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THE EUROPE’S ECONOMIC HISTORY. world history essay help: world history essay help



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Europe’s economic history focuses on the interplay between the development of the institutions or generations and the diffusion of knowledge-based technologies. This research focuses on challenging the thoughts that European economic history before the industrial revolution was only constrained by the population’s growth using the available resources. The economic history focuses on how humanity used the available resources to create wealth, shelter, food and bread, and roses. Nature provides the resources needed by man to transform these resources to become goods and services. Research proves that over thousands of years in Europe, man developed agriculture after learning how to use animal dug, carry out crop rotation, and other farming methods so that he could meet his human needs. Economic history tries to trace the efficiency of the institutions’ characteristics by conducting a study of the development of commodities, labor markets, the legal framework of the contract reinforcement, financial intermediaries, and the openness of the trade and international capital flow.

The economic historians are much concerned with the climate change that affects production and the focus on the dramatic changes by focusing on how the institutions, human capital, and technologies develop over a certain period to facilitate how to access and efficiently use the resources that permit the wealth to grow. Analyzing a d conducting a study on economic history is essential since it makes it easy to show how the producer’s resources increase the income and output (Broadberry & O’Rourke, 2016). This research paper tries to analyze and explain the European Economic’s economic changes over a different period in European history.

The European economy has gone through turbulent changes over the last four generations. The First World War brought about the end of the long period of economic integration and growth. During the war period, Europe’s economic growth quickly disrupted Europe from realizing its economic potentials. After World War II, the European economy began another period of rapid expansion in the economy, which eventually slowed down in the 1970s, but fortunately, it continued to grow to date (Broadberry & O’Rourke, 2016). The economic expansion was characterized by the process of integration across all the states of Europe. It was evident through the formation of the Economic Community in Europe and, afterward, the Eurozone.

The geographers explain that the European climatic condition greatly influenced the lives of the people of Europe. Over the centuries, the territorial divisions in Europe underwent various variations that led to numerous changes causing economic changes. Fernand Braudel, the French historian, noted a [recess of integration in the economic fabric of Europe which occurred between the Middle Ages and the modern period. Therefore, he took the European models of economic development and defined them as a “world economy.” Braudel’s model explained how the territory the economy of the old continent came to establish economic links between themselves. According to his model, he explained that there were dynamic changes that led to the increasing and successful advanced development stages. In the fifteenth century, There Was the emergence of urban centers in Europe that Braudel identifies as “poles.” This emergence of urban centers made leadership to occur why motivated the expansion of specific sectors of the economy.

During the mid-fifteenth century, the textile industry and commerce capitalism were present. Commerce capitalism had existed since the 13th century. According to Catani Marco, he described commerce capitalism as a process where the merchant acted as the middleman between the consumer and the producer me red to close the gap in space and time, which was present between the place where the particular goods were acquired and sold. These merchants were the men who had financial means, credit, and considered as reliable. The merchants had a lot of technical knowledge in wares and wr5e well versed in law, commerce and accounting.

Dourine the fifteenth century, two key trade areas became very essential in the whole European economic system. The first key was about the Italian cities, including Venice, Mali, Genoa, Naples, Sienna and Lucca, Messina, and Pisa. These Italian cities specialized in trade with the East. Therefore, they focused on supplying Europe with indispensable products like spices; they also traded the primary goods like raw materials and cereals (DIANE Publishing Company, 2014). The second was in the Baltic Sea area, including Hamburg, Dazing, Bridges and Antwerp, Novgorod, and Stettin on the Russian coast. Throughout the fifteenth century, the economic sector in Europe depended largely on trading textiles and production. There were the trading of ten thousand lengths of silk cloth and wool, which were redistributed from the Vatican Hinterland, Flanders, and Tuscany.

There were also trading commodities like the raw materials, including lead, leather, lead, iron, wax and furs, tin and even spices, raw woo, wines, dried figs, .dyes, and oil. Research proves that the goods that ad high unit value and low bulk were exchanged at the international trade affairs like the Champagne Lyons and Geneva from the fourteenth century. The transportation of goods was done along the trade routes which were not always easy. The interior of Europe had plenty of regular services and a lot of shipments along the canals. The way of choice of transportation was through the sea (DIANE Publishing Company, 2014). This transportation was used but it was hazardous and slow and was undoubtedly less costly. Sailing in European goods was done majorly in winter. In the coastal navigation was done through use very small boats.

