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THE TRANSITION TO A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE 4 Running Head: THE TRANSITION TO

THE TRANSITION TO A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE 4

Running Head: THE TRANSITION TO A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

 

The Transition to a Healthy Lifestyle

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The Transition to a Healthy Lifestyle

Almost all individuals are motivated by healthy, happy and energetic qualities. But unknown to many, a healthy lifestyle is the aspect of all the desired wellness. Normally, it is hard to get rid of unproductive habits, and similarly, my lifestyle transformation was gradual. Changing from a careless living to a healthy and balanced lifestyle, this transformation journey involved a lot of moderations and simple replacements. In my understanding, healthy routine constitutes more than a change of diet and loss of weight. It also entails more than spending endless hours in the gym or even observing intensely strict diet. My transition was made easier by balancing the lifestyle. But perhaps I should explain this transformation in a detailed context.

Before I realized the risks that are associated with the tobacco use, cigarette smoking was a part of me. Not only did I smoke, but I smoked so many cigarettes until smoking became more of a ritual. Tobacco use is associated with addiction (an individual finds it hard to behave normally without its consumption), increased chances of getting lung complications( cancer included) and the habit risks the lives of passive smokers( Divine and Lepisto, 2005). Since I had become an addict, getting rid of this habit seemed to be the biggest problem of my life. First, my health instructor guided me to list down the number of undesirable habits that I wanted to stop. Secondly, I was advised to follow a prescribed guideline for change. At first, it wasn’t easy, but I feel motivated to share this experience since I believe that any individual is capable of overcoming whatever giant of undesirable habit. When I look back, I can say without doubts that quitting smoking was one of the most positive lifestyle decisions that I have ever made in my life.

Before my lifestyle transition, I rarely did any fitness exercise. Since I was a full-time student taking both class and online courses, I could not spare time for gym classes. Furthermore, my subjects (chemistry, biology) consumed a lot of my time. Irrespective of the constraining college life, when I learned the importance of keeping fit, I made a plan that could enable me to visit a gym even if it was three days of a week. I obtained a gym membership card and made a point always to be there. Because of the intrinsic motivation and advice from friends, I am now healthy and physically fit. I am still committed to workout programs. The first step is always to come up with that plan and then act to achieve that goal (Hacıhasanoğlu et al., 2011). Additionally, I believe that physical exercise is not all about losing weight; it is one of the essential activities in achieving a healthy lifestyle.

Initially, I preferred to grab a “snack” than preparing a healthy dish. I was familiar with all the fast food joints in the area. It is not bad to consume fast foods, but when done without moderation, as it was in my case, it is hazardous. The main problem and too many people are how to balance the junk and the healthy food (Divine and Lepisto, 2005). My experience taught me that to get an ideal lifestyle; I had to focus on a healthy diet. My plan constituted of consuming healthy and well-portioned servings for at least five days in a week. For the remaining two days of the week, I could grab a snack or even eat a desirable junk food without any worries of weight gain. According to Hacıhasanoğlu et al. (2011), consumption of snacks and junk food by university students is attributed to two factors. First, there is a perception that organic foods are expensive. Secondly, snacks are easy and fast to prepare, and since I was always time conscious, this practice became a habit. A healthy lifestyle entails observing a proper nutrition. A thorough analysis of what to consume is always the first step in the transform. In my situation, I started to calculate the number of calories of what I consumed. I took more fruits and vegetables (not necessary a vegetarian lifestyle), and it was helpful.

My busy college life entailed spending long hours until late in the night. Usually, I would become hungry, and again, I would go for a snack or an energy drink. Initially, it didn’t realize that there were better ways to substitute the type of food I took. For example, it is more appropriate to take green tea at night than beverages such as coffee and tea. Moreover, the caffeine in these two drinks makes the body be over stimulated and hence makes it difficult for an individual to sleep. Sleep is vital to the functionality of a human body (Divine and Lepisto, 2005). My late night activities made me sleep deprived and would occasionally yearn for short naps within the day. This aspect is one of the characteristics of an unhealthy lifestyle. Luckily, I overcome the habit by squeezing my activities to fit in the daytime schedule. Also, I started taking more healthy meals during the few days that I had to stay late in the night.

