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Ways to ensure spells of death work history homework help: history homework help

Death magic spells are dangerous and extremely demanding rituals that require adequate attention and curiosity to work. Ensure to equip yourself with all the requirements to avoid blowbacks.
People often grapple with whether black magic death spells are working because they want a sure-fire solution to their problems. You may not have the clear answers to this concern, especially because many things matter when it comes to casting spells for death. Remember using death spells to kill someone is not an easy task because you’re asking the universe to change the course of the target’s destiny. And that means contacting the higher authorities to sanction your request. You have to play your part by providing all the requirements, following your spell caster’s instructions, and having hope in their methods.
Without doing so, chances are your spell of death may not work for youand therefore, you may not achieve your desired resultskilling the target. We undergo a lot of things in lifeboth good and bad. There are limited chances of you seeking a magic death spell if everything in your life is flowing as expected. But at times, many people frustrate us some of whom are close to our lives. Be it a relative, friend, or close family member, anyone can be hurt you so badso much so that the only thought in our mind is to get rid of their lives. Magic death spells offer a formidable and sure-fire strategy to eliminate such individuals. But since death spells are very powerful, they require powerful spell casters like Maxim to help you perform them effectively while ensuring safety.
But how can you ensure that your death curses spells are working without minimal blowbacks? After casting a spell, you may feel that things are working as intended. Sometimes, you may see the signs which indicate that your spell has started working. Unfortunately, not many people can notice these signs when casting death spells. It’s all tied to the individual performing the death spell on their target. Therefore, your personal experience and faith in such rituals also matter when performing spells for death.
If you want to ensure that your magic death spell is working, you must conduct adequate research to understand the entire process before ordering voodoo death spells. It’s wise to listen to various opinions, but it’s extremely critical to learn everything about magic death spells if you want to know how they work.
Moreover, the rise of fake spell casters has only worsened everything, including access to relevant and useful information on death spells. They seek to peddle lies and have mastered the art of deception, making it easy to find their way around desperate individuals looking for voodoo death enchantments. Beware of these individuals and rely on professionals like spellcaster Maxim to help you understand the entire process of magic death spell casting process. That’s the best thing you can do, especially because magic death spells are top draw types of magic with severe consequences.
In this article, youll learn more about various ways to ensure that any satanic death spell works. You have the chance to understand what has bothered you for a long time now. To capitalize on this information to stay on the safe side:
Conduct research on death spells that work
Black magic death spells will help you settle the score with your enemies, especially if they hurt you so badly, not to let it go. For sure, individuals that hurt us so bad require some punishment so they can learn a lesson and never wrong you or someone else for that matter. However, casting death spells to seek revenge on such individuals is not simple. It requires a person ordering the black magic death to research to be sure what particular spell works for his current situation. While casting death spells offer various individuals unique opportunities to seek revenge on their target, not doing enough research may affect their effectiveness.
The good thing is that various death spells magic are available for various individuals to consider. Before you get into it, researching all of them ensures that you understand what you need to ensure they work successfully. Consider the things below to ensure that you choose the appropriate spell for your needs:
Familiarize yourself with different types of death magic
Death magic features different types of death spells. Each of them comes with a unique set of instructions, procedures, and casting styles. The type of magic required and the energies channeled when casting each death spell to differ. Whether they differ markedly, all death magic spells operate on the same principles. Since death spells fall under dark magic, you must seek permission from the higher authorities to sanction any of them to work. Some of the most popular spells for death include:
Hoodoo death spells
Voodoo spells for death
Wiccan death spells
Voodoo death spells
Voodoo magic death spells are a form of black magic that uses items such as toys. To kill someone, you have to replicate his spirit. Items such as toys, pictures, clothes, hair clippings, nail clippings, blood, and more make it possible to cast successful voodoo death spells. Spellcasters use these items to prepare a voodoo doll that they can use to kill the target.
This makes the voodoo death spells complicated to perform because you must access these items to be able to make the spells work. Also, accessing the target’s stuff may not be easy, raising the stakes of performing a voodoo spell for death. It’s impossible to kill someone using voodoo magic without accessing their stuff. So you have to be close to them to be able to get these personal items necessary for voodoo death magic. Your target should be someone who lives or works nearby to make it easy to access this personal stuff easily. Otherwise, you will have to consider a different type of magic death spell that works for your needs. Ensure to talk to an experienced spell caster like Maxim to understand how voodoo death magic works and what he might require to make the spell work.