During the medieval period, there were changes that occurred like minting of coins. In European countries, they claimed the right to use coins. The Monarchs did not accept the claim so that they can retain their symbol of sovereignty since it was the only primary source of the financial revenue. The means of acquiring the revenue was done legally through the right of seigniorage or even through illegal means gaining the treasury and making the issuing of the coins to have poor quality and the legal value still remained unchanged (Giovanni & Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2016).Research shows that during the early middle ages the only coin that circulated in Europe was the silver Denary. It had a weight and fineness that considerably varied from one mint to the other and from one year to another. Gold was used as a means of payment which was in the form of bars or objects and the value of the gold as measured through weighing to check different weight. The availability of these coins caused delay in the monetization in the European country.

During the renaissance there was dramatically growth of economy more so in the trading area. Some developments including improvement in banking, new manufacturing systems, population growth and expanding trade routes led to an overall increase in the commercial activity. There was wide spread of feudalism during the middles ages that eventually disappeared and there was emergence of capitalism. The changes led to an effect of the European society that forced the people to adapt to the different types of work and new strategies of doing business withdrew other countries (Giovanni & Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2016). One of the developments of Economy in Europe was based ion agriculture, during the mediaeval period there was overwhelming rural and the economy majorly depended on agriculture. The cities and the towns did not emerge but afterwards they grew rapidly.

The renaissance Europe had an economy which was diverse in that it there were many different goods which were produced within various regions. After some period of time there was growth of economy in some areas of Europe while other areas experienced decline the economic sector. During the 1300s and 1400s Italy was the dominant in the European manufacturing and trading. The merchant who lived in the Venice, Milan, and Florence had developed very large organizations in business that carried out the activities all over the European continent. A wide variety of products was manufactured and traded. There was also provision of banking services for the other merchants and the government in most of the areas if Europe (Hansen, 2015). Most of the cities made specialization in in certain areas of manufacturing and trade. Florence was famously known for the production of silk and woolen clothes. Metal was produced by Milan including armor. The Mediterranean urines were dominated by Venice. The merchants of Venetian merchants bought goods and spices from Ottoman and Arab traders in eastern Mediterranean ports and shipped the products to the___14 Italian buyers and buyers in northern Europe.

During the early 1500s the most important economic activity was mining more so in Germany. The tin, silver, iron and copper produced were used to make the silver coins and other metal items. The flow of silver after 1550 from the Spanish mines was used to ace silver mining in Germany. After the 1550s the center of Europe’s banking, manufacturing and trade was moved from Mediterranean and the irately to northern Europe, especially the England and the Netherlands (Hansen, 2015).  London and Amsterdam were the center of commerce since there was increase in the importance of translates trade routes but instead Italy remained the leader of the production of fine silk cloth and such as works of art and other luxury goods.

There were also economic changes in Europe during the renaissance more so during the 1500s.there was change of character in major guilds such as them that produce woolen clothes. The investors and owners dominated the guilds and made decisions .The investors were majorly identified with the ability of political power that was used to advance the interests if the investors. Some laborers like the wool workers were not include in the guild and only depended on the owners for their job. Banking was also another economic change in European history. Due to increase in the commercial activity during the Middle Ages in the area of international trade (McCormick et al., 2014). There was rapid expansion in the banking industry so that expansion of financial services would make it easier for the merchants to conduct the businesses that were far from home. In the middles ages the merchants tried as much as they could to develop long-distance trading so that they could bring customers the exotic goods from far. Majority of the merchants became essential workers.

At the end of the middle ages the land was a major resource of the European economy that is in terms of value. In the Mediterranean areas of Europe the cereals were grown alongside other crops like mulberries, vines, citrus and olives and also sugarcane and cotton were also grown in the northern and Atlantic areas. In the seventeenth century, the Marxist historians argued that it was period of transition from the feudalism to capitalism. The crisis of the seventeenth century brought about seeds of industrial revolution and capitalism. Wallersteain argued that the capital-creating surplus was majorly extracted from slaves in the peripheral regions (McCormick et al., 2014). There are many factors that caused the transition of economic growth between the eighteenth century and the nineteenth century. The human capital and the increase in the English elites made it possible to relate between the theoretical sciences and the applied mechanical that aided in bringing about technological innovations in the period of industrial revolution.

