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Improvement Plan for the Sheriff’s Department history assignment help in uk: history assignment help in uk

Communication Improvement Plan for the Sheriff’s Department

The Communication Improvement Plan (CIP) is an initiative that seeks to establish, formalize, and institutionalize proper communication protocols in the Sheriff’s Department. The rationale for developing the CIP stemmed from the specific needs of the department, specifically: (i) to establish protocols that reflect proper communication flow in dealing with specific concerns or issues relevant to the work of members of the Sheriff’s Department; (ii) to promote the establishment of “institutional memory” through consistent documentation of every activity and relevant issues and concerns that members of the Sheriff’s Department deal with in the course of their work; and (iii) to serve as a guide to developing resolutions in issues, conflicts, or concerns that might arise among members of the department.

Creating proper communication protocols does not mean that informal communication will not happen within the department. Informal communication is inevitable, as each member of the department work with the same group of people and constantly engages with these people in both formal and informal ways. What the CIP seeks to accomplish is to create strong leadership through diligent observation of the rules that govern communicating department-related work, issues, and concerns. In the end, the Sheriff’s Department would like its members to remain true to its Mission and values of cooperation, compassion, and communication.

To illustrate the purpose of the CIP, take as examples two scenarios that commonly occur within the department: ineffective communication between supervisors and staff. Ineffective communication could be a result of different factors that affect the perception of two or more communicators discussing an issue or concern at hand. The first scenario illustrates a supervisor and staff who, prior to work conflict, did not get along well with each other. In one instance, the supervisor assigned the staff to complete a task for the team; the staff, for some reason, failed to complete the task. Their history of conflict intensified when the supervisor sought the staff for an explanation on why the task was not completed. The staff did not feel compelled to explain to his supervisor, and what ensued after was a heated discussion between the two that, to the observer, would seem bordering on being unprofessional already.

In this particular scenario, a personal attack against each other could have been avoided if proper communication channels were observed. The supervisor could have formally written (in e-mail or an official document used in the organization) the directive and task directions to the staff concerned. This would have been the supervisor’s basis for fulfillment of the task, and the staff would be held accountable if said task was not completed. In this scenario, the supervisor could have reprimanded the staff objectively based on facts and documentation. Unfortunately, the personal conflict between the two worsened and professional work inevitably affected because of a breakdown in personal communication and absence of a formal communication platform.

Another scenario that supports the argument for the establishment of a CIP is when a mistake at work has been committed, and there is a need to determine at what point the mistake had been committed and if relevant, by whom. As with the first scenario, if an activity or task was communicated informally, determining the point where the mistake was committed and who committed it would not be possible at all. And there would also be a high likelihood that members will not be honest enough to admit who committed the mistake. Documentation of instructions and work progress would have resolved this problem in the department; unfortunately, because systems for formal communication were not in place, staff had no accountability on the work that they do and supervisors in effect, fail to lead effectively because of the absence of staff accountability.

The scenarios discussed above bring out the different dimensions critical to creating an effective communication in the workplace. In the first scenario, both formal and informal communication needs to be addressed because of the conflict between staff and supervisor prior to the issue of non-completion of assigned work to the staff. While the department is formally organized, it is also important to address informal communication to improve daily interaction among members while doing their work. A portion of the CIP should include guidelines on improving informal communication at work. In informal communication, there are numerous factors that come into play that affect communicators’ perception and judgment. Aside from verbal cues such as tone of voice and content of the message, non-verbal cues are also present, such as body gestures and facial expression.

To manage informal communication, according to Adams (2010) in his article on communication at work, one needs to be “as direct, to the point and concise as possible.” This is preferred to avoid other “noise” or “clutter” (such as various verbal and non-verbal cues) that could skew the message being communicated, and affect the communication between two or more persons. Furthermore, Ergen (2010) emphasizes the importance of both formal and informal communication in the organization, as the latter is “crucial for coordination to exist” (6). Thus, one strategy that will be developed for the CIP is the development of protocols that addresses both informal and formal communication, demonstrating how both could lead to an effective communication platform within the department.