Wiccan death spells
Wiccan death magic is a type of magic that combines both contemporary beliefs and pagan rituals to cast effective death curses spells. Individuals who practice Wiccan magic spells are often pre-Christian traditionalists who subscribe to ancient practices. Individuals who practice this kind of magic have studied it for ages, gathering the necessary knowledge and experience to make it work.
Therefore, you cannot perform Wiccan death magic on your own, but with the help of an experienced death spell caster like Maxim, who understands how it works. You may not understand this type of magic, so you need someone experienced to guide and advise you.
The Wiccan death spells are best conducted during particular moon phases, solstices, and solar equinoxes. It’s known that such periods make it easy to draw energies from the universe and for the effects to start manifesting. Besides, the Wiccan death rituals include other aspects that require top consideration. Some of these aspects touch on the four elements such as fire, air, earth, and water.
From what weve seen, Wiccan death spells are complicated types of magic that require caution and superior attention to make things work.
Hoodoo spells for death
Hoodoo death spells are yet another type of death spell that takes the form of folk magic. It first came into existence as part of African traditions and customs during the times of the North Atlantic slave trade. Enslaved North Americans used this type of magic to protect themselves against their enemies. However, it grew and incorporated different ceremonial elements from EUROPE and native America to enhance its effectiveness as years went by. It now has everything anyone wants to see in any death magic spell.
Hoodoo black magic death spell involves seeking permission from ancestral forces to draw energies to your target. They also involve summoning the graveyards, rootwork, and more. You can also use hoodoo death spells to cast enchantments using items such as:
Mojo bags
Doing more research about hoodoo death spells will let you know the requirements, items, and procedures for performing these magic spells.
Evaluate how each type of death magic spell works
Now that you understand the different types of black magic death spells, its time to have an overview of how each of them works. Besides conducting in-depth research, it’s necessary to explain how to conduct each of the different types of death magic spells. Any misinformation about the process of casting these types of spells means that you’re putting yourself up for risks that you cannot evade. Even if it means paying a fee to access information on magic death spells, it’s worth it because you want them to be effective while maintaining safety. Fortunately, experienced spell casters like spellcaster Maxim will provide relevant information about each death spell before deciding on the best one for your needs.
Some spellcasters may ask for a fee to provide extra information on each death magic spell. That shouldn’t drive you away. Remember that magic death spells are pretty dangerousit would be a mistake to perform any of them without having adequate information on how they work.
Work with an experienced spell caster
Your reason for ordering any real death spells that work is to kill your target out of revenge for hurting you so badly. By the time you’re ordering any death spell, you must have done your research and decided on the best spell for your needs. But before you head into it, magic death spells are not types of magic that you can play with at will. You must have genuine intentions and ensure that the target has genuinely wronged you. If you’ve decided against killing your target, the most critical part of the entire process is hiring an experienced professional spell caster like Maxim to help you with it. Experienced spell casters have practiced and studied various types of death magic spells for many yearsso they understand what to expect and how each of them works.
Black magic death spells are powerful types of magic that come with severe consequences, making it necessary to have an experienced person working with you. So before pursuing any death magic spell, you should contact an experienced spell caster. Here’s why you should hire an experienced death spell caster:
It’s impossible to walk effectively in a path full of darkness without having a source of lighting. Do you remember the last time you were lost somewhere outside the town, and you had to use your GPS to get yourself out? Even with other things in life, you need inspiration and guidance to get things to work. Similarly, an experienced death spell caster is your true guide and inspiration on what type of death spell would best serve your needs. A spellcaster will guide and advise you on the best course of action to solve your needs.
Experienced spell casters have worked with many clients for many years, which has helped them identify any pitfalls and find ways to seal any loopholes for spells to work. Besides, they possess the experience to cast different spells for death in a way that works for you. So an experienced spell caster is your guideand he will help you choose the best type of spell and ensure that it works effectively.
A spellcaster will protect you
We often relied on our parents for protection against anything when we were kids. We trusted our parents to protect us whenever we felt in trouble. In the same way, we have to rely on powerful spell casters like Maxim to protect us against any consequences related to casting any spell to cause death.
The curse of death is a powerful type of magic that often comes with consequencesthe demons are likely to come for you after killing someone you wanted dead. After the spell works, the demons roam around looking for somewhere to rest. If there is a weak link availablethe person ordering the spell or the spell casterthe demons might cause death or misfortunes. So spell casters have to protect you and them to avoid any of these consequences. So spell casters understand what to do to protect you from misfortune or death.
