies to help recover the money lost to corruption, most of it to offset the foreign debt. The research study will extensively document the sentiments of African youths to establish their level of awareness on the scourge that is eating their homeland. It is also my hope to document the rot and get the perspectives of some of the political leaders. Through this research effort, I hope to shine a light on Africa so that the world can intervene for the sake of African countries’ citizens. I hope that through this study, which will be published extensively, Africans will open their eyes and start choosing leaders on merit.


Ake, C. (1991). Rethinking African democracy. J Democr. 2(1):32–44.

Ellis, S. (2006). The roots of African corruption. Curr Hist. 105:203–208.

Cranenburgh, O. (2011). Democracy promotion in Africa: the institutional context. Democratization. 18(2):443–461.

Gumede, W. (2015). African style democracy? Available from

Mbaku, J.M. (2009). Corruption in Africa–Part 2. History Comp 7(6):1416–1427.

Mulinge M., Lesetedi G. (1998). Interrogating our past: colonialism and corruption in sub Saharan Africa. Afr. J Polit. Sci. /Rev Afr. de Sci. Polit. 3(2):15–28.

Ozor, F.U. (2009). Electoral process, democracy and governance in Africa: search for an alternative democratic model. Politikon 36(2):315–336.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL1 Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Research proposal on A Treatise

I need 2-page of the bachelor thesis proposal first before writing my bachelor thesis. For instance, when occupations are Writing Assignment Help RESEARCH PROPOSAL1


Research proposal on A Treatise on third world politics, how they stifle youth potential, and proposed solutions to the problem: A Case Study of Kenya.

Jesse Kimotho

Your supervisor’s name

Political Science

Yale University


Author’s note.

As the principal researcher and author of this paper, I have a personal stake in the issue. I myself am a Kenyan-born citizen, one of the few that managed to be fortunate enough to secure an education at one of the world’s premier higher learning institutions. I hope to use my platform to initiate the conversation on how the Kenyan government back home is eating its own citizens, especially for the youth. It is an experience I have lived through every time I go home for my summer vacation. I hope to shine a limelight on what local and international media will not report on how dire the situation is for the youth. For this research undertaking, I will have a correspondent in the country, one Mr. Dennis Ngewa, a graduate telecommunications engineer, who, one year after graduating, has yet to secure a paid internship opportunity. He will be corresponding with me on the situation in the country as it develops, seeing as the country’s political climate is in high gear. There is a general election next year. He will conduct primary data collection on the ground, utilizing the methods prescribed later on in this proposal. It is my hope that this will be the first of many a treatise on the political situation in the country so as to inform political reforms.

Introduction & Background Information.

There are several notions that have come to be associated with third-world countries. Most of them are about fifty years into postcolonial self-governance. They have an overabundance of natural resources, which are mostly exploited by mega-corporations from the developed world due to the complicity and corruption of their political leaders. Their politics is wanting, and by a large margin. There is an almost definite and normalized rot in institutions that were established with the goal of effecting free and fair governance for all. Political leaders in these countries stay in power for long beyond their capable years. A plausible explanation behind this is that these political leaders are so desperate to cling to power because they are afraid of what the youth whom they have oppressed for so long will do to them in retaliation. Third-world politics is marred by widespread corruption. A textbook example of how these political systems work is on African countries. This research project seeks to delve deeply into the case of Kenya and how its internal politics have contributed to the stifling of Kenyan youth potential, leaving behind a disillusioned youth with no potential for the future. The goal of this research undertaking is to document how the existing mechanisms of Kenyan politics actively undermine self-actualization by the youth and the realization of goals. The study hopes to fill a partial research gap on the current state of 21st-century politics and its effects on a nation’s youth. Additionally, the information from this research undertaking will be used to inform several proposed strategies and formulate others that will enable the tide to turn in favor of the youth so that they can take charge and reframe the future of the nation.

Statement of the problem.