A healthy lifestyle is not a crucial element in the way an individual’s body functions, but it is also a pillar of a steady relationship with other people. When I interacted with other individuals who were undergoing the same escapade, I felt encouraged, and it helped me into my transition journey. In my gym classes, I made new friends who encouraged me during tough times of gym workouts.

In short, my journey into a proper lifestyle has helped me to explore many areas that were initially unknown to me. I not only developed a better personality, but I also I became physically and mentally healthy.

References

Divine, R. L., & Lepisto, L. (2005). Analysis of the healthy lifestyle consumer. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 275–283.

Hacıhasanoğlu, R., Yıldırım, A., Karakurt, P., & Sağlam, R. (2011). Healthy lifestyle behaviour in university students and influential factors in eastern Turkey. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 17(1), 43-51.

1 Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Air source heat pump An air source

I have attached a paper that ordered the previous week from your company. The instructor graded it and gave Essay Nursing Assignment Help 1

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Air source heat pump

An air source heat pump is a type of heat pump that is used to keep houses or homes warm in the winter and cool in the summer. In its application in homes, the air source heat pump is installed to serve its main purpose of temperature variations alongside other things such as allowing for an efficient use of energy. As compared to the amount of electric energy it consumes, the heat pump often delivers up to 1.5 – 3 times more heat energy. The reason for this is the fact that the pump moves heat rather than converting it from another form, for example, fuel.

The system works by moving heat from one area to another. In home application, this means the system works by moving heat either from the indoors to outdoors, or from outdoors to indoors. Apparently, the heat is moved from an environment having higher temperature to and environment with lower temperatures (Mitsubishi Electric, n.d.). The system can extract heat from the ground or air which is then moved into the home by attaching the pump to an underfloor heating system (radiators). The physics behind the working of this system is the circulation of a refrigerant around compression/expansion cycles. The refrigeration system of the pump comprises of a compressor and two coils made of copper tubing. These are surrounded by fins that aid in heat transfer (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2001). A home that needs to be heated will require an air source heat pump moving heat from outside into the house. The converse also applies where a house that needs to be cooled will require the system to move the heat from the house to outside.

Heat pump

A heat pump is defined as an electrical device applied in homes for heating purposes, and works by means of extracting heat from one place and then transfers that heat to another place where it is needed. The heat pump transfers heat by means of a circulating refrigerant through an evaporation/condensation cycle. One component of this pump is a compressor whose work is to pump the refrigerant between two coils or heat exchangers. One of the coils evaporates the refrigerant at low pressure thereby making it absorb the heat from the surrounding. As it moves to the other coil, the refrigerant is compressed at high pressure thereby making it lose the heat absorbed earlier (Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, 2004).

The heat pump is applied in homes for heating and cooling homes in winter and summer respectively. These pumps are fitted with air conditioning even though this may raise the electricity bills (they require electricity to operate). Without the central air conditioning, however, the bill is significantly reduced. Another application is energy management in the homes. This is because the heat pumps are efficient cooling and heating systems that significantly reduce the energy costs in the homes. For these pumps to be efficient in energy management, however, there are a few requirements that should be met. Among these include well insulated walls, windows, doors and ceiling, and making sure there are no cracks in the walls. Otherwise, there would be no point of installing such a system in a house that would be losing heat through these cracks and poor insulation. Reducing air leakage and upgrading thermal insulation, as such, is quite important.

Cooktop installation

Cooktops are electric installations that allow chef to cook at consistent heat flow and offers about 70 % heat efficiency (Joachim, 2016). The application of cooktop installation is simply for cooking in homes or other places where cooking is needed and where energy efficiency is desired. These installations are typically coils made of flattened spiral of wire that is sheathed in a metal. This heats when an electric current flows through the electric wire. There are, however, variations in the cooktop installations each having distinct features.

Some of the cooktops are simply as described above – that is, an electric wire sheathed in a metal. As for other cooktops (especially the European-style electric burners), the electric wire is embedded in a solid metal disk. The same concept, however applies – that is, the electric current flows through the wire and heats the metal. There are also smoothtop electric cooktops whereby the coils are placed under s sheet of heat-tempered glass-ceramic material (Joachim, 2016).