They will summon the Gods to allow the death curse to work and cast protection spells that will keep you safe from any consequences. Safety comes firstbefore working with any spell caster, you must confirm whether they will be able to cast protection spells to keep you safe from the demons out there to destroy any weak link.
Belief is necessary
Having a firm belief that something will work is a critical aspect of anything in life. Witchcraft death spells also require anyone casting them to believe that they will work. Often many beginners may have doubts because they don’t understand how spells for death work. Making such a mistake will ruin the effectiveness of any death spell.
There are various ways in which you can keep your belief in check:
Define what you want:
It’s normal for anyone to run straight to death spells when someone has hurt you. The only thing most people think about is seeking revenge that would help them settle the score. However, black magic is something you should not take lightlyand should be the last thing to think about when you’ve explored all forms of punishment. If you choose to go ahead with casting a spell of death to seek revenge on someone who has wronged you, defining what you want is critical. This will help you move in tandem with the energies that manifest when casting death spells.
Trust your spell caster
If you don’t trust something, you’re probably not sure whether it’s the right thing or if it’s going to work. Often we’re advised to trust our guts when something immense is in play. Similarly, if you don’t trust that your spell caster is the best guy to help you perform a satanic death spell, there’s a high chance of everything not going to plan. You should always trust your gut when it comes to casting death curses. Voodoo death spells, or satanic death spells require you to trust the death spell caster for things to happen according to plan. Failure to do so, will result in failure and severe consequences.
Pay attention to instructions
While in school, teachers often told us to follow instructions if we want to succeed. The same criteria should take center stage when it comes to casting death magic spells. There are different death spell casters who come with unique instructions and needs. Depending on your choice, you must heed to all the instructions your spell caster issues. Whatever your spell caster tells yoube it providing various items or chanting after themyou must do as they say. Not only do spell casters require you to chant some words during the ceremony but also after the ritual. The reason for doing so is to maintain a clear and positive mindset that the spell for death is going to work. Its important to realize that some death spells work instantly, while some take a longer time, and require you to follow certain instructions even after the ritual.
Whichever the case, following instructions is necessary if you want to cast death curses spells that work.
Making death spells to work fast
How fast a spell for death works depends on how keen youre on the instructions your spell caster provides and how obedient youre from the start. Following instructions on a particular death spell i.e. what to chant and provide, makes death spells to work faster and effectively, while minimizing the risks of backfiring negatively.
Misfortunes of casting a death spell
Black magic death spells often come with severe consequences especially when it backfires. One of the major causes of consequences is acting smart and taking shortcuts. Its the one thing that has affected many people casting voodoo death spells. Doing this means that youre not following the instructions in entirety, thus aggravating the Gods. Demons would follow you as a result and make your life a living hell, or even worse die. Even worse, the consequences can extend to your family or loved ones because the demons often try to find somewhere to rest.
Exercise patience
One of the key principles of casting any voodoo death spell is to exercise patience and hope that the death spell is going to work as intended. You should never play with magic especially because it involves the dark powers and often result in consequences if cast wrongly.
Whether casting voodoo death spells, or hoodoo spells for death, patience and faith that the spell will work is a key ingredient. Once your spell caster has sought permission to cast a death spell, you must trust that the death spell will result in positive outcomes. You must have a genuine intention and a clear mind if you want to achieve desired results. You should never think that the outcome of the death spell is going to be negative. Any death spell requires positive energy to stand a better chance of achieving desired results. When everything works according to plan, theres always a high chance that you will achieve positive results.
Black magic death spells have been around for many years, enabling individuals to seek revenge on people that have wronged them. Death spells are a type of dark magic that requires caution, curiosity, research and positivity if you want to achieve desired outcomes. However, if cast wrongly they can result in consequences such as:
Chronic diseases like cancer or HIV/AIDS
Mental disorders
All of these misfortunes happen without the knowledge of individuals. So you should ensure that any death spell you choose works. Conducting in-depth research enables you to know what to expect to cast effective and safe death spells. The above information will help you ensure that your voodoo death spells work according to plan.
It also helps to contact powerful spell casters like death spell caster Maxim to help you perform this type of powerful magic that requires focus, caution, faith, and patience. He will guide and advise you on the best course of action to ensure that the death spell works and with minimal blowbacks. Also, Maxim will help you choose the best death spell for your unique situation. Ensure to familiarize yourself with the above information to cast black magic death spells that work.


