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History of the Electoral College

ACCTG 331Fall 2021 Understanding DEI in the Accounting Profession: Tableau Visualization Case Background Information Diversity is what makes each individual unique. Tangible or intangible, diversity is any dimension or characteristic gained through personal experience that offers people the ability to differentiate from one another. Examples of characteristics that make individuals diverse include age, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and abilities. Inclusion can be simply defined as the state of being valued, respected, and supported and is cultivated by “creating a culture that strives for equity and embraces, respects, and values differences from all people”. Diversity recognizes differences among individuals while inclusion focuses on acknowledging and accepting those differences. Consequently, equity is the outcome of diversity and inclusion. Enhancing equity promotes “justice, impartiality, and fairness within the procedures, processes, and distribution of resources” and ensures equal access to opportunities and resources to individuals at all levels of an organization. Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DE&I) are important to the accounting profession. Diversity leads to innovative and creative solutions to business problems, and metrics such as forming a management team composed of at least 30% women can be used as a benchmark for success within the accounting profession. In addition, firms that are strong in DE&I have greater financial success and experience high morale and engagement among employees. When accounting firms invest in DE&I, employees feel valued, understood, and their contributions to the firm matter. This feeling of acceptance significantly reduces stress levels and improves both mental and physical health which leads to emotional well-being and higher morale among employees. When employees feel such a sense of belonging, firms experience “greater team collaboration, higher revenue growth, and higher gross margin.” Case Requirement Part A: Descriptive analyses Download the Excel file provided by the instructor for this assignment. Perform the visualization analysis of the gender and ethnicity of various groups over the period of 2011-2018 (see below for the group information). Compare among different groups in different years and discuss your observations. A1. Overall accounting major enrollees (see tab Data 3 in Excel file) A2. New bachelor’s and master’s of accounting graduates (see tab Data 6 in Excel file) A3. New bachelor’s and master’s of accounting graduate hires hired into accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 9 in Excel file) A4. All professional staff in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 11 in Excel file) A5. CPAs in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 12 in Excel) A6. Partners in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 13 in Excel) Deliverables: One chart/dashboard in Tableau for each item listed above. Report your analysis based on the results you got in Tableau (hint: compare across different groups). You may want to write one paragraph to discuss A1 to A3, and write another paragraph to discuss A4 to A6. Part B: Trend analysis B1. Use “Data 1” in the Excel file to create a graph about accounting enrollments in the below programs over 1993-2018: Bachelor in Accounting Master in Accounting Master in Taxation MBA Accounting Total Accounting Program Enrollment B2. Use “Data 2” in the Excel file to create a graph of 2018 ethnicity distribution in the supply and demand in the accounting profession B3. Use “Data 5” in the Excel file to create a graph showing trends in bachelor’s and master’s accounting enrollees by race / ethnicity 2006-2018 B4. Use “Data 14” in the Excel file to perform trend analysis in number of new CPA candidates by year | 2006-2018 B5. Use “Data 15” in the Excel file to perform Trends in number of CPA candidates who passed their 4th section of the CPA Exam by year | 2006-2018 Deliverables: For each of the 5 items, please submit one graph/dashboard demonstrating your analysis and one paragraph of write up regarding your analysis of B1 to B5 (five items). Part C: Age-Gender-Ethnicity Analysis of Accounting and Auditing Profession, relative to overall US workforce and other business professionals C1. Use “Data 16” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of age group distribution, and discuss how accounting and auditing professionals differ from “Business and financial operations occupations” and general workforce in the US, over the period of 2011-2020. C2. Use “Data 17” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of percentage represented by different ethnicity in accounting and auditing, discuss changes over Year 2011-2020, and how does accounting and auditing differ from “Business and financial operations occupations” and general workforce in the US C3. Use “Data 18” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of percentage represented by women in the below workforce over the period of 2011-2020. Women% in General workforce Women% in Accounting and Auditing Women% in Chief Executives Women% in Financial Analysts Women% in in tax preparers Deliverables: For each of the 3 items, please submit Graph(s) demonstrating your analysis and one paragraph of write up regarding your analysis of C1 to C3 (three items). Case Submission Requirements: Please consolidate all your answers (graphs and discussion) in one Word document using the below template. Please adjust the size of the table as needed. Question Graph (show variables in rows and column, filter, and legend) Discussion A1 Part A A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 B1 Part B B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 Part C C2 C3 In your final report, please use your Full Name, Section as the header of the Word file. Please submit your report to “[email protected]” Subject line of the submission email: DEI, Your Full Name , Section (8am/9:30am/11am) Due date: Nov 1 (11:59pm). (PST) ** If you have any questions regarding this DEI project, please email the GA at [email protected] (will reply within 36 hours if not sooner). 3 I need a peer review for this paper. The peer review format is attached in the drop files. My class mates paper 2.Also I need my paper to be revised. My first draft is in the drop files and I’m attaching my classmates peer review for the paper. Assignment #9 notes Defense Production Act Below is a link to information about the defense production act of 1950, that was enacted after World War II. This article describes what was put in place after World War II to be sure that we would be better prepared for any future man-made or natural disaster. Consider how this can relate to healthcare, particularly in the pandemic. https://www.history.com/news/defense-production-act-cold-war-emergency-truman After reading this material, please read the information provided below the describes how supply chain management works. Supply Chain Management What is supply chain management? Supply chain management is a system of organization of all materials and supplies that are utilized by a business or any type of facility. It requires the installation of software to the information system. Managing supplies can be done by any type of business organization and is a particularly efficient method of ordering, tracking, and distributing supplies. It can also manage personnel and staffing. Supply chain management is especially appropriate to medical institutions. Whether an institution is small or large doesn’t really matter, however it is it is very effective method for large businesses and organizations that have multiple locations. Orders can be placed to multiple vendors tracked for delivery times and possible delays. Once materials have been distributed to all locations, they can be continuously tracked and redistributed as needed. I am providing an example of supply chain management in retail settings. Think of some of the larger stores that have multiple locations either within the state or nationwide. I think of stores such as Walmart, Kohl’s, Macy’s, Lowe’s, and Home Depot. When I go to any one of the stores to shop, I’m either looking for something that I need or something that’s on sale that I would like to purchase. If the item is not in stock, and associate can often look up on their system to see if it’s available in a nearby. If it is, I have the option of having it reserved for me and going to that location to pick up the item. Alternately I may find that it’s only available in the warehouse. I can then have the associate order for me, or I can order it myself for delivery to my home. Sometimes I shop online. I often opportunity to select, via drop-down menus, not only the choice of item but whether I would like to pick it up in the store or have it delivered to my home. For store pickup, as in the example above, I may find that it’s available for store pickup locally or at another nearby location. It may only be available for shipping. I can then make an informed choice about my purchase. There are often many other tools online that allow you to compare similar products by the same or different manufacturers. These systems can be very simple or very complex Based on the examples provided for retail organizations, consider how supply chain management system can being utilized for healthcare. As with the Defense Production Act, think about how supply chain management may be effective during a disaster, such as the current pandemic. References Tan, Joseph, Adaptive Health Management Systems, Concepts, Cases, and Practical Applications, Jones and Bartlett Learning, fourth edition, 2021 2 [Title for your report goes here] Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 OR [Insert a Team/’Company’ name here] Student #1 (ID #1), Student #2 (ID #2) – ONLY for Group version keywords: UP TO 6 KEYWORDS HERE Nomenclature Use the built-in hidden table, enter variables with Arabic letters in alphabetical order Greek Letters Similar to above table, enter Greek variables in alphabetical order Acronyms and Abbreviations Similar to above table, enter any acronyms in alphabetical order Abstract [No more than 100 words, structure this as an executive summary of the work done.] Introduction No more than 250 words for the INDIVIDUAL Version, or 400 words for the GROUP Version. Introduce the project/task, treat this portion as a ‘Problem Statement’. Follow up with a brief literature review on (i) the application of the engine covered in your respective project, and (ii) discuss some research efforts into shaft balancing and improving engine balance. A minimum of 10 journal paper/conference proceedings sources are needed for the INDVIDUAL Version and 15 for the GROUP Version. Leddy Library (digital) and Google Scholar are excellent resources to easily find journal papers on any topic. Use the ‘References’ tab in MS Word to include your references in the document. Methodology Outline the approach used for analyzing the engine. DO NOT show the derivations here, only discuss the implemented ‘tools’ (e.g. Newton’s law/analytical methods for the equations of motion, the software package MATLAB/Excel/MathCad/Julia/… and general approach used for calculations and θ1-history/graph development). You can cite the course notes and textbook in this section only (but NOT within the Introduction section). No more than 200 words in this entire section. Analytical methods (5) A sample equation is provided above this text, note that this sample is already formatted and was fully generated in MS Word. The equation editor can be found under the ‘Insert’ tab. If you copy/paste this table throughout the document, you can modify the equation text or ‘internal content’ and the number will automatically update. This is also applicable to Figures and Tables since they are also automatically numbered objects. Figure 1: Schematic of a representative slide/crank mechanism [BE MINDFUL OF WHICH ENGINE YOU SELECTED FOR THIS FIGURE]. Generation of θ1-history solutions (a) (b) Figure 2: Template for a generic 2-part Figure. You will notice that Figure 1 is also contained within a table where the outline has been hidden for presentation purposes. I recommend using this format because it is easier to keep a Figure and its Caption together, you can also quickly copy/paste Figures throughout the document and modify them easily preserve the automated numbering. Rather that typing ‘Figure 2’ or ‘Table 3’, etc., you can use cross-referencing which benefits from the automated numbering which is introduced in this document. For example, rather than manually typing ‘Figure 2’ you can access cross-referencing in the ‘References’ tab on the main ribbon by selecting ‘Cross-reference’. Insert the appropriate reference (Figure 2, Only label and number) and the text ‘Figure 2’ will appear. If you add more Figures within the document before the (previous) Figure 2, or if you move the (previous) Figure 2 somewhere further in the document, the text in your document will automatically update and you will not have to keep track this. Analytical modelling Briefly outline the necessary core equations (acceleration, out-of-balance forces, etc.), assumptions, and derivation of force summations, and any other relevant points. No more than 200 words in this entire section. Representative slider/crank mechanism [Insert name of engine] lumped parameter model Consistent to the tutorials and exams, the table provided below is mandatory, modify the contents of the rows and columns, and add/subtract cells, per the engine you have chosen (recall that the INDIVIDUAL Version does not call for moments and hence the ‘delta’ column will not be needed for this case). Table 1: Index of key parameters for the [specify engine]. i mi [kg] ri [m] miriω2 [N] θi [deg] δi [m], from [DATUM] 1 2 … Discussions Consistent to the rest of the report, modify, add/subtract and alter the subheadings as you see fit, and as needed for your specific project. Present your graphs of the θ1-history solutions in a clear/legible manner (e.g. with gridlines, fully labelled axes and legends) and concisely interpret the findings in your written discussion. No more than 250 words for the INDIVIDUAL Version and 400 words for the GROUP Version. Piston kinematics Out-of-balance forces [and moments, if applicable] Dynamic rotating forces Dynamic, primary reciprocating forces Dynamic, secondary reciprocating forces Total out-of-balance forces [and moments, if applicable] Conclusions The impetus of this study was to analyze [complete the statement, per your version of the project]. A lumped parameter modelled was generated by [discuss] and time History of the Electoral College solutions were generated utilizing [discuss] software package. The key findings are summarized as follows: First key point. Second key point. Third key point. Fourth key point. Fifth key point. Summarize the most important findings in a series of numbered statements directly above these instructions, up to 4 statements for the INDIVIDUAL Version and up to 6 points for the GROUP Version. Include some quantitative details in these points (e.g. peak acceleration, max/min forces, magnitude of rotating versus reciprocating force, etc.). No more than 2 sentences per numbered statement. References There are no sources in the current document. If you use the automated system in MS Word, Scopus or a similar tool this section will automatically populate itself. 2 ENGL 2326 American Literature ENGL 2326 American Literature In your essay, you should: • Argue that the book you have chosen should be included in the American literary canon. • Use at least three primary sources pulled from the readings covered during the course. • Support your assertions using evidence from the primary texts, lesson videos, summary notes, streaming video clips, and the background readings from your textbook. Remember, you are making a case as to why your book should stand among the great pieces we have read. You will need to consider some of the literary movements, periods, and ideals we’ve covered— Colonial, Revolutionary, Enlightenment, Nationalism, Puritanism, Romanticism, Transcendentalism, Realism, Naturalism, Regionalism—as well as the primary works you’ve selected from among them. Explain how your particular work fits into or has elements of these movements. • How was your selected book influenced by these movements? • How does your selected book add to the tradition? • Finally, based on the development of American literature as you’ve studied it in this course, why will your selected book become an important piece of the American canon? Formatting Overall, your paper must use proper MLA formatting. Keep the following guidelines in mind as your work: • The paper should be double spaced, use 12 pt. font, and have one inch margins. • Use MLA formatting for the heading and page numbering. • Use MLA formatting when citing direct quotes and paraphrases in your paper. • Your paper should be four to six pages in length. A short paragraph (8 sentences) should suffice for each selection you make. 2015 Lamar University 2015 Lamar University 1 of 2 1 of 2 Professor Neha M. Dave Holy Names University Economics 1: Final Examination Name: ____________________________________________ Instructions: (1) The examination is closed book/notes (2) Please answer all questions on the examination itself in the spaces provided below each question (3) Time limit is 60 minutes (4) You may use one 8.5×11 page of double-sided self-written notes to assist you in this examination. (5) Full credit is awarded for (a) answering the question accurately, (b) showing your calculations and/or writing your answers clearly, (c) labeling your graphs and highlighting your answers, (d) grammatical and mathematical correctness, and (e) supporting your claims with reasoning of economic rigor. (6) Maximum points possible: 225 (points awarded for correctly answering each question and for excellence in clarity & rigor throughout the examination). Part I: The Labor Market (54 Points) What is a Business Cycle? List & define each component What is Structural Unemployment? List 3 main reasons that cause this form of unemployment Part II: Money (54 Points) (1) List and briefly explain the main roles of money. (2) Explain which of the primary roles of money is ebbing. Why? Part III: The Central Banking System: Federal Reserve Bank (117 points) (1) List the main objectives of the Federal Reserve Bank? (2) What tasks does the Federal Reserve Bank perform in its capacity as the Government’s bank? (3) List 2 main functions commonly mistaken to be the roles of the Federal Reserve Bank? (4) Answer with critical reasoning and short explanation: Some analysts have argued that the high inflation of the late 1970s was a consequence of the fact that the Federal Reserve Board Chairman Arthur Burns did what President Richard Nixon wanted him to do. Explain the connection. Do you agree with the suggested analysis? Why or why not? What other factors could have contributed to this inflation in the 1970s? Briefly explain. End of Examination 4 Professor Neha M. Dave Holy Names University Economics 1: Final Examination Name: ____________________________________________ Instructions: (1) The examination is closed book/notes (2) Please answer all questions on the examination itself in the spaces provided below each question (3) Time limit is 60 minutes (4) You may use one 8.5×11 page of double-sided self-written notes to assist you in this examination. (5) Full credit is awarded for (a) answering the question accurately, (b) showing your calculations and/or writing your answers clearly, (c) labeling your graphs and highlighting your answers, (d) grammatical and mathematical correctness, and (e) supporting your claims with reasoning of economic rigor. (6) Maximum points possible: 225 (points awarded for correctly answering each question and for excellence in clarity & rigor throughout the examination). Part I: The Labor Market (54 Points) What is a Business Cycle? List & define each component What is Structural Unemployment? List 3 main reasons that cause this form of unemployment Part II: Money (54 Points) (1) List and briefly explain the main roles of money. (2) Explain which of the primary roles of money is ebbing. Why? Part III: The Central Banking System: Federal Reserve Bank (117 points) (1) List the main objectives of the Federal Reserve Bank? (2) What tasks does the Federal Reserve Bank perform in its capacity as the Government’s bank? (3) List 2 main functions commonly mistaken to be the roles of the Federal Reserve Bank? (4) Answer with critical reasoning and short explanation: Some analysts have argued that the high inflation of the late 1970s was a consequence of the fact that the Federal Reserve Board Chairman Arthur Burns did what President Richard Nixon wanted him to do. Explain the connection. Do you agree with the suggested analysis? Why or why not? What other factors could have contributed to this inflation in the 1970s? Briefly explain. End of Examination 1 Advanced Economics and business Analysis BUSI 649 – Review Fall 2021 Arnold Hite – Instructor I. In this problem be sure to draw and label the original supply and demand curves, and any changes that occur. Be sure to add arrows, or otherwise mark you graphs. This is how I tell which are the originals and which are the changes. Did you know that until recently, more than half of the solar panels sold in the U.S. are made in China? However recently, U.S. manufactures of solar panels have successfully lobbied to restrict the importation of Chinese solar panels. a. What will happen in the market for all solar panels sold in the U.S.? b. What will happen in the market for the U.S. made solar panels? c. What will happen in the market for solar panel installers? d. Imagine that the federal government imposes a $20/hour minimum wage. What will happen in the market for unskilled workers? a. Title _________ b. Title ___________ c. Title __________ d. Title ____________ II. Imagine you are the marketing manager for a major soft drink company, ”Alpha Splash.” After extensive research, your marketing team reports the following estimated demand curve for Alpha Splash: Qalpha = 500 – 5*(PriceAlpha) + 10*(PriceBeta) – 20*(Income) a. Alpha and Beta are Substitutes, or Complements, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. b. Alpha is a normal good, inferior good, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. c. Beta is a normal good, inferior good, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. Suppose your marketing team reported the elasticities as follows: E Alpha = -20. E Beta = +2.0 E Income = -0.2 d. As marketing manager, which of the three right-hand-side variable keeps you up at night worrying about what might happen? Explain your answer. III. Imagine you are the manager of a local aquarium. You struggle to keep the aquarium financially stable. At present ticket revenues don’t quite cover aquarium expenses. Ticket prices for adults are currently $30.00. An economic consultant has reported that the demand curve for adult tickets is roughly linear with elasticity for aquarium adult tickets at about (-) .025. Keep in mind that the cost of maintaining and feeding all the fish in the aquarium is fixed. It does not depend on how many people visit the aquarium. Is the current ticket price about right?, too high? Or too low? Explain your Answer with economic logic. Use the graphs below to illustrate the current location of the aquarium’s ticket price. Also illustrate in the graph below the location of the best price to charge for adult tickets. Demand Curve Total Revenue IV. The Acme Company has hired a team of business consultants to estimate its market conditions for good x. Goods y and z are related goods. Goods y and z not produced by the Acme Company. The consultants have filed their report which includes the following estimated demand curve. Qx = 200 – 5Px – 4Py + 3Pz – 0.2(Income) Current market condition are: Px = 50 Py = 10 Pz = 60 Income = 100 Find: 1. Estimated sales of Good x 2. Price elasticity of Good x 3. Cross price elasticity of Good x to Good y 4. Cross Price Elasticity of Good x to Good z 5. Income elasticity of Good x 6. Which price has the greatest impact on our product’s sales? Our own price? or Py? or Pz? 7. Is good x a normal or inferior good? V. We have studies 4 methods of calculating, or estimating, elasticity of demand. These are: The definitional formula, Point Elasticity form, Arc Elasticity form, and the Total Revenue test. 1. Give the definitional formula below? Explain, in English, what it means to say that own price elasticity is -5.0? 2. Explain in English, not math, the difference between the point formula and the arc formula for elasticity of demand. 3. The total revenue test is perhaps the most useful of the 4 measures of elasticity. It doesn’t require that one know the equation of the demand curve or its elasticity. What exactly is required to apply the total revenue test? 4. Use the space below to graph and illustrate how the total revenue test is related to elasticity of demand. Be sure to label everything. VI. Multiple Regression Problem Find The Excel file for Widget sales. Use multiple regression to estimate the sales of widgets based on their price, income, and the advertising budget. a. Write out the regression equation here. b. What is the R2 ? c. What is the actual sales in observation # 30? d. What is the predicted sales, from the regression, for observation #30? e. What explains why actual sales and predicted sales are different? e. Use your predicted sales, to calculate the elasticities at observation #30. __________ Own Price elasticity __________ Income elasticity __________ Advertising elasticity f. Suppose both income and the advertising budget went up by 10%. Then, we would expect sales to increase, decrease, or stay about the same? Explain how you know. g. What is the R2 in this regression? Explain in your own words what this means. Advanced Economics and business Analysis BUSI 649 – Review Fall 2021 Arnold Hite – Instructor I. In this problem be sure to draw and label the original supply and demand curves, and any changes that occur. Be sure to add arrows, or otherwise mark you graphs. This is how I tell which are the originals and which are the changes. Did you know that until recently, more than half of the solar panels sold in the U.S. are made in China? However recently, U.S. manufactures of solar panels have successfully lobbied to restrict the importation of Chinese solar panels. a. What will happen in the market for all solar panels sold in the U.S.? b. What will happen in the market for the U.S. made solar panels? c. What will happen in the market for solar panel installers? d. Imagine that the federal government imposes a $20/hour minimum wage. What will happen in the market for unskilled workers? a. Title _________ b. Title ___________ c. Title __________ d. Title ____________ II. Imagine you are the marketing manager for a major soft drink company, ”Alpha Splash.” After extensive research, your marketing team reports the following estimated demand curve for Alpha Splash: Qalpha = 500 – 5*(PriceAlpha) + 10*(PriceBeta) – 20*(Income) a. Alpha and Beta are Substitutes, or Complements, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. b. Alpha is a normal good, inferior good, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. c. Beta is a normal good, inferior good, or cannot tell? Explain your answer. Suppose your marketing team reported the elasticities as follows: E Alpha = -20. E Beta = +2.0 E Income = -0.2 d. As marketing manager, which of the three right-hand-side variable keeps you up at night worrying about what might happen? Explain your answer. III. Imagine you are the manager of a local aquarium. You struggle to keep the aquarium financially stable. At present ticket revenues don’t quite cover aquarium expenses. Ticket prices for adults are currently $30.00. An economic consultant has reported that the demand curve for adult tickets is roughly linear with elasticity for aquarium adult tickets at about (-) .025. Keep in mind that the cost of maintaining and feeding all the fish in the aquarium is fixed. It does not depend on how many people visit the aquarium. Is the current ticket price about right?, too high? Or too low? Explain your Answer with economic logic. Use the graphs below to illustrate the current location of the aquarium’s ticket price. Also illustrate in the graph below the location of the best price to charge for adult tickets. Demand Curve Total Revenue IV. The Acme Company has hired a team of business consultants to estimate its market conditions for good x. Goods y and z are related goods. Goods y and z not produced by the Acme Company. The consultants have filed their report which includes the following estimated demand curve. Qx = 200 – 5Px – 4Py + 3Pz – 0.2(Income) Current market condition are: Px = 50 Py = 10 Pz = 60 Income = 100 Find: 1. Estimated sales of Good x 2. Price elasticity of Good x 3. Cross price elasticity of Good x to Good y 4. Cross Price Elasticity of Good x to Good z 5. Income elasticity of Good x 6. Which price has the greatest impact on our product’s sales? Our own price? or Py? or Pz? 7. Is good x a normal or inferior good? V. We have studies 4 methods of calculating, or estimating, elasticity of demand. These are: The definitional formula, Point Elasticity form, Arc Elasticity form, and the Total Revenue test. 1. Give the definitional formula below? Explain, in English, what it means to say that own price elasticity is -5.0? 2. Explain in English, not math, the difference between the point formula and the arc formula for elasticity of demand. 3. The total revenue test is perhaps the most useful of the 4 measures of elasticity. It doesn’t require that one know the equation of the demand curve or its elasticity. What exactly is required to apply the total revenue test? 4. Use the space below to graph and illustrate how the total revenue test is related to elasticity of demand. Be sure to label everything. VI. Multiple Regression Problem Find The Excel file for Widget sales. Use multiple regression to estimate the sales of widgets based on their price, income, and the advertising budget. a. Write out the regression equation here. b. What is the R2 ? c. What is the actual sales in observation # 30? d. What is the predicted sales, from the regression, for observation #30? e. What explains why actual sales and predicted sales are different? e. Use your predicted sales, to calculate the elasticities at observation #30. __________ Own Price elasticity __________ Income elasticity __________ Advertising elasticity f. Suppose both income and the advertising budget went up by 10%. Then, we would expect sales to increase, decrease, or stay about the same? Explain how you know. g. What is the R2 in this regression? Explain in your own words what this means. Weeks 5-6 Written Assignment (submit as single MS Word file under Assignments. This paper should be a total of 1500 words) Part 1 (Refer to Week 5 Readings) Use the Attached APA paper template. After reading your week 5 readings, what kinds of leadership is needed to address the cyberinfrastructure in the US? Use your library references to defend and support your decision. Conclude with a research or policy question for further research. You must utilize literature and cite properly. Part 2 (Refer to Week 6 Readings) After reading your week 6 articles, answer the following three questions. Separate each response with the sub-headed question statement): Who are the stakeholders needed to address cyber concerns in the US and support your response. Who are the decision-makers in the world that will help address cyber concerns? Support your response. Looking at the Roadmap (in your readings), how would you design a response effort in the event there was a cyber 911. Conclude with a research or policy question for further research. You must utilize literature and cite properly. Use APA style Provide in-text citations and references. Submit both Parts as a single Microsoft Word document Name the file “EDMG600Weeks5-6_YourLastName.doc/x” (e.g., EDMG600Weeks5-6_Pesic.doc/x). Upload the document under Assignments. Week 3 Read the Insider Threat from the Department of Homeland Security https://www.dhs.gov/science-and-technology/cybersecurity-insider-threat and CISA: Insider Threat Mitigation https://www.cisa.gov/insider-threat-mitigation Find additional readings in this area about how to mitigate and assess insider threat concerns. What are your ideas on how to provide time to intervene and prevent an insider cyber attack? Find information about an insider attack, explain the attack, and did you agree or disagree with the actions? Were they justified? Provide an original post. This post is to be a minimum of 500 words. Week 4 Read: Innovative uses in Social Media https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Social-Media-EM_0913-508_0.pdf IS-0042: Social Media in Emergency Management https://emilms.fema.gov/is_0042/curriculum/1.html Does social media help or hinder emergency management/homeland security? In your responses, find samples and discuss your research with the class. Provide an original post. This post is to be a minimum of 500 words. Week 5 Read and discuss Meta-Leadership A Framework for Building Leadership Effectiveness https://cldcentral.usalearning.net/mod/resource/view.php?id=29894 The importance of meta-leadership in COVID https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ecpe/meta-leadership-during-covid-19-crisis/ Do you agree or disagree with the framework previously built upon Meta-Leadership effectiveness and the response to COVID-19 based on cyber technology and distribution of the information from 2020? Why? If not, why not? Provide an original post. This post is to be a minimum of 500 words. Note: 500 or more words APA 7th edition Three or more citation Three more reference AC 306 – Fall 2021 Class Project Read Chapters 2 and 3 from the Guide to Intermediate Accounting Research (GIAR) book. Understanding the accounting research process and how to document your findings are critical in the business world. These valuable skills will help you develop your responses to your project in this course as well as in your careers after graduation. Pick two different publicly traded U.S. companies and download their 10-Ks. The companies should be in different industries. Review the FASB Codification website for recent ASUs that were issued in the past few years and the proposed ASUs that are currently pending. For each of your two companies: Based on the industry and business determine the three most significant FASB ASUs that were recently issued (or are pending) for the company. For each ASU chosen, discuss : why it is so significant for your company, what change they will have/had to make, the type of financial impact it will have/had on the company, why you believe the FASB implemented/will implement this new rule discuss if you believe the reader of the financial statements for the company will benefit from this ASU disclosure There is no length requirement for your responses, however, you should write your responses in the following format for each of your two companies: Discuss the company you chose and an overview of their business. Disclose the ASU you picked, including the number and name of the ASU and a summary (IN YOUR OWN WORDS) of what the ASU states. Answer the discussion points above in Item 4 Repeat b and c with the second and third ASU that you chose. Your responses should be written in a business professional manner and double spaced. The FASB Codification site is: https://aaahq.org/Research/FASB-GARS The login info Username – AAA51141 Password – KY2Gc5j Due date is end of day December 6th in the Assignment folder on Kodiak. Electric cars use one or more traction or electric motors for their propulsion (James). They may include planes, trucks, boats, and even trains. The production of electric vehicles dates back to the 1830s in Aberdeen, Scotland. This attempt was a success seeing the emergence of electric taxis in London towards the end of the century. Electrical cars are beneficial to the environment because they help improve the air quality. Since they have no tailpipes, they don’t produce any carbon dioxide. This helps reduce pollution which creates a healthier environment for all living things. “In over a year, just one electrical car on the roads can save an average 1.5 million grams of CO2.” (JuiceBlog). There are different types of electric cars out there such as battery electric vehicles, basically all-electric vehicles getting their power solely from a rechargeable battery, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, charged externally and is a combination of electric and fossil fuel being able to switch between the two, and hybrid electric cars, which recharges through the braking system and letting the internal combustion engine take over after the vehicle catches speed. Tesla, General Motors and Nissan have sold the most electrical cars in the US. They are accountable for more than 60% of electrical cars sold in the US. Top models from those companies are, Tesla Model 3, Tesla Model S, Tesla Model X, Chevrolet Volt, Chevrolet Bolt EV, Nissan LEAF. The Nissan Leaf has been the most popular model since its release in 2011, but the Tesla model 3 has been selling at such a fast rate that it will soon be the top selling electrical car model (JuiceBlog). Many companies plan to go all electric vehicles in the next few decades, for example Audi claims by 2026 they’re only launching electric cars and by 2033 stopping all gasoline engines produced by them (Edelstein). In recent ages, climate concerns, production costs as well as running costs have gained electric vehicles more popularity and access to the general public. The cost itself is also appealing due to the raising fuel cost. As of 2020, more than 10 million Electric cars were on the world roads (Richter). References James, Luke. Electromobilty- Electric vehicles basics, how they work and how they are powered. 