Kenya is a small country on the East African Coast. It lies on the Equator. A former British colony, it boasts a warm climate, sandy beaches, national parks, a rich and diversified culture and heritage, and an incredibly smart and capable youth population due to its high education standards. It is a world-renowned tourist destination and is rich in natural resources. As a country, it has immense potential for growth. However, as it turns out, this is not the case. This is solely due to the problematic nature of the country’s politics. Politics directly influences the economy due to policymaking. Almost always, it is evident that some policies implemented at the state level are aimed at serving individual interests. The country suffers a serious case of tribal politics; each major tribe has a political kingpin whose interests are assumed to reflect the will of his people. This tribal kingpin is usually a long-time politician of advanced age and who hopes to occupy the presidential seat at some point. The destructive nature of Kenyan tribal politics culminated in the widely covered 2007/08 post-election violence that rocked the country and attracted international attention. It led to widespread loss of life, destruction of property, and displacement of people. The violence broke out when one of the tribal kingpins who was a presidential aspirant in the 2007 general election refused to accept the outcome of the election and incited his tribesmen to take up arms against the tribe whose kingpin had won. The latter issued a retaliation order, as well. The bloodshed was mostly carried out by able-bodied youth, who were supplied with crude weapons and given small amounts of cash to carry out the same. This is an excellent example of the stifling of youth potential in the country. They will not pay any mind to build any sort of future if they are too busy fighting the youth from the ‘enemy’ tribe. Every election period since then has had an accompanying ethnic tension, with people temporarily migrating back to their tribal homelands to avoid any possible clashes, only moving back when all sides have agreed with an electoral outcome. Tribal politics in Kenya have led to a widespread lack of freethinking, especially among the youth, who form the majority of the voting public. In worst cases, like in 2007, they end up as the tribal kingpin’s foot soldiers.

Another problem with Kenyan politics is that the country has had the same people occupying prominent government positions, from where change is effected, for the past three decades, albeit in rotation. There are no open opportunities for young people to influence policy change. This is by design since these politicians, naturally, have no incentive to change a system that has benefited them and their interests for a long time. Corruption is another key tenet of Kenya’s politics. It has become so widespread that it is conducted openly. A recent attempt to turn the country’s constitution on its head, the unpopular Building Bridges Initiative, had to be contested against at the highest court in the land before it sunk the nation further. To approve of the initiative, the lowest political players, the members of county assemblies, were openly bribed with car grants to approve of the vote. The hotly contested initiative, spearheaded by the country’s president, was ultimately defeated. This was followed by not-so-subtle threats to undermine the independence of institutions such as the Judiciary. Again, with regard to the initiative, a significant number of Kenyan youths were forced to sign documents showing that they approved of the initiative, so the government could prove that it was what the citizens wanted. These youths were forced to do so in order to secure temporary employment by the government.

As it stands, there is no official opposition party in the country to keep the ruling government on its toes. The ruling party bought the opposition, so government policies, no matter how oppressive to the youth and the citizenry in general, meet no resistance at both the Senate and the National Assembly. The policies that are passed nowadays stifle youth self-employment by imposing high licensing tariffs for establishing a business, which the youth do not have, in addition to heavy taxation. There is a general lack of support for significant youth involvement in political activity; all they get are symbolic victories. Any youth who are courageous enough to take to the streets to protest bad governance are met with near-lethal force to dissuade more youth from thinking of such. This systemic anti-youth notion has even crept into social media, where there is at least an implied freedom of expression against bad governance. Politicians pay several factions of youth and bloggers small amounts of money that they happen to desperately need so as to influence a particular narrative. They have effectively turned the youth against each other. The youth are successfully deterred from building a united front against which to organize against bad governance. This is especially visible now as the country gears toward next year’s general election.

Regarding these problems, this research effort hopes to establish the true extent of how bad governance has affected the youth in Kenya through obtaining answers from them directly. Naturally, when asked, most youth would rather actively avoid political participation in any form, deeming it a dirty game. Their frustration is understandable. This study hopes to establish some foundational building blocks for systemic political change, with the youth at the forefront.

Research question: What is the true extent of bad politics on Kenyan youth, and how can the current situation be reversed?

Literature review.