In the second scenario, another effective strategy to improve communication, specifically formal communication, within the department is to anchor this aspect of members’ work with the overall leadership effectiveness of the department. From the second scenario, it became apparent that ineffective communication was just one of the manifestations or indicators that the department lacks effective leadership, reflected in the lack of accountability of its members on the work that they do. Giving value to formal communication as a critical component to effective leadership would not only improve work accountability, but ultimately, it will reflect strong leadership not only among managers and supervisors, but also among staff members as well.

In addition, to sustain the communication platform and CIP that will be established and institutionalized in the department, management/leadership must also be open to conducting regular communication trainings and workshops that will aim to continuously educate and train the members of the department to effective communication relevant to their work. Addressing this need will translate not only to effective communication within the organization, but also to effective communication to the clients of the department: the communities that they serve and protect (Ahmed et al., 2010:116).


Adams, S. (2010). “How to communicate better at work.” Forbes Official Website. Accessed on April 18, 2014. Accessed at:

Ahmed, Z., F. Shields, R. White, and J. Wilbert. (2010). “Managerial communication: the link between frontline leadership and organizational performance.” Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, Vol. 14, No. 1.

Ergen, E. (2010). “Workplace communication: a case study on informal communication network within an organization.” Evangelos Ergen Official Website. Accessed on April 18, 2014. Accessed at:

Training and Development in Small Businesses african history assignment help

Training and Development in Small Businesses

Effective training and development strategy

Training and development in business are paramount and particularly very essential in small businesses. Employees who have experience and competence contribute to both productivity and profitability of the business. For a medium-sized business to remain competitive, it requires ensuring the workforces gets maximum training and updating on ever changing skills and knowledge in the current global economy. According to Atwood (2008), training and development may prove expensive, but still it is worthwhile in reference to the achievement of long-term benefits of the business.

Dynamic Printers is a printing business that deals with printing services and sale of printing papers. It has 15 employees many of whom have been working in the business for the last five years. Such a business requires its staff to undergo continuous training to update on technology that is advancing every day. Apart from technological knowhow requirements, the staff requires continuous training on ways to market the business and to improve performance.

Any training and development program should be cost effective and the impact should reflect on business performance thereafter. There are various key elements to consider in the development of an effective and successful training program in Dynamic Printers. In developing the program, it should check on the programs alignment with goals, awareness of current learning culture and the need analysis of the business. Other strategies to consider are the content strategy, the evaluation and success criteria, marketing and communication strategy and the measurement of firm impact strategy (Matlay, 2004).

The alignment of business goals forms the most fundamental element in any training strategy. Every internal structure in the business should require a structure aligned to support the attainment of set goals. A suitable suite should not skip this step, as it is a natural way to think of a business and its bottom line. The main point to understand and to know is that when employees do perform at higher levels, the entire business benefits (Atwood, 2008). Having a setup that clearly focuses on the employees way of thinking, makes it easy to equip employees with the best techniques aimed at achieving the goals of the business. Thus, a training and development effort should align with and offer support to the business goals.

In every business, the current training culture is very crucial. Various questions form the basis of determining the best training program. One |need to ask whether the training embeds on workflows of the business, and if not that is a weakness. Other questions to ask are if the employees have the commitment and whether the business is receptive to improvement and performance change (Korda, 2012). The issue of readiness for technology-based training solution to a business also forms another query to consider. A complete knowledge of the business current culture is essential. The knowledge is important, as any training solution must be appropriate to the current culture thus, a throughway in achievement of desired performance and behavior changes resulting from training program.

The need analysis helps create a focus on the challenges that a training program may face. Not every business faces these challenges, but as a small business, there was arises a need to tackle the challenges for effective training. It is necessary to ensure that the program focuses on efforts and limited resources where signs to yield business benefits exists (Atwood, 2008).

The next stage involves the content strategy. On understanding the challenges that require addressing, a business should concentrate on checking the content that can help the employees (Matlay, 2004). An essential element of the content strategy should come through understanding of desired learning culture.

There is a need to weigh whether the training program will be successful. The criteria to use in measuring the impact of the training must exist before the start the training. The situation creates the question of how success will be like and how to note it exists. On answering the questions, then the business can identify with ease the data that it requires to gather.