The Portrayal of Asian Essay Paper help me with my history homework

Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media




American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as ‘demon women’, ‘hookers’, and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they continue to exist today. Furthermore, a quick look into American beauty standards and the Asian American women that experience it will offer another angle at the bi-cultural identity undertaken by these women.


Literature Review


To begin the literature review is to start with Margaret Cho’s All-American Girl. The sitcom was the first to feature an Asian American family prominently. Margaret Cho, a true pioneer in entertainment, had to deal with various obstacles while filming. For example, the image of the slender Asian woman is quite popular and was hard for someone like Cho to contend with due to her full-figure physique. If it was not pressures in maintaining a certain, there was also having to deal with the negative stereotypes that permeated the writing of the show. Still, Cho was able to give some sense of belonging to the millions of Asian Americans that live in the United States. “All-American Girl was the first network sitcom to feature a predominantly Asian American casta milestone that brought tempered hope for a group that had for decades been reduced to kung fu fighters, dragon ladies and kooky bucktoothed neighbors in mainstream media portrayals” (Woo, 2016). It was her and others like Lucy Liu, that enabled some progress in reversing the negative images of Asian Americans.


Negative images and stereotypes are what really keep Asian Americans from having more of a presence in media and television sitcoms. Why is that? Why is there such a reluctance to express the Asian American experience and the continued reinforcement of things like ‘dragon ladies’ and hookers?


Edward Said’s book, Orientalism, offers some insight. In his book he details how in the electronic, postmodern world, there is a reinforcement of stereotypes rather than a dispelling of them. “Television, the films, and all the media’s resources have forced information into more and more standardized molds. So far as the Orient is concerned, standardization and cultural stereotyping have intensified the hold of the nineteenth-century academic” (Said, 2014, p. 26). If one looks at other shows like Ally McBeal or even new ones like Sherlock, Lucy Liu, who worked in these shows is portrayed as a ‘demon woman’ or dragon lady or a submissive (Shimizu, 2016). It is a rarity that Asian American women are not only front and center, but also not expected to be this object of desire or fear. This is a big problem for Asian Americans because without those positive images to help circumvent the old stereotypes, the continued myths of the Oriental person prevail.


These images continue to prevail especially when chances for Asian American actors to work decrease due to whitewashing of Asian characters. Case in point an article discussing the casting choice of Ghost in the Shell. Although more acting jobs are being given to Asian American actors, the ones where they are the main character are instead given to white actors like Scarlett Johansson. “Asian American actors said there had been an increase in diverse roles in recent years, though, and some were hoping that the recent controversy surrounding Ghost in the Shell which starred Scarlett Johansson in the remake of an anime classic would inspire directors and producers to stop whitewashing Asian character” (Levin, 2017). One of the reasons for this is because directors and producers assume a bigger name, typically a white actor, will pull in more audiences. However, Ghost in the Shell performed abysmally and some of that was because of the casting choice of the main character. Rather than cast a Japanese woman for the role, they cast an Asian woman for the ‘real-life’ version of the character who appeared in only minutes of the film.


Casting choices like this do not bridge the gap of understanding for American audiences and Asian American people. Rather, they create a divide and further propagate the use of negative Oriental stereotypes. The use of the word Oriental has even been met with some apprehension. Orientalism is a representation of European beliefs of Asian culture. Asians are varied and have different traditions within their countries and communities. To compress that altogether into one image is again, detrimental towards understanding (Said, 2014).


Said and Orwell are discussed in an article concerning Orientalism and Imperialism. Here it is noted how Imperialism creates a culture divide because one group of people are regarded as superior while the other, inferior.

George Orwell as a Western writer experienced imperialism at first hand while serving as an Assistant Superintendent of Imperial Police in Burma from 1922 to 1927. One of Orwells major concerns during his life was the issue of imperialism and colonialism which is reflected in his first published novel, Burmese Days. Orwells own political purpose in this novel was to convince the reader that imperialism was morally wrong (Shabanirad & Marandi, 2015, p. 22).

Countries in Asia like Vietnam and the Philippines, had to deal with invasion by European forces, where theyve had to endure a forced culture on them. From forced religious beliefs, to forced beauty standards, this plays a role in how Asians are perceived and how the image of Orientalism is cultivated. Asian Americans exist in-between the experiences of their families in their home countries and their current experiences in the United States. While there is some progress in erasing the clear culture divide, the ongoing presence of negative imagery remains.