As it stands, there is limited literature on research that extensively documents how youth in Kenya are affected by bad governance. This goes to show how little attention has been directed towards the matter. As mentioned before, this study hopes to fill this particular research gap. Kioko Ireri and Jimmy Ochieng (2020) report on some of the factors that influence the coverage of political news in media outlets. The assumption in their study was that news mirrors political reality in the country. Their research found out that political coverage largely relied on political party leadership, government criticism, and commentary on corruption. None of the factors included anything on politicians’ vocalness on matters concerning the vulnerable youth in the country. Wangui Kimari et al. (2020) published a paper that highlights the effects of inordinate state action on Kenyan youth. The youth in Kenya have experienced state-sanctioned violence. They seem to possess an internalized fear of the institutions built to protect political interests. Routine murders of youth activists by police have effectively deterred any hopes of political activism and involvement by the youth. The political grievances of youth in Kenya are often cast aside, and their participation is not taken with any seriousness. Elisabeth King’s 2018 published article tackles the issue of the needs of Kenyan youth. Education and employment opportunities are often presented by the international community as the key deterrents to youth being used for violence. The research study argues that the notion is presumptuous about Kenyan youths’ interests since it overlooks social connectedness and self-identity, in addition to the systemic barriers imposed upon them by bad governance. Michael Kisaka and Israel Nyadera (2019) examine Kenya’s broad ethnically-influenced political divide. Kenya suffers from remnant colonial mindsets in its political thought. Ethnicity in politics can be traced back to the colonial era. The different regimes that have ruled the country since colonialism have strived to curate a national identity but have had the opposite result: tribal politics have become calcified in order to influence voting patterns. They have been an effective way of pushing the self-serving interests of a handful of political power players.

Research process.

This study will collect original data through widespread in-person interviews and widely administered questionnaires. My correspondent will interview systematically selected samples of Kenyan youth. The sampling process will be modified to fit certain demographics, such as gender and age. One subset will be of youths between 18 and 25 years of age, the second will be of youth between 25 and 32, and the last will be of youth between 32 and 40. The subsets will all have an equal gender distribution. The population will come from 13 out of the 47 most populated counties in the nation, where most of the population is concentrated. The sample size is indeterminate as of yet since the goal is to gather as much data as possible.

The interviews and questionnaires will be conducted and administered respectively in English; since most Kenyan youths are literate, they just lack opportunities.

The interview questions will be comprehensive, with evenly distributed open-ended and close-ended questions. The questionnaires will have multiple choices to choose from, and they will be distributed across social media platforms for easy collection and tabulation of responses.

The interviews and questionnaires will contain questions based on the problems that Kenyan politics have caused for Kenyan youth, including but not limited to the ones already stated in this proposal. They will be extensive and comprehensive.

Additionally, social media surveys will be conducted in a bid to establish the present and changing sentiments of the active youth on social media as the political landscape morphs into the upcoming election period.

Archived data and national records will also be consulted as part of this study to shed light on the history of systemic youth alienation in national politics.

Proposed solutions.

This research study hopes to inform some possible solutions to the problem at hand, including but not limited to:

Getting more Kenyan youth in politics to spearhead policy changes. This way, they can have an actual say in what happens to them, instead of having it decided for them by people who cannot relate to their predicament and who, in fact, created the situation.

Targeted mass political education for the youth. They need to know that they can be a part of the solution.

Encouraging the youth to be more creative in galvanizing onto platforms and creating a united front so as to circumvent systemic political barriers and see the change implemented.

These and many more solutions will be informed by the research study.

This undertaking hopes to add to the existing literature on destructive politics so that the situation garners wider attention. The hope is that enough people will pay enough attention to the issue for more solutions on a grander scale to be effected, with help from the international community.

Potential obstacles to the research effort.

With the period of research being so close to an election year, the voting youth may already have started receiving stipends and handouts from politicians, which despite knowing better, cannot afford to refuse due to lack of income. This might result in biased responses.

The dependence on social networking and messaging platforms for a wider reach may be affected by paid parties who would be out to sabotage any ‘external’ observations.

Transport barriers. Some areas in the targeted counties are inaccessible. Due to government inefficiency, some roads are not tarmacked. This might prove problematic for the research effort.

The unwillingness of youth to participate in such surveys. They could argue that these efforts never bear any fruit and dismiss them as a waste of time. Others might decide not to participate unless they are paid for their time.


Ireri, K., & Ochieng, J. (2020). Politicians in Newspaper News: Who Attracts Coverage in Kenyan Politics. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 25(4), 675–691.

Kimari, W., Melchiorre, L., & Rasmussen, J. (2020). Youth, the Kenyan state and a politics of contestation. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 14(4), 690–706.

King, E. (2018). What Kenyan Youth Want and Why It Matters for Peace. African Studies Review, 61(1), 134-157. doi:10.1017/asr.2017.98

Kisaka, M. O., & Nyadera, I. N. (2019). Ethnicity and Politics in Kenya’s Turbulent Path to Democracy and Development. Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi/Journal of Social Policy Conferences, 159–180.







