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I have chosen Wilmar International Limited and uploaded annual reports of this company for 2020 and 2021. A 3-minute Essay

I have chosen Wilmar International Limited and uploaded annual reports of this company for 2020 and 2021. A 3-minute presentation is required based on the following question:

You are required to discuss how your company applies the accounting standard for the Foreign Currency Transaction, for example, (but not limited to) the method to be applied for translating financial statements and how the company accounts for the Foreign Currency Transaction for financial year 2021 in comparison, to the previous 2020 financial year.




Literature Review

Server Administration Services

Action Research


Student Name

Table of Contents

Plan 3

Action 4

Observe 5

Reflect 5



The planning stage is one of the critical phases in an action research that entails outlining the things that will be done, how and when they will be done. A plan can be defined as a set schedule of activities or procedures on a project or a process. It is also a sequence of activities or events arranged from the first to the last until the ultimate goal is arrived at. In this case, the planning phase of the first iteration in this action research entails outlining the outlining the various things needed to be done I order to aid in the definition of the study topic and/or problem. The first iteration, as discussed above is about defining the problem to be studied in this action research. The things that need to be planned for include the following:

Time frame for each activity

Resources needed- that is, the sources of information pertaining to the said topic

The field of study determined

The objective and goals of the iteration

The steps to be followed

An assessment of the plan validity

The expected outcome of the iteration clearly defined

The time frame for this iteration was planned to be approximately hours, within which all the activities must be competed and the outcome obtained. The primary questions asked in this iteration were what and who with regard to the server administration services- that is, who offers these services, and what does these services entail.


The phase proceeding the planning phase is the action phase, and this can be defined as the actual performance of the activities or procedures outlined in the planning phase. It is in this phase where the things planned are actualized or materialized, or implemented. The determined field of study was server administration, and the more specific topic was the server administration services and related concept. The resources required were determined to be sources of information pertaining to the server administration services, and these included books, journals, and online sources. The ultimate objective was to define the study topic, and the action phase already defined it as server administration services.

The activities or the steps that were followed in the action phase were as follows:

The topic of study was decided to server administration services.

Selected documents containing information about the selected topic were consulted, and the relevant data obtained and analysed.

The reference company was determined to be VerdicSoft.

All information pertaining to the services offered by VerdicSoft was obtained from the various sources including their websites and case studies. This was set as the baseline for the server administration services.

Various other service providers were identified and compared to the VerdicSoft.

The performance of these activities was vital to arrive at the expected goal. These activities were undertaken keeping in mind that they have to follow the plans, and perhaps make necessary changes to the plans if the plans seemed practically defective. The outcome was what mattered most and not the adherence to the plan, and any necessary changes could be made. For example, slight modifications on the number of concepts to be discussed, and the extent to which they would be discussed.


During and after the action phase, the observation phase follows in an attempt to learn the various things resulting from the previous stages. In other words, the observation phase is all about studying the various aspects of the planning phase and action phase, with a prime aim of establishing if the right things are done, if the outcome obtained is the expected outcome, if there are deviations from the expected outcomes, or if the action phase exhausted everything that was laid down in the planning stage. It may appear like the observation phase is similar to the concept of control, but in practice, they are different in that control aims at corrective measures while the observation is mere learning or studying the processes, procedures or the series of activities.

In the first iteration, the observations that were made included whether the resources stated were adequate for the entire action phase. It was observed that the resources were indeed sufficient. It was also observable that the ultimate objective of the iteration was achieved, and that the problem was identified with precision. More so, it was observed that the topic was grossly general in scope, and that more specific scope would have been easier to handle. The scope entailed generally the sever administration services, and this meant several aspects were to be taken into account including the various definitions, features, and the examples of server administration service providers. All in all, there is no hitch observed in the first iteration of this action research as everything turned out to be perfect in the end.


The last phase of the iteration is then reflection phase. In principle, one will always take some time to reflect on something that has happened and answering questions of how, what, when, and who among others. In this case, the reflection phase is a deliberate effort to revisit the entire process. It is simply a recap of the lessons learnt and knowledge gained from undertaking the previous phases of planning, action and observation. Reflecting on the previous sections reveals what has been learnt from them, and learning the outcomes of the iteration. The several things that were reflected on in this iteration included the effectiveness of the various actions that were undertaken- that is, were they effective or ineffective? What actions brought about the success of the iteration? Were the outcomes obtained the expected or ideal outcomes? Or was there a better set of actions that would have yielded similar or better results?