04 02 2021. . JuiceBlog. Who are the Top Electric Car Companies? 19 October 2018. 18 September 2021. . Richter, Felix. How many cars are on the road and whch country has the most? 07 May 2021. . Electrophysiology Test Fall 2021 Dr. Clark Student Name The first 45 questions are worth 2 points each; total of 90. The short answer is worth 20 points. All living cells have a charge on their membranes, termed the ——————, but ————- and —————- cells can move a charge along their membranes, termed ——————-. This movement of charge is termed —————–. RMP; liver; kidney; inhibitory potential; elasticity RMP; muscle; nerve; action potential; conductivity Excitatory potential; liver; testes; action potential; conductivity RMP; muscle; kidney; action; conductivity None of the above When measuring charge entities, the measurement of the force of charge movement is in terms of ————— and flow is measured in ——————-. Resistance is measured in —————–. Volts; amperes; ohms Ohms; volts; amperes Amperes; volts; ohms Volts; watts; ohms None of the above Electrical charge is due to the flow of ——————, but the charge involved with cell membranes is due to charge possessed by —————-. Neutrons; ions (electrolytes) Protons; electrons Electrons; protons Electrons; ions (electrolytes) None of the above The cell membrane acts as a resistor preventing easy flow of ———– between the inside of the cell and outside. The prevention of easy flow is that ————– are water soluble and thus cannot easily pass through the ————- in the cell membrane. Protons; protons; carbohydrate Neutrons; protons; protein Ions; ions; lipid Ions; ions; carbohydrate None of the above The separation is charge creates a —————— in charge across the cell membrane. Equal charge Potential difference Electron pool Neutron pool None of the above The —————– is measured in ——————— using electrodes. The —————- electrode is the measuring electrode and ——————- electrode in used as a ground wire electrode. Equal charge; ohms; extracellular; intracellular Equal charge; amperes; extracellular; intracellular Potential difference; millivolts; extracellular; intracellular Potential difference; millivolts; intracellular; extracellular None of the above The inside of a cell close to the cell membrane has a ——————- and the outside of the cell close to the membrane has a ———————. Because of this difference in charge on both sides of the cell membrane, the membrane is said to be ———————-. Net positive charge; net negative charge; depolarized Net positive charge; net negative charge; polarized Net negative charge; net positive charge; polarized Net negative charge; net positive charge; depolarized None of the above The muscle —————- is generally ————–. The neuron —————- is generally ————. RMP; -90 mv; RMP; – 70mv RMP; -70mv; -90mv RMP; -70 mv; -70mv RMP; -90mv; -90mv None of the above The ions ——————– and ———————— have greater concentrations outside a cell. The ————— and the ————— have higher concentrations inside a cell. Potassium; chloride; sodium; large molecular ions Sodium; chloride; large molecular anions; potassium Large molecular anions; chloride; sodium; potassium Chloride; large molecular anions; sodium; potassium None of the above Though the inside of the cell has a —————- in contrast to the —————– on the outside of the cell, when all the charges on the outside are added up and all the charges on the inside are added up – the charges come to ————–. This concept is termed ————————. Net positive charge; net negative charge; net value of 20; bulk electroneutrality Net negative charge; net positive charge; net value 10; bulk electroneutrality Net negative charge; net positive charge; net value zero; bulk electroneutrality Net negative charge; net positive charge; net value – 10; bulk electroneutrality None of the above Though there is —————-, the reason the inside of the cell close to the membrane is more ——— and the outside is more ———–, is due to the ——————–. Bulk electroneutrality; positive; negative; ion dragging effect Bulk electroneutrality; negative; positive; ion pushing effect Bulk electroneutrality; negative; positive; ion dragging effect Bulk electroneutrality; negative; positive; ion pushing effect None of the above The order of the ease of ion permeability through a cell membrane begins with —————-, which has the easiest permeability. But both ———– and ————- are almost close in permeability. ————- has much less permeability and —————- should not be permeable at all. Sodium; chloride; sodium; potassium; large molecular anions Chloride; sodium; potassium; potassium; large molecular anions Chloride; chloride; potassium; sodium; large molecular anions Large molecular anions; chloride; potassium; potassium; sodium None of the above In order for charge to move along the membranes of —— and ————— cell membranes, an ———- must be formed. kidney; liver; RMP kidney; liver; action potential liver; thymus; action potential muscle; nerve; action potential None of the above An ——————- has several phases. In order to start an ——————, a certain voltage, termed —————— must be reached. Action potential; action potential; subthreshold voltage RMP; RMP; subthreshold Action potential; RMP; threshold Action potential; action potential; threshold voltage None of the above ——————— are ——————–. RMP; all-or-none RMP; graded Action Potentials; all-or-none Action Potentials; graded None of the above The ————— aspect means that if —————— is not reached, then no —————- will occur, but if it is reached the localized area of the cell membrane will ————– to its fullest extent. Graded potential; threshold voltage; graded potential; depolarize All-or-none; threshold voltage; action potential; depolarize All-or-none; subthreshold; action potential; depolarize Graded potential; threshold voltage; action potential; depolarize None of the above A voltage in excess of ———– will not cause the ————– to ————- to a greater voltage extent. Threshold; action potential; depolarize Threshold; RMP; depolarize RMP; action potential; repolarize RMP; graded potential; repolarize None of the above When ——————— is reached, voltage dependent ——————— ion gates open and cause the membrane to become ———————–. RMP; potassium; repolarized Threshold voltage; sodium; depolarized RMP; sodium; repolarized Threshold voltage; potassium; depolarized None of the above There are two voltage dependent ————gates in neurons; one is termed the ————— and the other is termed the ——————-. Potassium; open gate; closed gate Chloride; open gate; closed gate Sodium; open gate; closed gate Sodium; inactivation; activation None of the above During the ——————- potential the —————– gate is ———————– and the ——————– gate is ——–. Action; chloride activation; closed; chloride inactivation; open RMP; sodium activation; closed; sodium inactivation; open Action potential; sodium activation; closed; sodium inactivation; open RMP; sodium inactivation; closed; sodium activation; open None of the above At the time of reaching —————–, the —————- ion gate pops open and the ————— ion gate begins to close. The ————– ion gate is fast and the —————— ion gate is slow, so for a while ————— ion gates are open. Threshold voltage; potassium activation ; inactivation; activation sodium; inactivation; both Threshold voltage; potassium; activation; inactivation potassium; inactivation; both Threshold voltage; activation sodium; sodium inactivation; activation; inactivation; both Threshold voltage; inactivation sodium; sodium activation; inactivation; activation; both Subthreshold voltage; inactivation sodium; sodium activation; inactivation; activation; both When ———- ion gates are open —— rush —————— the cell, giving ——————. Both; potassium ions; into; depolarization Both; chloride ions; into; depolarization Both; large molecular anions; out of; repolarization Both; sodium ions; into; depolarization None of the above ——————— also is the voltage to cause ——————– ion gates to open, but these gates are very slow. Thus, by the time the —————– ion gates open, it is the same time that the ————– close. Threshold voltage; potassium; potassium; sodium inactivation gates Threshold voltage; sodium; sodium; potassium inactivation gates Subthreshold voltage; sodium; sodium; potassium inactivation gates Subthreshold voltage; potassium; sodium; potassium inactivation gates None of above When the peak voltage has been reached during an action potential, the ——————- concentration ————- reached equilibrium. Thus, the height of the voltage peak is due to— . Sodium ion; has; opening of the sodium inactivation gate potassium ion; has; opening of the sodium inactivation gate chloride ion; has not; opening of the sodium inactivation gate Sodium ion; has not; closing of the sodium inactivation gate None of the above The movement of ——————ions cause ——————–. That is because the —————– move ———- the cell. Sodium ions; repolarization; sodium ions; out of Potassium; repolarization; potassium ions; into Potassium; repolarization; potassium ions; out of Chloride; repolarization; chloride ions; out of None of the above The —————- gates are slow to open and are also slow to close, creating an overshoot potential termed ——————. Potassium ion; repolarization Sodium ions; repolarization Potassium; hyperpolarization Chloride; hyperpolarization Chloride; repolarization After an action potential, the cell membrane should restore its ———–. Two factors are responsible for this restoration, they are the – ————– and —————-. Action potential; large molecular ions; sodium/potassium pump RMP; large molecular ions; sodium/potassium pump Action potential; chloride; sodium RMP; sodium ions; chloride ions RMP; sodium ions; sodium/chloride pump The —————– pushes ————- ions ————the cell in exchange for —————-ions ———the cell. Since this is —————–, the energy is provided by ——————. Sodium/potassium pump; 6 sodium; out of; 4 potassium; into; passive transport; ATP Sodium/potassium pump; 3 sodium; out of; 2 potassium; into; active transport; ATP Sodium/potassium pump; 3 sodium; out of; 2 potassium; into; passive transport; ATP Sodium/potassium pump; 3 sodium; out of; 2 potassium; into; active transport; GTP None of the above Each ——————- occurs in a small region along the cell membrane. The basis of ———— is that the voltage created by an action potential in one region of the cell membrane will cause the subsequent adjacent reason to reach —————–. This then will propagate the impulse along the cell membrane. Action potential; conductivity; threshold voltage RMP; conductivity; threshold voltage Action potential; conductivity; subthreshold voltage RMP; refractory; super-threshold voltage None of the above There are two —————— periods within an action potential. The ———————- is when the same area on a cell membrane must rest after firing an action potential. Refractory periods; relative refractory period Refractory periods; absolute refractory period Depolarizations; relative refractory period Depolarizations; absolute refractory period None of the above During the ——————- period, the same area of the membrane cannot fire another action potential. The ———– period is when the same area of the membrane can fire another action potential, but a ————- than usual —————-voltage must be reached. Absolute refractory; relative refractory period; lower; threshold Absolute refractory; relative refractory; higher; threshold Relative refractory; absolute refractory; higher; threshold Relative refractory; absolute refractory; lower; subthreshold None of the above Two major differences between neuron action potentials and skeletal muscle action potentials are that there are not ———- voltage dependent – —————– gates in muscle cells. Also the action potential duration in muscle is ————. This equates to — ——— conductivity along the muscle membrane compared to the neuron membrane. Two; Sodium; longer; slower Two; sodium; longer; faster Three; potassium; longer; slower Three; potassium; longer; faster None of the above The junction where a neuron meets another neuron, or a muscle, or a gland is termed a ———-. Joint Synapse Articulation Interconnection None of the above A ——————- is a generic term for anything that can bind to a receptor. Anchoring fibril Desmosome Cohesion protein Ligand enzyme ————– gated channels can be activated by —————-, ——————– and other chemicals. Ligand; hormones; neurotransmitters substances Cohesion proteins; hormones; neurotransmitter substances Ligand; osteonectin; chondronectin Ligand; exocrine gland secretions; hormones None of the above The release of ——————- chemical from the presynaptic membrane, creates in the postsynaptic membrane a ——————- potential, which is not an —————– potential. Hormones; action potential; graded Neurotransmitter; graded; action Neurotransmitter; action; graded Exocrine gland; action; graded None of the above A ——————- potential increases in voltage, based on the amount of chemical activating the -postsynaptic membrane ——. Action potential; receptors Graded potential; receptors Action potential; enzymes Graded potential; enzymes None of the above If the ————– potential voltage is enough to cause adjacent ————— channels in the membrane to reach ————-, a —————— will be initiated. Graded; voltage gated sodium ion; RMP; a graded potential Graded; voltage gated potassium ion; RMP; action potential Graded; voltage gated sodium ion; threshold; action potential Action; graded; threshold; graded potential None of the above In skeletal muscle cells, the —————– potentials are called —————— potentials. Action; motor end plate Graded; excitatory post synaptic Graded; inhibitory post synaptic Graded; motor end plate None of the above In neurons, the —————- potentials can be either ———————– potentials or —————-potentials. They are abbreviated ——————- and —————-. Action; excitatory postsynaptic; inhibitory postsynaptic; EPSP; IPSP Graded; excitatory postsynaptic; inhibitory postsynaptic; EPSP; IPSP Graded; motor end plate; inhibitory postsynaptic; MEPP; IPSP Action; motor end plate; inhibitory postsynaptic; MEPP; IPSP None of the above At the neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle, the space where the receptors for the neurotransmitter substance are located on the muscle cell is termed the ——————–. The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is ———————–. Motor end plate; epinephrine Motor end plate; norepinephrine T-tubule; acetylcholine Motor end plate; acetylcholine None of the above The enzyme that degrades —————— is ——————–. Norepinephrine; acetylcholinesterase Serotonin; acetylcholinesterase Tyrosine; catechol-o-methyl transferase Acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase None of the above Once ————- voltage is reached in skeletal muscle, ————– potentials will travel in all directions around the muscle cell. The action potentials will meet (run into each other) at some point on the muscle cell. The action potentials cannot cross over one another, because a region on the muscle cell just depolarized cannot quickly form another action potential due to the ————–. Threshold; action; excitation period Threshold; resting membrane; excitation period RMP; resting membrane; refractory period Threshold; action; refractory period None of the above When a neuron synapses on another neuron, the neurotransmitter substance secreted from the presynaptic neuron could make the postsynaptic neuron move further from threshold, this means the neurotransmitter substance created an ——————–. The chemical gates were opened to ———— or —————– or both. Excitatory postsynaptic potential; chloride; potassium Excitatory postsynaptic potential; sodium; potassium Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; large molecular anions; potassium Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; chloride; potassium Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; sodium; potassium When a neuron synapses on another neuron, the neurotransmitter substance secreted from the presynaptic neuron could make the postsynaptic neuron move closer to threshold, this means the neurotransmitter substance created an ——————–. The chemical gates were opened to ——————-. When a neuron is brought closer to threshold, but not at threshold, it is termed — ————. Excitatory postsynaptic potential; sodium; facilitation Excitatory postsynaptic potential; potassium; facilitation Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; large molecular anions; facilitation Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; chloride; facilitation None of the above Question 46 is short answer. It is worth 20 points. You must use the internet to lookup answers. 46. A What are the two types of receptors for acetylcholine? 46 B What is norepinephrine? What is its degradation enzyme? What are the types of receptors for it? 46 C How does Lidocaine work? 46 D How does succinylcholine work? 46 E How does curare work? 2 Essay One Argument analysis essays are brief (800-1000 words) essays that focus on a single argument. Review the material on essays in the Course Information Folder. You should focus your essay on one of the following arguments The Kalam cosmological argument (PHN, p. 71) The Argument from Evil (PHN, p. 84) and either the free will or the soul-making defense The Contemporary Design Argument The range of basic physical values conducive to life is very small. It is reasonable to seek an explanation for (1). The plausible explanations are (a) the intention of something like god, (b) chance, or (c) multiverse theories. The intention of something like god is a better explanation than the other explanations. Thus, it is probable that the universe is the product of the intention of something like god. Students must write an essay about one of the Arab countries; essay will contain two parts. In the first part, students will write about the country based on information they already know without any research. The information can be correct or not. In the second part, students will write about the country based on the research they conducted. Students must cite their sources. The assignment will be done individually and written in the English language. The essay should be at least two pages in length, not including the bibliography. Students must use an MLA format in writing 1. Aristotle’s view of the value of virtue is best summarized by the following: A) Virtue is only a tool to gain happiness. It has no value independently of its utility for this purpose. B) Virtue is valuable purely for its own sake, independently of its consequences. The value of a life is determined purely by how virtuous it is, not by how happy it is. C) Virtue has no value in itself, but the appearance of virtue does. The appearance of virtue allows you to seem virtuous in public even as you pursue your self-interest. D) Virtue is partially valuable for its own sake and partially valuable because it is necessary for happiness. 2. What is the best characterization of the difference between Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill’s utilitarianism? A) Bentham thinks you should be selfish, Mill thinks that you should be impartial B) Bentham thinks that only the quantity of pleasure matters, Mill thinks that quality is important also C) Bentham thinks that it is possible to calculate the utility of your actions, Mill thinks that calculation is impossible D) Bentham thinks that a dictatorship produces the greatest aggregate happiness, Mill thinks that a liberal democracy produces the greatest aggregate happiness 3. Which of the following best represents Epictetus’ views on ethics? A) The only good thing in life is pleasure, so we should strive to get as much of it as possible. B) Death is terrible, and we should spend all of our time making sure we avoid death and loss. C) We should only desire and strive for those things which are up to us, or under our control. D) We should strive for great and honorable achievements that bring widespread recognition to us. 4. St. Augustine’s emphasis on the extreme sufferings of the world is primarily intended as a response to… A) The Stoic conception of virtue B) The Aristotelian conception of virtue C) The Christian conception of virtue D) All of the above 5. John Stuart Mill’s version of utilitarianism is best summarized by the following claims: A) Acting with good will is the greatest good. Actions are right or wrong depending on whether or not the motivations behind them are good. B) Virtue is the greatest good. Actions are right or wrong depending on whether or not they express virtue. C) Happiness is the greatest good. Actions are right or wrong depending on whether or not they have good consequences. D) Pleasure is the greatest good. Actions are right or wrong depending on whether or not they make me feel good. E) Justice is the greatest good. Actions are right and wrong depending on whether or not they lead to a more just world. LCD 103: Fall 2021 Exam 2 Review Sheet Exam 2 Date and Time: Tuesday, November 2 (12:00AM-11:59PM) This review sheet is intended for use as study aid only. It is not exhaustive. Topics: African American English, Spanish as a Heritage Language, Creole Languages, American Sign Language Format: 25 multiple choice (3 points each) and 5 short response questions (5 points each) Extra Credit: 1 additional short response question (5 points) General Concepts: 4 Facts about Variety All languages are rule governed All languages have variation Each variety of a language is rule governed All languages are linguistically equal, but not all equally valued in all social contexts. Make sure you can identify the various linguistic ways languages can vary: Lexical, Morphological, Phonological, Syntactic When someone says “breaderia” instead of “bakery” because she is adding “ria” to the word “bread” to represent a place where bread is sold, this is an example of ___________ variation. When someone drops the /d/ in “cold” (col), this is an example of _________ variation. When someone says “I ain’t got none” instead of “I don’t have any”, this is an example of a __________variation. When someone says “Pavement” instead of “Sidewalk”, this is an example of __________ variation. African American English: T&A Chapter 7 Not all AAE Speakers are African American; Not all African Americans speak AAE Origins Creolist view: Variation in AAE Tense: Habitual be & and stressed bin: Phonology Metathesis: Coda consonant cluster deletion: Syntax Negative Concord (Double Negation): e.g. “Ain’t nobody gonna listen to you” Embedded Interrogatives: questions that are embedded look just like unembedded forms. e.g. “She didn’t ask me do I be late for class” Representations of AAE in film and media are often unaware of the rule-governed nature of some of its features (e.g. habitual be) Spanish as a Heritage Language: T&A Chapter 10 Heritage language: Most spoken language in the US after English How did Spanish become considered a heritage or nondominant language in the US? Despite having the smaller hispanic/latino population, the northeast is more diverse: Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba) Central America (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua) South America (Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela) In NYC, most variation is __________________ and __________________. Phonological variation in Spanish [s] to [h] is a phonological process called ______________ that is sometimes stigmatized in Spanish. English influence on American Spanish: puchar ‘to push’ mapear ‘to mop’ fensa ‘fence’ Spanglish Definition: Its perception: Effective ways of Spanish maintenance: 1._______________ 2._______________ 3. _______________ Creole Languages: T&A Chapter 13 Differences between pidgins & creoles: Pidgins – Creoles – Superstrate and substrate languages tend to influence different aspects of a pidgin/creole language. Superstrate – Substrate – Perception of Creoles Seen as simplified versions of a dominant language Not given the support needed (Education in Haiti) Structural aspects of creole languages: Gullah – use of simple past, past progressive, and present progressive Hawaiian Creole – Serial Verb Construction Could English be considered a creole? Yes, because… No, because… American Sign Language T&A Chapter 14 Community vs. condition: deaf: Deaf: History of ASL ASL based heavily on French sign language Oralism caused ASL to be banned, spoken language thought to be more evolved Effect on d/Deaf education practices: ______________ published a seminal work on the linguistic structure of ASL Arbitrariness Signifier/form: Signified/meaning: Iconicity: There is no intrinsic relationship between signifier and signified (arbitrariness) Onomatopoeia seem iconic, but aren’t because… ASL equivalent: Grammar of ASL Parameters of sign include: Syntax Tense: indicated by movement of hands toward/away from the body Eyebrows wh-words require a lowered eyebrow: “She who?” = “Who is she?” Yes/no questions require raised eyebrows PHL 225: Critical Reasoning and the Law Exam 1 Exam Exercise 1 Person A owns a private boat dock that is connected to an adjoining house and acreage. A dockmaster, employed by Person A, was in charge of the dock for the day. Person B and his family were sailing on the lake when a storm arose. To protect himself and his family, and to gain safety from the storm, Person B was forced to tie his boat to the dock owned by Person A. The dockmaster untied Person B’s boat from the boat dock. As a result, the boat was destroyed and the family injured. Person B sued, claiming it was the duty of the dockmaster employed by Person A to allow Person B to tie their boat to the dock owned by Person A given the necessity of seeking safety from the storm. Relevant Rules: 1) Trespass: Knowingly entering or invading another person’s property without their authorization or permission. 2) Necessity: Willfully entering another’s property, or interfering with another’s property, may sometimes be justified by necessity, where otherwise it would be trespass. Using the facts presented, and the rules provided, please address the following: A) What is the issue to be resolved in the above dispute? You may find it helpful to frame the issue as a question. B) Using the rules provided, how would you apply the rules to this case? You must choose which rule governs the facts and the issue you have presented. C) Justify your choice through clear and direct reasoning. Appeal to the tools and arguments you have learned to explain why one rule governs in this case and not another. To help you, consider the following similar cases: An individual traveling along a local highway finds that the highway is obstructed by a downed tree. The individual is an employee of the City Hospital delivering an organ for transplantation. Time is of the essence. The individual diverts around the tree, in the process crossing the adjoining land, tearing up the grass and destroying a hedge. The owner of the land sued in trespass, arguing the intrusion on the land was intentional and unlawful. The court found no trespass. An individual walking home at night was assaulted. In fear of their life, the individual jumped over a fence into a homeowner’s yard, crossed the yard, and exited over the fence on the far side. In their haste and fear, the individual trampled a bed of roses and smashed a flower pot when they tripped coming over the fence. The homeowner sued in trespass, arguing the fence indicated that the land was private, and the individual willfully entered their property in full awareness that they had no permission to do so. The court found no trespass. Part 2: Using these two cases, as well as the case outlined above, formulate a legal rule that would govern these cases and provide legal guidance for future cases that might come before the court. Justify the rule that you formulate, i.e. defend the appropriateness of the rule for deciding cases of trespass. Exam Exercise 2: Albert, while driving, attempted to pass another car, driven by Bob. When Albert’s car drew alongside Bob’s car, one of Albert’s tires blew out causing a collision between the two cars. Bob sued Albert for negligence, arguing that it was negligent of Albert to drive a car with poorly maintained tires. The issue in question is whether Bob was negligent in driving a car with poorly maintained tires. In order to argue negligence, Albert must prove 4 things: 1) The existence of a legal duty owed to Albert by Bob. 2) Bob’s breach of that duty. 3) Albert’s sufferance of an injury. 4) Proof that Bob’s breach of duty caused the injury. These are the elements of negligence. Apply the “elements test” (in Legal Analysis) to the facts of this case to determine whether Bob is guilty of negligence for driving a car with poorly maintained tires. For the purposes of your analysis, a legal duty is defined as: A requirement to perform some conduct required by law or custom. Show your reasoning for each element of the test for negligence, and explain fully how you reach your decision in the application of the elements test and the definition of a legal duty to the facts of the case. Exam Exercise 3: Carl was eating at a restaurant with his friends when he got into a heated argument with two other guests at the restaurant. Carl waited until the strangers left the restaurant before he decided to head home. The two men were outside of the restaurant and attacked Carl’s friend, then targeted Carl. Carl testified that his friend was bleeding and he saw one of the attackers reach for something under his shirt. Carl shot and killed the two men and was subsequently convicted of second-degree murder. Carl appealed the conviction, arguing that the case should have been dismissed under the state’s “Stand Your Ground” law. On appeal, the court overturned the conviction and granted the motion to dismiss. There are two rules at issue: 1) “Stand Your Ground” laws: If a defendant has a reasonable belief that deadly force is necessary to prevent great bodily harm or imminent death to himself or others, then the defendant is justified in using deadly force. 