The industrial revolution led to origin of many factories in Europe more so in England and Scotland. France and the U.S experienced the revolution in industries in the nineteenth century. In Britain, the industrial revolution is featured as a period of economic transformation between the 1750s and the 130.It was characterized with the economic growth of the new systems including the coal mining, factories and railroads. Before the new system migrated to other sectors it first operated on textiles by the mid of nineteenth century transforming the British economy and society bringing about sustained growth. It therefore spread to other parts of Europe and modernized the world economy. Therefore the study of European economic history proves that there were many changes that occurred from the thirteenth century to the latest century.



Broadberry, S., & O’Rourke, K. H. (2016). The Cambridge economic history of modern Europe: Volume 1, 1700–1870. Cambridge University Press.

DIANE Publishing Company. (2014). Information market guide: Commission of the European communities. DIANE Publishing.

Giovanni, T., & Centre for Economic Policy Research. (2016). Economic growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge University Press.

Hansen, E. D. (2015). European economic history: From mercantilism to Maastricht and beyond. Copenhagen Business School Press DK.

McCormick, M., Francis Goelet Professor of Medieval History Michael McCormick, & Michael. (2014). Origins of the European economy: Communications and commerce AD 300-900. Cambridge University Press.


Benefits of the Gig Economy to Society. history assignment help and resources


Benefits of the Gig Economy to Society

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Benefits of the Gig Economy to Society.

Technology has advanced greatly over the past decade, and its use has been extensively integrated into human society. One of the major products of technological advancement is the growth of the gig economy. The gig economy is a system in which people (workers) use mobile, internet-based platforms to find paid, part-time jobs. On the other hand, customers (employers) use these platforms to find people willing to do their jobs. The gig economy continues to grow due to changes in the modern work environment. Global unemployment levels have risen because the formal sector cannot create enough job opportunities. The gig economy endeavors to close the gap by creating numerous short-term assignments.

Additionally, many jobs within the gig economy offer increased flexibility. The gig economy has grown from the performing arts sector and now covers transport, construction, leisure, and professional services sectors. A typical example of a player in the gig economy is Uber in the UK. Nonetheless, there are concerns that workers receive low wages, while consumer welfare is not guaranteed in this economy. However, this essay will argue that the gig economy benefits society by creating additional employment opportunities, increasing flexibility in the labor market, and enabling customers to acquire quality services at affordable prices.

The gig economy adds flexibility to the labor market. Workers in the gig economy have the autonomy to choose the type of job they want and the best time to do it (Longley, 2019). This autonomy means that customers who give out work control the outcome only (Mehboob, 2019). Therefore, the worker determines how he will perform his work. For instance, Uber drivers have the freedom to decide when they will log in to the application software and start carrying passengers. This freedom gives the driver room to take up other jobs or activities when he is not transporting uber passengers (Newman, 2017). The ability to decide on timing and mode of delivery also makes gig economy jobs good for people who want to do them on a part-time basis. About 40% of gig workers in the UK choose to do gig economy jobs part-time (Marston, 2016). Critics of the gig economy argue that gig jobs increase stress levels for gig workers (Longley, 2019). However, since gig workers enjoy the autonomy of choosing jobs and work schedules, will they not give themselves ample time to rest from cumbersome work?

Furthermore, gig workers have the opportunity to avoid jobs that may take a significant toll on their physical or mental health without worrying about reprehension. Generally, gig work flexibility allows workers to earn income and maintain the coveted work-life balance that other jobs may not adequately offer. The improved work-life balance for workers makes the gig economy beneficial to society.

The gig economy is a source of additional employment opportunities for the population. Many of the gig economy jobs are labor-intensive, part-time, and eliminate employment costs to the employer. Eliminated employment costs mean that customers who post jobs on online platforms will pay workers the value of their work only. Hence, they do not pay other allowances, as paid in formal employment (Frost, 2017). Additionally, the services that customers seek are short-term and require a human touch. As such, the number of gig jobs grows faster than formal jobs. A 2018 study by Geraint Johnes of the Lancaster University Management School found that the percentage of workers in the gig economy would increase to 6.5% of the total workforce in London and 3 – 4.5% nationwide (Johnes, 2019).