Another critical element to any successful training program is the generation of marketing and communication strategy (Atwood, 2008). The employees require to be informed of the training, should be motivated to participate and a clear highlight offered on how the program will be of help to them. Many businesses stop marketing the value of trainings soon after starting, but a suitable plan should share and highlight success stories so as employees to see the training as part of the daily flow of their work.

Understanding and measuring the actual business effect of training, seals the elements key in training programs. It may not be smooth to do so, but this bears the crucial part of the strategic mission. The point of discussion should be about the benefits of the business and the connection between the training and how the business gains. The challenge comes when the objectives of the training program aligns tightly with a sully supporting of the business goals from the beginning.

Challenges in addressing organizational performance

To be a high performing business, the teams involved must dedicate themselves to working toward an agreed goal. In a case of experiencing personal disconnect with other members, the team may end being non-functional. The triggering issues in most cases stem from organizational communication breakdown that creates confusion on personal and team common goals. Managers need the offer frequent feedbacks and foster cohesiveness in the business.

Individuals have differing expectations. Employees may have differing ideas of what constitutes appropriate conduct or productivity (Korda, 2012). The affiliation on culture, gender, religion and other factors such as generation factor contribute to the differences in the organization. Problems may pop in if the management is not clear on the own expectations, or it is unaware of the existing conflicts within the employees.

The lack of proper documentation and prior performance management may provide one of the greatest challenges. If no proper documentation exists, any new supervisor may inherit performance problems from previous regime (Atwood, 2008). In the case of such a scenario, the best strategy entails getting back to the drawing board and starting with good documentation and a comprehensive performance management.

Disability accommodation may also signal a challenge. It is the legal obligations of the business managers to discuss the applicable accommodations if the employee notifies them the problem in performance may be because of a disability. A discussion should exist to check whether there are adjustments or accommodations that can allow the employee to perform successfully the crucial functions of the job.

Another challenge may arise in an organization performance, in case of failure to tackle senior leaders’ performance problems. Senior managers’ relation with the organization depicts a very strong message to the employees. Thus, ignoring poor performance of any senior managers may imply to employees that performances are not very critical. It is essential that senior managers in an organization to model a reliable performance management.

Effects of detecting organizational gaps in small business

Gap analysis helps to reveal what keeps the business away from reaching its full potential. The gap analysis should focus on the business as a whole and in all business engagement areas. It helps determine areas that underperforms and finds out whether the problems results from internal inefficiencies or external challenges. The outcome allows development of strategies to eliminate the gap and to maximize the profits (Matlay, 2004).

There are three major pitfalls associated with a gap analysis. Staying on the course is a major challenge with organizations as in the usual state they tend to be in comfort zone. Organizations tend to rely on old systems and fail to invest time and money on training and equipping themselves with current trends and systems. Businesses need to dedicate time and resources to examine the general outlook in order to remain competitive.

The other challenge entails treatment of symptoms in the business rather than the cause. Before implementing any improvements, it is necessary to identify the underlying reasons of the shortcomings. The business should have a system interoperability that will build customized pieces of address on the systems such as the inability to communicate between two systems.

Failure to check on the future provides the other pitfall. A business needs to what will drive its processes to the future (Korda, 2012). For those using antiquated technology, the challenge lies on how to enable current systems to communicate with each other and the modern systems available. It is necessary for a business to create room for available technologies and skills to support future add-ons.

A suitable and well-conceived plan can help in the process to smooth the transition in the business. The plan should help bridge the gaps in various zones of the business. Identifying the gaps is the first step towards bridging the gaps. It involves having a clear picture of the current system, knowing what needs implementation, and the use of technology (Bartram, & Gibson, 2000). Recognizing, articulating problems of the current system and visualization of efficient channel to accomplish the goals of the business, plays a major role. It is necessary to budget for change and implementation the change to ensure future systems communicate with proposed systems.

To bridge the gap, the business must seek a way to discuss ways to proceed. Different people should get an assignment on areas with proposed changes and get encouragement to participate in the process of change (Butler et al., 2007). They should check on the problems and the pros and cons of various suggestions and views.