This imagery translates not just into media and entertainment, but beauty and advertisement. Asian American women have had to contend with Western beauty standards that alienate them from their own beauty and creates further separation as they try to assimilate the information from these images. Study findings revealed cultural significance of model minority stereotype in influencing Asian American women’s relationships with fashion media. Additionally, participants’ narratives on Asian American women’s beauty ideals reflected their identity construction process of achieving social assimilation and negotiating ethnic distinctiveness (Snell & Tsai, 2017, p. 1). Social assimilation and realization of ethnic distinctiveness is part of the bi-cultural identity of Asian American women. Going back to Cho, she had to contend with her own image of herself as an Asian American and the images enforced on her by the American public and the producers and directors she worked for throughout her career. It is here where it is visible the arch of struggle that Asian Americans and Asian American women in particular, must constantly contend with in American culture.


That American culture has origins for these negative images with examples like Full Metal Jacket that made the me so horny line synonymous with Asian American women, painting them as hookers. The scene was so successful at portraying such a negative image, that real Vietnamese hookers say those same lines today. The scene is more powerful today, in that the Vietnamese prostitute speaks these now oft-quoted and oft-cited words that historically serve as shorthand for the fantasy of sexual servility (Shimizu, 2016, p. 303). The same can be said of the demon woman or dragon lady. Once it is depicted in a scene in a show or film, it makes the image seem acceptable in mainstream media and pop culture, continually perpetuating a reality that is false and manufactured.




Theme 1


The first theme is the lack of representation of Asian women on their own terms and use them primarily as symbols and objects of desire or individuals to be saved by white men. Lucy Liu is a prime example of a mainstream Asian American actress having to deal with roles that were largely racial stereotypes and downplays of Asian women and reinforcement of Orientalist beliefs. Lius been cast as a Dragon Lady (Ling Woo on Ally McBeal for example), martial arts star (Charlies Angels and Kill Bill), and, of course, mysterious sex worker with links to the Chinese mafia (Payback) (Smith, 2017). She has taken several roles where her characters are one-note and delivers only what the white male would desire. Ally McBeal starred Calista Flockhart who was a lawyer that aimed to discover herself amidst a sea of uncertainty and relationship drama. In comes Lucy Lius character who plays dominatrix with Calistas boss and fulfills the role of the demon woman that sometimes appears in Orientalism.

She appears as an object of sexual desire that has a sinister seeming base personality. Going back to Full Metal Jacket and the depiction of the Vietnamese prostitute, there is no personality in the women. Rather, a muted singular drive to exist as a sexual object for the consumption of white males. Considering Hollywood is run by white males, it makes sense that great actresses like Lucy Liu have had to deal with these blatant misrepresentations of Asian women and especially, Asian American women. Lucys character on Ally McBeal became a symbol of desire that could not be really connected to, but instead ogled and objectified.


Theme 2


The second theme is the use of women as objectified symbols to represent Asia in general. The demon woman or dragon lady has been mentioned multiple times for good reason. It is an image that is deeply engrained in the minds of Western audiences.

Oriental mystique and Occidental modern. Intrinsic to both images were implications of the female as destroyer, the feminine as the enemy of reason and order, the yin of chaos. The biblical myth of Eve’s affiliation with the snake in the Garden of Eden suggests a Western archetype of the snake woman charged with transgressive sexuality and demonic energies (Chen, 2014, p. 91).


When Asian American women are given roles that not only alienate them from their identity, but the Asian American culture, it reinforces the idea that Asian or Oriental people are different from Westerners. It shows how Asia is the Orient and as much as Asian American may try to assimilate and express themselves in a way that would be deemed, American, they cannot cross the boundary.


Women in general are often treated as sexual objects. However, Asian American women are often treated as sexual objects that are both submissive and exotic. That clear separation is a dividing line between cultures and perpetuates the negative images now associated with Asian women. It is up to future artists and others like Margaret Cho to change this and bridge the gap.




In a post-colonial society that aims to be global and all-encompassing, there are very real problems with how people of color are portrayed. Asian Americans in particular, are vastly underrepresented in media and entertainment. They continue to fall prey to stereotypes like the demon woman or must conform and assimilate to beauty aesthetics that are the opposite of their own beauty. Asian American women must deal with a whitewashing of roles as seen in Ghost in the Shell. This takes away from the development of the Asian American woman and provides white audiences with an image that far from the reality of who these women are and what they aspire to be.


It is in these roles and images that an analysis of American beliefs can be made. White Americans have generated a variety of negative stereotypes for people of color. This has in turn, led to a continued proliferation of negative images of people of color and in this case, Asian American women. To change the beliefs brought on by these images, one must change the images themselves.