Another thing to reflect on in this iteration was the various difficulties or challenges experienced by the researcher. The primary challenge was finding adequate data pertaining to the topic, mainly because of the seemingly scattered information. To come up with a proper definition, one had to work from scratch, gather scattered pieces of information, bring them together and try to come up with something concrete. This, however, was largely successful and the end results were as expected. More so, the fact that there were different notions of the concept of server administration services was worth reflecting on because of the need to establish the ideal practices that could be used for purposes like benchmarking and comparison among the various service providers in the industry. The ideal practices were worth establishing because of the wide contrasts in the services offered and also the level of customizations across.

1 NAME: COURSE: TUTOR: DATE: Introduction Vicary and Erickson have expressed their

I have chosen Wilmar International Limited and uploaded annual reports of this company for 2020 and 2021. A 3-minute Essay Accounting Assignment Help 1






Vicary and Erickson have expressed their opinions on the topic of sex and disability. The two articles are similar in that they both express the miseries of being sexually excluded for mere reasons that they are disabled, but they are different in respect to context where Vicary’s case is all about meeting people of the opposite gender and having sexual encounters while the second case is about the engagement in making porn. The effect is that they had to live lives that are deficient.

Vicary is a young lady with mental disabilities in that she cannot bathe herself, feed herself, dress or cook for herself. She has been a virgin for thirty years, and when she thought she could marry, the society (parents, family, employer, etc.) were all against the idea, and so she did not get married. She opted to move out to stay on her own where she could do the things she liked and make her feel like a complete human being with desired to be met. She embarked on finding men on social media and engaging in sexual encounters with them, but she did not want to reveal that she was disabled in a way. On the other hand, Erickson was also a lady who was on a wheelchair and who laments that the society has created a culture of desirability and lack thereof. Her case was that because of her condition, she could not be desirable and could, as such, not expect to live like a normal human being, or even enjoy the company of the normal human beings. What about people going to parties and she is never invited? Or no body willing to be her partner because she was disabled? In queecrip porn, she feels that the culture of desirability has found its way where the desirability is in the form of perfection of body (Erickson 16).

Sexuality and Sexual exclusion on Grounds of Disability

Every human being desires good sex, and also a partner in life with whom to be intimate. However, sex is not for the disables, as Vicary and Erickson have expressed. With cerebral palsy, Vicary could not do several things on her own. However, there are other areas where she excelled and did things just like a normal person would. She was a public servant meaning that she had managed to obtain education (Vicary). This implied also that her mental capacities were not totally deficient and she could reason or do other things like study, work, socialize, and also speak her mind. However, the people around her seemed to be overprotective such that she had to stay a virgin for thirty years because the person she dates was advised against the idea, thanks to her disability. The society, and more so the government, has enacted rules that no person was to be intimate with a disabled person.

Erickson just sat on her wheelchair and watch people mingle, date, and obviously get intimate while she herself found not even one person to ask her out on a date. Why? She was disabled. This often was a depressing situation, and because she knew that her problem was just the physical disability, she had desires just like any other human being. How comes people could not see this? Whether it was protection or undesirability it is hard to tell, but Erickson is convinced that it was undesirability. Her physical conditions were undesirable to a normal being and, as such, she was out question. She laments that the disabled people are voiceless when it comes to the sexual matters, and all she can do was to imagine being intimate with a person she could love and be with.

The similarity between the two cases is that the choices are made for them, and they are neither consulted nor deemed to have that capacity to make decisions on matters of sex. In essence, the society has created rules that have side-lined their desires as human being. If not the rules, then it is the mentalities of the people regarding the disabled such that no one would want to be intimate with a person who was disabled in a way. Another common thing with the two cases is that despite their disabilities, the two ladies have decided to make their own paths and get what they desire without the protection of the people close to them (Vicary) and without regard to the perceptions of the people regarding desirability (Erickson). The two have found their way out, and have expressed far much satisfaction with the choices they have made to do things their way.

However, the difference between the two is the context of the sexual exclusion. The first case was a sexual exclusion in ordinary practice of sex – that is, engaging in sexual intercourse for the purpose of being intimate. In other words, the lady felt she desired sex but she was excluded from it by the people surrounding her by fears that things might turn out badly. She dated, but her date or relationship was ruined on the grounds of sexuality. On the other hand, the second case expresses not much of ordinary practice of sex, but the commercial aspect of it. In other words, she was excluded from making porn because of her disability. This, obviously, is in addition to the exclusion in the ordinary practice of sex because she expresses that no one wanted to date her. When she resorted to queercrip porn, she faced exclusion based on the disabilities she had. Despite the sexual seclusion, the two ladies found their way out, again in different contexts. Vicary could now practice sex and she indeed enjoyed it. On the other hand, Erickson could make porn even though there was still the feeling of undesirability.