The final stage to bridge the gap entails determination and communication of solutions. It should involve the creation of a project plan that focuses on the way the business will move forward. Since the change requires a financial investment, it is critical to developing a timeline and a budget. In the process, the business needs to keep users on board, implement change, communicate, and welcome feedback (Bartram & Gibson, 2000). A business can attain a smooth transition if it is inclusive and encourages team involvement.

Competitive training strategy






Opening and introductions from stakeholders


Trainer notes for the opening purposes

Creating a warm and friendly training climate. Stimulation of interests and development of a curious state, to enable trainees to begin thinking of business improvement and performance.

Objectives and methods


Slides or overheads

Clarification of objectives: presentation of statements and questions to trainees which clarify the purpose of the training, provide an opportunity for the trainees to suggest additional objectives

Method clarification: discussion on the role of trainers and trainees in the training workshop.

What is business performance


Questions and role play descriptions

Issues clarification: what entails business performance, factors that contribute and challenges experienced in adjusting to changes in the business.

Overview of business performance


Framework presentation notes and slides

Problem identification: overview of the problems in the business

Introduction to methods and skills, clarification of key concepts in business performance.

Making the training relevant: exploration of reasons why the training is important and useful to trainees and the business.

Tea break


Teachings on the importance of communication in business.


Slides with a projector.

Showing how communication affects businesses

Influences of communication and attached benefits teachings.

Testing and emerging issues in communication within the business.

Training on technological changes


Framework and profile with examples


Creating awareness on improvements in technology.

Equipping trainees with necessary knowledge on how to use current technology.

Overview on competition in the market


Examples from case studies and notes on business strategies

Clarification on business requirements

Updating trainees on current trends in marketing.

Demonstration of the importance of shared efforts in marketing.

Strategies on marketing.


Training of employees entails improving the skills they possess or teaching them new skills. It is obvious that a well-trained workforce provide a wide range of benefits for a business In order to achieve an effective training program for the working team, the business requires adequate resources to yield maximum results (Butler et al., 2007). The business needs to be vibrant and provide the necessary support to employees. It should be through offering comprehensive training programs for the betterment of the firm.

Having the employees trained, bridges the gaps that would hinder the competitiveness of the business in the market. These gaps would occur because of poor communication within a business or within the external environment. Offering employees with training on effective communication equips them with the skills necessary to follow when addressing communication issues (Bartram & Gibson, 2000). Managers also get the skills on the right channels of communication to avoid the dangers attached.

Equipping the stakeholders of the business with the skills in technological changes ensures that the business is at par with the trends in the modern world. Technology increases productivity, thus, if a business fails to accommodate the changes, dangers are that it may not compete effectively with others. A good training should be based on ensuring all trainees achieve necessary skills practically (Atwood, 2008). Competition forms the platform for success in businesses. Unless employees get necessary marketing skills, the business may be bound to fail.

Return on Investment (ROI)

The process of calculating the ROI involves making estimates and obtaining of measurements of costs and benefits that accrues from the training program. There is a need to forecast on the costs. The costs include promotional costs, administration costs, trainer’s cost, material cost, facilities, and design and development costs. There is also a need to consider trainees cost and evaluation costs.

Students’ reactions may not provide a tool to measure financial benefits of a training activity. Though a real benefit of improved performance may be of significance, it may be the hardest training result to forecast (Butler et al., 2007). The training may provide various benefits. They include labor savings, increase in productivity that may be because of higher-level skills resulting to faster work. Cost savings such as reduction of bad debts and fewer machine breakdowns, reducing maintenance cost signifies training benefits.

Calculation of the above total benefits and total costs of the training offers a platform to deduce the ROI. The benefits may accrue after a lengthy period, but this should not affect the ROI outcome. To calculate the ROI, a person needs to divide the benefits of the training with the costs involved then to divide with 100.

%ROI= (benefits of the training/costs involved) x 100

Use of payback period may also be important to measure the ROI. It entails calculation of the months taken before the benefits of the training reflect the costs and training pay itself.