2) Burden of Proof: When the facts of the case stand in dispute, or when relevant facts are not known by the court, then it should be left to a jury to resolve the dispute and to settle the facts of the case. Legal Procedure: A motion to dismiss is a motion to have a case thrown out before it goes to trial. While this can be granted for a variety of reasons, the point at issue is the claim that the Plaintiff’s complaint has no basis in law or should not be before the court. Trial Summary: Legal counsel for the Defendant (Carl) filed a motion to dismiss in the trial court on the basis of that state’s Stand Your Ground law. The motion to dismiss was denied, and the case went to trial. Carl was subsequently convicted of second-degree murder. Carl appealed, arguing that the motion to dismiss was denied in error and the case should never have gone to trial in the first place. The appellate court agreed and subsequently granted the original motion to dismiss the case, thus vacating the conviction. Your task is as follows: Using the rules presented above, develop arguments to provide good reasons for both outcomes. The original trial court’s decision was to deny the motion to dismiss, and the resulting trial led to a second-degree murder conviction for the defendant. I’d like you to put together a coherent, clear argument or arguments that supports the decision to remand the case to trial rather than to dismiss under the state’s Stand Your Ground law. Second, I’d like you to put together a coherent, clear argument defending the appellate court’s decision to overturn the conviction and grant the motion to dismiss. In both cases, your arguments should make use of the two rules provided, as well as following the techniques of good argumentation that we have learned, both deductive and inductive. Film Review of M. Night Shyamalan’s The Sixth Sense Writer and director M. Night Shyamalan’s 1999 Supernatural Thriller The Sixth Sense, starring Bruce Willis, Haley Joel Osment, Toni Collette, and Olivia Williams, delivers one hour and 47 minutes of silently terrifying and beautifully written material, all with a finale that is nothing short of the quintessential twist. While audiences will be talking about the film’s ending for years to come, its moments of silence, as well as its deeper themes of mental health, are the film’s real prizes. The film opens with child psychologist Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis) being visited at home by an unhappy and unstable ex-patient. This meeting results in tragedy. Afterwards, Crowe offers his services to an equally unhappy nine-year-old boy, Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment), who claims to “see dead people.” Initially, Crowe thinks Cole is delusional; however, he eventually comes to believe Cole after witnessing several “happenings.” Meanwhile, Crowe’s wife Anna (Olivia Williams) drifts further away from Crowe as she increasingly feels second-best to his the demands of his career (Shyamalan, 1999). From the film’s traumatic beginning to its final moments, I was on the edge of my seat, leaning closer to the screen to hear child actor Haley Joel Osment’s whispered confessions of “seeing dead people.” Osment does a superb job playing the shy, silently terrified patient who dare not tell his own mother (Toni Colette) what horrors he sees on a daily basis (Shyamalan, 1999). Surprisingly, the lack of noise in this film (many horror/thrillers shake audiences out of their seats) is what lends it its nail-biting suspense and edge-of-your-seat scenes. Soft-spoken conversations between Crowe and Cole add an element of intimacy and horror, reflecting on the demands of psychiatric treatment, for some patients’ realities are so terrible, that they must be whispered in confidentiality to a professional. As part of the thriller/horror genre, The Sixth Sense really delivers the goods. Solid thrillers pit its characters, as well as its audience, against the unknown, and this film has plenty of them. Is patient Cole Sear delusional, in dire need of deep psychiatric help? Are Lynn Sear’s (Toni Collette) worst nightmares that her own child may hurt himself or others warranted? Is Malcolm Crowe’s wife so unhappy that divorce is imminent? All of these unknowns strike the heart of viewers due to universal connections to family safety and well-being. The real prize of the film, however, is how true-to-life its core message is. Most of us do not fear the paranormal, but all of us fear the implications of mental illness, whether it be our own mental health or a loved one’s. Malcolm Crowe shows us the daunting responsibility of being a child psychiatrist, the most glaring of which is preventing patient suicide. On the other end of the spectrum, Cole Sear gives audiences insight into the very real fears that patients face when seeking treatment, the largest fear being the question: “Am I crazy?” M. Night Shyamalan has made a bit of a masterpiece in The Sixth Sense. I highly recommend that you pop in to your local theater and see it sometime. Its superb cast, its deeper themes of psychiatric treatment and mental health, its nail-biting whispered tones and even silence, and its sly ending will leave you wanting to exit the theater, get back in line, and watch it one more time just to see the crafty art of Shyamalan. References Shyamalan, M.N. (Director). (1999). The Sixth Sense [Film]. Buena Vista Home Entertainment. RNBS 4220 COUR 140 ONLI – PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP – 2021 FALL NT3 Non-Nursing Leadership Book Title non nursing leadership book Subscribe Leadership Book Top of Form Display mode Bottom of Form non nursing leadership book by Katie Quinlan – Wednesday, 27 October 2021, 8:07 AM Primal Leadership: Unleashing the Power of Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis & Annie McKee Permalink Reply Grader – Instructions Excel 2019 Project Excel_02_SR_Revenue_HW Project Description: In this project, you will format numbers and create formulas using absolute cell references. You will insert statistical functions. You will also insert and format charts and WordArt. Steps to Perform: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Start Excel. Download and open the file named Student_Excel_02_SR_Revenue_HW.xlsx. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_02_SR_Revenue_HW. 0 2 Add the File Name field to the worksheet’s left footer and the Sheet Name field to the right footer. Return to Normal view. 3 3 AutoFit the width of column A. (Approx. 25.57) Change the width of columns B:F to 13. 6 4 In cell B1 fill the series through the range C1:D1. 3 5 Select the range A1:F1 and apply the Wrap Text, Middle Align, and Center alignments. 4 6 Select the range B2:E13, and then use the Quick Analysis button to insert the column totals in row 14. Note, Mac users, instead of Quick Analysis, use the SUM button. 5 7 For the ranges B2:E2 and B14:E14 change the number format to 0 decimals. Apply 0 decimals to the range B3:E13. Apply the Total cell style to B14:E14. 7 8 In cell F2, enter a formula that divides E2 by E14. In the formula, refer to E14 as an absolute cell reference. Format the cell with the Percent Style, display one decimal. Apply the Center alignment. AutoFill the formula down through cell F13. 11 9 In cell B16, insert the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of the range B2:B13. AutoFill the formula to the right through column D. 10 10 In cell B17, insert the MAX function to calculate the maximum value of the range B2:B13. AutoFill the formula to the right through column D. 10 11 Select the range A1:D13 and insert a Clustered Column chart. Move and resize the chart to display immediately inside the borders of the range A19:F35. Change the style of the chart to Style 9. Change the chart title to Fund Revenue. 10 12 Select the nonadjacent ranges A1:A13 and E1:E13 and insert a 2-D Pie chart. Move the chart to a chart sheet named Revenue Chart. Change the layout of the chart to Layout 1. Change the Data Labels position to Outside End. Format the background of the chart area with the default Gradient fill option. 11 13 On the General Fund Revenue sheet, select the range A1:D13 and insert a Line chart. Move the chart to a chart sheet named Revenue Month. Change the style of the chart to Style 8. Remove the chart title. 10 14 On the General Fund Revenue worksheet, insert three blank rows at the top of the worksheet. 2 15 Insert the text Aspen Falls Revenue as WordArt using the style Fill: Blue, Accent color 1; Shadow. Change the WordArt text font size to 36. Move and resize the WordArt to immediately inside the borders of the range A1:E3. 5 16 Change the scaling of the General Fund Revenue worksheet so the width will fit to one page. 3 17 Ensure that the worksheets are correctly named and placed in the following order in the workbook: Revenue Chart; Revenue Month; General Fund Revenue. Save and close Last_First_Excel_02_SR_Revenue_HW. Exit Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100 Created On: 04/24/2020 1 SK19_XL_CH02_GRADER_SR_HW – Revenue 1.2 Research the range of contemporary issues teenagers face today. In a 500-750-word paper, choose one issue (besides teen pregnancy) and discuss its effect on adolescent behavior and overall well-being. Include the following in your submission: Describe the contemporary issue and explain what external stressors are associated with this issue. Outline assessment strategies to screen for this issue and external stressors during an assessment for an adolescent patient. Describe what additional assessment questions you would need to ask and define the ethical parameters regarding what you can and cannot share with the parent or guardian. Discuss support options for adolescents encountering external stressors. Include specific support options for the contemporary issue you presented. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance. Grader – Instructions Excel 2019 Project Excel_03_SR_Payroll_HW Project Description: In this project, you will work with grouped worksheets, unhide, delete and insert worksheets, and construct formulas that refer to cells in other worksheets. Additionally, you will create and modify a clustered bar chart. Steps to Perform: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Start Excel. Download and open the file named Student_Excel_03_SR_Payroll_HW.xlsx. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_03_SR_Payroll_HW. 0 2 Group the worksheets. In cell A19, clear all formats and contents. Format the range A4:F4 with the cell style 40% – Accent3. Center align and wrap the text in the selected cells. 7.5 3 In cell F5, create the formula Total Gross Pay – (Income Tax + Social Security (FICA) Tax + Health Insurance). AutoFill the formula down through cell F12. 9 4 Apply the Total cell style to the range B13:F13. Copy the format in E6 using the Format Painter and paste the format to the range B6:F12. Ungroup the worksheets. 4.5 5 Insert a new worksheet. Rename the worksheet tab Summary and then change the color of the worksheet tab to Orange under Standard Colors. 7 6 Move the Summary sheet to the left of the Community Center worksheet tab. 2 7 On the Community Center sheet, copy the range A1:F4. Paste the copied values into cell A1 on the Summary sheet, keeping the source column widths. 3 8 On the Summary sheet, in cell A2, replace the existing text with City Payroll In cell A4, replace the existing text with Location In cell A5, type Community Center In cell A6, type City Center In cell A7, type Courthouse and in cell A8, type Total 6 9 On the Summary sheet, in cell B5, create a formula that will display the value from cell B13 on the Community Center sheet. In cell B6, create a formula that will display the value from cell B13 on the City Center sheet. In cell B7, create a formula that will display the value from cell B13 on the Courthouse sheet. 10 10 On the Summary sheet, in cell B8, insert a column total. AutoFill the formulas in the range B5:B8 to the right through column F. Apply the Total cell style to the range B8:F8. Apply Comma [0] cell style to B6:F7. 9 11 Group all of the worksheets. Add the file name field to the left footer and the sheet name field to the right footer. Ungroup the worksheets. 7 12 On the Summary sheet, create a Clustered Bar chart using the nonadjacent ranges A4:A7 and C4:E7. 8 13 Move the bar chart to a chart sheet with the sheet name Payroll Adjustments. 6 14 Enter the chart title Payroll Adjustments above the chart. Switch the row and column data on the bar chart. Change the style of the bar chart to Style 3. Add a primary horizontal axis title with the text Deduction. 10 15 On the Summary sheet in cell A12, type Date Created In cell A13 enter the date 6/17/2021. 2 16 Unhide the Art Center worksheet, and then delete the Art Center worksheet. 5 17 Ensure that the worksheets are correctly named and placed in the following order in the workbook: Payroll Adjustments, Summary, Community Center, City Center, Courthouse. Save and close Last_First_Excel_03_SR_Payroll_HW.xlsx. Exit Excel. Submit the file as directed. 4 Total Points 100 Created On: 11/02/2020 1 SK19_XL_CH03_GRADER_SR_HW – Payroll 1.2 Grader – Instructions Excel 2019 Project Excel_INTRO_CAP_Sales_AS Project Description: In this project, you will unhide a worksheet, work with grouped worksheets, insert and rename worksheets, insert summary, logical, date, statistical and date functions, and refer to cells in other worksheets. Additionally, you will apply conditional formatting, create and modify charts, and create, sort, and filter Excel tables. Steps to Perform: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Start Excel. Download and open the file named Student_Excel_Intro_CAP_Sales_AS.xlsx. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_Intro_CAP_Sales_AS. 0 2 Group the worksheets. Adjust the column width of B:F to 9. Center and Wrap the text in the range B3:F3. 3 3 With the four sheets grouped, in the Year Total row, insert a function that will sum Years 1 – 4. Insert a function in the Yearly Total column to total each row through Year Total. 4 4 With the four sheets grouped, apply the Currency [0] cell style, to the range B4:F4 and B17:F17. Apply the Total cell style to the Year Total results. Save the file. 3 5 With the four sheets grouped, insert a function to calculate the average for each year in the range B19:E19. In the range B20:E20, insert a function to calculate the highest sales for each year. Ungroup the worksheets. 8 6 Insert a new worksheet. Rename the worksheet tab Summary and then change the color of the worksheet tab to Orange, Accent 1. Move the Summary sheet to the left of the Downtown worksheet tab. 2 7 On the Downtown worksheet, copy the range A1:F3. Paste the copied range to the Summary worksheet in the range A1:F3, keeping source column widths. 2 8 On the Summary sheet, in cell A2, replace the existing text with Yearly Sales; in cell A3, replace the existing text with Location; in cell A4, type Downtown; in cell A5, type Midtown; in cell A6, type Seaside; in cell A7, type TownCenter; and in cell A8 type Total Sales. 2 9 On the Summary sheet, in cell B4, create a formula that will display the total from cell B17 on the Downtown worksheet. In cell B5, create a formula that will display the value from cell B17 on the Midtown worksheet. In cell B6, create a formula that will display the value from cell B17 on the Seaside worksheet. In cell B7, create a formula that will display the value from cell B17 on the Town Center worksheet. AutoFill the range B4:B7 to the right through column F. If necessary, AutoFit column F. Save the file. 5 10 On the Summary sheet, insert a function in the Total Sales row to sum each column. Apply the Total cell style to the Total Sales results. Apply the Comma [0] cell style, to the range B5:F7. If necessary, AutoFit columns to fit all data. 4 11 On the Summary sheet, in cell H2 type 75,000 apply Align Center and Currency with 0 decimal places. Type Bonus in H3. In cell H4, enter an IF function that will display the value 1500 if the value in cell F4 is greater than the value in H2. Otherwise, the function will return the value 500. In the function, use an absolute cell reference to H2. Apply Currency with 0 decimal places to the result in cell H4 and Align Center. AutoFill cell H4 down through cell H7. 4 12 On the Summary sheet, in the range G4:G7 insert Column Sparklines to compare the Year data for each location. Apply the Sparkline Style Colorful #6 (last option in the thumbnails). Note, depending on the version of Office you are using, the style may be named Brown, Sparkline Style Colorful #6. Show the High point for each Sparkline. Save the file. 3 13 Unhide the Stock worksheet. Group the worksheets. Make cell A3 the active cell. Find any occurrence of TownCenter and replace it with Town Center In the grouped worksheets correct any spelling errors, ignoring the spelling of the wines. Ungroup the worksheets. 2 14 On the Summary sheet, in cell A10, insert the TODAY function. Apply the date format March 14, 2012. 3 15 On the Summary sheet, in B4:E7 apply the Gradient Fill Orange Data Bar conditional formatting. 3 16 On the Summary sheet, create a 3-D Clustered Bar chart using the range A3:E7. Move the chart to a new sheet and rename the sheet Sales Chart Change the layout to Layout 8. Switch the Row and Column data. Change the chart title to Sales by Location. Change the vertical axis title to Location and the horizontal axis title to Sales Save the file. 9 17 On the Summary sheet, insert a 3-D Pie Chart using the range A3:E3 and A8:E8. Move the chart so that the upper left corner of the chart is positioned in the upper left corner of B10. Apply Chart Style 7. Revise the chart title to Sales by Year. Position the data labels outside end and then change the font size of the data labels to 12. 5 18 On the Stock worksheet, insert an IF function in cell E4 that will display Yes if the value in cell C4 is less than 12. Otherwise, the function will return the value No. Fill the function in cell E4 down through cell E35. 3 19 On the Stock worksheet, apply Wrap text and Center Align in A3:G3. Insert a formula to calculate the Total Cost of Bottle Stock in column F. AutoFit column F. 4 20 On the Stock worksheet, format the range A3:G35 as an Excel Table with headers, and apply the Table Style Light 3. Note, depending on the version of Office you are using, the style may be named Tan, Table Style Light 3. Add the Total Row style option as row 36 in the table. Use the functions in the Total Row to sum the Quantity and Total Cost columns. 6 21 In column G, insert a formula that provides the Total Cost for each item as a percent of the Total. Apply the Percent style, with one decimal place. Center Align the results. 3 22 Sort the table ascending by Item. Filter the table to display only Chardonnay and Pinot Grigio. 4 23 Copy the Stock worksheet as a new sheet at the end of the workbook. Rename the worksheet Stock Subtotals. Convert the table to a range. Select the range A3:G35 and apply subtotals for Quantity and Total Cost at each change in Variety. Hide the Stock Subtotals worksheet. 4.5 24 Import the Excel_Wineries.txt file to a new sheet. Rename the sheet Wineries. Convert the table to a range. 2.5 25 In the range H2:H27, insert a function to trim the extra spaces from the Winery names in the range A2:A27. Copy the range H2:H27 and paste as values to A2:A27. 4 26 Unhide the Waterfall sheet. Create a Waterfall chart using the range A3:E4. Move the chart so that the upper left corner is in the upper left corner of column G. Set the negative value as the total. Revise the title to Sales Increase/Decrease. 2 27 Group the worksheets, in the Footer insert the Sheet Name in the left section and the Date in the right section. Return to Normal View. Ungroup the worksheets. Show formulas on the Town Center worksheet and adjust the width to print to 1 page. On the Stock worksheet, set the titles to print for rows 1:3. Save the file. 5 28 Verify that the worksheets are in the following order: Sales Chart, Summary, Downtown, Midtown, Seaside, Town Center, Stock, Waterfall, Wineries. Save Last_First_Excel_Intro_CAP_Sales_AS. Exit Excel, and then submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100 Created On: 04/07/2021 1 SK19_XL_INTRO_GRADER_CAP_AS – Sales 1.2 Grader – Instructions Excel 2019 Project Excel_INTRO_IP05_Golf_HW Project Description: In this project, you will link data from two Excel workbooks to a third workbook. You will update the data in the original workbooks and verify that the data is updated on the linked workbook, and then you will apply conditional formatting. Steps to Perform: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Open Excel. Download and open the file named Student_Excel_Intro_IP05_Contacts_HW.xlsx. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_Intro_IP05_Contacts_HW. 0 2 Open the file named Student_Excel_IP05_Golf_HW.xlsx downloaded with the project files. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_Intro_IP05_Golf_HW. Click the Contacts worksheet tab, then select and copy the range A4:E13. Switch to view the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Contacts_HW file. Using the paste option Paste Link, paste the copied range into cell A14. 30 3 Close the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Golf_HW.xlsx file. Open the file named Student_Excel_IP05_Hamilton_HW.xlsx downloaded with the project files. Save the file as Last_First_Excel_Intro_IP05_Hamilton_HW. Click the Contacts worksheet tab, then select and copy the range A4:E11. Switch to view the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Contacts_HW file. Using the paste option Paste Link, paste the copied range into cell A24. 30 4 Switch to view the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Hamilton_HW file. In cell C11, enter the text Maintenance Manager. Save and close the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Hamilton_HW. Switch to view the Last_First_Excel_IP05_Contacts_HW file. View the updated text in cell C31. 10 5 On the Employees worksheet, select the range C5:C31. Apply conditional formatting to the range for text that contains Manager using the default formatting Light Red Fill with Dark Red Text. 30 6 Save and close Last_First_Excel_Intro_IP05_Contacts_HW.xlsx. Exit Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100 Created On: 07/08/2020 1 SK19_XL_INTRO_GRADER_IP05_HW – Golf 1.1 ENGL 250 Fall 2020 Proposal for Formal Report (Part A) Weight: 10% Due: Week 6 Length: 300-400 words Purpose: This assignment gives you the opportunity to develop, format and write a proposal. It also serves to introduce and focus your ideas for your formal report. Important: Please review the following documents before writing your proposal: OACETT Guidelines Introduction to Formal Report Powerpoint Approval of your proposal is required before you can proceed with your formal report and successfully complete the course. If your proposal is accepted, you can begin your formal report. Instructions: Select a topic for your formal report. For more details on your topic selection, consult the relevant course documents (listed above) and your ENGL 250 instructor. Write a proposal in memo format to introduce your chosen topic to your instructor. Your proposal should contain the following (adapted from OACETT’s Technology Report Guidelines): Summary – Briefly summarize the three sections of your proposal. Background – Describe why this topic is important to study. If you have previously studied this topic in another course, describe the assignment and course here. You need to ask your ENGL 250 instructor for permission to re-use a topic/project from a previous course. • Facts – Outline the problem and methodology that the report will attempt to address. Include the following: (a) Provide sufficient detail about the problem/issue. Use specific engineering or applied science concepts/techniques/processes to identify the problem/ issue. Ensure that you really a describe a problem. (Proposals that do not seek to solve a problem/ issue are unlikely to be approved by OACETT). (b) Describe the approach (technique or methodology) you intend to use in the report’s investigation and documentation. (c) Include an effective hypothesis that describes what you think the solution to the problem is expected to be and why. This statement should be strong and clear and not contain any words such as “may be”, “probably”, or “might”. Action – Request your instructor’s approval of your topic and invite questions and / or feedback. Extra deductions or a grade of zero “0” on the assignment are possible for the following: significant departure from length requirement failure to meet research requirement in terms of number and type of sources (as applicable) failure to address a required or agreed-upon topic or prompt evidence of plagiarism (such as unacknowledged use of sources, whether published or unpublished material, work submitted by the student in another course or another section of the same course, resubmission of previously evaluated work). Does not adequately meet the requirements of assignment and/or categories on the rubric Rubric Memo Format Report Content Technical Style Grammar and Mechanics APA Documentation 8-10 points Accurate subject line Effective use of graphic highlighting (headings, bullet point lists, white space) 8-10 points All report sections (Summary, Background, Facts, Closing) achieve their purposes Information presented is detailed and relevant to report’s purpose 8-10 points Strong control over the 6-C’s of technical writing (clear, concise, correct, courteous, complete, and concrete) 8-10 points Minor grammatical and/or mechanical errors 8-10 points All elements of APA format are followed 5-7 points Appropriate subject line Some attempt at graphic highlighting 5-7 points Some report sections achieve their purposes Most information presented is detailed and relevant to report’s purpose 5-7 points Some control over the 6-C’s of technical writing 5-7 points Some grammatical and/or mechanical errors; faulty sentence structures 5-7 points Some elements of APA format are followed 2-4 points Acceptable subject line Incorrect/confusing graphic highlighting 2-4 points Few report sections achieve their purpose Some information presented is detailed and relevant to report’s purpose 2-4 points Limited control over the 6-C’s of technical writing 2-4 points Frequent grammatical and/or mechanical errors; faulty sentence structures 2-4 points Few elements of APA format are followed 0-1 points Disorganized writing; does not resemble a memo report 0-1 points Report sections do not achieve their purposes Information is vague and/or irrelevant Report is off-topic 0-1 points Style errors impede reader’s comprehension 0-1 points Majority of sentences contain grammatical and/or mechanical errors 0-1 points Many errors/does not follow in APA format Total: /50 Peer Evaluation Sheet for Argument 1 Paper Reviewer’s Name: Author of the Paper Being Evaluated: Are the requirements for the final assignment met? (Please circle the appropriate response) Does the paper meet the length requirement of 5 full pages (not including the Works Cited)? Yes No Does the paper discuss both the epic and the play? Yes No Is MLA parenthetical citation done correctly for quotes and paraphrases? Yes No Is there a Works Cited page that includes each text referenced? Yes No Create a brief descriptive outline of this essay. I have created a table here, and you should first number each paragraph, then summarize the content of the paragraph. Lastly, you should describe the function of each paragraph (i.e. introduction, support of thesis, counterargument, etc…) ¶ # Idea(s) of the paragraph Function of the paragraph Thesis Statement Is there a clear thesis statement? Where is it, and what side in the debate does it pick? Is the thesis statement specific enough and does it provide a sense of the rationale for why one side was picked over the other? What advice do you have for your classmate on how to strengthen this thesis statement? Evidence Use Are the stated pieces of affirmative evidence the best ones to use to support the thesis? Evaluate two pieces of evidence – they can be done well or need strengthening or a combination thereof. Locate them, indicate where you find them, and evaluate them. What else could be cited for support? Evidence 1: Evidence 2: Are the pieces of evidence/quotations related back to the thesis statement in terms of how the evidence proves that the thesis is accurate? If this is done well, please explain one example that is especially well done. If this work needs to be added in, please specifically reference at least one place where this information needs to be added. Counter-Argument and Refutation Is the counterargument clearly explained with evidence that explains its potential accuracy? What is especially strong about the counterargument, or what areas of the counterargument can be improved upon? Does the author fully refute the counterargument? What (if anything) is omitted from it? Strengths & Weaknesses What are the greatest strengths of this paper? What definitely needs to be revised before the final draft is passed in? Field Literacy Survey (50 points) ELE 1, 2.1, 3.2, 3.4, 5.1; InTASC 2, 3, 5, 7, 8; CAEP 1.1 Keep a notebook to record and reflect on the field experience. Turn in one 2-3 paged typed literacy observation paper (2-3pages) with the following bolded headings. Field Literacy Survey Name: Jessyca Harris Grade: 6th Teacher: Ms. Tiffany Whitcomb School: James Dawson Elementary School (Hunstville,AL) Dates of Observation: 09/29/2021-10/21/2021 Literature Genres: Identify types of literature, types of book, and reading material including computer programs. Types Of Literature: Fiction Books: Out of my mind By Sharon Draper Computer Reading Material: Lexia Environmental Literacy: (charts, word walls, bulletin boards, posters, learning centers, maps,etc.) Have latin word ward . Bullentin board consisting of agenda. Posters about reading. Small group table near teacher desk. Literacy Activities: Describe the kinds of reading and writing activities that the teacher demonstrates, or the children participate in during the class. Include oral and written, whole group, and small group and individual examples. Teacher’s Questions: Write the types of questions the teacher asks before, during and after reading and writing activities. Doing explanatory ,descriptive, persuasive, and expository writing. Now doing a free write on bats your choice long as it meet requirements. What do you know about bats, like about them, and find interesting? Is the question the teacher ask the students. Film Review Rubric Film Review Rubric – 100 Points Total Criteria Ratings Pts Paragraph 1: Introduction 15 to >11 pts Excellent The introduction provides fulfills all three requirements: basic information about the film, an evaluative claim about the film, and attention to the central concept of the review. 11 to >6 pts Satisfactory The introduction provides only two of the three requirements. 6 to >0 pts Needs Improvement The introduction provides only one of the three requirements OR is off topic. 15 pts Paragraph 2: Plot Summary 15 to >11 pts Excellent Provides some plot summary, but avoids specific details that would spoil the plot for those who have not yet viewed the film. 11 to >6 pts Satisfactory Provides minimal plot summary OR spoils the plot for those who have not yet viewed the film. 6 to >0 pts Needs Improvement Provides no plot summary OR spoils the plot for those who have not yet viewed the film OR is off topic. 15 pts Paragraph 3: Personal Cinematic Experience 15 to >11 pts Excellent Includes a detailed description of one’s particular viewing experience. 11 to >6 pts Satisfactory Includes a limited description of one’s particular viewing experience. 6 to >0 pts Needs Improvement Includes no description of one’s viewing experience OR is off topic. 15 pts Paragraph 4: Analysis 20 to >14 pts Excellent One formal technique (cinematography, editing, lighting, sound, score, or genre) is discussed in detail, as well as one thematic piece of content. 14 to >7 pts Satisfactory Only ONE of two requirements (formal technique and thematic technique) is discussed in detail OR both are discussed in a limited way. 7 to >0 pts Needs Improvement Little to no discussion of a formal technique or a thematic technique is present OR is off-topic. 20 pts Paragraph 5: Conclusion & Evaluation 15 to >11 pts Excellent Reminds readers of general thoughts on the film, as well implicitly or explicitly states why film is/is not recommended, followed by details why. 11 to >6 pts Satisfactory Limited reminder of general thoughts on the film, and/or limited recommendation of film and/or details why. 6 to >0 pts Needs Improvement Little to no reminder of general thoughts on the film, and little to no recommendation of film and/or details why. 15 pts General Formatting and Mechanics 20 to >14 pts Excellent Review follows general formatting requirements and contains few or no mechanical errors. 14 to >7 pts Satisfactory Review follows some of the formatting requirements and contains several mechanical errors. 7 to >0 pts Needs Improvement Review follows little to no formatting requirements and exhibits numerous mechanical errors OR is not fluent – unreadable. 20 pts Unit 8 Male and Female Reproductive Systems Assignment Follow all instructions and guidelines for submitting assignments. Describe the anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems, including their accessory structures Explain the role of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones in male and female reproductive function Trace the path of a sperm cell from its initial production through fertilization of an oocyte Explain the events in the ovary prior to ovulation Describe the development and maturation of the sex organs and the emergence of secondary sex characteristics during puberty Unit 8 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Assignment Start Assignment Follow all instructions and guidelines for submitting assignments. Identify the body’s main fluid compartments and explain the importance of water in the body. Identify the six ions most important to the function of the body. Define buffer and discuss the role of buffers in the body. Explain why bicarbonate must be conserved rather than reabsorbed in the kidney. Identify the normal range of blood pH and name the conditions where one has a blood pH that is either too high or too low. Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the urinary system responds to maintain homeostasis in the body. Explain how the urinary system relates to other body systems in maintaining homeostasis. Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the urinary system could not maintain homeostasis. Contrast the composition of the intracellular fluid with that of the extracellular fluid. Explain the importance of protein channels in the movement of solutes. Identify the causes and symptoms of edema. Explain how water levels in the body influence the thirst cycle and what role would the hypothalamus have in thirst mechanisms. Identify the main routes by which water leaves the body. Describe the role of ADH and its effect on body water levels. Define dehydration and identify common causes of dehydration. List and provide the function of the six most important electrolytes in the body, and name the disorders associated with abnormally high and low levels of the six electrolytes Describe the role of aldosterone on the level of water in the body Identify the most powerful buffer system in the body, provide the equation to show how this buffer is reversible. Explain the way in which the respiratory system affects blood pH Identify the three blood variables considered when making a diagnosis of acidosis or alkalosis, what are the sources of compensation for blood pH problem of a respiratory origin and of a metabolic/renal origin? Unit 8 The Urinary System Assignment Start Assignment Follow all instructions and guidelines for submitting assignments. Characterize the roles of each of the parts of the urinary system. (Kidneys, nephrons, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra) Trace the flow of blood through the kidney and describe how blood is filtered in the kidney nephron. Provide symptoms of kidney failure and describe the normal versus abnormal urine composition. (normal range of pH, osmolarity, and volume) List some of the solutes filtered, secreted, and reabsorbed in different parts of the nephron. Describe the role of a portal system in the kidney. Explain how urine osmolarity is hormonally regulated and describe the regulation of major ions by the kidney. Summarize the role of the kidneys in maintaining acid-base balance. Compare and contrast blood plasma, glomerular filtrate, and urine characteristics. Compare and contrast male and female urethras. Describe the micturition reflex. Describe the external structure of the kidney, including its location, support structures, and covering. Identify the major internal divisions and structures of the kidney, identify the major blood vessels associated with the kidney. Name structures found in the cortex and medulla, describe the physiological characteristics of these areas and compare and contrast the cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons. Describe voluntary and involuntary neural control of micturition. Discuss the function of the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta. Identify the location of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and describe the cells that line it, and the function of this structure. Describe the histology of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts Describe glomerular filtration rate (GFR), state the average value of GFR, and explain how clearance rate can be used to measure GFR, predict specific factors that will increase or decrease GFR State the percent of the filtrate that is normally reabsorbed and explain why the process of reabsorption is so important List common symptoms of kidney failure, and discuss the aging kidney and its function. Describe how each of the following functions in the extrinsic control of GFR: renin-angiotensin mechanism, natriuretic peptides, and sympathetic adrenergic activity Describe how each of the following works to regulate reabsorption and secretion, so as to affect urine volume and composition: renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and natriuretic peptides Name and define the roles of other hormones that regulate kidney control, what effect do diuretics have on fluid retention and loss? Explain why the differential permeability or impermeability of specific sections of the nephron tubules is necessary for urine formation Describe the role of the kidneys in vitamin D activation, and the role of the kidneys in regulating erythropoiesis Instructor feedback to what is expected… Research the range of contemporary issues teenagers face today. In a 500-750-word paper, choose one issue (besides teen pregnancy) and discuss its effect on adolescent behavior and overall well-being. Include the following in your submission: Describe the contemporary issue and explain what external stressors are associated with this issue. Outline assessment strategies to screen for this issue and external stressors during an assessment for an adolescent patient. Describe what additional assessment questions you would need to ask and define the ethical parameters regarding what you can and cannot share with the parent or guardian. Discuss support options for adolescents encountering external stressors. Include specific support options for the contemporary issue you presented. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance. PSCI 600 Research Paper or Presentation: Final Assignment Instructions Read all instructions and rubrics carefully before writing your research paper or creating your presentation. You are responsible for having read and understood these documents. More specifically, for the Research Paper: Final Assignment you will compare and contrast the role and impact of the concept of Federalism with the rise of what Dickovick and Eastwood call “Juristocracy.” Your analysis should 1) provide a comparison and contrast of the two concepts, 2) provide examples from the United States (for Federalism) and at least one country that has been influenced by the ideas of “Juristocracy,” and 3) evaluate both concepts and their influence in light of Biblical principles and a Judeo-Christian worldview Research Paper: If you elect to write a research paper for this assignment, the text of this research paper must be 5–7 pages (not including title page, reference page, and any appendices). This paper must be in current Turabian format and must contain a minimum of 3 scholarly sources in addition to the course textbooks. You must include citations to a sufficient number of appropriate sources to fully support your assertions and conclusions. (This assignment draws heavily from the assigned readings for this module and you are expected to illustrate your understanding of those sources.) Textbook Used: Comparative Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings 2017 by Tyler J. Dickovick and Jonathan Eastwood Comparative Politics: Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases3RD 19 by Tyler J. Dickovick and Jonathan Eastwood Page 2 of 2 MGMT 4311 Entrepreneurship Assignment 3C “Quick and Dirty” Financial Feasibility Analysis. (15 points / 5% of final grade) Page one: Read the general instructions and visit the US Small Business Administration online. Page 2-4 Tables…. Fill out the tables completely and reasonably to receive all 15 points. Introduction: Financial feasibility should be assessed before doing a business plan outline. Good documents help build a company culture and objective attitude. To be honest, financial feasibility is rather simple and intuitive mathematics – you don’t need to be a financial expert to get the basic numbers down on paper. Thus, I will not be asking you to do a sophisticated financial analysis at this stage of the project. The numbers will be inaccurate. They will change substantially as your idea moves toward reality. For example, its impossible to know exactly what your total costs will be or your actual sales. This is why we try to look at the general patterns of the industry we are entering. Are you opening a restaurant? The finances could vary quite a lot, from thousands to millions of dollars per month of cooperating costs, depending on the business model, location, size, and popularity of the business. At this stage of your project, the financial feasibility analysis will focus on three main issues: 1) What is the cost of the minimum viable business you are trying to create in the first year? Some businesses start large, others start very small. For your project, I am asking you to start as small as you can. This is because you are not a serial entrepreneur or franchisee, and you aren’t using a proven business system or relying on lots of venture capital. Thus, your FIRST attempt at a feasibility analysis should be for the “minimum viable product”. The minimum viable product is the simplest version of your business that is worth pursuing, with the simplest product/service offerings that you can make. Thus, you must choose a rough estimate of the costs of entering the business. You can research this information on the internet in many ways- watching youtube videos, searching for articles and blogs about your business model, or simply making good “educated guesses” about the costs of each specific resource you must spend money on. Make sure you focus on LEGAL COSTS of starting the business, not just labor, inventory, rent. 2) What is the projected revenue of your business? You don’t have magic powers or a crystal ball to see the future. Your estimates of your revenues are just that: an estimate. And those estimates will get better as your business grows. But first, you need to figure out the revenue you will need to “Break even”, and how long it will take to reach the break even point. You will also need to estimate the number of customers it takes to generate that much revenue. This analysis will tell you how much financing you will need to cover your losses as you build your business. 3) How much startup capital and financing will you need to reach break-even point? Financing can be kind of difficult to get. First, you will need some cash of your own (capital). Financing and grant assistance can cover the rest. Usually you need to be in business for 3-12 months and show some revenues before your loans become available, so you must find estimate the costs of survival until you reach that point; and then, estimate the financing amount, plus interest owed. Your most important resource is the Small Business Association. It tells you about various kinds of funding and assistance. Loans (sba.gov) . use this link for sba.gov, or simply search for “small business administration” in Google. Read up about their financial programs. Table One: Costs Table (summarized not itemized). GET THE BASIC INFORMATION FROM ASSIGMENT THREE PART 1A (Product and Operations). Capital will cost you money, but has value and thus can be used as collateral for your business (i.e., it contributes to the value of your business and can help you get loans). Expenses, on the other hand, aren’t worth anything to your lenders, and are merely costs of doing business. But to make these cost projections, you must first complete the table below, where you list individual purchases you will need to have made by the launch day. You will buy more equipment and inventory when you ready to expand your business capacity, such as adding more vending machines after your financing becomes available. CAPITAL COSTS Launch day estimates (1 month of wages included) Launch day, high estimate (add at least 20% to column 1) Expansion costs (new costs when you finance your business to grow, usually around month 6-9) Total estimate at end of Year one (for wages, include 12 months; for everything else, use column 3 and 4) OWNED EQUIPMENT INVENTORY EXPENSE COSTS LABOR COSTS LEGAL AND INSURANCE LEASED STUFF TOTAL (SUM) Table Two: Launch day estimates, itemized: In this table, you will describe the most important categories of items you need to purchase to start your business at launch day, how many units of those items you will need at first. YOU CAN ADD OR DELETE COLUMNS. For example, you might need kitchen equipment for a restaurant. Don’t list every kitchen tool in the table. This number will change over time. Simply put a rough cash estimate of all kitchen equipment you will buy into the “owned equipment ,Item #1” row and column. You can add more rows or change the size of the table. You should list additional description details below the table. For example, I might estimate that my list of food truck kitchen equipment costs me $10,000 to start. I list the details below the table (sinks, utensils, fridge, etc.). I also estimate that I’ll add milkshake and coffee machines at expansion ($2000), and so I put that in table column 4. Some businesses have low labor costs and high inventory/capital, whereas services are opposite. Be honest: don’t make up expenses you don’t have and don’t make up capital you don’t need. You can also save money by having your legal and insurance costs supported by small business administration or other programs. Tell me if that’s your plan. Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Expansion Items OWNED EQUIPMENT One-time cost INVENTORY Item#1 #2 #3 #4 (expansion) Monthly Costs (units sold times cost) LABOR Monthly Costs LEGAL / INS Annual costs LEASED STUFF Monthly cost List your itemized details here that don’t fit in the table….. OWNED EQUIPMENT….INVENTORY…….LABOR COSTS….. LEGAL/INS…. LEASED STUFF….this will help your teammates complete their own estimates. For legal/ins, make sure to mention overhead costs like payroll, credit card processing, etc. Table Three: Revenue Targets Start with your primary products, and their unit prices. Then estimate sales per week and year 1. Product/Service Unit price Units of inventory at launch Average units sold per week, before financing Number of weeks Units sold per week, after financing and expansion Number of weeks Total sales, year 1 (column 3×4) + (column 5×6) 1 2 3 4 5 TOTALS Table Four: Break Even Analysis (use data from your other tables to complete this) For calculating inventory, use sales growth rate. For example, if your sales growth rate is you’re your inventory costs should go up by 10% every year. For owned equipment, I put zeros in the columns of year 2-4. Don’t add any new costs in year 2-4 unless you really need to expand more. You should break even when your SALES-COSTS are zero or higher. Use bold font for your break even point. Sales growth rate = (estimate how fast your sales will grow every year.) Wage increase rate = (add at least 5% more wages per year- use your own estimate) COSTS Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 OWNED EQUIPMENT 0 0 0 INVENTORY WAGES LEASED STUFF TOTAL SALES SALES – COSTS Forensics Discussions Consider these three discussion points, write a minimum 250-word essay on your thoughts about this. Please feel free to use the book (information on the 2nd word doc) to give thorough answers and NO PLAGARISM. 1. The use of self-service analytics can introduce some new problems for an organization. Describe at least two potential issues organizations may face when implementing self-service analytics. 2. What can the organizations do to mitigate these issues? ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Discuss the differences between a Windows and a Macintosh forensic investigation. 2. Andrea believes one of her employees, a sound technician, has been stealing intellectual property from the company. She thinks he is copying original music scores and then selling them to upstart musicians, claiming that he wrote them. Andrea checked the employee’s computer the previous night and thinks he has been deleting the files to cover his tracks. He uses a Macintosh computer. Recommend one of the tools for use in this case and justify your recommendation. ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Discuss a few legal issues related to mobile device forensic activities in general. 2. Discuss where the balance lies between monitoring/privacy breaches and the benefits of using new technology to help detect and solve crimes. ______________________________________________________________________________ Forensics labs Book: System Forensics, Investigation, & Response (3rd edition) JBLearning Lab 2: Documenting a Workstation Configuration Using Common Forensic Tools All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will perform a forensic analysis of a Windows 2016 machine using three commonly available tools: WinAudit, DevManView, and Frhed. You will review the forensic capabilities of each tool, using the sample files provided, to determine any clandestine threats and vulnerabilities such as viruses and malicious software, if any. You also will recover a file that was altered to hide its native file format. You will document your findings in a forensics report. Deliverables: Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab excluding lab quiz SECTION 1 of this lab has three parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will use WinAudit to explore the configuration of the TargetWindows01. In the second part of the lab, you will use DevManView to identify system devices and configuration. In the third part of this lab, you will use Frhed to perform an analysis of an unknown file type. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will use the same tools to explore the vWorkstation, rather than TargetWindows01 Lab 3: Uncovering New Digital Evidence Using Bootable Forensic Utilities All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use a variety of forensic tools that are independent executables that run locally on a workstation or server under investigation. You will explore the features and functions of the following forensic utilities in this lab: Helix, Process Explorer, FavoritesView, IECacheView, IECookiesView, BrowsingHistoryView, and MyLastSearch. You will document specific data from each tool. Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab excluding lab quiz SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will use Helix to identify system information and gather details about the images on the machine under investigation. In the second part of the lab, you will use different Internet Explorer forensic utility tools to get additional data on running processes, favorites, cache, cookies, browsing History of the Electoral College, and browser searches. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. Lab 4: Creating a Forensic System Case File for Analyzing Forensic Evidence All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use E3 to investigate an image of a hard drive to find forensic evidence without impacting the integrity of the data on the image. You will create an electronic case file showing the creation of a case and the addition of the evidence file provided to you, and you will save the case for later review. In this way, you will experience all of the steps necessary for a sound forensic investigation that will preserve Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz SECTION 1 of this lab has one part. In the first part of the lab, you will explore the E3 tool used within the virtual lab environment. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will create a case file for a different drive image. the source and ensure the evidence is defensible and presentable in a court of law. Lab 5: Analyzing Images to Identify Suspicious or Modified Files All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use E3’s Image Analyzer to automate image analysis to identify suspect files that may be useful in a forensic investigation. You will use E3’s sort features to sort the files on the evidence drive into categories for easier analysis. You will document your progress throughout the lab. Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz) SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will start a new case file in E3. In the second part of the lab, you will use E3’s Image Analyzer to sort and analyze the images contained within an evidence drive under investigation. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will sort and review evidence from a different drive image. Lab 6: Recognizing the Use of Steganography in Image Files All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In a forensic investigation, investigators will explore a targeted machine in search of steganographic evidence, but when they do this, they risk changing the very data they seek, potentially invalidating evidence. For this reason, they will often make an image (copy) of an evidence drive and conduct the investigation on that image. In this lab, you will use S-Tools, and Windows Paint to discover possible steganographic activity on the image files in this evidence drive copy. Using S- Tools, you will properly identify and extract embedded data in a carrier image and document your findings. Upon completing this lab, you will be able to: Use S-Tools for Windows utility to search for possible steganographic activity embedded in image files Extract a cipher key text file Identify the use of steganographic data concealment techniques for covert communication and potential injected data Extract steganographic sequestered data from identified image files while conserving their integrity Report the details of hidden files Deliverables: SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will open image files on the TargetWindows01 machine using Microsoft Windows Paint and describe the images in your Lab Report In the second part of the lab, you will S-Tools to identify and extract any hidden embedded data. Lab 7: Automating E-mail Evidence Discovery (E3) All tools and instructions to complete this lab are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use E3 to automate e-mail and chat analysis to identify suspect files that may be useful in a forensic investigation. You will use E3’s sort features to sort the files on the evidence drive into categories for easier analysis. You will document your progress throughout the lab to preserve the source and ensure the evidence is defensible and presentable in a court of law. Deliverables: Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz), SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. 1. In the first part of the lab, you will create and sort an evidence case file using E3. 2. In the second part of the lab, you will use E3 to view suspicious chat and e-mail files for evidence investigation. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will review e-mail evidence from a different drive image, export e-mail files as evidence, and compare hash codes before and after exporting the e-mail files.. Lab 8: Decoding an FTP Protocol Session for Forensic Evidence All tools and instructions to complete this part are found in LAB 8 as part of the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use two very powerful forensic analysis tools, Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator, to examine the same File Transfer Protocol (FTP) traffic capture file, and compare the results of each. FTP is a protocol that is used extensively in business and social communications as a means to move files between a host and a client. Just about every time you download something from an internet site, you are using a version of FTP to manage the process. It is the most-frequently used file transfer tool, but it is vulnerable. You will explore the protocol capture file to see how FTP’s cleartext transmission can endanger an organization. Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz), SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will use Wireshark to examine a protocol capture file and identify the specifics of an FTP In the second part of the lab, you will use NetWitness Investigator to examine that same protocol capture file and identify further specifics of an FTP SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will generate your own protocol capture file for examination. Lab 9: Identifying and Documenting Evidence from a Forensic Investigation All tools and instructions to complete this part are found in LAB 9 as part of the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will explore the forensic capabilities of E3 by using the sorting and search features to identify evidence. You will create bookmarks for the evidence you find to make it easier to locate them later. You will create an evidentiary report that can be used in a court of law, and a MD5 hash code for the report. perform the following: Discuss proper documentation requirements and the chain of custody for a forensic investigation Use E3 to search for potential evidence in a forensic case file Bookmark evidence in a forensic case file Generate an evidentiary report from E3 that can be submitted in a court of law Generate an MD5 hash file for evidentiary reports generated by E3 Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz) SECTION 1 of this lab has two parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of this lab, you will create and sort a new case file using E3. In the second part of this lab, you will identify relevant evidence and generate an investigative report from E3. SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will identify and document evidence from a different drive image. Lab 10: Conducting an Incident Response Investigation for a Suspicious Login All tools and instructions to complete this part are found in LAB 10 as part of the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook. In this lab, you will use NetWitness Investigator to analyze the network traffic to identify a suspect’s login credentials from an FTP packet trace. You will also use E3 to analyze the digital portion of a forensic image and locate the transferred file on the suspect’s own evidence drive. You will export the suspect files, add bookmarks in the Case Log, and create a report to detail your findings. Upon completing this lab, you will be able to: Identify suspect login credentials from an FTP packet trace Evaluate information that would be useful to an attacker who has infiltrated the network Analyze the digital portion of a forensic investigation and link the two pieces of evidence together to solidify your case Bookmark and export suspect data Create a report detailing findings based on automated reporting of evidence related to a suspect’s email communications, identified email attachments, and the protocol capture of the FTP session Please complete Sections 1 and 2 of this lab (excluding lab quiz) SECTION 1 of this lab has four parts which should be completed in the order specified. In the first part of the lab, you will use NetWitness Investigator to examine a protocol capture file and find specific information needed to complete the deliverables for this lab. In the second part of this lab, you will create and sort a new case file using E3. In the third part of the lab, you will use E3 to perform a forensic image investigation and explore a suspect user’s email account for In the fourth part of the lab, you will use E3 to generate an evidentiary report of a suspect’s email SECTION 2 of this lab allows you to apply what you learned in SECTION 1 with less guidance and different deliverables, as well as some expanded tasks and alternative methods. You will also add screen captures from a Netwitness Investigator report to your E3 case file. PROJECT REPORT Deliverables Please choose FOUR OPTIONS (OPTION 1 is mandatory) from the following six options and complete the report for your chosen four options. Option 1: Preparing for a Forensic Investigation      (45 points) Option 2: Analyzing an E-mail Archive for an Electronic Discovery Investigation      (35 points) Option 3: Analyzing Evidence from Mac OS X        (35 points) Option 4: Private Investigation Firms Offering Digital Forensics Services          (35 points) Option 5: State-of-the-art Equipment for Digital Forensics Lab        (35 points) Option 6: Data Recovery Plan          (35 points) The following tools and resources will be needed to complete this project (They are found in the virtual lab access that accompanies the textbook) Course textbook Internet access Computer with Paraben P2 Commander/E3 installed Outlook.pst (an e-mail archive file) JSmith.img (Mac OS image file) Option 1: Preparing for a Forensic Investigation Scenario You are an employee at D&B Investigations, a firm that contracts with individuals, companies, and government agencies to conduct computer forensics investigations. D&B employees are expected to observe the following tenets, which the company views as the foundation for its success: Give concerted attention to clients’ needs and concerns. Follow proper procedures and stay informed about legal issues. Maintain the necessary skill set to apply effective investigative techniques using the latest technologies. Your manager has just scheduled a meeting with an important prospective client, and she has asked you to be part of the team that is preparing for the meeting. The prospective client is Brendan Oliver, a well-known celebrity. Last night, Mr. Oliver’s public relations team discovered that someone obtained three photos that were shot on his smartphone, and tried to sell the photos to the media. Due to the sensitive nature of the photos, Mr. Oliver and his team have not yet contacted law enforcement. They would like to know if D&B can provide any guidance or support related to the investigation—or, at the very least, if D&B can help them prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future. At this time, they do not know how the photos were acquired. The public relations team is wondering if a friend, family member, or employee could have gained direct access to Mr. Oliver’s phone and obtained the photos that way, although the phone is usually locked with a passcode when Mr. Oliver is not using it. In addition, Mr. Oliver e-mailed the photos to one other person several months ago; he has not spoken with that person in the last few weeks, but he does not believe that person would have shared the photos with anyone else. Your manager plans to use this initial meeting with Mr. Oliver and his public relations team to establish rapport, learn more about the case, and demonstrate the firm’s expertise. The company sees this as an opportunity to build future business, regardless of whether they are retained to help with the investigation of this case. Tasks To help the team prepare for the meeting, your manager asks you (and your colleagues) to consider and record your responses the following questions: What is the nature of the alleged crime, and how does the nature of the crime influence a prospective investigation? Based on the limited information provided in the scenario, what is the rationale for launching an investigation that uses computer forensic activities? Would D&B and/or law enforcement need additional information in order to determine if they should proceed with an investigation? Why or why not? What would you share with the client about how investigators prepare for and conduct a computer forensics investigation? Identify three to five key points that are most relevant to this case. What sources of evidence would investigators likely examine in this case? Provide concrete examples and explain your rationale. What should the client, investigators, and others do—or not do—to ensure that evidence could be used in a court of law? Using layman’s terms, explain laws and legal concepts that should be taken into account during the collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence. What questions and concerns do you think the client will have? What questions should the team ask the client to learn more about the case and determine the next steps? Option 2: Analyzing an E-mail Archive for an Electronic Discovery Investigation Scenario D&B is conducting a very large electronic discovery (eDiscovery) investigation for a major client. This case is so large that dozens of investigators and analysts are working on specific portions of the evidence in parallel to save time and improve efficiency. Since this is the first time you will be working on this type of investigation for D&B, your manager gives you a “test” (a sample e-mail archive) so she can assess whether you need additional training before you begin working with the rest of the team on the eDiscovery case. Your manager tells you that this archive was extracted from a hard drive image marked “suspect,” but at present nothing more is known about the user. She expects you to examine the archive and document all findings that might be of interest to a forensic investigator. She explains that she will use your report to evaluate your investigation skills, logic and reasoning abilities, and reporting methods. Tasks Review the information about e-mail forensics and the Paraben P2 Commander/E3 E-mail Examiner feature in the chapter titled “E-mail Forensics” in the course textbook. Using the P2 Commander/E3 E-mail Examiner, create a case file, select Add Evidence, and import the e-mail archive (filename: Outlook.pst). P2 Commander/E3 will automatically begin sorting and indexing if you choose that option. Search for information about the user; your goal is to learn as much as possible about who the user is and what he or she has been doing. You may find evidence in the inbox or other mailboxes. You can use the software features to help you keep track of the evidence you identify, for instance, by bookmarking sections of interest and exporting attachments. Write a report in which you: Document your investigation methods. Document your findings. Explain what you found that may be of interest to a forensic investigator, and provide your rationale for including each selection. Option 3: Analyzing Evidence from Mac OS X Scenario Two weeks ago, D&B Investigations was hired to conduct an incident response for a major oil company in North Dakota. The company’s senior management had reason to suspect that one or more company employees were looking to commit corporate espionage. The incident response team went on-site, began monitoring the network, and isolated several suspects. They captured forensic images from the machines the suspects used. Now, your team leader has asked you to examine a forensic image captured from a suspect’s computer, which runs the Mac OS X operating system. The suspect’s name is John Smith, and he is one of the company’s research engineers. Tasks Review the information on the Mac OS X file structure provided in the chapter titled “Macintosh Forensics” in the course textbook. Using Paraben P2 Commander/E3, create a case file and add the image the incident response team captured (filename: Mac OS JSmith.img). Sort and review the various directories within the Mac OS X image. Look for evidence or indicators that John Smith was or was not committing corporate espionage. This may include direct evidence that John Smith took corporate property, as well as indirect evidence or indicators about who the suspect is and what his activities were during work hours. You can use the software features to help you keep track of the evidence you identify, for instance, by bookmarking sections of interest and exporting files. Write a report in which you: Document your investigation methods. Document your findings. Explain what you found that may be relevant to the case, and provide your rationale for each item you have identified as an indicator or evidence that John Smith was or was not committing corporate espionage. Analyze the potential implications of these findings for the company and for a legal case. Option 4: Private Investigation Firms Offering Digital Forensics Services Scenario There was a time that if you wanted to work in digital forensics you had to work for the FBI Crime Lab. There are many more options now. A number of private investigation firms offer digital forensics services, each with different focuses and varying qualifications. Tasks: Research three private investigation firms that offer digital forensics services. Describe each company. Describe the services each one provides. Describe each firm’s clients. Describe the qualifications/certifications each firm holds. Option 5: State-of-the-art Equipment for Digital Forensics Lab Scenario You have been working for the DigiFirm Investigation Company for several months. The company has a new initiative to continually improve its processes. Technology changes quickly. Therefore, companies need to change their procedures frequently to stay abreast of new developments. Organizations such as the National Institute of Justice and the FBI offer up-to-date recommendations on best practices. There is a meeting scheduled for next week to talk about best practices in collecting digital evidence using state-of-the-art equipment in forensics lab. Tasks: Choose three examples of software or state-of-the-art equipment that would benefit the forensics lab and write a proposal that covers: Your three choices. The reasons for choosing them. The benefits and limitations (if any) of each choice. Best practices in collecting digital evidence Option 6: Data Recovery Plan Scenario You are an employee of DigiFirm Investigation Company. You received a call from Bill, an engineer at Skyscraper, Inc., a large commercial construction company. Bill reported that a disgruntled employee reformatted a hard disk that contained valuable blueprints for a current job. The computer is an ordinary laptop that was running Windows 7. No backup is available, and Bill wants the data to be recovered. You can use a few built-in tools to recover deleted files from a Windows 7 operating system. There are also third-party tools that might be helpful. Before beginning any data recovery endeavor, it’s a good idea to research your options and plan your approach. Tasks: Research, identify, and list the appropriate steps for recovering data from a reformatted hard disk. Write a report that includes a data recovery plan outline, listing the steps to be performed in recovering the data in the order of importance. Submission Requirements for all four options that you choose: Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, 12-Point, Double-Space Citation Style: APA Length: Each option that you choose should have a minimum of 3 pages. So overall report size should be a minimum of 12 pages (excluding title page and bibliography). Remember: Please choose ONLY FOUR OPTIONS (Including option1 which is mandatory) out of six options listed in this document. Assignment 1 completed Develop your first instructional pod in your unit. Elements to include: Annotated video created and narrated by you (no more than 9 minutes in length and including comprehension checks along the way) You must use ScreenCastify (or a video recording service of your choice as long as it permits you to do a voice-over and insert your animations and notations within the presentation). The free version of ScreenCastify has a maximum recording time of 5 minutes, so plan your lectures to get the most out of your time! Guided notes for students to complete while viewing the lecture. Collaborative assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. This must be classified as “must do” but you may also include a “Should do” assignment. Independent assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. You must include both a “must do” and a “should do” assignment. Inclusion of an “Aspire to do” assignment. Mastery check with indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. This first pod should represent the most basic and introductory level of information in your unit. NOTES ON SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT: Upload to Canvas the URL of your unit plan.  