Furthermore, the move to charge customers for the value of service only encourages them to repeatedly seek services from the gig economy. As a result, I reason the gig economy offers a consistent demand for jobs, which can sustain full and part-time gig workers. This consistent demand could explain why 30% of gig workers in the UK are full-time contractors (Marston, 2016). Uber drivers admit that customer orders from the Uber mobile app are plentiful, and the high ratio of drivers to customers confirms this statement. In 2018, the number of Uber drivers in London alone was approximately forty thousand (Pachon, 2018). It is important to note that many of these drivers did not work as taxi drivers before. The gig economy opened up new opportunities for them.

I also believe that the gig economy encourages inclusivity in job creation. Virtual systems facilitate the connections between workers and consumers. These systems are less likely to be biased against individuals beyond the minimum qualifications set by the developer. Therefore, they attract workers and customers from diverse racial, professional, educational, and generational backgrounds. Aside from this, workers within the gig economy include the unemployed, underemployed, and retired.  Uber reveals that 25% of its drivers are above 50 years old. This age group would not acquire formal employment easily. Yet they see gig economy jobs as viable options to keep them productive and supplement their income (Frost, 2017). However, there are concerns that workers in the UK gig economy earn less than minimum wage (Longley, 2019). If this were true, I would respond by restating that jobs within the gig economy are plentiful. Hence, gig workers service numerous orders to make up for lost benefits.

Nevertheless, in 2016, a tribunal in the UK found that Uber was supposed to treat its drivers as employees. Hence, the drivers are entitled to compensation at minimum wage (or above) and other allowances (Newman, 2017). This ruling should be a relief to drivers. The main point here is the gig economy benefits the economy by creating additional job opportunities and including sections of the population that could have been left out of formal employment.

Customers in the gig economy acquire quality services at affordable prices. It is difficult to determine the number of workers and consumers within the gig economy, but researchers estimated 5 million gig workers in the UK in 2016 (Marston, 2016). Customer numbers are most probably higher. Workers benefit from increased connections to customers. On the other hand, an increase in the number of workers (sellers) leads to an increase in competition. When competition is high, workers have to continually improve their service quality or lower their prices to attract consumers. When Uber launched its operations in the UK, it demonstrated how consumers could use their mobile phones to summon taxis to their doorsteps conveniently. Before the launch, customers had to stand at designated points and wait for a cab, with some uncertainty. Now, customers can confirm the availability of a taxi before leaving their premises.

Additionally, Uber’s business model reduced traditional taxi fares by 47%, thus attracting a broad section of the population to taxi transportation (Pachon, 2018). For instance, entry-level professionals who previously found taxi transportation too expensive have grown fond of Uber taxi rides (Pachon, 2018). Presently, Uber has introduced other transportation options in food delivery, car-hire, and freight delivery. These options translate to additional opportunities for workers and expand the services customers can receive through the gig economy. Moreover, platform developers include rating functions in their software, which customers use to show the worker’s job quality. These ratings are public, and other consumers use them to determine the best worker to engage. This move enhances consumer welfare by increasing worker accountability and transparency. Uber’s software platform has a similar rating function, and it can eject a rogue or nonperforming worker from its community (Frost, 2017). This example illustrates that platform developers have put measures to ensure the consumer’s safety and welfare are protected. Hence, customers in the gig economy benefit from quality services, affordable prices, and the protection of their welfare.

Gig economies have distinct benefits for workers and consumers. They create employment opportunities, encourage inclusivity, promote a good work-life balance, and encourage protection of consumer welfare. Though there are challenges, the focus should be on the formulation of policies that will keep pace with the gig economy’s growth and weed out predatory behavior. Uber’s story demonstrates the gig economy’s tremendous potential if supported by government regulation and sound policies. Otherwise, the gig economy will continue to spread into other industries, and the central role of technology within it hints that it is here to stay.




Frost, J.  (2017).Uber and the gig economy: Can the legal world keep up? Retrieved from

Johnes, G. (2019). The gig economy in the UK: a regional perspective. Journal of Global Responsibility, 10(3), 197-210.

Longley, R. (2020). Gig economy: Definition and pros and cons. Retrieved from

Marston, R. (2016). ‘Gig’ economy all right for some as up to 30% work this way. BBC News. Retrieved from

Newman, D. (2016). Perspective. Uber drivers’ tribunal decision presents challenge to “gig economy” model. Employer’s Law. 10.