In their application in cooking, the heat transfer from the cooktop to the pan through conduction. The pan or cookware is placed on the cooktop and the contact allows the cookware to conduct the heat. The spread of the coil allows a larger surface area of the cookware to be in contact with the source of heat. This was, heal loss through convention and radiation are greatly reduced, and this results to the energy efficiency of 70 %. As can be derived from this knowledge, the cooktops are energy savers meaning they are also applied for energy management in the homes or restaurants where cooking is done. The overall result is reduced electric bills.

References

Joachim, D. (2016). The Science of Cooktops. Retrieved from finecooking.com: http://www.finecooking.com/articles/the-science-of-cooktops.aspx

Mitsubishi Electric. (n.d.). Domestic Air Source Heat Pumps. Mitsubishi Electric Information Guide, 1-7. Retrieved from https://heating.mitsubishielectric.co.uk/downloads/Documents/Issue_41_-_Domestic_Air_Source_Heat_Pumps[1].pdf

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2001). Air-Source Heat Pumps. 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28037.pdf

Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency. (2004). Heating and Cooling With a Heat Pump. Gatineau QC: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/oee.nrcan.gc.ca/files/pdf/publications/infosource/pub/home/heating-heat-pump/booklet.pdf

HOLLAND CASINO VS TWENTSEWELLE MUSEUM 2 Running head: HOLLAND CASINO VS TWENTSEWELLE

HOLLAND CASINO VS TWENTSEWELLE MUSEUM 2

Running head: HOLLAND CASINO VS TWENTSEWELLE MUSEUM

HOLLAND CASINO VS TWENTSEWELLE MUSEUM

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The two organizations, Holland Casino and TwentseWelle Museum, have various similarities and differences. Among the similarities is that they both have a hierarchical and bureaucratic structure. In Holland Casino, there is an executive board comprising of the CEO and CFO. All other departments are responsible to this board. In TwentseWelle Museum, there is a CEO who is supported by some staff. All departments are answerable to the top organ in both cases. Departments are headed by personnel under whom further junior work. Another similarity between the two is that the decision making process is participative whereby the top organs engage their subordinates on decision making. Though the leadership styles displayed by the two casinos may differ, they have a commonality on how decisions are made. The juniors take part in discussing the various issues, but the final decision ultimately comes from the CEO (for TwentseWelle Museum) and CEO and CFO, or the executive board (for Holland Casino). Another similarity is that the two both have survival strategies, and each aims at being the best casino in their respective regions. These strategies may, however, differ.

There are several differences between the casinos that might seem to outdo the similarities. In almost every aspect of each organization, there are some differences that can be noted. In the structure, Holland Casino is different from TwentseWelle Museum in the sense that Holland Casino has one person at the top- that is the CEO. On the other hand, Holland Casino has two people at the top- that is, the CEO and the CFO. Holland Casino has an executive board while TwentseWelle Museum has a single person overseeing the operations of the entire organization. Another key difference on the nature of the two casinos whereby Holland Casino is partly owned and ran the government. On the other hand, there is no mention of TwentseWelle Museum being owned partly by the government. In that case, it follows that the former is closely monitored by the government than the latter.

In their hiring practices, the difference emergence from the fact that Holland Casino prefers to hire people who have worked for other casinos, while TwentseWelle Museum hires people who have skills, not necessarily having worked in other casinos. TwentseWelle Museum prefers people who have acquired skills through appropriate training programs. In terms of the strategies, the two differ in the sense that Holland Casino employs the strategy of offering variety to guest customers and prevailing customers in a bid to retain them. In the case of TwentseWelle Museum, it employs a strategy with three components- that is, innovation, education, and recreation.

There are some things that the two casinos can learn from each other. Key among these pertains to the hiring strategies. Since they use different strategies, they need to learn the effectiveness of each other’s and see how they can build on their individual strategies. The two strategies obviously yield different results. The composition of the top-most organ of the organization also has some lessons to offer. Since Holland Casino has two people ate the top while TwentseWelle Museum has only one, Holland Casino can learn from TwentseWelle Museum the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of having one person at the top. Conversely, TwentseWelle Museum can learn from Holland Casino the effectiveness of ineffectiveness of having a board of two people at the top. All in all, the areas of differences offer something for the other to learn.