All parts of this assignment are to be contained within your LMS system as described in the Week 1E instructional video – Final Project Instructions and in the Modern Classroom training website. See Appendix B for specific guidelines and elements to be included. One revision is allowed, if needed. The revision must be submitted by midnight next week Wednesday. Assignment 2 Develop your second instructional pod in your unit. Elements to include: Annotated video created and narrated by you (no more than 9 minutes in length and including comprehension checks along the way) Guided notes for students to complete while viewing the lecture Collaborative assignment with indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. This must be classified as “must do” but you may also include a “Should do” assignment. Independent assignment with indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. You must include both a “must do” and a “should do” assignment. Inclusion of an “Aspire to do” assignment. Mastery check with indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. NOTES ON SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT: Upload to Canvas the URL of your unit plan.  All parts of this assignment are to be contained within your LMS system as described in the Week 1E instructional video – Final Project Instructions and in the Modern Classroom training website. See Appendix B for specific guidelines and elements to be included. This second pod should represent a deeper understanding of the information in your unit. You are scaffolding your instruction. One revision is allowed, if needed. The revision must be submitted by midnight next week Wednesday. Assignment 3 Final Project Part 3: Submit by Saturday 11:59 p.m. (30 points) Develop your third instructional pod in your unit. Elements to include: Annotated video created and narrated by you (no more than 9 minutes in length and including comprehension checks along the way) Guided notes for students to complete while viewing the lecture Collaborative assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. This must be classified as “must do” but you may also include a “Should do” assignment. Independent assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. You must include both a “must do” and a “should do” assignment. Inclusion of an “Aspire to do” assignment. Mastery check with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. NOTES ON SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT: Upload to Canvas the URL of your unit plan.  All parts of this assignment are to be contained within your LMS system as described in the Week 1E instructional video – Final Project Instructions and in the Modern Classroom training website. See Appendix B for specific guidelines and elements to be included. This third pod should represent a deeper understanding of the information in your unit. You are still scaffolding your instruction. One revision is allowed, if needed. The revision must be submitted by midnight next week Wednesday. Assignment 4 Final Project Part 4: Submit by Saturday 11:59 p.m. (30 points) Develop your final instructional pod in your unit. Elements to include: Annotated video created and narrated by you (no more than 9 minutes in length and including comprehension checks along the way) Guided notes for students to complete while viewing the lecture Collaborative assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. This must be classified as “must do” but you may also include a “Should do” assignment. Independent assignment with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. You must include both a “must do” and a “should do” assignment. Inclusion of an “Aspire to do” assignment. Mastery check with an indication of how long the activity should take for students to complete. NOTES ON SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENT: Upload to Canvas the URL of your unit plan.  All parts of this assignment are to be contained within your LMS system as described in the Week 1E instructional video – Final Project Instructions and in the Modern Classroom training website. See Appendix B for specific guidelines and elements to be included. This final pod should represent the deepest level of understanding of the information in your unit. One revision is allowed, if needed. The revision must be submitted by midnight next week Wednesday. I will create the video from the guided notes. The slides for each pod are to be 6 min to 9 min. I just need enough information to talk for the 6 min. The slides are to have pictures and a few embedded questions. This is to help students be engaged. I completed Pod 1. Label things as Pod 2 guided notes, Pod 2 Collaborative assignment, Pod 3 independent assignment, Aspire to do assignment. The same for Pod 3 and Pod 4. The worksheets can be used from anywhere. I just need a brief description where they came from like teacher pay teacher ect. I have to have a teacher key for all assignments. I need a homework assignment. The assignments can be 1, 2, 3, 4 or more questions. It doesn’t have to be a lot of work. Assignments must have a key. I will include the objectives and other important information. Pod 1 Feudalism completed Pod 2 Mercantilism (pictures and embedded questions) Pod 3 Socialism (Pictures and embedded questions) Pod 4 Fascism(Pictures and embedded questions) AGAD 100: Analysis Objective Discuss experiences in arts and cultural management. Show connections between course content and these experiences. Practice writing. Deadlines The analysis is due October 17. Value 15% Detailed instructions Step one: Listen to a podcast of someone in arts and cultural management discussing their experiences. Possibilities include: Standing By (https://open.spotify.com/show/2WEMBGI94pdagDYAKTNOi1): This is a student recommendation from last semester. The host talks to different theatre practitioners in Canada. Artful Conversations (https://www.artfulconversations.com/about): This is another podcast from Annetta Latham at MacEwan. Any of the episodes would work. Museopunks (https://www.aam-us.org/programs/about-museums/museopunks/ ): As a museum person, I really enjoy this podcast. Some episodes are more relevant than others, but there are plenty to choose from. Art and Labor (http://www.artandlaborpodcast.com/podcast/episode-45-design-and-illustration-with-colleen-tighe/): I have not listened to the podcast myself, but a student recommended it… I think the title is self-explanatory! Two Crees in a Pod https://podcasts.apple.com/ca/podcast/2-crees-in-a-pod/id1517083728 If you have an alternative suggestion, please email me for approval. Step two: Create a written reflection paper that includes: A brief summary of the content 3 “take aways” (i.e. lessons) A reflection on the connection between course content and practice Please note: These three components should be interrelated. The summary (background) and takeways (supporting argument) should build toward a reflection on connections to the course (thesis statement). Step three: Format the analysis as a paper in order to practice writing for the research paper. Formatting and other expectations include: 750 – 1000 words double (or 1.5) spaced A sans serif font (e.g., Arial, Calibri) 11 or 12 point font 2.54 cm margins Step five: Save the file as a PDF and submit. To submit, click on Assignments in the course navigation menu then click on the Analysis Assignment folder. AGAD 100 Analysis Assignment Needs Improvement Good Excellent Relevance The submission is about a talk / interview / presentation / etc. by someone working in the arts / cultural sector about their work. 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 Summary Includes a brief summary (who, what, when… etc). 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 “Take aways” (i.e. lessons) Includes 3 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 Reflection Makes a connection between the content / lessons and course content. 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 Content Contains an introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction includes the relevant background, a thesis statement, and a roadmap for the paper. Contains a body with three takeaways as supporting arguments/information for a broader reflection. Contains a conclusion that summarizes the main points and re-iterates the reflection. 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 Clarity and editing The paper is edited for clear, concise language. It follows formatting guidelines. 0-1 1.25-2.25 2.5 Caldwell 1 Maegan Caldwell Dr. Melissa Birkhofer ENG 202 2 November 2021 Peer Review for Angela Childers The first annotation is from a journal. The first sentence provides a quick summary of the article and why it’s relevant to her subject. It meets the 150-word minimum as do all her annotations. Citation is in MLA style with proper formatting. This is a good review, but I did notice analyzes is spelled wrong at the beginning and I think the works cited should be a on separate page at the end. You mentioned the paper supports your hypothesis, but you never stated what it was. The second annotation has a link to it. I liked that, but not sure if that’s ok for the assignment. I noticed on that link it was PubMed article, which is the subject of our discussion this week, but I didn’t see any conflict-of-interest notations. While there were no spelling errors, I saw a few grammar errors. Reading it out loud should help you identify these easily. On the third annotation the subject matter is clear. It’s hard to tell what kind of article this is based on the citation, but that isn’t her fault, unless part of it is missing. I couldn’t find the article from copying and pasting it into a browser. Formatting of citation is correct. The last annotation is from a journal and the subject is clear in the first sentence. The word however was used to open two sentences, that should be revised so it only appears once if needed. Also repetition of the author notes or he notes more than once. Formatting of citation appears correctly. Overall, these are good. My suggestion is just to read everything out loud to your self after writing. There’s so much more you will notice when you do that. Correction of these few grammar issues is all I see. ANIMAL DRUGS: FUTURE STEPCHILD OR PIONEER?, 55 Food & Drug L.J. 33 55 Food & Drug L.J. 33 Food & Drug Law Journal 2000 ANIMAL DRUGS: FUTURE STEPCHILD OR PIONEER? Copyright (c) 2000 Food and Drug Law Institute; Eugene I. Lambert Submitted by Eugene I. Lambert THE CENTER FOR VETERINARY MEDICINE Organizationally, the regulation of animal drugs at FDA always has taken a backseat to the larger regulation of human food, drugs, and medical devices. Even with “Center” status, the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is not on par with the other four Centers: the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, or the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Yet, the issues that confront CVM (and its predecessors) and that will continue to be of importance, will be in the forefront of regulation, both substantively and procedurally. There are three groups of animal drugs that CVM regulates: 1) those for companion animals such as dogs and cats; 2) those for major food species such as beef, swine, and poultry; and 3) those for “all others,” which range from other food-producing animals (sheep and aquaculture), to wildlife (either in the wild or in zoos), to exotic domesticated species (including ferrets and aquarium fish). While the other FDA Centers deal with a single species–Homo Sapiens–and find that species difficult enough when segmented by sex, age, and health status, CVM must confront those segments for innumerable species, often overlaid with human health concerns. CVM could be as large as the other four product Centers combined, and it could not regulate to the depth of those Centers; as a matter of rational priorities, it should not. What will be the driving issues over the next decades? Projecting the past forward, animal drug regulation will be driven by human health concerns, and by the growth of the companion animal market to comfort an aging population (often with aging animals). FDA will have to find a way to avoid regulation that falls outside these driving forces, leaving it to other channels or mechanisms. COMPANION ANIMALS For many years, the companion animal drug market was static and limited to drugs for which there was no real human market, such as wormers. As it has become evident that owners are interested in the longevity and comfort of their animals, all of the aging issues that confront humans have become issues for companion animals. The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA)1 clarified the ability of veterinarians to use both approved animal and human drugs off-label, and FDA’s implementing regulations continued a policy of benign neglect in the companion animal market for such use. Recently, there has been important interest, which will continue, in the development of drugs that have been proven effective and safe in the target companion animal species. The most recent developments have been nonsteroidal anit-inflammatory drugs, but other “aging population” drugs are likely to follow. Because consumers will demand the same comfort level in the safety and efficacy of drugs for their companion animals as they have for themselves, FDA will not be able to avoid devoting significant resources to this category of drugs. FDA also will have to deal with “alternative care,” as it has in the human arena, and this will include not only medical but also dietary supplement issues. One unresolved issue for animal drug regulation is whether the DSHEA applies, and whether it should. *34 HUMAN FOOD SAFETY Human food safety has been, and should continue to be, the overriding concern of FDA in the evaluation of both treatment animal drugs and those used for economic reasons (growth promotion and feed efficiency). Historically, FDA’s focus has been (as directed by statute) on drug–or metabolite–residues. The means of assessing the safety of specific chemicals, even ones that are potentially carcinogenic, are well understood and fall squarely within FDA’s mission. More recently, issues have arisen that involve the effect of animal drugs on microorganisms that reside in or may contaminate animal food products. FDA shares jurisdiction in this area with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which has primary responsibility for the safety of meat food products, including the contamination of those products with harmful organisms. Prospectively, the issue is how the agencies will use their parallel jurisdiction, and whether their actions will balance the benefits to animals of adequate treatment and the risks to humans if treatment increases the prevalence of infectious organisms. Since FDA’s adoption in the early 1970s of risk assessment models for implementing the diethystilbestrol (DES) animal drug exception to the Delaney Clause, that agency has become comfortable with the use of this technique in developing regulatory models. The question will be whether the technique can be applied to these new circumstances. The use of developing methodologies, such as low-level use of antibacterials, the use of recombinant bovine stomatotropin or the development of fat/lean partitioning agents, raises the question of the role of government in judging consumer acceptance of these technologies as an evaluation of “safety.” FDA steadfastly has taken the position, domestically and internationally, that safety is judged scientifically, and the success of approved products in the marketplace (including consumer acceptance) should not be part of that equation. Increasingly, this is not the approach taken by major U.S. trading partners. The ongoing role of the U.S. government to maintain FDA’s historically preeminent position will be an important “food safety” issue. For example, one can question whether FDA’s position on irradiation disclosure has compromised intellectually the agency’s position on the nondisclosure of animal drug use in the food supply. Footnotes 1 Pub. L. No. 103-396, 108 Stat. 4153 (codified at 21 U.S.C. § 360b(a) (1994)). 55 FOODDLJ 33 End of Document © 2016 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. © 2016 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. D’Mecia Harper Animal Behavior Annotated Bibliography 1 Gowaty, P. A. (2012). The evolution of multiple mating: costs and benefits of polyandry to females and of polygyny to males. Fly, 6(1), 3-11. This article examines the pros and cons of multiple mating to females. The article defines “polyandry” as multiple mating in females and “polygyny” as multiple mating in males. The author further describes the benefits and costs of multiple mating. Among the benefits identified in this article include fitness advantages for the organisms involved in mating. This is a journal article published by a reputable institution, making it appropriate for my research on multiple mating. The article will serve as my primary source to help define and understand the terms used in animal mating behavior, such as polygyny and polyandry. Honors Seminar Final Report 2021 Fall NAME: Click or tap here to enter text. ULID: Click or tap here to enter text. Check your registered seminar (click the box): ☐[email protected][email protected][email protected][email protected][email protected][email protected][email protected][email protected] ☐ No Seminar (Essay Only – may try for prize money even if not registered for seminar) Check the essay topic you are answering (click the box): The questions for this semester for Silence by Shusaku Endo are: ☐ 1. Why does Kichijiro keep following Rodrigues throughout the novel? ☐ 2. What role does the ocean play in Silence? ☐ 3. How does Rodrigues’s definition of what constitutes sin change throughout the novel? ☐ 4. What role does tree imagery play to Rodrigues’s quest? Requirements: Essays should be submitted with this completed cover sheet via the Moodle portal. Save essay and covers sheet in PDF format and upload as one document. Please name your file “Firstname Lastname Honors Essay Fall 2021”. Essays must use Times New Roman 12-pt font, be double-spaced, and be at least 2 full pages in length. Do not give extraneous summaries of the book. Make an argument using the work. Support all generalizations with references to the book. It is not advisable to use secondary sources; however, if they are used, they must be appropriately cited according to MLA or APA guidelines. The essay must be the student’s original, individual work. The Honors Program has zero tolerance for plagiarism. By submitting this essay, the student asserts that it is their own work and did not collaborate with anyone else. All students enrolled in seminar must submit an essay. Those not meeting the deadline or adhering to the above guidelines will receive No Credit for seminar and may be subject to further action at the discretion of the Honors administration. Copy/paste your essay here. D’Mecia Harper Animal Behavior Annotated Bibliography 2 Haaland, T. R., Wright, J., Kuijper, B., & Ratikainen, I. I. (2017). Differential allocation revisited: when should mate quality affect parental investment?. The American Naturalist, 190(4), 534-546. This article explains the effects of differential allocation (DA). DA is the adaptive adjustment of reproductive investment based on the partner quality (Hooland et al., 2017). Animal mating is based on the quality of the mating partner, which informs the multiple mating in different animals. As explained in this article, the additive benefits of male quality on the offspring quality do not significantly impact the female’s selection for a mate. This article is a peer-reviewed article journal published by a reputable publisher. The article is also current (published in 2017), which makes the information current and relevant for my research. The article has important concepts on animal mating that will help me explain the rationale behind animal mating behaviors such as monogamous, polyandry, or polygyny relationships and how they influence the interaction of animals in their social environment. D’Mecia Harper Animal Behavior Annotated Bibliography 3 Hoogland, J. L., Trott, R., & Keller, S. R. (2019). Polyandry and polygyny in a social rodent: an integrative perspective based on social organization, copulations, and genetics. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 3. This article examines the complex nature of animal mating systems that has fascinated biologists for thousands of years. The authors describe the different ways to understand the mating system, including determining the social organization, observing the animal’s population, and using genetic to assign parentage. The authors further examine the effects of sexual receptivity on the kind of mating behavior that animals choose, polygyny or polyandry or any other form of mating behavior. This article is current (published in 2019) and a peer-reviewed journal that makes the information relevant and current for my research. This article also explains three approaches to predicting estimates for animal mating behavior that will help me understand the effects of sexual receptivity on animals when choosing a mating partner(s). ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Annotated Bibliography Brandon Walker ENGL110: Making Writing Relevant Jolene Mendel 10/17/2021 Annotated Bibliography Complete References entry here Paragraph summary and evaluation here (Please read all the assignment instructions word for word before you complete this task. Also, look at the sample annotated bibliography attached in this assignment area.) Complete References entry here Paragraph summary and evaluation here (Please read all the assignment instructions word for word before you complete this task. Also, look at the sample annotated bibliography attached in this assignment area.) Last Name 1 Women in the Two Versions of Gilgamesh Women characters have been developed in the play version of the Gilgamesh narrative. However, simply having female characters in the both play and the epic does not mean that they are presented in a positive light. Women, in the old societies, had mixed responsibilities. Even though they were not actively involved in power, politics, and forms of decision-making that placed them in powerful positions like men, they had important roles that helped them influence events in a powerful way. Based on the two readings, the epic, and the play, the female characters are presented in the same way; harlots, maidens, and mistresses. Women have been depicted in the same way in the two versions of Gilgamesh. Women are depicted as mistresses in the two versions of Gilgamesh. The role of women in both the epic and play of Gilgamesh have been expressed and depicted in the same way. Shamhat, the priestess of Ishtar is a mistress as her role involves seducing men with no personal motivation. Her work in both the play and the epic revolves around pleasuring men through sex and deduction. In most cases in the epic, she is referred to as the “harlot”. As depicted in the epic, Shamhat pleasures men. The author writes that “have her take off her robe and expose her sex; when he sees her, he will draw near to her” (Kovacs 4). She is used as a tool to set traps for men. In the play, she is depicted in the same way; as sex, a tool only serving to provide pleasure for men. In both the play and the epic, the mistress Shamhat has been euphemistically presented as a mare dancing girl even though she is a priestess of the goddess Ishtar. Basically, she is a sex worker who through the embodiment of the goddess of fertility Ishtar, uses her charms to seduce men like Enkidu. However, in both texts, Shamhat does not do what she does out of her own volition or personal motivation. She does this, pleasuring men with sex because she is commanded by the tyrannical king, Gilgamesh. For example, when Gilgamesh sends a trapper to lure Enkidu into the forest, he instructs him to take along Shamhat, the harlot who will lure Enkidu with her nude and sexy body for the trapper to trap Enkidu. It is clear that Shamhat is doing what she is doing not out of her volition but because she is forced to. She lives in a patriarchal society where men dominated and dictated almost every aspect of a woman’s life. Even though women are in possession of powerful tools at their disposal, they are still treated as mare maidens and subordinates to men. Another woman figure in the two texts is Ishtar, the goddess of fertility and procreation. She has the power to control many things, but her power seems to be limited when it comes to men. In scene 4 of the play, the conversation between Ishtar and Humbaba shows the limits of her powers to get what she wants. Humbaba says “he will seek out Gilgamesh, the one you desire; the name you call in your sleep” (Komunyakaa & Chad 19). The goddess is powerful enough to bend anyone to her will and do her bidding, but it seems that her charms are beyond controlling Gilgamesh. She can only envy and covet what she cannot get even with her powerful charms. Even though the goddess Ishtar is a representation and embodiment of the spiritual life, she is characterized with human feminine qualities. At some point, she lacks the goddess wrath that makes her powerful, she is submissive to men. She is in love with Gilgamesh and from her conversation with Humbaba, she is unable to get him. Like Shamhat, Ishtar is somehow bound by feminine responsibilities and societal expectations. Even in the powerful position and capacity, Ishtar still serves in the pleasure of men. She is the goddess of pleasure and sexuality and her priestess, Shamhat is the embodiment of sexuality in the mortal body. However, not all women are depicted with the despicable habits of being used by men to serve their pleasure. Other women, in the two versions of the text, are depicted as caring and loving. They are not emotionless as Shamhat and Ishtar. On such a woman is Ninsun, the mother to Gilgamesh. Ninsun is a caring mother who loves her child despite the tyrannical king he becomes. Even Gilgamesh treats her with the utmost respect. In the epic, Gilgamesh shares all his dreams with his mother because she is understanding. He says, “mother, I had a dream last night……., I tried to lift it but was too mighty for me” (Kovacs 5). While the statements of Gilgamesh seem to be ironical because he is a powerful king and half-god, it depicts his trust and dependence on his mother as well as a vulnerability when it comes to her. Later, as Gilgamesh prepares to go with Enkidu to face the Humbaba, Ninsun prepares Enkidu and ensures that he (Enkidu) takes care of Gilgamesh while they are away. In the play, Ninsun is also depicted as a caring and loving mother to Gilgamesh. In the second scene of the play, Ninsun tries to inquire from Gilgamesh about his restlessness while sleeping. Gilgamesh shares with his mother the dream about a star falling from the sky and was unable to grab it (Komunyakaa & Chad 7). In both texts, Ninsun is presented as a righteous woman who tries to do everything right and stand by his son. Even though Ninsun and Ishtar are powerful women, a queen, and a goddess respectively, but unlike Ishtar the destroyer, Ninsun tries to protect her family. Ninsun prays to Shamash to protect his son while they venture into the forest in search of Humbaba. Even though she is aware of her son’s despicable acts against the people of Uruk, but she supports him. As further depicted in the epic narrative, Tablet II and III, she has a kind heart as she adopts Enkidu, which strengthens the bond between Enkidu and Gilgamesh. The goddess, as depicted in both versions of the text is a destroyer. Ishtar is destructive when filled with anger and rage for those she does not want. For example, as depicted in the epic narrative, Ishtar becomes vicious and jealous of the victory of Gilgamesh against Humbaba. She sets to force him to marry her. She says “come along, Gilgamesh, be you, my husband, to me grant your lusciousness” (18). Even though Gilgamesh is a womanizer, as depicted in both texts, but he rejects the goddess’s offer because of her destructive nature and tendency. From Gilgamesh’s story about the colorful “little Sheperd” whom she loved and later broke his wing and Master Herder whom she struck and turned into a wolf (18). Even though she is presented with feminine qualities, the goddess Ishtar is incapable of loving. She has fallen in love with many men but she ends up destroying them. Unlike Ninsun who is characterized by the love that is nurturing and protective, the two versions of the story present the destructive character of Ishtar. In both versions of the text, some women are not bound by the patriarchal and tyrannical human world. Both Ishtar and Siduri are feminine characters who are bound by no man’s rules or expectations. For example, in both texts, Siduri lives in the wilderness beyond man’s reach. Ishtar, on the other hand, is a goddess who is not bound by the repressive sex-gender systems of society. They are both outcasts from the society dictated by men. In conclusion, the two versions of the story of Gilgamesh depicts the role of woman as subordinate. Even though not all women are depicted as harsh, hateful, and selfish, others like Shamhat and Ishtar are in powerful positions but they are somehow inclined to the patriarchal system of the society where the male dominates and dictates everything. The two versions of the story have presented the role of women, as mentioned and discussed in this essay, in the same way. Women in the epic of Gilgamesh and the play are full of knowledge and power, which makes them important in the development of the male characters. Works Cited Kovacs, Maureen Gallery. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Wolf Carnahan (Eds). Stanford University Press, 1998. Komunyakaa, Yusef, and Chad Gracia. Gilgamesh: A Verse Play. Wesleyan University Press, 2006. RSCH 201 Article Analysis: Humanities Assignment Instructions This essay needs to be written in formal academic style using APA, MLA, or Turabian guidelines. Do not simply create a list of answers; you need to craft a strong, argumentative essay with an introduction, clear topic sentences, developed paragraphs, transitions, clear organization, a conclusion, and a working thesis statement (among other expectations of academic style) to control the entire piece. The essay must contain 1000-1250 words. When you cite from our textbook and your selected source(s), you must cite according to current APA, MLA, or Turabian guidelines. Do not create a simple list of answers; balance your answers by creating paragraphs that address similar areas as you work through these answers. Again: a bullet list of answers is not enough. Be sure to write this in formal, academic prose, and be sure to support your answers by using source material—through correct formatting—from your article(s) and textbook. Choose one article from the Article Analysis: Humanities Assignment page, read, and answer the following questions: Research Purpose and Overview What was the purpose of the article? What is the thesis of the article? What theory(ies) informed the research? Methods and Research Identify the research method (qualitative or quantitative) used in this study. Identify the specific research design discussed by Hark (2019) that your chosen article/study employed. Conclusions, Limitations, and Future Research What is/are the conclusion(s) of the article? Were limitations to the argument identified? If so, explain them. Do the author(s) make suggestions for future research? If so, identify. Original Summary In 150 – 200 words write an original summary (i.e., an abstract) of the article. Original Analysis Name and explain three ways the Humanities article specifically differs from the Sciences article. How the do conclusions stated in the Sciences article compare to how conclusions are stated in the Humanities article? ARTICLE SUMMARY ASSIGNMENT: Find a scholarly research article from a peer reviewed journal that describes a police program, policy, or procedure that has been evaluated. Examine the article to find out how well it works, and summarize the article using the Research Article Summary outline format found in Getting Started.  Depending on the article, your summary should  be 2-3 pages in lenght.  Any less than that and you have missed something.  Don’t forget to attach a copy of the article to your summary, and remember to use proper APA style when providing the citation for the article. To find an article, access the Lamar Library and type in “Police” or “Law Enforcement” in the space for Journals. Or go to ProQuest and request articles about the subject. You may use other on-line data sources as well. The key point to remember is that the article must be from a professional journal. If there is not an abstract on the first page, it is probably not a research journal. Rationale for Article Summaries:  In addition to teaching you how to analyze research studies, the article summaries also prepare you to write reports.  Because many criminal justice agencies have a required format and specific information sought about an event in their reports, your article summaries will be graded on how well you follow the outline instructions and the information obtained from the article. Good hunting. Turn in your assignment by the end of Week 2. Geologic time Introduction:  The purpose of this lab is to begin to visualize the immensity of geologic time on Earth, and also to make sure that you DO KNOW the timescale. (Of course this is a bit simplified version). To accomplish these goals, you will construct a scale model using the attached time scale as a guide.  Do not forget, that this is pretty simplified, you will have to memorize a bit more of the time scale. You can be really artistic!!!! Directions: 1)  Cut a 3 meter (300 cm) (118.11 inches) long piece of adding machine tape. (any kind of paper is ok). This length of tape will represent 4,600,000,000 years of geologic time. 2)      Using ratios, determine the positions of the following boundaries on the tape.  Draw a vertical line (using a ruler) at each boundary and label it neatly. Eon Era Period Age (m.y.a) Phanerozoic Cenozoic Quaternary Tertiary 65 Mesozoic Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Paleozoic Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian 540 Precambrian (or Cryptozoic) Proterozoic Archean Hadean 4600 3)  Mark the following events on your geologic time scale.  Using clipart, or nice little pictures place a representative for each event in the appropriate location. a) Age of meteorites – 4,600,000,000 billion years. b) First prokaryotic cells (no nucleus) – 3,500,000,000 years ago c) First eukaryotic cells (nucleus) – 1,750,000,000 years ago d) First abundant invertebrate fossils – 540,000,000 years ago e) First land plants – 430,000,000 years ago f) First amphibians – 400,000,000 years ago g) First reptiles – 300,000,000 years ago h) First dinosaurs and primitive mammals – 250,000,000 years ago i) First birds – 200,000,000 years ago j) Extinction of dinosaurs and rapid development of mammals – 65,000,000 years ago k) First hominoids – 6,500,000 years ago 4)      Answer the following questions: A)    What do the Era divisions represent? B)    What do the Period divisions represent? C)    What percentage of geologic time did dinosaurs roam? D)    What percentage of geologic time have hominids existed? E)     What percentage of geologic time does the Precambrian represent? F)     Why do you think the Phanerozoic is divided into many periods whereas the Precambrian is not? G)    Why do you think the Precambrian is also called the Cryptozoic? 