Pachon, G. (2018). Uber in London: A Global Economic and Social Impact. Pulitzer Center. Retrieved from


An Industrial Engineer career concept. history assignment writing help: history assignment writing help





An Industrial Engineer career

I have chosen this career because I have a friend who has worked as an industrial engineer for the last two years and encourages me to join his profession line. An industrial engineer is involved in designing, developing, testing, and evaluating different comprehensive industrial production processes management systems. Inventory control, logistical analyses, material flows, cost analysis, production coordination, human work factors, and quality control are other typical industrial engineer roles. An industrial engineer is tasked with estimating production costs, designing cost-saving strategies, analyzing the effects of different product designs changes and their cost implications for review by the management, for action, and control. Industrial engineers also plan and identify sequences of operations to replicate and organize parts and products and promote efficient utilization of the same ( IndustrialEngineers&u=httpswww.onetonline.orglinkdetails17-2112.00). Industrial engineers conduct statistical analyzes on products and data to check for quality and reliability. Finally, industrial engineers work together with clients, staff, vendors, and the management to discuss purchases, certain products, product specifications, and the capabilities of these products being manufactured.

Industrial engineers need to know analytical software like the work cell simulation software and the finite element method software. Knowledge of computer-aided design software, development environment software, industrial control software, program testing software, and hot technology is also desired by industrial engineers

( An industrial engineer should understand engineering and technology, mechanical tools and their designs, production, and processing strategies, product design and have an in-depth understanding of the English language.

An industrial engineer should also be a complex problem solver, an active listener, a critical thinker, and have good reading comprehension. He/she should also be a good speaker who can effectively and confidently explain concepts to clients and colleagues. An industrial engineer should have oral expression skills, deductive and inductive reasoning, and written comprehension. An industrial engineer should always be prepared to solve problems and make decisions and interact with computers. An industrial engineer should also be ready to think creatively, acquire information from different sources, and often communicate with other people. Some of the industrial engineers’ interests include being realistic, investigative, enterprising, and very conventional. Industrial engineers should pay attention to details, be flexible and adaptable, and be reliable. Independence, achievement, recognition, and autonomy are common work values for industrial engineers. Manufacturing is the major industry for these engineers.

James Butler is an industrial engineer who works at General Motors in the United States. He holds a bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering and has an extra degree in manufacturing engineering.  Most of the time, J analyzes different data and data collection methods.  He also watches and directs workers as they assemble different parts of machinery at the factory. He meets other clients and explains how different types of engines work. He earns an average annual wage of $88,000. He also designs new engines which are less fuel consuming.

In one scenario, as James supervised different workers assemble different parts of a Chevrolet truck, one of the workers asks him what could be done to make a Chevy truck operate faster. James requested the worker who asked him the question to give him some two days to show him how to do it. Previously, clients had been complaining that Chevy trucks they buy at general motors are quite slow and wanted the trucks’ speed to be adjusted. James immediately retrieved and conducted some research. He used secondary sources to understand the systems that influence the speed in vehicles. James found out that the Chevrolet trucks are manufactured with the same engines, and they are intended to drive at a train setup. This structural organization makes it easy to upgrade the Chevrolet engines. It is also less expensive as a simple addition of some bolt-on different parts can significantly improve the truck’s speed. The task is also simple and would require an engineer to spend around two hours.

Finally, James went back to the engineers and instructed them first to replace the cleaner and air intake instead of using an open-element filter. This is because the stock intakes and filters are structurally optimized to perform better. James explained to the engineers how the element filters work. Secondly, the engineers were to insert plugs that have a higher heat value. The engineers would then replace the coil responsible for ignition and the sparks that hold the plug wires together with higher performance ones. Finally, the engineers were to increase the fuel’s octane levels that the Chevrolet trucks use as the gasoline would boost the truck’s take off power. James solved a problem that had bothered the manufacturing team for a while, and he was happy that clients would be content and buy more Chevrolet trucks from general motors.

James once found himself in an ethical scenario. On one occasion, a colleague who is a mechanical engineer at the company is absent. Since the mechanical engineer was James’ friend, the friend asks James to execute his duties while he is away. James’s responsibilities on behalf of his friend involved fixing ignition switches in a car that a client was waiting for.  James did not ask for guidance on fixing the switches. Rather, he went ahead to set the switches in the car by himself. Unfortunately, he could not test the switches for defects, and as a result, he installed faulty switches.  Time went, and the vehicle was ready for the client. The client was issued with the car, and after using it for one year, it began being problematic. Suddenly the client’s car started losing power, experiencing disabling at its airbags, losing the brake controls, and losing power at its steer wheel.  The client was later involved in a grisly road accident due to these faults, and she lost her life and two other people in the car on that fateful day. This loss is attributed to James’ violation of the industrial engineers’ code of conduct, which bars industrial engineers from engaging in services outside their expertise area.