Payback period= costs / monthly benefits.

With the return on investment results, it is clear that training programs are themselves capital investment and not just expenses without returns.


Atwood, C.G. (2008). Manager skills training. Alexandria, Va.: ASTD Press.

Bartram, S., & Gibson, B. (2000). Training needs analysis toolkit a resource for identifying training needs, selecting training strategies, and developing training plans (2nd ed.). Amherst, Mass: HRD Press.

Butler, A., Reed, M., & Grice, P.L. (2007). Vocational training: trust, talk and knowledge transfer in small businesses. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(2), 280-293.

Korda, P. (2012). Strategy and training: making skills a competitive advantage. New York: Business Expert

Matlay, H. (2004). Training and human resource issues in small e-businesses: towards a research agenda. Education + Training, 46(8/9), 520-526.

The Definition of Medical Records System history assignment example: history assignment example

Medical Records System

Definition of Medical Record

History of Medical Records Past and Present

Related Utilization of Medical Record

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Medical Record

Electronic Medical Records, or EMR, has really turned into some kind of hot topic in recent years as the use of the Internet has started to expand into more areas of our life that really need to lessen health-care prices has gone up. It is what contains vital things like the notes that the doctor has written, results from lab tests, medicines, telephone messages and other vital and personal information regarding the patient’s medical history. Sometimes in the past, these records had been kept in a paper folder which was then put away at your doctor’s office. The management is working to finish the movement to EMR addition for the reason that it considers there are numerous benefits of electronic medical records utilization, and of course that does include things like streamlining patient care and giving out the long-term savings in the health field. As a lot of hospitals, medical practices and other healthcare organizations started to move to digital document management type of systems, this advanced form of, storing, tracking and sharing patient information is repeatedly under inspection to measure whether or not it’s a judicious procedure to accept.

There are many functions associated with patient health records. Not only is the record

Used to document patient care, but the record is also used for financial and legal

Information and research and quality improvement purposes. For the reason that all this

Data will have to be shared among many professionals who constitute what goes on sections within the healthcare setting, and there continue to be problems with the paper health record, it is becoming more apparent that developing an automated health record is very important.

The electronic health record (EHR) provides the opportunity for healthcare organizations to improve quality of care and patient safety. “The greatest challenge in the new world of Integrated healthcare delivery is to provide comprehensive, reliable, relevant, accessible, and timely patient information to each member of the healthcare team, whether in primary or secondary care and whether a doctor, nurse, allied health professional, or Patient/consumer” (Pourasghar, 2008).

An EHR also represents a huge potential for cost savings and decreasing workplace inefficiencies. It is clear that paper-based record systems are now sort of going out of date and something much more advanced and easier such as the medical records systems. However, just as there are advantages and disadvantages with the paper medical record, there are also advantages and disadvantages associated with the EHR. In addition, since an EHR is a fairly new concept, there will also be barriers and obstacles in the implementation of the EHR.

“There have been phenomenal scientific and technological breakthroughs, yet patient documentation remains largely the same” (Kaliyadan, 2009). Even though the technology is available for an EHR there are several barriers and obstacles that must be overcome before it can be successful. “Technology has continued to move forward at a rapid pace, but many organizational and human issues have slowed the pace of implementation of automated systems for an electronic documentation record” (Kochevar & Mayne, 2011). The EHR has several distinct advantages over paper health records. One definite advantage is the fact that there qre increasing storage capabilities for longer periods of time. Also, the EHR is “accessible from remote sites to many people at the same time (Pourasghar, 2008) and retrieval of the information is almost immediate. The record is continuously updated and is available concurrently for use everywhere. Information is immediately accessible at any unit workstation whenever it is needed.

Currently the paper record represents “massive fragmentation of clinical health information.” (Holden, 2011) This not only causes the cost of information management to increase but also “fragmentation leads to even greater costs due to its adverse effects on current and future patient care” (Schloeffel et al. 1)

Definition of Medical Records

Electronic medical records are considered to be records that are about patient care that are normally kept on a computer instead of paper, the old-style way for patient histories. These accounts normally comprise of extensive evidence in regards to a patient’s general health, past and current diseases and medical situations, diagnostic test outcomes and treatments and medications that have been arranged (Kaliyadan, 2009). Often, electronic medical records have been also including an application for recommending and ordering medicine.