MARCH 2022


Environmental accounting and reporting has been established under Corporate Social Responsibility as one of the current issues in Kenya. It focuses on costs incurred in measures to prevent or reduce the negative effects a company has on the environment in the process of attaining its objectives. The main focus of this research study is to establish the effect of non-disclosure of environmental accounting information on the economic and financial performance of the various selected organizations. To satisfy the research objective, the study was done in 15 randomly selected companies within Nairobi county. Data was obtained from primary and secondary sources. The data was collected and analyzed using…………The key findings of the study indicated that there is significant relationship between non-disclosure of environmental accounting information and the liquidity, efficiency and profitability of an organization. Based on these findings, it was recommended that organizations should disclose their environmental accounting information to interested parties despite the negative effect they have on the efficiency, liquidity and profitability so that general public and stakeholders will be aware of their environmental impact.



Presently, rapid industrialization has adversely affected the world’s ecological balance thus posing a threat to mankind all over the world. It is therefore a responsibility of every company and firm to act accordingly for sustainable development of the environment. There is a lot of pressure on organizations to consider the effects of their operations on the environment thus disclosure of accounting information is emerging to be an important measurement in assessing the organization’s performance.

Most companies developed in Kenya have an objective of profit and shareholder’s wealth maximization without putting into consideration the effect they have on the environment therefore the need for environmental accounting and reporting has become a big concern of many nations and organizations.

Many companies especially manufacturing have a lot of negative effects on the environment because of activities undertaken in production, such include; soil pollution due to industrial wastes being thrown into landfills, air pollution, water pollution, destruction of wildlife and increased atmosphere carbon dioxide. Environmental accounting and reporting disclosure practices have been developed globally having identified the above effects.

It is established that non-disclosure of environmental information hinders additional information that helps in management of environmental and operational costs of natural resources and making financial decisions. It also has an effect on cost of equity thus increasing information risk. Based on the above argument little or no reliance on cost of equity affects the profitability, liquidity and financial efficiency of the organization.

Development of bodies in charge of accounting reporting of environmental costs and revenue at national and regional levels to ensure; compliance, training of concerned parties on development of accounting systems that discloses both environmental and economic impact and on importance of information disclosure to the organization. Strict laws & regulations concerning environmental reporting should be enacted and fines & penalties imposed on organizations which fail to comply with the regulations. Disclosure and auditing of environmental performance of a company should be made compulsory. Providing government support through incentives and tax allowances for organizations that comply will encourage information disclosure of many firms in Kenya.


Even though various laws have been passed concerning environmental reporting and disclosure, most of them are voluntary and unaudited and do not have developed standards that deal with measurement and reporting of the same thus many organization managers fail to disclose the information in order to avoid the risks and cost associated with disclosure. Most available research studies focus on the impact of environmental information disclosure on organization performance thus there is need to do more research on the effects of non-disclosure of environmental accounting and reporting information on organization performance.


The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of non-disclosure of environmental accounting and reporting information on the organization’s performance. The specific objectives include:

To establish how the organization’s profitability is affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information.

To ascertain whether efficiency of the organization is affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information.

To determine to what extent is organization’s liquidity affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information.


The study will seek to answer the following questions:

How is the organization’s profitability affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information?

Is efficiency of the organization affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information?

What extent is organization’s liquidity affected by non-disclosure of environmental accounting information?


Company Accountants -They would increase their knowledge on environmental accounting and reporting hence meet the challenge to come up with a systematic manner of disclosing such information. Accountants would hence expand their services in the area of social and environmental accounting to their companies.

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya (ICPAK) – Knowledge of issues surrounding non-disclosure of environmental accounting and reporting is likely to be useful in furthering the interest of ICPAK members in this area. It would contribute immensely to predict the future on the state of social reporting in Kenya and therefore in this regard would guide the standard setters on areas requiring regulations.