In conclusion, James, as much as he was in a dilemma of whether to disappoint his friend or violate his work ethic, made a wrong decision. Instead of rejecting his friend’s request, he goes against the industrial engineers’ code of ethics. The code advises industrial engineers to only offer services in their area of expertise to ensure safety and quality. Indeed the violation of the code of conduct always has undesired outcomes, as witnessed in this case.


Works Cited IndustrialEngineers&u=httpswww.onetonline.orglinkdetails17-2112.00


Asthma among school-going pediatric patients history essay help



Section C: Solution Description


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Section C: Solution Description

Proposed Solution

The project seeks to enhance the management of asthma among school-going pediatric patients. In this regard, the project proposes a formal asthma educational program to solve the challenge of asthma management among school-going children. Self-management practices result in improved health outcomes, such as reduced hospital admissions and low emergency department visits (Pinnock et al., 2017). Asthma is a long-term condition which a patient must accommodate in their daily lives (Pinnock, 2015). Self-management is one of the most suitable strategies for accommodating asthma conditions in a patient’s life. However, most people living with asthma manage their conditions without necessarily relying on approved asthma action plans, which otherwise helps them make better, more appropriate clinical decisions (Pinnock, 2015). Thus, it is critical to enhance patients’ awareness of clinically appropriate self-management action plans through asthma self-management education. Patient education is a low-cost intervention, and so there is not a primary concern over the effect of cost over its deliverability.

Organization Culture

The proposed solution, formalized self-management education, can match nearly every culture because educational interventions are modifiable to fit into a different context. Alotaibi (2015) contends that educational programs on asthma management need tailoring to meet the unique patient’s needs, culture, and literacy levels. The proposed solution targets pediatric patients and their parents. Therefore, the project will consider literacy levels and other pediatric populations’ unique needs to ensure that the intervention is consistent with community culture. The educational programs will utilize available community health resources.

Expected Outcomes

A formal asthma education on self-management practices should result in improved health outcomes among pediatric patients with asthma. Precisely, the educational intervention ought to result in decreased exacerbations and associated emergency department visits. These outcomes are predictable from the fact that educational programs enhance adherence to useful asthma management guidelines (Kwok et al., 2018). Many pediatric patients are most likely to adhere to clinically appropriate decisions while managing their conditions and hence improved health outcomes.

Method to Achieve Outcomes

Patient education will help patients and their parents identify how to self-manage asthma and decrease exacerbations and the associated emergency department. However, these outcomes may not be achievable if pediatric patients or their parents lack the necessary literacy levels to understand the recommended action plan in the self-management of asthma. Additionally, some patients and their parents or guardians may fail to follow the recommended action plan due to a lack of self-discipline or commitment to achieving better outcomes. Patients and parents will be at liberty to embrace or ignore the educational program’s self-management ideas.  Furthermore, a knowledge gap in asthma symptoms might make it challenging to realize the expected outcomes.

Outcome Impacts

The intervention will undoubtedly improve the quality of care and enhance patient-centered care. As Pinnock (2015) explains, self-management refers to a set of tasks that an individual must undertake to live with a chronic condition such as asthma. The proposed self-management education program will enhance patient-centered care by boosting an individual’s capacity to deal with a medical condition. By taking part in the program, patients are likely to develop the confidence to make the right decisions while self-managing their conditions. These right decisions will translate to improved quality of care.




Alotaibi, G. (2015). Asthma control and self-management: The role of asthma education. Saudi Journal for Health Sciences, 4(1), 16.

Kwok, M. Y., Pusic, M. V., Cabrera, K. I., York, D. V., Lee, J., & Evans, D. (2018). Asthma-related educational needs of families with children with asthma in an urban pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care, 34(9), 636–640.

Pinnock, H. (2015). Supported self-management for asthma. Breathe, 11(2), 98–109.

Pinnock, H., Parke, H. L., Panagioti, M., Daines, L., Pearce, G., Epiphaniou, E., Bower, P., Sheikh, A., Griffiths, C. J., & Taylor, S. J. C. (2017). Systematic meta-review of supported self-management for asthma: A healthcare perspective. BMC Medicine, 15(1).