A new wave is on the horizon and is on its way to transforming a key feature of medical care that is in the United States. Lastly, after years of confrontation, doctors understand that they can attain important cost savings and considerable improvements in their competence by using software and computers right in their offices for upholding patient records. The traditional days are about to disappear in which physicians handwrite their patient charts and helpers then to be able to classify and put them into thousands of binders, and there would be one for each patient, which would be put up in filing cabinets. There are a lot of physicians who have become open to the digitalization of the whole medical record procedure.

This makes thorough sense for the reason that paper records are the bane of the medical office. Papers that are handwritten medical records are unwieldy, problematic to read, informal to lose, even informal to misfile, and frequently end up being really partial. And each time a patient does come in for a visit, there is a lot of the time that is wasted in discovering the files and when the visit is over re-filing them again.

History of Medical Past to Present

Electronic Health Records (EHR) recurrent news captions with President Barack Obama’s plan of the Reinvestment Act (ARRA and American Recovery. In this agenda, the government reserved more than $1 billion for the placement of electronic health evidence (Kochevar & Mayne, 2011). As said by the American Medical Association, the United States senate approved ARRA so that it would really inspire hospitals and physicians to accept and use demonstrable electronic health records, records that are computerized and are created and upheld electronically.

There has been a long history of health information management (HIM) that had been going on in the United States. The health information manufacturing has been around formally ever since 1928 when the American College of Surgeons (ACOS) were looking to discover way to make the standards of records that were shaped in the clinical location — that is — throughout the analysis and conduct of healthcare patients (Holden, 2011). ACOS required to makes sure that they were able to achieve their refining clinical records by founding the American Association of Record Librarians, an expert association that is still in being at this moment under the designation American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) (Pourasghar, 2008)

The 1920s and Health Records

In the 1920s, persons had come to an understanding that recording the delivery of healthcare turned out to be a great worth to health care suppliers and to most of the patients themselves. This unparalleled activity eventually turned out to be something that was wildly famous and utilized all over the country after health care providers understood that records recognized the details, problems, and results of patient care were valuable and even perilous to the care and excellence of the experience of the patient. Doctors documented that they were better able to treat patients with ample and precise patient history. Medical records during that time were recognized on paper which clarifies the identification of the first expert group as “record librarians” or keepers of books for the reason that all patient treatment was chronicled on paper (Kaliyadan, 2009).

Medical Records in the Information Age

Paper medical records most of the time had to be reserved and preserved in unwavering style from the 1920s onward; nonetheless as the growth and placement of the computers came on the scene during the 1960 and 1970s, groundbreaking American universities started discovering the wedding of medical records and computers (Kochevar & Mayne, 2011). These universities habitually joined with great healthcare services where the patient statistics was shaped and the appeared software was merely valuable at that sole health care capacity. This clearly limited the product’s practicality and feasibility out on the market.

Other interferences of these efforts involved computer presentation limitations, excessive valuing, and the development of the computer/medical record association. On the other hand, attention in computers sustained to upsurge and the request in healthcare prompted to readdress to separate departments inside healthcare for instance patient registering and also to separate purposes inside the medical record business. Remarkably — in the 1980s — healthcare computer growth sustained with an emphasis concerned with a sole request or use in a health care location (Kaliyadan, 2009).

The 1980s and Healthcare Software Development

In this period, healthcare software expansion accomplishments were organized in dissimilar hospital subdivisions including the distinguished achievement of computerized admission registration and computerized master patient catalogs. In healthcare history, for the first time, patients started undergoing and profiting from the computerized registration. The master patient index (MPI) value was mainly liked by the personnel in the medical record section.