One recommendation for these two organizations is to emulate some of the strategies used by British Museum, the key among these being the scholarships. They should invest in education because it is through education that they can acquire employees with the necessary skills needed to run the organizations. They should sponsor talented people who will later work for them. Secondly, the two organizations should not confine themselves within a particular leadership style. Instead, they should try to adopt various styles because each style has ups and downs. Like British Museum, they should embrace democracy, involvement and participation at greater levels. This is because the lower level employees may be in a better position to understand processes and systems better because they are the ones who interact with them on a daily basis. Lastly, they should emulate British Museum on issues of human resource development through establishing training and development programs for the current employees. With this strategy, the British Museum has managed to maintain the standards of employment or employee usefulness in the organization.

Running head: HUMAN CLONING 1 HUMAN CLONING 5 Human Cloning Name: Institution:

Running head: HUMAN CLONING 1

HUMAN CLONING 5

Human Cloning

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Human cloning has been a controversial topic that has attracted heated debates with a faction of practitioners believing it is good for human survival while the legal, moral and ethical faction strongly opposing it. Human cloning (or in full human reproduction cloning) entails the replication of genetically identical and sometimes near identical human beings (Gillon, 1999). This practice is seen in the eyes of some people as a mapping of the human genome and thus could present a clearer lens with which the question of the meaning of human beings can be examined. Human cloning could present opportunities and breakthroughs in various fields and disciplines, for example, science, anthropology and medicine. This, however, does not come without risks. The humans are afraid that human cloning could result to a ‘redefinition’ of human being as cloning can present new standards with which the humans are evaluated and measured (Shannon, 1998). This essay looks at the arguments for and against human cloning which are backed by scholarly evidence and expert opinions.

The first argument against human cloning is that it often results in health defects resulting from poor development, including the psychological health. Concerns have been raised about the psychological impacts of cloning on both the DNA donor and the offspring resulting from the clone process. According to Andrews (1999), there is a reason to worry about the mental health of the DNA donors after seeing the clones. Most of the donors, or generally known as the originals, may have the feeling the cloning gives them a second chance at life or an opportunity for them to change their fate. Even if this could be true, they could become too psychologically confused and distressed to see themselves as children and they will not be happy about aging. More so, if these originals would perceive the clone as an opportunity to correct their fate, pressure mounted on the clone is enough to harm both the clone and the original. Mixing the twins and parental roles is also psychologically harmful to both he clone and the parent. A key argument presented by an expert was that “for the clonant to have as his parent the foreknower and creator of every one of his genetic predispositions might well make child adjustment exponentially more difficult” (Andrews, n.d., p. 15). ABC News (2017) has revealed the fears among some French scientists that human cloning could cause some serious long term health implications. The researchers working in the France’s Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique used an example of a cloned cow that seemed healthy at first and then died after seven weeks from anaemia. The worries herein is that the immune system of the clone did not properly develop because there could be some errors in the DNA. This is especially so because the cells used in the cloning process are those of an adult, and these would require a reprogramming or set back to the embryonic state. These issues had earlier on been published in the British Medical Journal where a calf cloned dies after two months. Herein, the explanation was that the cloning process may have interfered with the normal functioning of the genes of the developing calf (Jones, 1999). This argument has been faced with several counter arguments especially by practitioners who believe human cloning is the answer to the human health problems. The World Health Organization does acknowledge that the major challenge in the cloning process is overcoming the immune rejection in the clones. However, this has a solution. The solution suggested by WHO is the use of adult stem cells obtained from the prospective recipient. This is known as autistic therapy that would often come at higher costs. UDHGHR presents the argument that the objectives of the genetic research is to improve the health wellbeing of the individuals and the humankind in general, and argues that the current fears are that human cloning would exacerbate the current gaps in health between the rich and the poor (Shalev, 2013). Best and Kellner (2001) argue that the grounds for fear and loathing are legitimate for the reproductive cloning, but they are strongly convinced that the opposing views tend to be illogical and poorly grounded. The psychological effects argued herein are opposed by these authors saying they are poorly grounded and based on presumption. Best and Kellner (2001) state that people fear that Hitler armies might emerge from the genetic determinism. They oppose this point of view by arguing that it is false and that no one has the ability to clone the singular experiences and social contexts that constitute the individual’s make-up. These arguments could be correct too especially because there has not been experiments done on real human donors and clones to determine the resulting psychological effects. However, there has not been an answer to the argument of the long term health defects of the clones which has resulted to the reported deaths of the cloned cows and mice in the laboratories (Jones, 1999). There has not yet been an answer to the question of how the immunity of the clones can be improved. The argument by WHO that the solution to the immunity challenge can be the use of adult stem cells has not yet been tested and proven, and the doubts still remain. As such, the psychological argument is invalidated and the health wellbeing of the clones is not yet guaranteed, and until this is guaranteed, human cloning remains harmful to the health.