Chen, Y. (2014). New modern Chinese women and gender politics: The centennial of the end of the Qing Dynasty. London [u.a.: Routledge.


Elliott, C., Stead, V., Mavin, S., & Williams, J. (2016). Gender, media, and organization: Challenging mis(s)representations of women leaders and managers. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.


Kim, M., & Chung, A. Y. (2005). Consuming Orientalism: Images of Asian/American Women in Multicultural Advertising. Qualitative Sociology, 28(1), 67-91. doi:10.1007/s11133-005-2631-1


Levin, S. (2017, August 18). ‘We’re the geeks, the prostitutes’: Asian American actors on Hollywood’s barriers. Retrieved from


Said, E. W. (2014). Orientalism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.


Shabanirad, E., & Marandi, S. M. (2015). Edward Saids Orientalism and the Representation of Oriental Women in George Orwells Burmese Days. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 60, 22-33. doi:10.18052/


Shimizu, C. P. (2016). Equal Access to Exploitation and Joy: Women of Color and Hollywood Stereotype. Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 33(4), 303-321. doi:10.1080/10509208.2016.1144021


Smith, S. E. (2017, March 24). Lucy Liu Talks Candidly About Racism and Stereotypes in Hollywood. Retrieved from


Snell, K., & Tsai, W. S. (2017). Beauty for Asian American Women in Advertising: Negotiating Exoticization and Americanization to Construct a Bicultural Identity. Advertising & Society Quarterly, 18(3). doi:10.1353/asr.2017.0022


Woo, M. (2016, May 20). 20 Years Later, Margaret Cho Looks Back on ‘All-American Girl? Retrieved from

Karen Refugees of America 7 pages online history assignment help: online history assignment help

Karen people of Burma are made up of a number of separate ethnic groups that do not share common culture or language. The majority of the Karen people live in Karen State located in southern and southeastern Myanmar and make up roughly 7% or five million of the Burmese population. The majority of the Karen population have settled around or near the Thailand-Myanmar border. The Karen people have a rich history with some under leadership of the KNU or Karen National Union. Those influenced by the KNU have waged war since 1949 against the chief Burmese government, seeking independence. This has led to some Karen people leaving the country and moving to the United States as Refugees.


This literature review aims to understand the nature of the problem that resulted in migration of Karen people to other countries like the United States, what barriers they meet when they are relocated, and what is needed to bridge the gap. The literature review will examine three key areas that will also give a deeper understanding into the origins of the refugee status as well as what happens after they make the change to living in a place like the United States.

Nature of the Problem


From 1830 to 1947, the official British colony of Burma developed. While the country (later named Myanmar) later gained independence in 1947, the country suffered through military dictatorship (since 1962) as well as the start of the Karen Civil War (1964). The Karen people’s first leader, J.D. Law provided the foundation from which the Karen struggle against the Burmese government formed (Ooi, 2004).


The Karen struggle has been a source of interest outside of Myanmar and Thailand. Especially with the introduction of Karen refugees into the United States. One article notes the frequency of war trauma, torture and mental health distress among the Karen refugee population screen while entering the United States. “Frequencies of primary and secondary torture were 27.4% and 51.4%, respectively. War trauma was reported by 86% of the participants. Torture, older age, and female gender were significantly associated with increased total distress, posttraumatic stress, depression, and somatic complaints” (Shannon, Vinson, Wieling, Cook, & Letts, 2015, p. 577). The fight for independence amongst the Karen people has taken a toll on the population, showing the potential long-term problems some of these refugees face even after having left the conflict in their home country.


Torture seems to be a prevalent problem concerning the Karen Refugees in the United States, a 2016 study analyzed the potential physical effects of torture among the population. “We identified no unique effects of torture on physical health above and beyond trauma exposure. Overall, in our sample we found a high prevalence of underlying infectious conditions, pain, and hypercholesterolemia, regardless of torture exposure” (Hoffman et al., 2016, p. 1). Although no physical effects of torture were seen amongst the participants in the study, the article stated the mental and emotional effects of torture last and may provide a better understanding of what the Karen refugees may have to deal with after moving to a new home. Resettling in a foreign country can be a difficult task. Another article highlights the ability of the Karen refugees to handle a new environment and culture.