The Golden 90s

Equipped with MPI and record-keeping growth, software designers sustained to generate and progress with a new emphasis on individual hospital sections. Auxiliary department purposes, for example radiology and laboratory showed to be fairly adaptive to software that is fresh and innovative, and computer healthcare applications start to show on the market. Patient test outcomes that instigated in the laboratory and radiology department now too were obtainable via computers nonetheless again with limit as the outcomes were separate and were not linked to one another, or to any other software for instance that being done with the patient registration. A lot of these applications had basically been marked as “source” governments, and they were not courteous to assembly athwart the healthcare aptitude. This is the state that mechanization in healthcare found itself all the way up to the 1990s — computer desires were being utilized inside healthcare walls however none of them could really have any type of joining with the other, not one person could be observed at by neighboring sections, and most were expending their own computer hardware that was restricted to the whatever the department of source had been.. This is similar to each section that had been in the United States having its own recognized set of roads that did not move over and then ascribe to a different state.

In the meantime, computerization that had been outside of healthcare was becoming very prosperous and really booming. This was happening with a lot of different and countless successes in the entertainment and communication industries in addition to others, and computerization that happens to be inside the healthcare, suddenly had come to a barricade. Healthcare was deprived of a true forthcoming, cross departmental electronic record and was stressed with the test. By the time it had reached the year of 2000, there had been this sudden re-stress for an electronic record which had arisen for the reason that medical errors and increasing amounts of patient deaths and injuries that were produced by providers that were in the healthcare arena (Kaliyadan, 2009). As talked about in regards to the government’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid website, this new innovation of the electronic health records would permit “Suppliers to be able to create much better choices and deliver better care ” and “Decrease occurrence of medical error by refining the correctness and clearness of medical records” (Holden, 2011).

Millennial Medical Records

There has been much further emphasis that is being placed on the need for EHR progression by President George W. Bush when he made the declaration in his January 2004 State of the Union address “By computerizing health records, we should be able to avoid unsafe medical errors, decrease costs and then at the same time make sure that there is being a much bigger and better improvement in the healthcare setting and care,” ( The curiosity that can actually be found in fruitful electronic record disposition has actually developed ever since that time and today rests with the ARRA. A progression of the ARRA has stemmed in the new opening of Regional Extension Centers. These various Regional Extension Centers are the ones that are offering the support that is needed to healthcare providers as they are adopting electronic health records and then moving in the direction of the American objective of having all healthcare action recognized via electronic record practices.

The main and established objective of the first medical record librarians is even at the moment still the very basis of HIM today — to increase improves and increases the clinical certification morals. The technique of recording healthcare records has really started to go in a different direction over the years. A lot has actually changes especially since more and more healthcare settings are starting to come on board. Many recognize that this is a changed over the years from 100% hard-copied forms to the present hybrid of both paper and electronic records. The eventual HIM objective of fully-useful electronic records with health material interchange in all treatment grounds which also comprises the skilled, severe, home, and physician care; over and above ambulatory and emergency medication has yet to be understood.

Many are starting see this dynamic in the healthcare information technology (it) industry, which appears to be powerless of presenting the latest inventions (say, the capability to do something like perform a Google-like query of patient data) and interoperability that other businesses like. In the New England Journal of Medicine, Ken Mandl, of the Informatics Program at Boston Children’s Hospital, lately analyzed “legacy” electronic health record sellers — the businesses that have been leading for decades — for broadcasting the impression that the healthcare business is “different” as a motive for being way behind other businesses in presenting technological progressions (Kochevar & Mayne, 2011).

Related Utilization of Medical Record

Advances in electronic medical record (EMR) technology really have made it likely for the EMR to replace a lot of different purposes of the traditional paper chart, and also the custom of EMR systems potentials important advances that are in patient care (Kochevar & Mayne, 2011) Despite the fact the promise is convincing, it is also significant to reflect surprising effects that could possibly be related with EMR use. Such as, any extra point of emphasis for the physician or patient — even a paper chart — can be off-putting (Kaliyadan, 2009). It is likewise conceivable that patients discover medical encounters that are actually involving a computer that is actually less personal or fear that their privacy could more easily be proposed when the record is put in a computer folder (Pourasghar, 2008).