The second argument against human cloning is that it violates the existing social norms and ethics, and also degrades the value of life. Most of the arguments against cloning have adopted a moral and ethical approach whereby cloning has been seen as immoral and unethical for a number of reasons that are founded on the social norms and ethics. One of these arguments is that human cloning is a violation of the moral rights, and this is the basis for most of the immediate condemnations of the human cloning. The example used for this and related arguments is the Wilmut’s cloning of Dolly (Brock, 1998) which led to the claims that this would violate the moral right and/or the human rights. There are two arguments for this moral right – the right to unique identity and the right to ignorance about one’s future (or the open future). Cloning largely denies the individuals the right to a unique identity, and this is majorly so because the process of human reproductive cloning is all about reproducing the current being with similar characteristics and genetic make-up. The clone will, therefore, carry or replicate all the genetic and other biological (and perhaps psychological) characteristics of the DNA donor or the original. The implication herein is that the fate of the clone has already been determined and the identity of the offspring already predetermined. Consider natural birth, for example and the resulting offspring. Herein, it is not necessarily that the children will carry the exact DNA matches of their parents and carry the exact match of the genetic characteristics and the human behaviors. In natural birth, the fate and the identity of the offspring is not predetermined, and people feel safe this way. Where the originals have undesirable human identities, there are fears that the cloning process may create similar identities for the clones who would have preferred different identities altogether. Every person has that right to determine their own identities and this is a right that can be traced to the constitutional rights and freedoms, for example, the freedom of choice. The children are counted as human beings and as people whose choices are to be respected, and this included their choice of identities among other things. This explains why this argument sees cloning as violating both the normal and human right of self-identity and perhaps the right to self-determination. The question that the researchers should consider asking is what the will clones feel later in life after they realize that everything about was predetermined for them, and the proper guess herein is that they will not feel good at all. Regarding the right to ignorance to an open future, the argument is that cloning process replicates the life of a person meaning that the clone already knows who he or she is and what awaits them in the future. The clone is fully aware of its current and future abilities and the knowledge of the self. The clone, it has been argued that the clone knows or believes to know too much about itself, and this is because there is already an existing person or an earlier twin of the clone whose life choices are still in the clone’s future (Brock, 1998). The implication herein is that there is a situation created whereby it appears like the life has already been lived and is being re-lived again. The process of human cloning, apparently, does not give the clones the chances in life that an ordinary child has, and these chances include living own life rather than a life that has been lived before. The cloning process also fails to consider that because it gives the clone same life as the original, there could be challenges coping with the later life because of the changes in the environment. The other argument based on the social norms and ethics is that human cloning goes against the human dignity. In Kantian ethics, the humans are supposed to be treated as an end themselves. Using this approach, it becomes apparent that human cloning is unethical because the process can be seen as an exclusive creation of clones as means of benefiting another. For example, the clones are created for the sole purpose of having a child that is biologically related to oneself, or to replace a dying or deceased loved one, or even to serve as tissue or organ donor (Baylis, 2002). All these things are largely unethical and unacceptable and they go against the human dignity. The opposing arguments herein are that even with the same genes, the clones are not purely identical to the originals – they are numerically distinct. It is also argued that having the same genome properties or characteristics as another person does not necessarily hinder the unique qualitative identity, and that only the crudest determinism of the genes can result to the situation where everything about the clones is determined for them (Brock, 1998). These counter arguments could have some truth in them considering that the genetic research has developed and advanced over time meaning that there are changes that cloning could program the clone to make own choices. However, this is on a theoretical perspective and until everything has been practically determined, the worries and fears about the ethical and moral implications remain. These counter arguments are too not based on any experimental evidence and therefore hardly convincing.