Researchers and Scholars

Social and environmental accounting and reporting in Kenya remain a fairly un-researched area. This research is likely to set a pace for more studies in the area of social and environmental accounting the state of the art for Kenyan companies

Society in general

It helps in scrutinizing the concept of environment and determining the deposit money banks relationship with the society in general and the environmental pressure groups in particular. It assists deposit money banks in exploring to deliberately manage a new and evolving issues with

its stakeholders


This study is to analyze effects of non-disclosure on the performance of an organization. It tries to fill the gap by taking oil and gas industustries into consideration in Nairobi county as a sample size. This area of the study has been done by a few individuals thus making it new and unique. The study will be conducted between March 2022 and April 2022.


Non-disclosure-is a situation in which parties fail to disclose information on a particular subject.

Environmental accounting-is a branch of accounting which deals which deals disclosure of information on how the entity’s activities have an effect on the external environment and the costs & measures incurred to reduce or prevent the same.

Liquidity-is the ease with which an asset can be converted into cash.

Efficiency-is a degree of achieving maximum productivity in a competent manner and little expense.

Profitability-is the extent in which the company’s income exceeds expenses.


The major problem encountered when conducting this study is failure of respondents to disclose required information thus making it difficult to give a correct view on how non-disclosure affects the performance of an organization.




This study covers the literature review to provide the background of information taken in the study area. In this chapter the research presents an overview of literature in respect to the effect of non-disclosure of environmental accounting information in oil and gas industries.

Environmental accounting occasionally known as management accounting and green accounting is an essential part of accounting because it combines the traditional accounting reporting with ecological reporting. It uses money and different non-financial units to document statistics related to environment and natural resources. Therefore, environmental accounting can be defined as modification of organizational accounts system to incorporate the use or depletion of natural resources.


Resource dependence theory.

Resource dependence as discussed through Daris and Cbb(2009) in their article titled “Resource dependency theory, beyond and destiny is adopted inside the studies work. The seed for the principle has been carried from Stan Ford and germinated through Jell Picffers dissertation committee, which protected Janes Miller, Mike, Hassan man, Dick Scott and Eugene Weeb.

Resource dependence theory is the study of how resources affects the organization’s behavior. Acquisition of external resources is vital for the company’s tactical and strategic management. The theory was formalized after publication of the External Control of organizations, “A Resource Dependence Perspective” (Pfeiffer and Salancik,1978). An organization depends on a variety of resources: labour, raw materials and capital.

Stakeholder theory

Is a theory that focuses on numerous stakeholders who have various powers and hold different positions on the organization’s operation. As argued by (Robert 1992), stakeholder theory has an interest on the firm’s environmental performance. According to this theory, company’s stakeholders include: employees, shareholders, supplier, managers, creditors, community members, governmental bodies and competitors. It states that an organization should create value for all stakeholders. Shareholders who provide capital for the firm have a signifanct role in determining the firm stakeholder’s status. They play a major role in enterprise development by overseeing the governance and operation of the organization thus companies are required to provide shareholders with relevant reports. This theory believes that the main purpose of establishing an enterprise is to maximize shareholder returns. In recent years there has been increased awareness of the corporate social responsibility by the public thus companies are required by various stakeholders to report their financial statements as well as non-financial information. This has caused a big dilemma to the company managers as they are required to promote both the corporate image and the interest of the shareholders concurrently thus they are more likely to choose not to comply with the required disclosure thus stakeholders may fail to support the operations of the firm. Stakeholders have a direct control over the resources necessary for the day to day operation of an enterprise thus they are considered as vital to a firm (ICAN 2019). Environmental accounting and reporting therefore plays a big role in influencing stakeholders to discharge their duty towards the organization.

Theory of sustainable development.

Sustainable development is framework that aims to meet the needs of the present while preserving the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs (Giangrande et al. 2019). This is safety of natural resources and development of environmental sustainability. Sustainable improvement is a systematic and monetary increase version that calls for improvement to be closely associated with the environment.


Athambawa, Mohamed Cassim Abdul Nazar and Mohammed Ismail Mujahid Hilal in their article titled ‘a systematic review on the environmental accounting’’ examined environmental accounting and its importance. Evidence in their study indicated that environmental performance has the ability to improve the image of the company, improve organization’s value, reduce the cost of capital and improve satisfaction of the shareholders. Organizations which have positive environmental performance have a minimal risk for bankruptcy (Lin &Dong,2018).

Minga Negash,2012, in his work titled ‘IFRS and environmental accounting’’ an empirical study of financial statements of three global mining environmentally sensitive companies to examine whether international Financial Reporting Standards can be used to monitor environmental degradation so that the environmental risks and assets of public and private firms can be accounted for. The study established that sustainability reports produced by the companies is unclear. There is no disclosure of contributions of the companies towards sharing the costs of restoration, decommissioning and rehabilitation of the environment. This paper shows that environment has both financial and non-financial implications and environmental degradations has an adverse effect on the society. It aimed to identify key standards that are relevant to environmental monitoring and suggests ways of integrating financial and non-financial into existing financial reporting system.

Walter and Dennis (1994) in their study ‘environmental disclosures regulatory costs and changes in firm’s value, a case study of market reaction of chemical leak in Bhopal India. According to their study, firms with more likely to receive a positive reaction from investors. This was because they were able to manage their exposure to future regulatory costs.

Studies carried out above have tried to revive different empirical studies but there is none handling the effect of non-disclosure of environmental information the organization’s performance thus the need for this study.


Is a diagrammatic representation of the variables under study. It is informed by theoretical and empirical review and ought to exhibit an information of what variables impact what. This segment has to begin with a quick advent and rationalization of the relationships depicted within the framework. The advent is then observed by means of presentation of the framework. An explanation of ways the framework will be used in the observation.

The main variables of this study are: Non-disclosure of environmental accounting information and organization’s performance. Non-disclosure of environmental accounting as an independent variable is broken down into smaller variables defining it; Efficiency, profitability and liquidity. Organization performance on the other hand is the dependent variable. Non-disclosure of environmental accounting information is independent variable in that; the degree of disclosure affects the organization’s performance. Dependent and independent variables of the study are summarized in the figure below.

Research gap.

Environmental accounting and reporting has become increasingly popular worldwide due to scarcity of resources, climate change and increased rate of carbon emission. Most studies have been concentrated on the impact of environmental information disclosure on organization performance rather than non-disclosure.

Summary of the literature.

Environmental accounting information non-disclosure

1 David (1624-25) Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Marble Your Name Class Information Date


David (1624-25) Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Marble

Your Name

Class Information


David (1624-25) Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Marble

Art in the Italian Renaissance was defined by detachment, rational logic, and the epitome of perfection. However, during the seventeenth century, new artists arose and they ruined the mold. The ordeal was termed baroque. Therefore, the baroque period began in the seventeenth century and was defined by a new aesthetic. Contrary to the ideal and calm logic the movement was accompanied by a dramatic tension that was captured through sturdy emotional appeal and exaggerated motion. This was an entirely new way of viewing art and amid the chaos, the Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the sculpture that was credited with the award of single-handedly beginning the movement. Bernini was an artist from Italy whose works described the goals and attributes of the Baroque.

The style used by Bernini Baroque was unique in that he approached ancient subjects in innovative ways as evident in his masterpiece David. The masterpiece was inspired by a biblical character known as David. David in the Bible is famous for having slain Goliath who was a giant compared to himself. In the sculpture, the artist Bernini captures the character in the process of hurling the sling to defeat his enemy. The art is a marble sculpture and in place of David’s face is that of Bernini himself. The sculpture brings out the baroque elements due to the tension where David is yet to achieve his victory and the exaggerated motion, drama, and tension.

The sculpting of the sculpture is unique where the character’s movements are extreme and it seems like it’s going to break at any moment. The artist showcases the physical and emotional tension in the character’s body evident in how his face is taunt and twisted together with the rest of his body frame. This is because the character is supposed to be ignorant of the outcome of his actions and he is therefore putting his mind and effort into the task at hand. This makes the viewer pity David since he is about to face what might have been the biggest challenge in his life. The sculpture highlights the blooming Baroque movement that occurred in the seventeenth century. So many things were happening during the period the art reflected these changes. Davis served as a symbol of the republic of Florence, the Catholic church, and Italian residents.

The sculpture was significant to me in so many ways. As a Christian, I am well aware of the narrative of Goliath and David. The sculpture reminds me how much faith can make the impossible possible. This is because David through his faith was able to defeat someone so much bigger and more powerful than him. It is also impressive how the author was able to showcase and bring out the tension that the whole ordeal was with the unique sculpturing. The artist also paid attention to detail which makes the whole sculpture a masterpiece. There is so much history showcased in the sculpture considering how he portrayed the baroque period and connected it with his sculpture. This makes the sculpture one of the best in history.