Likewise, physicians could worry in regards to the need to be present to the computer instead of the patient or could discover the test of familiarizing to the new technology daunting (Pourasghar, 2008). In spite of these anxieties, empirical studies which have been the focus typically on perceptions of the medical meeting have showed little or no contrasting importance on either physician or patient satisfaction (Majeed & Weiner, 2001). In actual fact, some patients document that having their doctors use an EMR improved fulfillment with the clinical meeting (Kaliyadan, 2009). Evidence that comes from various published trials made the suggestion that utilization of either comprehensive or hybrid EMRs can mend some replacement outpatient care results. On the other hand, rigorous trials that assess their influence on mortality and morbidity and service current technologies are necessary before extensive adoption of EMRs can be confidently commended.


In presenting the previous information, it is clear that the background of medical records system is an arrangement that has evolved over time. The history has shown that the management is working to carry on the movement to EMR despite some of the disadvantages. However, it is clear that the advantages according to the history most certainly out weigh the disadvantages. The definition of medical records system clearly expresses that this new innovation is wave on the horizon and is on its way to changing an important feature of medical care that is spreading all over the United States. As far as having the related utilization of medical record, it is likewise believable in the near future that patients discover medical encounters that are really connecting a computer that is actually less personal or fear that their privacy could more easily be proposed when the record is put in a computer folder.


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Organizing Medical Records 2 pages Essay history assignment help writing services

Organizing Medical Records:

One of the most important factors for proper billing and coding starts with the development of a well-documented and organized medical record. This is largely because patients and health care providers are normally faced with the need of keeping and providing medical records. These individuals are usually responsible for providing copies of their medical records to health care specialists and consultants. In most cases, medical records are typically organized in various ways including:

Source-oriented Records:

This is a traditional patient record model that maintains reports depending on the source of documentation with each source of data containing a labeled section known as sectionalized record. In this format, all documents created by the nursing staff are located in record’s nursing section, medical section for physician-generated documents, and radiology section for radiology reports (Green & Bowie, 2010, p. 89).

Problem-oriented Records:

This is a more systematic method of documentation that contains four components i.e. database, problem list, initial plan, and progress notes. The database contains of the least set of data to be gathered on each patient as the problem list contains a list of the patient’s problems. While the initial plan outlines the actions to be taken on the patient’s condition, the progress note summarizes the patient’s treatment, reaction to care, and discharge condition.

Integrated Records:

This patient record format basically involves the strict arrangement of reports in chronological date order. This model facilitates the observation of the patient’s progress based on test results and how he/she responds to treatment according to the test results.

Unit Medical Record System:

A unit medical record system is a model that allows for a more comprehensive documentation of medical records since it contains information regarding patient’s care such as previous and current medical history and the undergone procedures. In this system, a patient’s records are stored in a single file which resides in a central repository and travels with the patient. The unit medical record system is organized either in the traditional way or in the clinical record or patient’s chart method.

Some of the major advantages of a unit medical record system include easy retrieval of previous medical information since a patient’s entire medical records are stored in a single file (Rajakumar, n.d.). The other advantage of this system is it provides an effective way of organizing a patient’s medical records since all the information is stored in a single and central place. Thirdly, a unit medical record system facilitates future healthcare delivery to a patient through the analysis of previous hospitalization details that are recorded in the file.

Some of the disadvantages of the unit medical record system include difficulties in determining whether the emphasis is on single or multiple patient indexes (Weber, n.d.). Secondly, it’s very easy for medical records to be documented and stored in a cumbersome manner through this system. Since all information about a patient’s medical details including previous hospitalizations are stored in a central place, this system is an effective way of organizing medical information.

In conclusion, organizing medical information is an important aspect for both patients and caregivers because of its impact on healthcare delivery. This process can be done through various ways including the source-oriented, problem-oriented, and integrated records. Notably, a unit medical record system provides an effective way of organizing medical information.


Green, M.A. & Bowie, M.J. (2010). Essentials of health information management: principles and practices (2nd ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.

Rajakumar, M. (n.d.). Numbering and Filing System. Retrieved November 19, 2011,


Weber, G.I. (n.d.). Achieving a Patient Unit Record Within Electronic Record Systems. Retrieved from University of Missouri — Kansas City website: