Hybrid pension plan: it is a pension plan that combines elements of the defined benefit pension plan and defined contribution pension plan. For instance, organizations have defined benefit pension plans for employees and also allows them to contribute to a defined contribution pension plan. The contributory plans are set up as group registered retirement plans where employees can deduct their contributions from taxable income, and contributory plans produce accrue on a tax-deferred basis (Page 427).
The point method or a job evaluation system. ap history essay help: ap history essay help
The point method: is a job evaluation system that establishes job values by applying points to each job based on compensable factors. The method identifies vital work features known as compensable factors that differentiate the value of various jobs, weights of the factors, and determining each factor present in work by assigning points to each work for identified factor (Page 270). The points assigned to work are used to create hierarchy in jobs. The hierarchy of jobs is changed into pay grades and pay ranges basing on the market rates of benchmark jobs.
Performance appraisal Definition. history assignment help and resources
Performance appraisal: it is the process of employers assessing employees’ overall performance level in the organization. Organizations utilize a performance appraisal system to give their employees clear view feedback on work performance and justify their pay increases, bonuses, and termination verdicts. Performance appraisal can be conducted by the organization at any time but is mostly done annually, semi-annually, and quarterly. Performance appraisal system helps companies determine the allocation of funds because they have a limited pool of funds to award pay increases and bonuses. Through performance appraisal, companies can determine the employees who have contributed hugely to the company’s growth and reward them for top-performing accordingly. Also, the system aids employers, managers, and employees to create a good plan to help in employee development and identifying shortcomings that employees can work to solve.
Task behavior Definition. apus history essay help: apus history essay help
Task behavior: it is how employees respond to a task-based environment they are operating or working in. Task behavior describes the way employees perform their duties and if the environment they are working in appears to be responsive to their performance. Those employees who follow task behavior can always attain performance levels defined by the organization’s employer. They are required to be well organized and self-sufficient in order to be able to perform work of any complexity. Task behavior requires good skills in planning and communication.
Long, J. R. (2014). Strategic Compensation in Canada. Nelson Education Ltd.
How ulama derive the shari’a from the roots of law. african history assignment help
How ulama derive the shari’a from the roots of law in Sunni Islam
In explaining how the ulama come up with shari’a from the roots of laws in Sunni Islam prior information like the meanings of certain concepts and terms would provide a basis to the explanation. Law takes an important place in Islam. It adds to the foundation that guarantees that the actions of Muslims are in line with obedience to God. “The Roots of Law” is an umbrella term in Islam that refers to the prime origin of Islamic law and provides the skill for understanding these sources. There are two major sources of Islamic law; these are the Qur’an and Hadith.
The Qur’an occupies the highest position. The Qur’an allows for the recognition of the authority of God and prophets. Believing that God safeguards prophets from inequities and faults, Muslims view that Muhammad’s actions were following God’s obedience. Following the prophet’s example is hence equated to submission to God. The Qur’an states that Muhammad was sent by God with wisdom and a book (Qur’an). The wisdom can be equated to Muhammad’s sunnah; Sunnah refers to the tradition/ habits of the prophet which entails the deeds and sayings of the prophet. Sunni is the world’s Muslim. The term Sunni emanates from the sunnah and points out that Muslims pursue the prophet’s tradition.
The second source of law is the Hadith. The word Hadith refers to ‘a statement’ although the Ismalic Hadith provides recalls of the Prophet’s Sunnah; Muhammad’s deeds and sayings. The hadith are certain occurrences of Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah. Each hadith is held as valuable since Muhammad’s deeds and sayings are regarded as authoritative since God directed the prophet in his deeds and sayings. Hadith is viewed as un-recited disclosure. Hadith held an extensive array of issues. Several hadiths circulated and this resulted in the appearance of regional differences in Islam. If any hadith had inconsistencies with the Qur’an then it would be rendered void and rejected. There was a need to establish a way of differentiating true hadith from false ones. The Muslim resolution was to inspect every hadith’s transmission route. The hadith were classified as per their derivations as either weak, sound, or good. The soundness of hadiths was determined through isnad.
Different Muslim legal scholars established gatherings of dependable hadith. A legal scholar in Arabic is called ulama; also means knowledgeable individuals. The knowledgeable individuals had great familiarity with the law which is crucial to Muslims. The old Muslim reflection offers that there is little knowledge of God but that which matters most is the law and obedience to his laws to claim the reward of everlasting life in bliss. The foundation of Islam is staying a life in line with God’s will. God discloses his will in the two sources of law, hadith, and Qur’an but at certain times clarity may be lacking in their meaning. Also, the Quran and hadith may not handle all parts of life. Such situations call for interpretation to define the will of God. Fiqh refers to clarification of the law in Islam. This would mean that fiqh is the religious skill of interpreting disclosures. The ulama exercises fiqh to obtain from the Qur’an hadith the laws and rule that directs each feature of the day-to-day lives. While carrying out such actions the legal scholars did not view themselves as creating laws but rather as defining and distinguishing the laws that were existent in the hadith and the holy book, the Qur’an. Islam provides an essential division between laws and their interpretation. The law exquisitely brought about; fiqh, the law interpretation which is a human action.
While exercising fiqh the Ulama utilized two main procedures. The initial procedure is the ijma which refers to the agreement of legal intellectuals on a specific understanding of a hadith or Qur’an. The agreement is regarded as influential on the basis based on a Qur’an statement that states that God’s people never settle on faults. Therefore, God directs the ulama in choice making. The second procedure utilized while exercising fiqh is qiyas which refers to analogy. Qiyas gives several outcomes. The outcome that provides the greatest interest for the Muslim community is then selected from a pool of several alternatives. Qiyas give room for varying opinions among ulama. Exercising fiqh is based on the standard that each thing needed of a Muslim is existent in the hadith and Qur’an and only needs to be drawn out. Disloyalty to the law comes about with the thriving of innovation. Muslims view innovation as the reverse of tradition or Sunna.
In conclusion, the roots of the law refer to the foundations of the law, hadiths, and the Qur’an. Qiyas and Ijima are the procedures of interpretation utilized by ulamas while exercising fiqh. Therefore, the exercise of fiqh establishes from the sources of law, the rules that direct the people’s day-to-day life. Shari’a refers to an aggregate of the laws set by the hadith and Qur’an. Shari’a refers to a straight course; A straight course that goes to bliss. The Qur’an repetitively encourages its readers to trail a straight course.