Another difference between the two cases based on sexual exclusion is that for Vicary, there were no desirability issues unlike in the case for Erickson. For Erickson, she was undesirable because she was on a wheelchair whereby her disabilities were physically visible. However, the Disabilities of Vicary were concealable meaning the only for her to feel safe from exclusion was not to reveal her condition.

Marginalization on the basis of disability

In her article, Erickson writes the following:

“One of the most insidious and comprehensive ways to marginalize people is to make them question their laveability, their desirability, their collective worth, and establish a social organization that reinforces and perpetuates these systemic harms; while internalizing dominance and personalizing oppression.” (P. 11)

Besides the marginalization on sexual grounds as discussed in the above theme, there is gross marginalization for the disables as illustrated by the two cases. What is marginalization? Marginalization can simply be defined as the act of placing someone or some people in a state of powerlessness or a position that is not important within a society or a group. This has happened in races and minorities, and also in the disabled whereby they are not deemed important or have no say in the social, political or even economic affairs that concerns them.

The marginalization in the case of Vicary and Erickson was in the social context whereby they were left powerless, without voice and often without the sense of belonging. They lived in a society where people enjoyed themselves with their exclusion from that joy, and no one seemed to care about them. The only things that the ‘normal’ people seemed to care about them is giving them aid, but this aid was not enough, and they felt that that was not what they wanted in life. Stickers in busses and other public places requesting people to help the disables was all they got, while other desires were completely disregarded. At the government level, the rules relating to the sexuality of the disabled were seen as a form of protection, but did the disabled desire that protection? According to the two ladies, this was a big no.

Marginalization for Vicary was a form of mental powerlessness where she was made to believe that she cannot have sex. The people around here were overprotective such that she could do the things she would have enjoyed, among them dating and being in a relationship. The same case was for Erickson whose mentality, or so she believed, was shaped to think that the disabled are less desirable, less loveable, less attractive, and powerless (Erickson 11). If she succumbed to this mentality, she would have made no efforts to try and come out of it. Another similarity is that they later found out in order to overcome the marginalization, something had to be done, and the choices they have made have helped them to overcome marginalization. The difference is, however, that they took different paths depending on their context of marginalization. While Vicary moved away from the people who marginalized her, Erickson sought to communicate messages to them through action and expression of hew mind.


As expressed in the thesis statement, the similarities between the two cases is sexual exclusion and marginalization based on their disabilities, while the main difference is the context. Vicary needed to get intimate with people, to love, and perhaps to get married. On the other hand, though these could have been the same desires for Erickson, it was her engagement in porn where her disappointments are. Vicary laments people being overprotective to the extent of denying her sexual freedom, while Erickson laments the undesirability culture that has denied her access to the sexual pleasures and also access to the field of porn. All in all, the society has marginalized the disabled in the sense that they have kept them apart with the things that they desire and things that would make them enjoy life fully. It is the conditioning of the mind where the disabled have been made to feel there are things they cannot do, and it is not until they themselves take action will they ever get out of the situation.

Works Cited

Erickson, Loree. “Transforming Cultures of (Un)Desirability: Creating Cultures of Resistance.” Graduate Journal of Social Science (2016): 11-22.

Vicary, Fran. Sex and disability: yes, the two can and should go together. 20 Feb 2014. 12 July 2016. .

The Zaporozhian Cossacks as Social Bandits There have been several instances that

The Zaporozhian Cossacks as Social Bandits

There have been several instances that an outlaw or some other criminal is visualized as a hero. This phenomenon is not new as it has been a historical phenomenon observed in various ancient societies like the bandits of the Roman Empire. The contemporary world, these characters are in most cases characterized in films and movies often to represent the real life situation. Linda Gordon, in her book called Cossack Rebellions, uses the term “social bandits” in her exploration of the significance of the Zaporozhian Cossacks in the Polish society during the 16th and 17th centuries. The essay presented herein argues that her characterization is largely valid. The argument will also provide the definition of the term as was first used by Eric Hobsbawn in his thesis. Broadly, the features of characteristics of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, for example, recruitment or admission, ideology, etc., will help provide the much-needed evidence for the argument presented herein.