The last argument against the human cloning is that it is an approach that would require the establishment of elaborate and complex technological undertaking which could lead to usage of resources, and that is not good for the economy. Shalev (2013) argues that the accessibility of the health benefits of the human cloning could be selective considering that only the rich could afford health services, and this raises the concerns about equitable access globally. The argument herein is that the costs of undertaking the research are prohibitive even to the public economies. The research herein requires sophisticated infrastructures besides the research and organizational capacity. These sophisticated infrastructures are generally the advanced equipment and technology (bioinformatics technology) required to undertake the research. There is currently a scenario called the public-private partnerships being formed between the public sectors and the private sectors in an attempt to make it possible for the genetic research successful. The sole purpose of these partnerships is the provision of funds and other resources required for the research. In the year 2000, for example, the US government spent over USD 800 million (Shalev, 2013), and this is just an example of how much public spending goes to the genetic research. This spending is detrimental to the economic growth since these funds and resources could be used for other economic purposes. Overpopulation may also increase because people will prefer to have a clone of their own to care of. With the current birth-rates especially in the developing world, this is quite detrimental to the economic growth. The counter argument herein is that human cloning has various benefits to the economy. For example, the infertile people can still have children and the dwindling young population in some economies experiencing aging population can benefit from the labor and markets provided. Cloning allows them to create younger versions of themselves as they get old and this could be a way of sustaining the economies. In terms of health, cloning can be used to create healthier offspring and this is the essence of undertaking all the genetic research. Health is a major economic challenge which can be solved by investing in the genetic research and human cloning. These counter arguments are not entirely wrong because countries like Australia and Japan have started recording aging populations where the elderly people constitute a larger percentage of the overall population. These counter arguments are also wrong in some aspects, for example, solving the health challenges. So far, human cloning has not been successful in producing clones with adequate immunity and there are no health benefits that have been recorded so far. The implication herein is that the research is currently a waste of resources which could have been used for other health investments, for example, curing infertility. These arguments also have an unethical implication wherein the selfishness of the people leads to them using the clones as economic goods. An aging population cannot be cured by cloning, and a better and cheaper alternative would be increasing the birth rates in such countries.

In conclusion, human cloning is not safe for humans because it is not healthy and it poses more threats tan the opportunities it presents. The arguments presented herein reveal that there are health risks involved in human cloning and there is currently no working solution provided to these challenges. In terms of ethics, human cloning defies the Kantian ethics, moral and human rights including the rights to unique identity and an open future. Lastly, the economies are incurring huge expenses in the research and no useful breakthrough has been made so far that addresses all the setbacks. As such, the better option herein is to use a different approach to the human and social challenges that the human cloning purports to solve.

References

ABC News. (2017, April 30). Human Clone Health Warning. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=99196&page=1

Andrews, L. (n.d.). Cloning Human Beings: The Current and Future Legal Status of Cloning. Commissioned Paper. Retrieved from https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc6.pdf

Baylis, F. (2002). Human Cloning: Three Mistakes and an Alternative. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 319-337. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.111.4240&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Best, S., & kellner, D. (2001). The Dangers of Human Cloning. In D. kellner, The Postmodern Adventure. Science Technology, and Cultural Studies at the Third Millennium. New York: Guilford and Routledge. Retrieved from https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/2001_Best-Kellner_TheDangersofHumanCloningBK.pdf

Brock, D. (1998). Cloning Human beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con. 141-164. Retrieved from http://hettingern.people.cofc.edu/Nature_Technology_and_Society_Fall_2010/Brock_Cloning_Human_Beings.pdf

Gillon, R. (1999). Human Reproductive Cloning-a Look at the Arguments against it and a Rejection of Most of Them. Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, 3-12. Retrieved from http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1297029/pdf/jrsocmed00013-0009.pdf

Jones, J. (1999). Cloning may Cause Health Defects. British medical Journal, 1230. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115633/pdf/1230b.pdf

Shalev, C. (2013). Human Cloning and Human Rights: A Commentary. Harvard, 137-151. Retrieved from https://cdn2.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2013/07/8-Shalev.pdf

Shannon, T. (1998). Human Cloning: Religious and Ethical Issues. 773-792. Retrieved from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1429&context=vulr