Karen refugees that have relocated to the United States must not only acclimate to new cultures and people, but they must also learn to marry their past traditions with new ones. A 2015 article revealed the ability of Karen refugees to adapt to their new environment by maintaining their cultural identity via family support, faith, community, and Christian values. One way the study identified that Karen refugees maintain their cultural identity is through food. “Findings suggest participants identify with their culture through traditional foodways and desire to preserve native dishes, gardens and celebrations for the sake of familial relations and cultural identity” (Spivey & Lewis, 2015, p. 60). B preserving the food dishes they ate in their homeland, they are able to maintain some semblance of their former lives and identity.


The Karen refugees managed to continue their culture in the United States. This can be seen in the Karen culture of Minnesota. The Karen culture of Minnesota is filled with various aspects of the former Karen culture in Myanmar from how they greet people and even the way they see medicine and food. This next section will provide an important look into the traditional and non-traditional aspects of Karen culture in Minnesota.

Karen Culture in MN


Some Karen people managed to migrate to the United States as refugees, residing primarily in Minnesota. The current number of Karen people in the United States is roughly 64,759 (Arnold, 2015). One of the main settlements for the Karen refugees is St. Paul Minnesota (Arnold, 2015, p. 781). Some common cultural norms amongst the Minnesota population is not having surnames. They refer to each other in relation to kinship. Some changes in the culture is their belief in medicine. They have a tendency to believe western medicine has the ability to cure any disease or illness. The Karen people of Minnesota also do not believe in having insurance if they are not sick. They may use what has been used by the Karen people and various other populations, the betel nut as a means of staying alert and awake while performing job duties or chores.


These are just some things a 2012 case study identified amongst the Karen refugee population. While they discovered the positive effects of relocation for the Karen refugees, they also noted the lack of effort among authorities to help the population integrate better with the culture of St. Paul. “However, it was found that there were also lessons to be learned from the Karen in St. Paul about limiting the detrimental impacts of the program, better supporting the integration process, and broadening participation in resettlement” (Harkins, 2012, p. 184). The Karen refugees still maintained and maintain potentially dangerous habits that could lead them to long-term health problems. As previously stated, the betel nut has been confirmed as being a dangerous plant to use daily.


This is because the betel nut can cause oral cancer in those that use it. It also enables early death as well as addiction (Furber, Jackson, Johnson, Sukara, & Franco, 2013). These cultural aspects are important to understand because they promote more effective communication amongst the Karen refugees. If Karen refugees retain unhealthy habits from their former life in Burma and cannot adapt well to the current life in the United States, certain problems may arise. The dislike for acquiring health insurance can now be a problem for those of the Karen refugee population.


This is not solely due to potential health problems, but also the federal government mandate for all residing in the United States to have health insurance (Amar, 2016) or face monetary penalties. This and the lack of surnames creates potential obstacles and problems for the Karen refugees. There are however, efforts to try and bridge the gap. Organizations like the Guadalupe Alternative Programs is an option for those living under difficult conditions in St. Paul Minnesota to get the assistance they need to forge a future in America.

GAP and the Challenges facing the Karen People


GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs. Their mission is to serve and assist communities confronted by poverty and transition via improvement as well as education opportunities. The organization lends emotional and social support along with training that can lead the program participant to employment. These types of organizations help bridge the integration gap by giving troubled populations access to resources that they would otherwise not have.


The Karen people in Minnesota and throughout the United States have had difficulty integrating into American society. This also includes the area of education. One article shared the educational experiences of three teenage Karen brother as they visited the Karen diaspora communities in the United States. The study provided insightful information on the various problems Karen refugees have in relation to education. They identified five such challenges. “English language divide, parental involvement in their children’s schooling, bullying, gangs, and gender. We discuss how involvement in such a participatory action research can promote new awareness and agency for minority youth” (Gilhooly & Lee, 2016, p. 1).


Language is a common educational hurdle for many refugees. One article notes this main barrier and also highlights the lack of training and awareness of professionals in dealing with not only language barriers, but also cultural barriers. “Participants unanimously described difficulty with English language proficiency and communication as the ‘number one’ problem affecting their well-being. Gendered, cultural and socio-political factors act as barriers to education” (Watkins, Razee, & Richters, 2012, p. 126). The researchers argued that more sensitivity to the culture, gender, and backgrounds of refugees is essential in education. They also added that research into the joint relationships between gender and culture across what they consider, pre-displacement, supplanting and relocation and the influence/effect of these factors on post-immigration didactic prospects is needed.