The term “bandit” often implies a person who does not follow the law or who is not subject to any law. This state of lawlessness, in a society governed by laws, pits this person as an outlaw who is in constant conflict with the legal authorities of the land. The more common terms for this type of a person is a robber or marauder. The term “social bandit”, Gordon admits, implies those people who are “robbers who in public opinion are not considered ordinary, indefensible criminals remain within a community moral sense of right (Gordon, 62).” It is important to gain a good understanding of the social bandits because there are confusions that might arise when looking at scenarios like civil wars, terrorism, rebellion, etc. In essence, social bandits are not political rebels merely by the fact that they do not seek to politically establish themselves or their ideology. They are just gangs or robbers who rob and who are generally not willing to abide by the laws of the land, but the society sometimes see these as heroes.

With this definition of social bandits, the question that arises herein is, “how accurate is Gordon in referring to the Zaporozhian Cossacks as social bandits?” One characteristic of the Cossacks as described by Gordon was robbery, which formed a major part of their functions. The Cossacks were rarely interested in farming (either rearing or crop farming), and this is because they would expose their land to the outside attackers who would be attracted by a well-tended land and its value. As such, much of their supplies especially in terms of food and other material possessions were looted. A bandit gang rarely engages in any legal economic activity and much of their wealth is made from stealing or robbing, and in the modern world, drug dealership and cartel corruption.

The Zaporozhian Cossacks were a group of bandits who had one major thing in common: they never were willing to subject themselves to any ruler, mostly because there was a lot of discontent with most of the rulers or governments of the time, for example, the Tsar, polish and Ukrainian. (Gordon, 1983). The angered people joined the Cossacks where they would do anything to gain their freedom. The Cossacks themselves believed in brotherhood even though they did not have blood relationships, and were in most cases used by the established rulers as mercenaries and other times they acted on their own. A series of events taking place in Ukraine and surrounding lands included landowners squeezing lands out of the peasants and in most circumstances making the peasants their slaves. – be careful. The relationships is similar, but serfs are not slaves Those who got an opportunity did flee to join the Cossacks.

Hobsbawn did emphasize that the social bandits were not political rebels because they do not have intentions for a new political order (Gordon, 1983). However, looking at the description of the Zaporozhian Cossacks given by Gordon leaves doubts as to whether the term social bandits does fit these people. This is because these Cossacks are seen to be operating under firm and influential leadership, and they have an established centre or capital (Sich), and a region that they control and run. This, considering the ancient political states which were merely cities with a ruler and his soldiers and subjects, it could be seen that the Cossacks were breakaways from these regimes and they sought their own regime, own rules, own leadership, etc. they had a military that was as effective and lethal as any military of the time. Gordon goes further to describe how commerce grew among the Cossacks and other people this creating an impression that the Cossacks were indeed a state of their own. Their political structure was one with few people in leadership whose major strength was their influence, a situation which later changes whereby power was nor wielded by the peasants. This, in the modern world, is like power given to the people, a concept we call democracy. As such, the Zaporozhian Cossacks could be seen as bandits because they robbed, and also as political rebels because they indeed had a political strategy.

The prominence of this group of people is because they offered asylum to those who were oppressed by their authorities (Gordon, 1983). No one was denied a chance to join this group. To the oppressed, the Cossacks were heroes who attracted large numbers of people as they advanced through various lands. Being people who generally oppose ‘slavery’, the wake of oppressive landlords indeed made the Zaporozhian Cossacks the good guys. The common interests here were freedom and independence, as well as self-rule.

As has been mentioned, contemporary social bandits are men who break the law to achieve their selfish interests; they are moral criminals. There are various instances when these people are seen as heroes, and the contemporary hero worship sees people like vigilantes and drug lords become heroes. The Cossacks, as such, could be seen to contribute to the contemporary hero worship and folklore, and their role is to define the gangs that seek asylum for people discontented with the laws. Modern terrorism is in most cases spearheaded by people seeking justice, people whose composition is ‘warriors with no subjects’. A terrorist group has in its structure solid leadership and command, but fails to fit as a political rebellion because they lack political intent and strategy. The Cossacks are, as such, an embodiment of much of the modern day terrorist groups.

In conclusion, Gordon’s notion of the Zaporozhian Cossacks being social bandits is largely valid, and this is because group of people comprised mostly people who ran away from their legal frameworks to join a gang that did not have a political agenda. The fact that they had a structure of authority, which later came to represent the modern day democracy, does little to define them as a political group. This organization, even though tended to offer asylum to people displeased with their regimes, paint a clear picture of modern day terrorism whereby the terrorists believe they have a justified cause worth fighting for.


Gordon, L. (1983). Cossack Rebellion: Social Turmoil in the Sixteenth-Century Ukraine. Albany: State University of New York.