Along with research, the researchers noted additional training as an essential way to enable increased sensitivity and awareness in educators to the multifaceted problems of refugee resettlement. As previously mentioned in regards to the challenges Karen refugees face in regards to education, discovering the Karen refugees’ issues with bullying, gangs, and gender reveals new details in the Karen refugee integration problem. All these problems stem from clash in cultures, but also lack of available resources to help the affected population form identities and coping skills to manage the stress and hardships of relocation. One of which is poverty.


Poverty afflicts the Karen people that move to the United States. As refugees, they most likely came from an impoverished background. However, experiencing poverty in their new setting in the United States and then having to acclimate to a new culture and attempt to gain an education can be for some among the population, an insurmountable task.


That is why places like GAP may prove helpful in educating problem populations like the Karen refugees that have limited resources and are unfamiliar with the culture they move into after relocation. These programs train, support, and encourage participants to actively pursue education and gainful employment, while also helping them successfully integrate into society. Without these programs, there are limited opportunities for advancement and training for the Karen refugees. Which enables continuation of the cycle of poverty amongst refugees.


Minnesota is not the only area that hosts a Karen refugee population. California also has a small population of Karen refugees. Among those researchers have analyzed the generational differences between young and old Karen refugees. They found the older generation did not see relocation as an opportunity for long-term inhabitance and integration, but rather as a means of sending money back to their families in Burma. “The older generation used stays in refugee camps strategically as a means of economically supporting family members in Burma, while the younger generation view resettlement in the U.S. as a way of achieving educational aspirations” (Yarris, Stasiun, Musigdilok, & Win, 2014, p. 111). While the older generation saw economic opportunities, the younger generation saw relocation as a chance to gain a good education.


This article helped reveal the motivations of the young generation of Karen refugees in the United States. It also helped show that in order to help Karen refugees integrate successfully into a new culture, their motivations must be understood as well as what these motivations could lead to should they be encouraged. Organizations like GAP encourage participants to explore educational opportunities and partake in training. Other organizations looking to replicate the same strategies could look at articles like the Yarris, Stasiun, Musigdilok, & Win study and discover what may help promote integration and success amongst refugees.



In conclusion, this literature review highlighted the history and various struggles of the Karen people and specifically, the Karen refugees living in the United States. Efforts have been made to provide aide to impoverished and transitional people in places where Karen refugees live like St. Paul Minnesota. However, Karen refugees face multiple barriers. Their main barrier is language. Language keeps them from integrating successfully in society.


Another barrier is poverty. Living in impoverished areas leads to gang activity, lack of educational opportunities and so forth. For any progress to be made with successfully integrating Karen refugees into American society, and providing them with opportunities for growth and upward mobility, special care needs to be taken in understanding their culture and traditions. Researching and training professional to increase their awareness and sensitivity to other cultures can help provide a foundation from which a means of progress and integration can be built.



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Impact of Market Segments on Health Care Marketing art history essay help

Health care structures normally section patients for several resolves, including indemnity position, threat stratification, and marketing (Butcher 2016). Any health organization that, hence, makes provisions for patients under Medicaid, for example, must be able to identify market-based segments that suit the organization. Therefore, the market-based segments for such an organization will have to consider patients who are above 65 years of age, younger people with disabilities, or anyone who suffers from End-Stage Renal Diseases (ESRD).
Using applications like an experimental factor study and analysis, groups or sections of customers recognized as per the welfare pursued at the clinic, the segments identified will include Cognitive, Take care of me, Pamper me and Cure me (Flynn & Lamb 1987). Medicaid and any organization that provides services for them will consequently go with the take care of me and pamper me segments since these are who the health care service was to provide. However, an all-inclusive demographic, attitudinal, and knowledge tests need to be done before any involvement. A thorough program response also needs to be examined for different segments so that an organization can determine how to properly satisfy the particular market segments that it has decided to work.
Accordingly, health care establishments functioning within a particular market leave their dent on how to progress promotion tactics (Radulescu 2008). Other factors that they would need to consider in their provision of the services include changing health behavior, need for the substructure, health awareness, modified amenity, and organizational matters from a hospital. Due to these, healthcare marketers need to be more precise in choosing the appropriate segment that they can provide services that will not compromise the health facility and its organization.

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6(4), pp. 26 33. 8.
Radulescu, V. (2011). The Impact of Health Care Consumer Education on Marketing Strategies
of Health Services Organization. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 15, 2011, Pages 388-393.
Butcher, L. (2016). Consumer Segmentation Has Hit Health Care. Heres How it Works.
[Online] Available at Updated on March 8, 2016.