5) Come up with an acronym that will help you memorize the Eras from oldest to most recent. 6) Come up with an acronym that will help you memorize the Periods from oldest to most recent. You can find one on the internet, but put the source here if you did. When you done, please take a picture of your timescale. School of Business – Department of Marketing Course Name: Social Innovation Course Code: 20SMGB316 Instructor Name: Dr. Sam Toglaw Assessment 1 Individual Presentation Assessment Date: 8 Oct 21 (Week 3) Assessment Time: 23:59 pm (submit a pdf copy on LMS) Live Presentations: Week 4 (MS TEAMS) Student’s Name: Student ID No: Section: INSTRUCTIONS This assessment is an individual assessment and is worth 15% of the total grade of the unit. The students are required to complete a structured Presentation as detailed in the assessment template. This assessment covers SLO1 and SLO2 DO NOT WRITE IN THE AREA BELOW: Mark ________/100 Feedback: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Instructor’s signature: __________________________ Student’s Signature: __________________________ ASSESSMENT DETAILS You are required to do a power point presentation introducing social innovation and wicked problems in a Petcha Kutcha style. Max 20 slides X 20 seconds each. You will be given a max of 7 min. Social innovations are new inventive social practices that aim to meet social needs in a better way than the existing solutions. You are required to do your own research online about social innovation and summarize your findings in a power point format. Your presentation should cover the following important topics:- Task No. Max Mark 1 2 3 4 Define social innovation from a practical point of view. Explain the difference between social innovation and social entrepreneurship. Why social innovation is important for any society in the world? There are numerous examples of social innovations happening all over the world. Introduce one good example and explain its positive impact on the society. Describe wicked problems. Think about an example for a wicked problem locally or in the Middle East. What do you propose to solve this wicked problem? Disclaimer: Political conflicts or problems are excluded and are considered outside the scope of this unit 100 Assessment Weight 15% Student and Assessor sign here to acknowledge the assessment result and any further noted actions to be taken. Assessor’s Feedback: Assessor’s Name: Date: Signature: Student’s Name: Date: Signature: Assessment 1: Individual Presentation 15% Name Student ID Assessment Criteria:- OVERALL GRADE: A 90-100% B 80-89% C 70-79% D 60-69% Excellent Very Good Good Meets minimum standards Does not meet minimum standards Weighting NOTE: (1) Video material is permitted. (2) Slides must be accompanied by notes related to concepts covered in the lecture, max number of slides = 20, max time 400 seconds. 20 C1-Introduction and reflection Clear and attracting introduction Definition of social innovation and as required in task-1 40 C2-Address main points *Address all questions / points raised in this assignment *Explain how the underpinning knowledge is applied in a real life case. Tasks 2,3 15 C3-Social innovation for world problems *Present a local / ME problem. What solution you propose for the problem you selected. Task -4 15 C4-Presentation format *The presentation is creative, well-thought out. *Presentation includes at least three academic references 10 C5-Audience Involvement * Presenters effectively encouraged student involvement. *Presenters did not exceed the time limit. Assessment Cover Sheet Issue No.2 Revision No. 7 Reference Number/Code: [ACK.FO.VPAC.10.01] Revision Date: March 2018 Page 2/3 School of Business – Department of Marketing Course Name: Social Innovation Course Code: 20SMGB316 Instructor Name: Dr. Sam Toglaw Assessment 1 Individual Presentation Assessment Date: 8 Oct 21 (Week 3) Assessment Time: 23:59 pm (submit a pdf copy on LMS) Live Presentations: Week 4 (MS TEAMS) Student’s Name: Student ID No: Section: INSTRUCTIONS This assessment is an individual assessment and is worth 15% of the total grade of the unit. The students are required to complete a structured Presentation as detailed in the assessment template. This assessment covers SLO1 and SLO2 DO NOT WRITE IN THE AREA BELOW: Mark ________/100 Feedback: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Instructor’s signature: __________________________ Student’s Signature: __________________________ ASSESSMENT DETAILS You are required to do a power point presentation introducing social innovation and wicked problems in a Petcha Kutcha style. Max 20 slides X 20 seconds each. You will be given a max of 7 min. Social innovations are new inventive social practices that aim to meet social needs in a better way than the existing solutions. You are required to do your own research online about social innovation and summarize your findings in a power point format. Your presentation should cover the following important topics:- Task No. Max Mark 1 2 3 4 Define social innovation from a practical point of view. Explain the difference between social innovation and social entrepreneurship. Why social innovation is important for any society in the world? There are numerous examples of social innovations happening all over the world. Introduce one good example and explain its positive impact on the society. Describe wicked problems. Think about an example for a wicked problem locally or in the Middle East. What do you propose to solve this wicked problem? Disclaimer: Political conflicts or problems are excluded and are considered outside the scope of this unit 100 Assessment Weight 15% Student and Assessor sign here to acknowledge the assessment result and any further noted actions to be taken. Assessor’s Feedback: Assessor’s Name: Date: Signature: Student’s Name: Date: Signature: Assessment 1: Individual Presentation 15% Name Student ID Assessment Criteria:- OVERALL GRADE: A 90-100% B 80-89% C 70-79% D 60-69% Excellent Very Good Good Meets minimum standards Does not meet minimum standards Weighting NOTE: (1) Video material is permitted. (2) Slides must be accompanied by notes related to concepts covered in the lecture, max number of slides = 20, max time 400 seconds. 20 C1-Introduction and reflection Clear and attracting introduction Definition of social innovation and as required in task-1 40 C2-Address main points *Address all questions / points raised in this assignment *Explain how the underpinning knowledge is applied in a real life case. Tasks 2,3 15 C3-Social innovation for world problems *Present a local / ME problem. What solution you propose for the problem you selected. Task -4 15 C4-Presentation format *The presentation is creative, well-thought out. *Presentation includes at least three academic references 10 C5-Audience Involvement * Presenters effectively encouraged student involvement. *Presenters did not exceed the time limit. Assessment Cover Sheet Issue No.2 Revision No. 7 Reference Number/Code: [ACK.FO.VPAC.10.01] Revision Date: March 2018 Page 2/3 Assessment 2: What are the effects of spinal manipulation (HVLA) on adults with chronic low back pain? Article 1: A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness and physiological effects of spinal manipulation and spinal mobilization compared to each other and a sham condition in patients with chronic low back pain: Study protocol for The RELIEF Study – PubMed (nih.gov) Article 2: The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on pain relief and function in patients with chronic low back pain: an individual participant data meta-analysis – ScienceDirect Question 1: did the review ask a clearly focussed question? Yes, Question 2: did the authors look for the right type of papers? Question 3: do you think the important relevant studies were included? Question 4: did the authors do enough to assess the quality of the included studies? JBI CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR COHORT STUDIES Reviewer: Imtithal Diedericks Date: 12/10/2021 Article: A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness and physiological effects of spinal manipulation and spinal mobilization compared to each other and a sham condition in patients with chronic low back pain: Study protocol for The RELIEF Study – PubMed (nih.gov) Yes No Unclear N/A Justification Were the two groups similar and recruited from the same population? Were the exposures measured similarly to assign people to both exposed and unexposed groups? Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Were the groups/participants free of the outcome at the start of the study (or at the moment of exposure)? Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Was the follow up time reported and sufficient to be long enough for outcomes to occur? Was follow up complete, and if not, were the reasons to loss to follow up described and explored? Were strategies to address incomplete follow up utilized? Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Overall appraisal: Include □ Exclude □ Seek further info□ Comments: (whether you find the article any good) JBI CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR COHORT STUDIES Reviewer: Imtithal Diedericks Date: 12/10/2021 Article: The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on pain relief and function in patients with chronic low back pain: an individual participant data meta-analysis – ScienceDirect Yes No Unclear N/A Justification Were the two groups similar and recruited from the same population? Were the exposures measured similarly to assign people to both exposed and unexposed groups? Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Were the groups/participants free of the outcome at the start of the study (or at the moment of exposure)? Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Was the follow up time reported and sufficient to be long enough for outcomes to occur? Was follow up complete, and if not, were the reasons to loss to follow up described and explored? Were strategies to address incomplete follow up utilized? Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Overall appraisal: Include □ Exclude □ Seek further info□ Comments: (whether you find the article any good) Q1: Discussion: Cartilage A 45-year-old male presents complaining of sharp lower back pain of sudden onset following heavy lifting 2 months ago that has been intermittently improving with rest only. The patient also mentions experiencing numbness to his bilateral legs and a burning sensation to his lower back. Discuss a differential diagnosis that includes a description of the specific structure that is affected. Q2: Q3: Please respond to all of the following questions: 1. Describe what you personally believe are features of  a good doctor-patient relationship. 2. Interview someone that you know that has had an unsuccessful experience with a doctor and share the features of that doctor-patient relationship. 3. After your description, please share the ethical issue your interviewee had and how that violation should be rectified or should have been addressed. 4. What standards will you implement in your practice of medicine to ensure such violations do not occur within your patient population? Q5: Please summarize the Ethical Issues Surrounding End of Life Care  Download Ethical Issues Surrounding End of Life Care article. Provide your specific viewpoint on the issue – why do you agree or disagree? Also, demonstrate your understanding of possible opposing viewpoints. Q6: Please summarize the Ethical Issue in Organ Transplantation  Download Ethical Issue in Organ Transplantation article.  Provide your specific viewpoint on the issue – why do you agree or disagree? Also, demonstrate your understanding of possible opposing viewpoints. Q7: Please summarize the Abortion in Islamic Ethics.pdfarticle. What is the issue? Highlight the key features. What are the specific ethical issues that must be considered? Q8: Please summarize the Ethical Issues in Predictive Genetic Testing  Download Ethical Issues in Predictive Genetic Testing article. What is the issue? Highlight the key features. What are the specific ethical issues that must be considered? MKT 471 How can the decision tree be used in new product development? MGT 390 If you would write out a document like you did last week, please that 650 or more words. Assignment 1: Building a Relational Database for Efficiency Assignment 1 is worth 10 percent of your final grade for this course. You should plan to complete and submit this assignment after you have completed Lesson 4. This assignment is to be completed individually, not as a member of a group or team. Background: Solomon Enterprises is small concrete construction company. They employ truck drivers who receive a base salary as well as a commission on sales.  Currently, they keep data on customers and sale orders in Excel Workbooks (see the attached file). As their company and the number of sales grows, they are finding it harder and harder to keep track of their data.  They would like to create regular reports to help them with decision making. Right now, they have difficulty retrieving information quickly and easily. They need your expert advice to help them with their data storage and tracking issues. You are an Information Consultant with the Digital K&S Corporation, and you have been contracted to solve this problem by addressing the specific questions below. As an analyst/designer, you will review the current Excel file, and then design and build an Access database that will be a more efficient and effective method of handling the data. Instructions: Download the Excel spreadsheet here: SolomonEnterpriseReviewed.xlsx (attached in separate file) Your first challenge is to make sense of the data stored in the Excel file. After downloading the Excel spreadsheet, spend some time analyzing the data it stores. Think about the problems it is causing the organization, and how a database can help minimize or eliminate these issues. In order to convert this data table into a relational database, you need to identify the entities, their attributes, and the relationships between the entities. Recall that in data normalization there is often a table that represents a transaction—think about what a transaction looks like for Solomon Enterprises. This transaction table becomes the central table—the one with relationships to the other entities which are part of that transaction. Use the information on database design in Chapter 5 and Chapter Extension 6 of the textbook to inform and support your decisions. For additional help with building an Access database, see https://support.office.com/en-us/access https://edu.gcfglobal.org/en/access2016/
You will need to transform the Excel data into a proper Access database. Keep in mind that retyping the data from a spreadsheet into a database is not the best use of your time and it can introduce data errors. The data in the Access database must match the Excel data (except for the obvious data inconsistencies). You can import the data directly from the Excel spreadsheet. The tutorial videos above will help you do this. In Access, you will create database tables from the data stored in the Excel file you downloaded. In database design, each table should relate to a specific entity or event; that is, tables are often created for each noun (person, place, or thing). It is essential to eliminate redundancy as much as possible. This means that the data should appear in only one place. This results in less storage space used and, because data will only need to be entered (or changed) in one place, there will be fewer opportunities for inconsistencies or errors. When designing the database, you will need to establish relationships. These relationships are usually built by examining the tables and deciding which direction makes the most sense. Often, one table will represent a transaction. Consider a sales transaction. It consists of a date and total, but also has relationships to the customer who made the purchase, so the Sale should have a Lookup to Customer. Think about why this makes more sense than the Customer having a Lookup to Sale. You need to establish the relationships between the different tables in the database. Next, you should create both a query and a report that shows each of the following: the dates and locations of the deliveries made in the Chevy truck the most productive employee the most valuable customer the product that sells the most and the total units sold. What is the average amount per order for this product? The sales manager is curious how many repeat deliveries have been made by the same employee to the same customer at the same delivery address. This helps with planning as this employee has established a relationship with this customer and location. Create a query, sorted by the number of orders, to show this information. Solomon Enterprises is experiencing some financial difficulties and is considering adopting downsizing as a possible action. Which worker, employee, or driver should legitimately be concerned by that action? In addition to these queries, look at the data and create one additional query of your choosing, along with the associated report, that show some information that would be useful for Solomon Enterprise’s managerial decision making. Finally, you will write an analytical report to the executive team at Solomon Enterprises. This report should be formatted as indicated in Writing An Analytical Report. Ensure that it includes responses to the following: Explain the problems management will experience from the data integrity issues in the spreadsheet. Include a list of your tables, including their field names, and clearly identify all primary and foreign keys. Describe how your design and implementation of a database will solve previously mentioned issues. Describe the considerations management will need to take into account to successfully convert their system from the Excel spreadsheet to the Access database system. Important note: After you have created your database file, click FILE→ SAVE AS→, then SAVE the file to your hard drive according to the following assignment naming standards: yourlastname_CMIS351_assign1.mdb OR (depending on the file format default of your version of Access) yourlastname_CMIS351_assign1.accdb Once the file has been created and completed, you can upload it in Moodle. For this assignment, you must submit: an Access database with tables, reports, and queries as described in the Instructions section above. If you are not using Microsoft Access, see the note below. AND a Word document containing an analytical report that addresses the issues and/or answers the questions described in the Instructions section above. Note: If you do not have access to a computer on which you can install Microsoft Access, you may use another database tool (LibreOffice Base is an example; there are others). Access is not available for MacOS. If you do not use Microsoft Access, you must also submit the following: an E-R diagram of your database that clearly shows the primary and foreign keys for each table. a screen shot of the first page of the contents of each table. Alternatively, you may create a report that dumps the contents of a table and submit a single page of that report. queries that you designed to create each report. Show both the query design and the query output. the reports required in the assignment. Marking criteria: You will be marked according to the following criteria. Database Database tables set up correctly (fields, primary keys, and relations) (5 marks) Queries are included and correct (7 queries for a total of 3 marks) /8 Database Reports Reports created correctly (7 reports for a total of 2 marks) Reports are designed for ease of use and readability (1 mark) /3 Written Report Comprehension (3 marks) – explains the problems – describes the database design and solutions – elaborates on managerial considerations for implementation Professionally formatted and written (1 mark) /4 Total Grade /15 When your assignment is complete, return to this page and follow the instructions for submitting it. All of your course work must be submitted before 12:00 midnight (Mountain Time) on the final day of your contract. To account for administration, processing, and marking times, please allow up to eight business days from submission for the return of your marked assignment. Writing an Analytical Report For Assignments 1, 2, and 3, you are required to prepare an analytical report. Unlike reports that are written for information-sharing purposes, analytical reports typically include an analysis of alternatives and recommendations. Keep in mind that while reports share many features with other documents (such as memos and letters), they are usually meant to flow upward—from employees to management. By learning to write effective analytical reports, you can enhance your image with superiors and help your organization make wise decisions. A decision you have to make as you prepare to write an analytical report is what writing pattern to follow. Analytical reports that follow the direct pattern put recommendations at the beginning, while analytical reports that follow the indirect pattern put recommendations at the end. If you know that the audience of your report is unfamiliar with the topic you are writing about, it is best to follow the indirect pattern. In their textbook on business communication, Mary Ellen Guffey, Kathleen Rhodes, and Patricia Rogin provide a checklist for writing analytical reports (pp. 330-331). Their checklist provides a basis for the one that appears below but it has been significantly tailored for the purposes of CMIS 351. Introduction Identify the purpose of the analytical report; in other words, explain why it is being written. Preview the organization of the analytical report. Especially for longer reports, explain to the reader how the report is organized. Summarize the recommendations for the reader. (This applies when you are using the direct pattern—that is, you know your audience is familiar with the topic your analytic report covers). Presentation and Discussion of Alternatives Discuss the pros and cons of the various alternatives you considered before settling on the recommendations you are making. Organize the information you will rely upon to present both the alternatives you considered and the recommendation you ultimately settled on for logic and readability. Supply proof to support the recommendations you ultimately decide to make in your analytical report. Such proof may include facts, statistics, expert opinion, or survey data. Consider using headings, lists, tables, and graphics to highlight key information. Recommendations Make your recommendations. If there are several of them, use a list to present them. (This applies when you are using the indirect pattern because you know your audience is unfamiliar with the topic you are writing about). Explain what action needs to be taken if the recommendations are accepted. ______ HOSP367 Assignment 2 – Fall 2021 1. Prepare common-size income statements for 2018 and 2019 for Iron Hill Brewery using the figures below. Provide an analysis of the company’s performance. (10pts) Iron Hill Brewery Income Statement, 2018, 2019 ($ in 000) 2018 2019 Revenues $8,106 $8,916 Cost of Sales 5,560 5,948 Depreciation 1,100 1,100 Earnings Before Interest & Taxes (EBIT) 1,446 1,868 Interest Expense 502 507 Earnings Before Taxes 944 1,361 Tax Expense (21%) 198 286 Net Profit $746 $1,075 2. If you could only choose one, which of the following investments would you choose and why? Show your work for full credit. (5pts) Stock Return Variance Adidas 10% 14% Nike 7% 5% Morgan Stanley 12% 20% 3. Below is Katie’s investment portfolio: Stock % of Portfolio Beta Expected Return Panera Bread 15 1.00 22 % Applebees 25 1.20 16 Four Seasons Hotels 10 0.85 12 Cheesecake Factory 20 1.60 20 Brinker International 30 0.60 09 Calculate the expected return of Katie’s portfolio. (5pts) 4. Suppose you plan to invest in Chipotle Mexican Grill and you want to estimate what your return would be. If the possible returns are 12%, 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% with the following corresponding probabilities: 10%, 20%, 40%, 20% and 10%. (10pts) a) Calculate the expected return b) Calculate the risk (standard deviation). 5. a) American Airlines, Acme Dynamite Company and Best Buy have the following betas respectively: 0.96, 1.72, 1.16. Calculate their expected return using the CAPM if the Treasury Bill rate is 2.5% and the market risk premium is 8%. (5pts) b) If the actual returns are as follows: American – 11%, Acme – 15.2%, Best Buy – 9.3%, are these stocks over-priced, under- priced or correctly-priced? (5pts) 6. Agilent Technologies had a beta of 1.53 last December. If the Treasury Bill rate of return was 2.3% and the S&P 500 return was 21.3% at that same time what should have been the expected return for Agilent? (5pts) 7. The risk-free rate and the expected market rate of return are 5% and 15% respectively. According to the capital asset pricing model, what is the expected rate of return on security X with a beta of 1.2. (5pts) 8. If you made your first annual contribution of $12,000 in January 2019 to your retirement account, and assuming you will earn a return of 8% annually (compounded annually), what will your retirement account be worth when your retire in 40 years? (5pts) 9. The local Buffalo Wild Wings is considering borrowing $65,000 from PNC Bank at 8% compounded annually to purchase some new equipment. This loan will have to be repaid in equal annual installments at the end of each year over the next 10 years. How much will Buffalo have to pay back each year? (5pts) 10. Chase Toback has the following choices: He can be offered $2,500 today, or $11,000 at the end of 12 years, or $25,000 at the end of 25 years. Assuming that the interest rate is 11%, which offer should he accept? Why? (10pts) 11. Suppose you have agreed to lend your roommate a certain amount of money today. Your roommate has promised to pay you back $5,000 two years from today and $7,000 four years from today. Assume the price of money is 5%, how much money will your roommate receive from you today? (10pts) Stacy Phaxaysithideth 2 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY Title: Comparison of the performance in math assessment of all-female same-sex, all-male same-sex and co-ed students from different socio-economic statuses and backgrounds. Quantitative Purpose Statement The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in math assessment scores in an all-female same-sex classroom compared to an all-male same-sex classroom and then compare those math scores to a co-ed classroom at three different elementary schools. Quantitative Research Question What is the difference in math assessment scores for students in a same-sex classroom (female and male) verses math scores in a co-ed classroom? According to my expectations, in this math test there will be a difference in scores based on the students social and economic backgrounds. This difference may be as a result of individual reading materials and study time each background can provide to each student. I also expect that there will be no much difference on the math test results based on gender (Asmus, 2017). However, I expect to have difference in the assessment results based on the type of classrooms. I expect that there will be a difference in classrooms of same gender and classrooms of co-gender. There has been a notable difference in the performance of schools with just one gender and those with mixed genders (Benoit, 2018). Classrooms with same gender have an advantage of producing better results than those classrooms with mixed genders. This is because same gender students get to understand each other well and they can assist each other for the purpose of improvement than those classrooms with both genders. The level of understanding each other and assisting their colleagues differ. Context and Participants As I stated earlier, this research will take place at three different elementary schools. A school that is all female, a school that is all male, and a school that has mixed genders. This setting will take place in the inner city. It will involve students of different socio-economic and different background statuses (Beverelli, 2018). Since this research will take place in kindergarten, I will have to get assistance from different teachers from those different schools. I will have six different classes that will participate from three different schools. This means that I will have two classes from each school. I will use sampling for these kindergarten classes. This math test should be similar and should take the same amount of time in all groups. The spacing during the assessment and requirements of this math test should be the same in all three schools (Bryk, 2017). Due to different social-economic and background states, I will make sure the time and requirements for this test are fair to all students. I will have two all-female classes, two all-male classes, and two co-ed classes all with a mixture of ethnicity groups and I will have more details of the exact breakdown when relevant. This will ensure that the level and any chances of biasness are almost zero in all classes. With the help of several supervisors, I have to ensure allocated time for this assessment will not differ and there will be fairness regardless of schools and class groups. After the assessment, there will be fair marking of the test. This marking should be done using a similar method and marking scheme (Gostick, 2019). After marking, the results should be sampled and final assessment done. This will be on regard to the performance as per class based on different genders. I will apply regression and correlation to sample this data and ensure I come up with the best conclusion of my research as possible. I will also ensure there is use of mean and statistical analysis and data sampling methods when drawing my last conclusion from my analysis. Research Design My research will be based on an independent variable-math assessment. Each group scores from both same-sex (male and female) and co-ed classrooms will independently be analyzed. The math assessment will be the same in all three classrooms. Therefore, it will not have a dependent variable (Howden, 2019). I have to ensure that there is no intervention. Either externally or internally during this assessment. This will be therefore a correlational study. My main aim for this research is to see if there is a correlation of math scores between the groups based on their genders. Therefore, I will do thorough comparison of the final results of the test from all-female and all-male classes with those results from the co-ed classes. I will ensure there is some basic education done to all the study classes before the exact day of the test. This will ensure that each student has a clue and is mentally prepared for this test. All students will be briefed on the requirements of the test and what they should have for this assessment. Information on the purpose of the assessment will be given to all schools where this test will be conducted early enough. This is so to ensure there is no external interference. Early reporting of the day of the test and the main purpose of the assessment to this particular schools will help in preparedness of this assessment (Patel, 2020). This will therefore, ensure there is no biasness in the final results. When report is given to these targeted schools early enough, the schools will prepare for the exam. This can be in terms of guiding on the classes to target and allocation of resources for the students early in time. Data Sources As a quantitative and qualitative researcher, I will ensure that I use several math tests scores from the beginning of the year to mid-year. These data sources which I will be using will be Common Core Standards (Bryk, 2017). I will therefore use this accumulated data from those results to create questions for the math tests that meet the standards for kindergarten. I will ensure there is fairness in the test and the presented questions should be doable to the students. This will enable me to come up with the best research and a reliable conclusion even for the future use. I will ensure there is analysis of data from all groups. I will use a T-test analysis in order to do a comparison of the results from the different classes. I will design instrument for this study before the day for the test. After creating the instrument of my study, I will do a pilot test on the instrument. This will ensure there is reliability and also validity on my final conclusion from this research (Gostick, 2019). I will ensure that there is comparison of pre-test and post-test results of every individual student. This will therefore give other researchers the most in-depth of each examinee. Average scores on the post-test will be compared between the experimental and the control groups. The rise in comprehension from pre-test to post-test scores will also be estimated for each group and contrasted. Description of the Procedures Control Group Before conducting this research, I will seek permission and approval from these three different schools to conduct my research. this will only be from the review boards of these kindergarten classes. I have to use a procedure which will enable every student to willingly and fully participate in this test (Mallick, 2017). I have to ensure that I conduct my study from the beginning of the year to mid-year in all kindergarten classes. This will enable me as the researcher to create all math tests that will be given to each classroom. I should ensure that these tests align with the Common Core Standards. Targeted students will just have to take the math tests. Throughout the study, I will also observe how teachers in these different settings teach math and I will interview teachers and students to get their opinions on the type of setting they work and teach in. this will enable me to conduct my research well and draw a good conclusion which will be reliable in future as well (Patel, 2020). The math tests given will be scored and recorded. The interview will be not more than 5 questions long. The results of the test will be used determine the performance of each class (Sun, 2020). This performance will therefore be used to outline the advantages and disadvantages of each group of class based on gender. As a researcher, I will draw a conclusion based on the comparison of different genders from my post-test finding. I will as well draw a conclusion that will be usable to other groups and researchers reliably on social-economic and background effects to education. I have to make sure that my research and finding is reliable and valid for future use. Data analysis: +0.5 Criteria Pt – 20 A description of the context and participants 4.7 A description of the research design 4 A description of the data sources 4.5 A description of the procedures 4.5 Score: 18.2 References Asmus, E. P., & Radocy, R. E. (2017). Quantitative analysis. In Critical Essays in Music Education (pp. 129-172). Routledge. Benoit, K., Watanabe, K., Wang, H., Nulty, P., Obeng, A., Müller, S., & Matsuo, A. (2018). quanteda: An R package for the quantitative analysis of textual data. Journal of Open Source Software, 3(30), 774. Beverelli, C., Keck, A., Larch, M., & Yotov, Y. (2018). Institutions, trade and development: A quantitative analysis. Bryk, A. H., & Wiśniewski, J. R. (2017). Quantitative analysis of human red blood cell proteome. Journal of proteome research, 16(8), 2752-2761. Gostick, J. T., Khan, Z. A., Tranter, T. G., Kok, M. D., Agnaou, M., Sadeghi, M., & Jervis, R. (2019). PoreSpy: A python toolkit for quantitative analysis of porous media images. Journal of Open Source Software, 4(37), 1296. Howden, A. J., Hukelmann, J. L., Brenes, A., Spinelli, L., Sinclair, L. V., Lamond, A. I., & Cantrell, D. A. (2019). Quantitative analysis of T cell proteomes and environmental sensors during T cell differentiation. Nature immunology, 20(11), 1542-1554. Mallick, H., Ma, S., Franzosa, E. A., Vatanen, T., Morgan, X. C., & Huttenhower, C. (2017). Experimental design and quantitative analysis of microbial community multiomics. Genome biology, 18(1), 1-16. Patel, D., Shah, D., & Shah, M. (2020). The intertwine of brain and body: a quantitative analysis on how big data influences the system of sports. Annals of Data Science, 7(1), 1-16. Sun, D., Li, X., Guo, D., Wu, L., Chen, T., Fang, Z., … & Yang, R. (2020). CT quantitative analysis and its relationship with clinical features for assessing the severity of patients with COVID-19. Korean journal of radiology, 21(7), 859. Marketing Mix (Four Ps) Product Strategy Briefly describe your product or service. Where is it in the product life cycle? What recommendations do you have for improving the offering to fit your target market’s needs? Be sure to consider: What level of quality and consistency does the offering have? How many features does it have and can they be removed or added? How well does your product or service deliver what the customer values? How can it improve? What improvements would help your offering compete more effectively? Pricing Strategy How is your product or service priced today? How does this compare to competitors, assuming competitors are at or near break-even point with their pricing? Analyze pricing alternatives and make recommendations about pricing going forward based on the following: How sensitive are your customers to changes in price? What revenue will you need to break even and achieve profitability? What does the price say about your product in terms of value, quality, prestige, etc.? Place: Distribution Strategy What is your current distribution strategy? What missed opportunities or disconnects are you seeing in this distribution approach? Make recommendations about your future distribution strategy based on the following: What are the best distribution channels and methods for you to use, and why? Will you have a retail outlet and if so, where will it be located? In what geographic area(s) will your product/service be available? Promotion: Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy Use the template below to layout your design for a marketing campaign aimed at your target segment. Approach How will you achieve your goal? What promotional or engagement strategies will you use? Think creatively about campaigns you’ve seen for companies or brands that have caught your attention, and how your campaign will make an impact on your target audience. Will your campaign influence? Engage? Educate? Nurture? Build awareness? Etc. Example: Use email marketing, social media and a sales promotion (prize drawing at a conference) to encourage veteran attendees to post online about their experiences and plans for attending the user conference using the event hashtag. Use these testimonials to amplify dialogue about the conference (via social media), build awareness (via email marketing, Web site, and targeted digital advertising) and convince peers they should attend. Goal In consideration of your previous analysis, you need to identify at least one goal for the campaign. Describe the target segment for your campaign. What is the goal you want to achieve with the campaign? What is your call to action? Make sure your goal is S.M.A.R.T. (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timed.) Example: Audience: HR professionals who are casual and power-users of Chumber systems Increase event registration by 20% by the start date of the annual user conference. Call to action: Register online today. Messages Identify the primary message for your campaign, 2-3 message pillars, and proof points for each. Be sure to include a call to action that helps to achieve your goal. Remember that messages should align to reinforce your positioning statement. Be sure to include a call to action that helps to achieve your goal. Example: Primary Message: The annual user conference provides phenomenal value for training, professional development, peer networking and learning how to get the most out of your investment. Message Pillar: This conference welcomes you into a dynamic, well-connected and highly competent professional community. Proof Point: Veteran attendees return year after year because it recharges their skills, knowledge and professional networks. Call to Action: Register online today. Promotional Mix and IMC Tools Identify the key marketing communication methods and specific IMC tools you will use in your marketing campaign. How will you use each of these tools? Look for ways different methods and tools can build on each other: advertising, direct marketing, public relations, digital marketing, guerrilla marketing, personal selling, sales promotion. Example: Digital Marketing Web site: Add testimonials from prior attendees, event hashtag, rolling hashtag Tweets box, social media buttons to make registration easy to share via social media Direct Marketing Email marketing: Reach out to prior year’s attendees who are already registered. Ask them to post about plans to attend the upcoming conference. Conduct an email campaign with the target audience list to generate awareness, interest, desire to attend a conference. Sales Promotion + Digital Marketing Contest/giveaway: Offer giveaway where Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn posts trigger entries in a “conference evangelist” contest/giveaway to take place at conference opening session, one entry per social media tool per day Sales Alignment At what point(s) in the sales process (or sales funnel) does this campaign operate? Sales process stages are: 1) generate leads; 2) build relationships/discover needs; 3) present solution/resolve concerns; 4) close the sale; 5) monitor and follow up. How does your campaign support sales activity? Measurement (KPIs—Key Performance Indicators) How will you measure the success of the campaign? Select 3-6 KPIs (key performance indicators) that you will measure. Briefly explain why each KPI you select will be a good indicator of whether your campaign is successful. Examples of KPIs: Total sales/revenue New/incremental sales Number of qualified leads generated Net Promoter Score Web site unique visitors Number of registrations/sign-ups Impressions – views of content CTR – click-through rate Engagement – comments, likes, shares, page views, video views Followers – social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube) Awareness Etc. Budget Budget: List marketing budget and resources required to execute your marketing campaign, and estimate what it will cost. Include items such as labor, materials and other expenses such as print materials, online media tools or development, public relations services, design services, content development services, space or equipment rental, etc. Also, estimate the increased sales or revenue the campaign will generate for the company. Item Purpose Cost Estimate Example: White paper authored by a technical writer Layout business case for why recruiting managers need an easier tool for vetting resumes and reference checking in the technology industry $500.00 Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Add additional rows as needed. Estimated campaign impact: [insert] Action Plan Outline the specific activities you must complete in order to execute your marketing campaign. Each element of your integrated marketing communications plan should be listed as a separate activity. List actions in the order they need to take place for the plan to be successful: first things first, later steps last. Follow-up activities and evaluation of campaign effectiveness also should be captured in this action plan. For the purposes of setting due dates in this action plan, you should assume you must complete the marketing campaign within 3–12 months. Timing Activity Type Brief Description Audience Owner Today’s Date Example: Web site Update Add new key messages that fit repositioning strategy and audience focus Tech company hiring managers Jim Hill Date Date Date Date Date Launch Date Add additional rows as needed. Risk Factors Contingency plans and risk management: You should consider the possible risks to your business and make contingency plans to address them. You note some possible risks under the “weakness” and “threats” sections of your SWOT analysis. Identify steps you can take to either reduce risks or work around them if they occur. Executive Summary Do this section last. This short summary should provide a holistic overview of your marketing plan. All of this information is covered in more detail in the rest of the marketing plan. For the Executive Summary, provide a clear, concise overview of the following points: Company Description Briefly describe the organization and offerings (products and/or services) your marketing plan focuses on, and the problem(s) they solve. Target Segment Identify and briefly describe your target segment. Competitive Advantage Explain your organization’s competitive advantage. Positioning Statement Provide the positioning statement your marketing plan will apply. Marketing Plan Objectives List the objectives of the marketing plan: What will it accomplish? Be as specific as possible: an anticipated increase in sales, profits, market share, etc. Assignment 3 C (N–Z) For students with first names starting with the letters N to Z. Assignments are graded out of a total of 60 points, and they are worth 9% of your total mark. Submit this assignment after you have completed Unit 3 of the course. Before you submit this assignment, make sure you have read the section on Assignments in your Course Orientation. Part A: Short-answer questions Describe some of the main processes of cancer. (4) Mitosis almost always results in two identical daughter cells. However, in which cells could one find an exception to that rule? (1) What is cytokinesis? (1) Use the following illustration, which shows some stages of three different processes represented by the three columns from left to right, to answer the questions below. (4) 4a. In which columns would you expect genetic recombination? (1) 4b. Crossing-over is not shown in this diagram. Which stage in the diagram is closest to the phase where crossing-over occurs? (E.g., “second column, third stage”) (1) 4c. Indicate all stages in the illustration where the nuclear phase (ploidy) has changed. (2) Compare the final stage of conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell with the final stage of conjugation between an Hfr cell and an F- cell. Describe both the donor and the recipient cell and use appropriate terms. (5) What are the two main differences between recombination in meiosis and recombination through mobile elements? (2) Use the following scenario to answer the questions below. (10) Calico cats have orange and black colour patterns that are determined by two genes, O (on the X chromosome) and B (autosomal). A female calico cat mates with a male cat of the genotype OBb. 7a. What is the phenotype of the father? 7b. Draw one of the possible Punnett squares for this cross. 7c. What is the likelihood that the first kitten has the Calico pattern? About 50% of the cat’s litter have the same phenotype. 7d. Based on your Punnett square, what is that phenotype and what are the possible genotypes that result in that phenotype? A mother with normal sight has a red-green colour-blind son and a red-green colour-blind daughter. What is the genotype of the father and the mother? What is the phenotype of the father? (3) Use the following scenario to answer the questions below. (10) In your experiments with Drosophila, you found that the wildtype allele that codes for grey adult insects is sometimes mutated, with mutants having a black colour. Similarly, you find that your population has alleles that code for vestigial wings instead of the wildtype normal wings. (Both mutations are recessive.) You want to know whether the two genes for body colour and wings are linked. In your preliminary crosses you have established a large number of individuals that you require for testcrosses. 9a. Which two genotypes will you use for the testcross? (Hint: One of the two genotypes should be a heterozygous dihybrid.) Use the common wildtype notation (e.g., “ar+ tg”) rather than the allele notation (VvZZ). For simplification, disregard the gender. (2) 9b. Indicate the two phenotypes of your testcross. (1) 9c. Indicate the genotypes of the progeny (next generation) of the testcross by drawing a Punnett square. (3) Assuming a total number of 4400 flies for the progeny generation, what are your expectations for the ratio of genotypes if 9d. the two genes are linked? (1) 9e. the two genes are not linked? (1) 9f. Finally, if the two genes are not linked according to your results, would you expect that they lie on different chromosomes? Explain your answer. (2) Part B: Multiple-choice questions Choose one answer only. Enter your choice into the form field below the question. Use the following diagram to answer questions 1–3. This diagram shows the incidences of a genetic disease for three generations. We assume that no new mutations occurred in the three generations shown on the diagram. The genetic disease shown here is most likely autosomal dominant X-linked recessive Y-linked recessive X-linked dominant either a or c Which of the following pairs must be both carriers of the disease? 1 and 5 4 and 7 13 and 16 15 and 19 7 and 9 Which of the following groups of three individuals may not be carriers of the disease? 7, 15 and 19 4, 15 and 19 2, 6 and 16 7, 15 and 16 7, 10 and 19 The following diagram shows the result of inbreeding in British aristocracy involving the X-linked recessive hemophilia allele. Squares indicate males, circles indicate females, and affected individuals are black. Four generations are included. Note that not all members of a generation are in the same row (e.g., both Beatrice and Leopold belong to the second generation). Carisbrooke is not affected by the disease because none of his grandparents was a carrier none of his parents was a carrier he is a male he received a copy of the “healthy” allele from his father he received a copy of the “healthy” allele from his mother Which of the following terms can be associated with genomic imprinting? Mutation Maternal inheritance Cytoplasmic inheritance Both b and c Methylation During one cell cycle, the amount of DNA in a cell remains constant changes once changes twice changes four times changes at every phase of the cycle Mapping of chromosomes is mainly based on the linkage of genes mutations the likelihood of deletions and inversions transposable elements sex linkage Which of the following processes is crucial for genetic recombination? Prophase and metaphase of meiosis Prophase and metaphase of mitosis S-phase G1 phase Both a and b Which of the following terms/processes could be matched with specialized transduction? Polyploidy RNA virus Hfr cells Bacterial host receives only bacterial DNA. Prophage Which of the following statements describes Hfr cells? They carry an F factor plasmid that is transferred to F- cells. They turn an F- recipient into an F+ cell. They may produce genetic recombination in the recipient cell. They may produce genetic recombination in the donor cell. All of the above Trisomy 21 is an example of polyploidy aneuploidy cytoplasmic inheritance deletion sex-linked genes Individual genes may be lost in which of the following situation(s)? Duplication Translocation Inversion Deletion All of the above In which situation could it be expected that Mendel’s rules do not apply? Independent assortment Dihybrid crosses Monohybrid crosses Multiple alleles Polygenic inheritance A virus particle may in rare cases only contain bacterial DNA. This may lead to conjugation transformation the lytic cycle generalized transduction Hfr cells Which of the following term(s) is/are related to oncogenes? Cancer Mutation Metastasis Tumours All of the above What are alternative forms of a gene that govern the same feature, such as flower colour, and occupy corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes? Alleles Loci Homozygotes Coupled traits None of the above Most human somatic cells are polyploid diploid aneuploid tetraploid haploid A Barr body in a mammalian female cell is an inactivated oocyte a polar body a degenerate nucleus an inactivated X chromosome an inactivated Y chromosome If the two genes are unlinked, an organism with the genotype of AaBb can produce gametes containing either Aa or Bb AB, Ab, aB, or ab AaBb AB or ab none of the above A chromosome has the genes U, V, W, and X. They have been shown to have the following crossover frequencies: U and V: 2%; U and W: 9%; U and X: 7%; V and W: 7%; V and X: 5%; and W and X: 2%. What is the sequence of the genes on the chromosome? W-X-V-U U-X-V-W X-W-U-V V-U-W-X None of the above After receiving the marked assignment back, carefully read all comments from the marker and revise accordingly. If you had any of the MCQ incorrect, make sure to understand why you went wrong. Many studies have shown that revising mistakes results in learning improvement and closes gaps in your understanding. Do not hesitate to contact your Academic Expert if any of the comments are unclear. If your total mark for the assignment is below 75%, contact your Academic Expert for advice on how to improve your study habits. Biology 204: Principles of Biology I (Rev. C8) Assignment 3 C In-Class synchronous reading response For One (1) of the questions below, produce 500 – 750 word reading response. Remember: your assignment must ANALYZE the text. Don’t bother with summary; you won’t have time. You can assume that your reader will be familiar with the text. One of the most fascinating thins about King’s Carrie is that, through its epistolary structure and polyvocal form, the author forces readers to come to their own conclusions about the titular character. So…who (or what) is Carrie? Is she a victim? A villain? An anti-heroine? A divine punishment for the inhabitants of Chamberlain? All of these? Something else? Make an argument for how readers should interpret the protagonist of the novel. Why do you feel the way you do about Carrie—and why should we listen to you? BE sure to provide textual support from the text and include proper MLA citations. Poe has often been called a master of the macabre. Much has been made of the use of narrators in his stories (e.g., “The Black Cat” or “The Tell-Tale Heart”) Analyze his use of narration in “The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar.” Horror is a much-maligned genre; some have even claimed that it’s inherently sadistic, immoral, and/or pornographic. In his essay “why we crave scary movies,” King writes: “The mythic horror movie, like the sick joke, has a dirty job to do. It deliberately appeals to all that is worst in us.” Defend OR refute King’s statement using either Carrie or Poe’s “The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar.” Be sure to provide evidence from the text. In her essay on Stephen King’s novel Misery, scholar Kathleen Lant argues that King’s representations of female characters are particularly problematic. (In fact, Lant heavily implies that the author is a misogynist.) However, some have viewed Carrie as a quintessentially feminist text. How feminist is King’s book? How are women portrayed in the novel, and what can we take from this? Assignment #5: Stacy Phaxaysithideth Qualitative Research Problem: The education system in the United States comprises two major categories depending on the nature of learners in one allocated classroom set up. Either student learn as same-sex or co-educational. In this research problem, the essay will make use of qualitative analysis to analyze the pros and cons of teaching and learning in the same-sex classroom set up over coeducational classrooms. The expectations of the findings are such that participants in this study and the research place show bias in the opinions of the research questions posed through either interviews or questionnaires. Major Points Draft Statements Define same-sex education and co-education Same-sex education refers to a teaching and learning environment in which the educational institution offers learning to the learner of single-sex; either boy or girls and not both. Co-educational learning involves both boys and girls learning in the same educational environment be it the school or simply classrooms (Henebery, 2017). Discussion of both same-sex education and co-education on sexuality The research by (Hughes, 2006) found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of same-sex classrooms verses co-ed classrooms A study by Henebery (2017) shows that the co-educational system of learning leads to academic failure of both boys and girls. Research done by Sather (2007) indicates that co-ed classrooms in both public and private American schools fail boys. Sather (2007) indicates promotes the idea of same-sex classrooms as it promotes the performance and discipline of the male child. Sather’s study is further backed up by Gurian et al (2009) whose findings show that girls and boys have different brain accommodation capacities. Male students often find themselves bottom in the class and hence forcing them to attend remedial classes. Stanberry (2015) adds that in Hawaii same-sex schooling education is the driving force of political, civil rights, socio-economic and legal issues. Lirgg (1994) examined the effect of environment on student physical education. Thie findings indicate that boys and girls in co-ed perform almost to the same extent, their counterparts in single-sex schools are much better. Kuanysh (2017) and Yasin et al (2020) points out same-sex classrooms have a negative influence on the learner’s individuality and perception of the opposite gender. Li et al (2018) add that single-sex schooling show controversies and differences in learner friendship, dating, and sexual orientation. Conclusion The findings show that much of the literature reviewed shows one side of the research. From the above foregoing, many of the research only provides the pros of single-sex schools. This research will further provide the cons of same-sex classrooms which have not been highlighted by the previous research, such as XX. To add to it, the research by Tichenor et al (2015) will be used to further provide qualitative evidence of the impact of the same sex classroom on student performance concerning different subjects such as sciences, mathematic, arts, and sports. Related Literature References Summary of study results for your statements Burgess, A. (1990). Co‐education—the disadvantages for schoolgirls. Gender and Education, 2(1), 91-95. Fabes, R. et al. (2018). Gender integration in coeducational classrooms: Advancing educational research and practice. School Psychology Quarterly, 33(2), 182. Herrick, L. K. (2009). Same-sex Schooling versus Co-educational Schooling and Their Effects on Achievement, Assessment and Gender Bias (Doctoral dissertation, Evergreen State College). Kuanysh, A. Z. (2017). The effect of Single-sex school on students’ academic achievements. International Scientific and Practical Conference World Science, 4(9), 34-44. Lirgg, C. D. (1994). Environmental perceptions of students in same-sex and coeducational physical education classes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 183. Several studies have focused on the advantages and disadvantages of co-education verses same-sex education (Burgess, A. (1990), Fabes, R. et al. (2018), Herrick, L.K. (2009), Kuanysh, A.Z. (2017), Lirgg, C.D. (1994).) Advantages/disadvantages of a same-sex classroom Advantages/disadvantages of a co-ed classroom How these different classrooms effect boys verse girls How these classrooms effect different subject areas * Another disadvantage of same-sex schools is sex-stereotyping which poses threats to subject choices like underachievement in mathematics and science in the case of girls only absence of women in authority for boys only (Burgess, 1990). * Although many students both boys’ and girls’ study in the same setup and the learner relationship is quite harmonious, coed classrooms do not assure that boys and girls can work and coexist effectively while solving academic problems (Fabes et al, 2018). * If same-sex schools are able to give boys and girls educational opportunities that provide them with strong life skills and an education that prepares them for their work in their communities then the social skills that they need to interact with the opposite sex may already be in place and could be practiced and strengthened through extra-curricular activities that involved both boys and girls (Herrick, 2009). * According to his findings Kuanysh (2017) points out same-sex classrooms have a negative influence on the learner’s individuality and perception of the opposite gender. * Lirgg (1994) examined the effect of environment on student physical education. Thie findings indicate that boys and girls in co-ed perform almost to the same extent, their counterparts in single-sex schools are much better. Gurian, M., Stevens, K., & Daniels, P. (2009). Successful single-sex classrooms: A practical guide to teaching boys & girls separately. John Wiley & Sons. *The research underlines the importance of single-sex learning, and supports the creation and implementation of new strategies for accommodating the brain differences of boys and girls – at both the school and classroom level. Hughes, T. A. (2006). The Advantages of Single-Sex Education. Online Submission, 23(2). *The purpose of this article is to explore whether public schools should provide a choice to parents to have single-sex education along with coeducation. The author believes that in single-sex classrooms or single-sex schools student achievement will be positively impacted. Li, G., & Wong, W. I. (2018). Single-sex schooling: Friendships, dating, and sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(4), 1025-1039. *This study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. Mercedes Tichenor, M., Tichenor, et al. (2015). “Elementary Student Perspectives on Single-Gender Classes.” Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 4(2), 80-85. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1157589.pdf *This study discusses the academic effectiveness of single-sex classrooms and how students in these classes feel about them. Sather, J. (2007). Same-Sex Classrooms: Can They Fix Our Public Schools? *This article discusses pros and cons for both boys and girls in same-sex classrooms. Stanberry, K. (2015). Single-sex education: the pros and cons. Great Schools Newsletter. *This article discusses views about same-sex classrooms through the public and critics as well as what people have to say about these classrooms. Quantitative Research Problem: The majority of the current studies investigate the differences that arise in the reading assessments and scores between the learners in same-sex classrooms and their counterparts in co-ed classrooms. In this research, I will investigate the factors that contribute to the differences in the test scores using quantitative research study methods. The independent variables in the study are the reading assessment groups’ scores from both same-sex and co-ed learners. Since data will be collected from a co-ed learner environment, there will be no dependent variables. The study expects to show that same-sex classroom has an advantage in assessment performance over co-educational classrooms. Major Points Draft Statements Schools wanting to implement same-sex classes * According to the National Association for single-sex Public Education in America, over 400 public schools have implemented a same-sex educational program. The program has shown advantages such as less distraction, differentiated learning, developed learner education, dropout prevention, and desired outcomes such as improved academic achievement and performance. * Stanberry (2015) adds that approximately 400 public schools in Hawaii offer same-sex schooling education which is the driving force of American education. * The co-ed system in the US attempts to bridge the gaps in educational performances by providing platforms to foster mutual learning (Kishore et al. 2019). Advantages of same-sex classrooms * According to an article by Hart (2020), same-sex education offers a platform for the improvement of academic achievements for both genders. It has been linked to higher and better standards of achievement scores as well as developing a well-rounded individual. Conclusion Generally, the differences in academic performance especially in the reading performance score are very minimal. Plenty of research makes precise conclusions that same-sex schools perform better than co-ed schools. The finding of my research is set to identify if there are any differences in the reading assessments scores for students in a same-sex (probably all female) and co-educational classroom. A major weakness in most of the studies was the lack of socioeconomic and racial diversity of the students involved in the study. Related Literature References Summary of study results for your statements Abraham, J., & Barker, K. (2020). Motivation and Engagement with Physics: A Comparative Study of Females in Single-Sex and Co-educational Classrooms. Research in Science Education, 50(6), 2227-2242. *The aim of this study was to identify the differences in motivation, engagement and sustained enrolment plans in relation to physics between female students in single-sex from those in co-educational settings. Barmao, A., Changeiywo, J., & Githua, B. (2015). “Influence of Gender Streamed (Boys’ and Girls’ Only) Classes on Coeducational Secondary Schools’ Mathematics Teachers Perceptions in Nakuru, Uasingishu, Kericho and Baringo Counties of Kenya.” Journal of Education and Practice, 6(23), 21-29. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079023.pdf * In this study the mathematics teachers’ perceptions of gender streamed and mixed sex mathematics classes in sub-county and county schools are favorable and positive. Meaning that the teachers do not perceive any significant benefits of any of these classes over the others in the teaching and learning of mathematics. To the teachers, students can learn and excel in the subject in all the three types of mathematics classes (girls’ only, boys’ only and mixed sex classes). Gibb, S. J., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2008). Effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement. Australian Journal of education, 52(3), 301-317. * This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. There were significant differences between single-sex and coeducational schools in the size and direction of the gender gap. At coeducational schools, there was a statistically significant gap favoring females, while at single-sex schools there was a non-significant gap favoring males. Gurian, M., Stevens, K., & Daniels, P. (2009). Successful single-sex classrooms: A practical guide to teaching boys & girls separately. John Wiley & Sons. * The research underlines the importance of single-sex learning, and supports the creation and implementation of new strategies for accommodating the brain differences of boys and girls – at both the school and classroom level. Hart, L. (2021).The Advantages of same-sex Classrooms. Accessed online at https://classroom.synonym.com/advantages-samesex-classrooms-4997.html *Pros and cons of same-sex classrooms. Henebery, B. (2017). Students do better in single-sex schools – study. Accessed online at https://www.theeducatoronline.com/k12/news/students-do-better-in-singlesex-schools–study/242635 *This study shows that students’ academic performance actually falls when they move from a single-sex environment to co-ed environment, and continues to decline the longer they stay in a co-ed environment. Kishore, A., Joseph, C. V., Bijili, L., & Anwar, M. A. (2019, May). Co-ed: A classroom setup for enhancing cooperative learning and digital literacy. In Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-6). *This article discusses the learning gap between boys and girls and how they relate to same-sex classrooms and co-ed classrooms. Lim, C. T. D., & Fraser, B. J. (2018). Learning environments research in English classrooms. Learning Environments Research, 21(3), 433-449. * This article paves the way for expanding research on English classroom environments by (1) reviewing the limited past research in English classrooms and (2) reporting the first study of English learning environments in Singaporean primary schools. Ronspies, S. M. (2011). Middle school students’ perceptions of coeducational and same-sex physical education. Illinois Journal for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 17. *The purpose of this study was to examine middle school students’ perceptions of coeducational and same-sex physical education classes. Stanberry, K. (2015). Single-sex education: the pros and cons. Great Schools Newsletter. *This article discusses views about same-sex classrooms through the public and critics as well as what people have to say about these classrooms. Build the research gaps: Although the pros and cons of same-sex classrooms has been investigated in a variety of ways, few studies have investigated the effect of same-sex classrooms in modern society meaning today’s classrooms. Few studies have been conducted to compare same-sex classrooms when they first began to current same-sex classrooms; comparing the effectiveness of these classes then and now. Study Significance: The current study offers insights for researchers who are interested in studying the pros and cons of same-sex classrooms verses co-ed classrooms and the effects the classrooms have on girls and boys and assessments. The results are also of interest for schools/parents/students who may want to have the option of same-sex classrooms verses a co-ed classroom. Purpose of the Study: Specifically, the current study investigates: (1) the difference in reading assessment scores for students in a same-sex (all female) classroom versus reading scores in a co-ed classroom (2) the difference in performances in reading assessment scores in a same-sex classroom verses a co-ed classroom (3) the pros of learning in a same-sex classroom verses a co-ed classroom. Relevant literature is reviewed. Consider how you can build the research gaps based on the reviewed literature. Consider how two studies are different in terms of research gaps. Rubric Criteria Pt – 20 Quantitative Research problem: State the major points and develop draft statements 1 1 Literature review: Review and summarize results of empirical studies 3 2.9 Identify deficiencies based on literature review conclusions 2 1.5 Discuss the need and significance of the proposed study 1 1 APA citation and a minimum of 10 references 1 0.9 Follow the template; include all required elements 1 0.9 Align the introduction elements with the research question(s) or purpose 1 0.9 Qualitative Research problem: State the major points and develop draft statements 1 1 Literature review: Review and summarize results of empirical studies 3 2.9 Identify deficiencies based on literature review conclusions 2 1.5 Discuss the need and significance of the proposed study 1 1 APA citation and a minimum of 10 references 1 0.9 Follow the template; include all required elements 1 0.9 Align the introduction elements with the research question(s) or purpose 1 0.9 Score: 18.2 Anna and Nicole, Excellent job on your PowerPoint regarding childhood obesity. The information was very informative. The children of today are much different then when we all grew up. It is important as you stated to encourage the proper amount of activity with children. As adults it is very important to teach good food habits with our children in regard to eating properly which includes all the healthy food groups. I feel if one involves their children with preparing meals along with the importance of healthy eating, proper activity is a great plan. When children are included, they tend to grow up with healthy eating habits. Children should be taught at an early age how to read labels. Examples would be making games out of reading the labels. When children find reading labels fun they want to learn. Encouragement goes a long way with children. If you praise children no matter what it involves, they want to do well. The hidden sugar in foods is what is making our children obese these days. As parents we have to take control, so our children grow up healthy. Again, I enjoyed your PowerPoint and found the statistics very informative. Lab 9: The H-R Diagram In this lab we’ll look at the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a scatter plot used to look at the properties of stars and how they’re related to each other. We’ll be looking at just what goes into an H-R diagram, we’ll be creating our own, and we’ll be looking at other H-R diagrams to draw conclusions about star clusters, stars in our neighborhood, and the stars you see in the sky at night. This lab has a total of 31 points. It is due by the end of Friday October 29. Part 1: Brightness and Color (9 points) As we start to construct a scatter plot for stars, two sensible ways of describing them are brightness and color. But if we’re going to make a scatter plot using those things, we first should find a way to quantify them. We already looked at the magnitude system used to describe a star’s brightness in one of the pre-labs. A star’s apparent magnitude tells us how bright it appears from Earth, while a star’s absolute magnitude tells us how bright the star would appear if it were moved to a reference distance. Since we’re interested in a star’s luminosity here – the amount of total light it gives off – absolute magnitude will be more useful for us. Let’s try it out using the constellation Leo. Here are 10 of the brighter stars in Leo, as you might see them in the night sky: As you can see, these stars nicely suggest the shape of a lion lounging in a sphinx-like pose. Here are these stars’ names and absolute magnitudes: Which of these 10 stars gives off the most total light, regardless of their distances from Earth? [1 point] Which of these 10 stars gives off the least total light? [1 point] The Sun has an apparent magnitude of -26.74, and an absolute magnitude of 4.83. Which of the 10 stars above give off more total light than the Sun? [1 point] Now let’s think about color. As we’ve seen, very hot objects – like stars and stove coils and light bulb filaments – produce their own visible light. The spectrum of light they give off takes on a rounded mountain shape, with its peak located somewhere among the visible part of the spectrum. The properties of that mountain shape depend only on the object’s temperature: if your stove coil, the heating element in your toaster, and the star Antares are all glowing the same reddish-orange color, then they’re all the same temperature. As the object gets hotter, the peak of the mountain moves from the infrared, to the red end of the visible spectrum, to orange, to yellow, and onward – the hottest stars in the universe glow blue. There is a little hiccup in the rainbow. When something is hot enough for the mountain peak to be located at “green,” it actually looks like its glowing white. This is because when the mountain peak is at green, the rest of the visible spectrum is also getting a lot of attention, and our eyes interpret “lots of light at all visible colors” as white. So as you move to hotter stars, they go from red to orange to yellow to white to blue. Another change to the spectrum as something gets hotter is that it will give off more light at all wavelengths. So not only will orange-hot lava be a different color from red-hot lava, but it’ll also look brighter. Be careful, though: a star can also appear brighter if it is closer to us, or if it is larger in size. So that’s neat: a star’s color gives us information about the temperature (or rather, the temperature at the star’s surface). That sounds quite useful. A common technique for reporting a star’s color is to look at how bright it appears in two different filters – typically “B” (blue) and “V” (“visible,” centered around green) – and subtract one from the other. As an example, let’s picture how this works with two stars: Star X and Star Y. If we look at their apparent magnitudes (remember: brighter stars have lower magnitudes), Star X has B=3.5 and V=3.0, and Star Y has B=4.0 and V=3.0. Since both stars have the same apparent V-magnitude, they both appear to be the same brightness in the V filter. Which star appears brighter in the B filter? Which star is bluer in color? Which star is hotter? Calculate “B minus V” for both stars. If a star is bluer, does it have a larger value or smaller value of B-V? [3 points total] Now let’s see if there are any distance effects to a star’s B-V color. If a star is farther away, it appears fainter. This is because Earth appears as a smaller target for light given off in all directions by the star. If a star is 10 times farther away, it looks 100 times fainter. And because of how the magnitude system works, 100 times fainter results in 5 added to the star’s magnitude in all filters. Let’s say Star Y suddenly moved 10 times farther away. What are its apparent B and V magnitudes now? [1 point] What is its B-V color index now? [1 point] What effect does distance have on B-V? [1 point] Part 2: The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (16 points) Okay, let’s put the above information into use with a scatter plot. Our y-values will be absolute magnitudes. Because more luminous stars will have larger absolute magnitudes, our y-axis will be upside-down: smaller numbers at the top and larger numbers at the bottom. Our x-values will be color, using the B-V color index. Bluer stars (lower B-V) will go on the left, and redder stars (higher B-V) will go on the right. Let’s try placing some stars in the diagram. Here are nine stars, some of which we’ve seen previously – in the Scale Models lab, in Nighttime Observing, or even earlier in this lab. Calculate the B-V color index for each star in this table, and then consult the H-R diagram page to identify each star with the letters P through X. [9 points] Star apparent B magnitude apparent V magnitude B-V color absolute V magnitude letter Proxima Centauri 12.95 11.13 15.57 Sirius A -1.46 -1.47 1.42 Sirius B 8.41 8.44 11.33 Rigel 0.09 0.12 -6.99 Pollux 2.15 1.15 1.07 Barnard’s Star 11.24 9.51 13.21 Tau Ceti 4.22 3.50 5.69 Antares 2.96 1.09 -5.06 Regulus 1.24 1.40 -0.53 Which of these 9 stars gives off the most total light? [1 point] Which one gives off the least total light? [1 point] Which one is the hottest? [1 point] Which one is the coolest? [1 point] Compare the “P through X” page with the complete H-R diagram on the following page of the PDF. Out of these nine stars… [3 points] …name one that is a main sequence star. …name one that is a giant or supergiant. …name one that is a white dwarf. Part 3: Star Clusters (6 points) Here are some H-R diagrams for three different star clusters. In all four diagrams, each star’s x-value is its B-V color index, and each star’s y-value is its absolute magnitude in the V filter. Which of these four star clusters is the youngest, and which is the oldest? [2 points] Explain what information in these diagrams tells us the answer to the previous question. [1 point] Which stars in the Coma Star Cluster are in the process of dying? Describe where they are in the diagram – for example, “the ones in the lower left,” or “the ones with an absolute magnitude around 6.” [1 point] Why don’t we see many blue stars in the cluster M67? [1 point] The H-R diagram for the cluster M11 doesn’t have a lot of dim red stars, but that doesn’t necessarily mean M11 doesn’t have any dim red stars. Think about everything that went into putting a diagram like this together. Why might those stars be absent in this diagram? [1 point] MGMT 4102 OB – Individual Written Research Paper Instructions and Topic Each student will individually research and write a research paper no less than 10 pages but longer if necessary. The topic is the impact AI (Artificial Intelligence) will have on your area of study, i.e. your academic major. If your major is Accounting, your paper will be on ‘AI Impact on Accounting.’ If your major is General Business, your paper will be on ‘AI Impact on US Businesses.’ If not a Business Major or undeclared, your paper will be on ‘AI Impact on US Businesses.’ The research paper will include a title page/cover sheet, table of contents/outline, main body section, bibliography, and an appendix section if needed. The 10 pages DO NOT include the title page/cover sheet, table of contents/outline, bibliography, and appendix. Put images, graphs, pictures in appendix section. The paper and any additional files must be in MS Office Software format, i.e., Word, double spaced, one inch margins on all four sides, font and size are Arial 12, and use APA Style. A zero grade will be given for any work not submitted in MS Office Software format or if the wrong file is submitted. Grammar Errors. One or more points for each grammatical error will be taken off any course work, i.e. research papers, PPT Presentations, short written assignments, postings in D2L Discussions, TEAMS, business plans, etc. Use the following structure for your research paper: Part I – Introduction and Outline, on first page, state topic/title, student name, course name and section number. Put outline on second page. Outline must be detailed phrases or sentences, not single words. (5% of grade) Part II – Definition, Brief History, Current Situation, Possible Future Growth/Decline. (25%) Part III – Specific impacts as either threat (negative impact) or opportunity (positive impact), or both, on your area of study, major, i.e., Accounting, Finance, etc. (25% of grade) Part IV – Strategies (plans of action) state what a professional/leader in your area should do to offset threats and/or take advantage of opportunities. These specific strategies should be both short term (1-3 years) and long term (greater than 3 years). (25% of grade) Part V – Reflection Section – This is one of the most important sections. Each student must write a small section (4-5 paragraphs) with three parts, at the end of the paper. The three parts are: 1. what you learned about topic from doing the project, i.e., what you found new and/or interesting, 2. what you learned about the process (doing) the project, and 3. how you can use the information learned in 1 and 2 to enhance your professional and personal life. (15% of grade) Do not just put in facts you learned about the topic, but how knowing these facts will make you a better professional and/or better person. This section is at the end of paper but before the Bibliography section. Part VI – Bibliography. See following for information on the bibliography. (5% of grade) – Place the bibliography at the end of the paper and use APA Style. – The bibliography must have at least 25 sources, with only 5 being direct internet sites, as most internet sites are not very credible sources. Most internet sites are biased as the sites are made by private businesses, governments, or organizations which favor a certain view. – DO NOT use any encyclopedia, i.e., Wikipedia, or basic dictionaries for your sources. – Use academic articles from academic journals (best), professional/business and public magazines/newspapers, books, interviews, government sources, and internet sites. – Use current sources (less than 10 years old), unless a classic source, i.e., Drucker. – If you cannot physically go to a library, use the online CSU Library access to articles, books, etc. and through the GIL Member Libraries, nearly 30 Georgia University Libraries. – Using a library through the internet does not count as an internet source, as the online library is a data base. It is a road to take you to other sources, i.e., books, journal articles, etc. – If you use information in an internet site, it counts as a direct internet site, 1 of only 5 allowed. – If you use information from an article, magazine, or book listed/contained on an internet site, it counts as an article, magazine, or book source. Due Date and File Submission – See syllabus for due date and time. – Title your file: Semester – Section Number – Title – your last name, your first name. Example: 2021FA – Sec 90 – AI Impact on Accounting – Smith, Judy. Large Files – If file is too big for ‘BRIGHTSPACE (D2L/DESIRE 2 LEARN) Assignments’ folder, email through CSU General Email or CSU OneDrive, before the due date. If using CSU OneDrive, give Dr. Garsombke permission. Contact HUB for help with CSU OneDrive. – Most internet servers are extremely slow in uploading files. Plan for 2-3 hours for large file. – Student Requests for Extensions of Due Date for any Semester Long Assignments: For any course work that is a semester long project, i.e., Individual Research Papers, Group Research Projects, etc., (following CSU Academic Policies) extensions of due dates cannot be granted unless the student can provide official written documentation that the reason, (i.e., medical) which prevented them from completing the work was for the entire semester. – Grading done during the following 2-3 weeks. After grading completed, final course grades available on date in CSU Academic Calendar. These guidelines were prepared by Dr. Thomas Garsombke, 2021. All Rights Reserved. No part of this writing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the author. 3 Background You are a Nutrition and Health major, interning at your university’s Health Center. Your supervisor is Dr. Lauren Chakraparti, the director of the Health Center. You and Dr. C, as she likes to be called, are reviewing statistics on the conditions that students report when they come to the Health Center. “As you know,” Dr. C says, “the number of students inquiring about obesity is up over 200 percent in the last three years. Students are asking about nutrition programs, exercise programs, and various weight-loss surgeries. One of the therapies I’m getting questions about now is very-low-calorie diets—VLCDs.” “I’m not even sure what they are.” “They’re a kind of diet that requires you to substitute synthetic nutrition sources—things like special shakes—for all the food you usually eat. You stay on that diet for weeks or months, and you lose a lot of weight. The fact that you haven’t heard about it is why I need your help.” Dr. C hands you a fact sheet. “This is a fact sheet from the National Institutes of Health about VLCDs. Even though it’s written at a pretty basic level, it’s not addressed to our audience. I’d like you to help me turn it into something we can give to students.” “Absolutely,” you say. Your Assignment Review the background for the task and the attached document.  See attached pdf file.  See assignment below. Part 1 of Assignment 1. Study Document 13.1 (attached pdf file).  Write a memorandum to Dr. C that thoroughly explains your findings and suggestions for revision of the document. What information should be deleted because it is not addressed to a college-age audience? What information should be added? What information should be “translated” to more directly meet the needs of college students? Should graphics be added to make the document more effective? If so, what types of graphics? Present your findings and suggestions in a memorandum to Dr. C. Part 2 of Assignment 2. Revise Document 13.1 (attached pdf file) according to the information contained in the memorandum that you have prepared for Dr. C. To better understand the document, perform any secondary research required to discover technical information that you need in order to make the necessary revisions. If, in your memorandum to Dr. C., you recommended adding graphics, either describe them in words, create your own, or use existing graphics that you find on the Internet to help Dr. C visualize your ideas. Indicate the sources of information for any graphics you download from the Internet. Barriers and Stigma of Mental Health Services Utilization Notes Barriers to the Military Mental Health Care System The constant exposure to trauma increases the risk of severe behavioral conditions for service members. The lack of knowledge about mental illness, persistent stigma, leadership, and the ongoing negative attitude toward mental illness and treatment are known barriers to care for military service members, veterans, and their families. Significant Barrier to Mental Illness Treatment: Fear of Professional Consequences: servicemembers struggling with mental illness often believe that they may not be considered for promotions or other positions if they seek mental health treatment.They believe they may receive a dishonorable discharge or forced into medical retirement if they are diagnosed with mental illness. A dishonorable discharge would result in a loss of military benefits and place obstacles when trying to secure civilian employment Barrier has come from Leadership and the Lack of Knowledge about Mental Illness Servicemembers were expected to be both physically and mentally ready for deployments throughout the world. Ultimately responsible for having a highly trained and ready-to-respond fighting force. Responders Barriers to Mental Health Care Profession where personnel are frequently exposed to human suffering and trauma, many are reluctant to seek mental health treatment. This is evident by the high suicide rates among responders, who, as noted in previous weeks, are more likely to die by suicide than in the line of duty With high rates of suicide, alcohol abuse, and PTSD, responders are careful to hide their behavioral conditions in fear of appearing weak in front of their peers, losing their jobs, or being relegated to desk duty. Certain mental illnesses or psychiatric medications can result in an officer being labeled as “unfit for duty” and being relegated to desk duty or forced into medical retirement. Subject to scrutiny by the officer’s department or supervisors The responder culture placed an emphasis on physical fitness and job training but paid little attention to mental wellness education or support. 2017, Law Enforcement Mental Health and Wellness Act, did law enforcement leaders recognize the need for mental health programs within their agencies 2018, Illinois implemented legislation that prohibits local and state law enforcement agencies from firing officers who seek mental illness treatment. Mental Health Stigma Stigma is a significant reason that military and responders are reluctant to seek mental health treatment (Varga, 2018) professions that value the cultural identity of the warrior mindset, mental illness and treatment are often viewed as weaknesses. Admitting psychological stress to peers and supervisors has traditionally been viewed as unacceptable According to Schreiber and McEnany (2015), internalized stigma creates psychological adversity and a subconscious reluctance to seek care Military and responders, through cultural reinforcement, believe that they can handle behavioral problems on their own and do not need professional care. outwardly display stress or seek mental health are not trusted by their peers to perform under duress. Barriers and Stigma Associated with Mental Health Care for MIlitary and Emergency Responders Lack of Knowledge: mental wellness and education programs have not been part of military training. many law enforcement agencies around the country also lacked mental wellness and resources for their officers. Fear of Professional Consequences: MIlitary Personnel: this fear raised concerns about loss of opportunities for promotion, dishonorable discharge (loss of military benefits), forced medical retirement, and loss of security clearance Emergency Responders: this fear raises concerns about being perceived by colleagues as weak, loss of ob, relegation to desk duty, and forced medical retirement Leadership: Because they are responsible for maintaining a ready-to-respond fighting force, military commanders may hesitate to encourage personnel to seek professional help because of the impact on mission readiness. For emergency responders, personnel may come under increased scrutiny from supervisors (and peers) who question their colleague’s ability to perform under duress Stigma Real or perceived devaluation by peers to live up to the warrior mindset can become internalized prejudice and lead to lowered self-esteem and behavioral problems. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Health Care Legislation, such as the Law Enforcement Mental Health and Wellness Act (LEMHWA) and Illinois House Bill 5231, has helped reduce the barriers and stigma associated with mental illness and treatment. Colorado has enacted legislation that supports responder mental health care and peace officers involved in use of force incidents Legislation: LEMHWA: directs the federal government to develop resources to assist law enforcement agencies in developing mental wellness programs, such as peer support groups, training programs for mental health professionals specific to law enforcement needs, and future research. Illinois House Bill 5231: Illinois House Bill 5231 prevents police departments from requiring a FOID (Firearms Owner Identification Card)card as a condition for continued employment. Previously when cops sought mental health care, their FOID cards were temporarily revoked. Colorado House Bill 17-1215 In 2017, Colorado created a grant program within the Department of Local Affairs that provides financial assistance to agencies that have mental health co-responder programs and provides counseling services to law enforcement officers. Colorado Senate Bill 19-091 requires law enforcement agencies to develop policies to support officers involved in a shooting or fatal use of force. policies must include pre- and post-incident support and services, as well as guidelines regarding temporary leave and duty assignments, and return to duty status. If more state and public safety leadership pushed for legislation similar to these above, it would further remove the stigma associated with mental health care for military and responder personnel. Emergency responder and military leaders also need to implement mental wellness education programs within their organization to reduce the stigma and myths associated with seeking mental health treatment. The fear of scrutinization from the chain-of-command is a major barrier to mental health care. federal privacy laws protect patients; and only under extreme circumstances, such as child abuse or threat of imminent physical harm to self or others, can mental health professionals release treatment information. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) law protects medical information, including diagnosis and medications, from being disclosed to employers. Military and responder personnel need to be reassured that if they do seek professional help, it will be kept confidential and not necessarily affect their livelihood Don’t forget to write in paragraphs! For example, you would not make that one mega-paragraph. Based on what you are being asked to write about, three paragraphs seems like a good way to organize the information. A good paragraph should start with a topic sentence and only cover one idea. The sentences in the paragraph should provide explanation of the one idea, examples, and/or evidence to back up the topic sentence. One last tip: Someone reading your paper can tell the difference between a student who is describing what they read and a student who has synthesized the information. Students often struggle with what the difference between synthesis and summary is. Here is information from a blog about teaching and learning that might help you : “A synthesis is NOT the same as a summary. A synthesis can INCLUDE parts of a summary, or a retelling from the text, but it goes far beyond that summary or retelling. A summary may lead to a synthesis, but it’s not where it stops. Synthesizing requires the reader to take that summary or partial retelling and add in their own thoughts, experiences, opinions, interpretations and connections to generate a new, and bigger idea — it’s going beyond the text. Even more, a true synthesis can blend and integrate ideas from across multiple texts to form new big ideas.” (https://www.classroomnook.com/blog/synthesizing-a-text) Your assignment will include the following: Drosophila as model organism in translational research (10 marks) – Write a 1.5-2 page summary of why Drosophila is a good model organism for translational research. You want to provide information about why they are generally great model organisms to work with, specifically why research in Drosophila can be applied to humans (= translational research) and support this with an example from the literature (papers are posted in the assignment folder). Be sure to demonstrate a breadth and depth of understanding why Drosophila is an effective model in translational research. This means your writing should convince the reader that you have applied the knowledge found in the papers and not simply paraphrased what is already written. Don’t forget to paraphrase and provide in-text citations ` Na-K pump Na-K pumpTask: Describe and explain the structure and function of the sodium- calcium exchanger. Explain how digitalis effects the heart through its action on active cell transport including all related transport: Font Verdan 12 Word limit 1000 Use 3-5 good referencing such as journal etc, ALL OWN WORDS NO COPYRIGHT PLEASE Include Diagram and talk about it and refer e.g Figure 1 shows binding site etc. Structure (subheading, paragraphs) e.g Effect of digitalis on heart Include introduction + conclusion also Main points also Mechanism + effect Na-K pump Na-K pumpTask: Describe and explain the structure and function of the sodium- calcium exchanger. Explain how digitalis effects the heart through its action on active cell transport including all related transport: Font Verdan 12 Word limit 1000 Use 3-5 good referencing such as journal etc, ALL OWN WORDS NO COPYRIGHT PLEASE Include Diagram and talk about it and refer e.g Figure 1 shows binding site etc. Structure (subheading, paragraphs) e.g Effect of digitalis on heart Include introduction + conclusion also Main points also Mechanism + effect Biological Inhertitance You have two moths, one black and one grey. When you breed the black and grey moths together, the progeny (offspring) moths are half black and half grey. When you breed the grey moths together you end up with 25% black moths, 50% grey moths, and 25% white moths. What type of biological inheritance is at work in these moths? Determine the genotype and phenotype of the black, grey, and white moths using Punnet squares. Construct Punnet squares for breeding black and white moths together. Report on the Communication in My Field of Study 1 Homeland Security and the Communication within Report Brandon Walker ENGL110: Making Writing Relevant Jolene Mendel 10/17/2021 Report on the Communication in my Field of Study 1. Program I am studying: Homeland Security with a focus in Cyber Security 2. This is the Research Guide I am using and some of the things I found in it. The name of the resource guide that I will be utilizing is the Homeland Security Program Guide from APUS school library under School of Security & Global Studies. This resource guide consists of journals, books, website links including blogs, and citing information with writing guides. There are many articles and journals I can utilize including library search including ISBN numbers. The information I will focus on will be counter terrorism, theoretical approaches to understanding radicalism, legalities, and cybersecurity. The databases that will be most useful based off my research and interest will be Homeland Security Digital Library (HSDL) and Homeland Security (MERLN). The reason I chose those two is because MERLN, which is military education research libraries, will allow me to quickly find accredited US policies. This will help with proving a thesis, defending/attacking a law, or backing research. The HSDL benefits with an easy search bar, sorting & grouping, and great classifications on the area of study, such as Cyber Policies, Interoperability, and Lone Wolf Terrorism. The types of books I will utilize in this field will typically be introductory books or unit specific books such as Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What by Michael Kraft. While I’m sure there are many video sites that talk about this field, it would benefit best when writing collegiate papers to use the Department of Homeland Security official sources of media, as well as their YouTube page. Websites that focus on this field are Homeland Security Digital Library, allowing the user to utilize many other links specific to their query. Others are their official website the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and any archive site, such as the National Security Archive. Organizations used by people in this field would be the entire Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE) which would include the Department of Homeland Security and its public or civil support facilities, an example would be Immigration and Customs Enforcement or Cybersecurity. All social media sites are used by people in this field because it is now a source of recruitment, a network for communication to solicit for future crimes, or commit them, cyber-attacks and many others. 3. Here is a closer look at an organization or website used by people in my field. This field has many paths to choose from within the Homeland Security Enterprise, the best website to start to find credible information or links is https://www.dhs.gov/ this is the official website for the Department of Homeland Security. This website, addressed to the public, private sectors, and government employees, provides the latest stories and information on a variety of topics within the Department of Homeland Security. 4. Describe things you found as you looked at an organization or website used by people in your field. Formal language written in short cliff notes with a direct explanation Citizenship and Immigration Homeland Security Enterprise Feedback is offered as a submission form of either helpful information or not Each link has a picture or icon to associate with the information in the link Ways to distinguish insiders from outsiders Everything on their websites is professional and formal, providing direct information and links to extrapolate on the topics, or forums that provide discussions with other viewers from all walks of life. 5. Here are tips for communicating in this field of study. Communicating in this field would be similar to communicating as a lawyer in a way, you must have the proof, knowledge, and formality while being able to clearly discuss issues that may affect you personally. It would benefit to always be current on your information and up to date on directives as they change about every 4 years, not including other changes on a weekly basis. My last tip for this field would communicating with the right people, networking could be extremely beneficial in an industry as such because of the many influences outside of government. A great number of industries work with DHS or are at least overseen by them, including the conversion of private industries and private sectors working in conjunction. Build a pumping heart Materials needed: One balloon 2 cups or jars 3 preferably jointed plastic straws or plastic tubing (fish tank tubing works well) 1 C measuring cup Water (with or without food coloring) Stop watch or timer Metronome (available on many smart phones, apps or through google) Build your “heart” following the general instructions from the website. You may choose to replace the last jar with a measuring cup as we will use this in part II. https://www.kiwico.com/diy/Science-Projects-for-Kids/3/project/Pumping-Heart/2883 Instructional notes/hints: Only poke a very small holes in the balloon that covers your middle jar. If the hole is big enough for the straw to easily fit through it is too big and will not create a good seal. The balloon ends that are taped to the ends of the straws are not entirely necessary. You can achieve the same affect by placing the tip of your finger on the “exit straw” to keep the water column intact. Insert a picture of your working heart here Once you have your “heart” working create the following rhythms. Use a stopwatch or timer and a measuring cup to measure how much blood you can profuse through your heart in one minute. Use the metronome app to create the correct timing of your compressions. Complete the following table. Rhythm Amount of blood profused in 1 minute General observations of profusion at this rhythm Deep, steady compressions at 100 beats per minute, allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Deep, steady compressions at 100 beats per minute, not allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Deep, erratic compressions at roughly 100 beats per minute, allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Deep, erratic compressions at roughly 100 beats per minute, not allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Shallow, steady compressions at 100 beats per minute, allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Shallow, erratic compressions at roughly 100 beats per minute, allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Shallow, erratic compressions at roughly 100 beats per minute, not allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Shallow, steady compressions at 100 beats per minute, not allowing balloon to come back to resting position in between compressions Questions and reflections Reflect on your data above. What was the optimal rate and technique to profuse blood through the heart? While performing CPR, chest recoil, or allowing the chest to come back to resting position in between compressions is critical to effective CPR. Based on your results, explain why this is. Many times people think faster compressions are better when doing CPR. Why might this not be the case? (Try going faster than 100 beats per minute) What did you notice about shallow compressions? What real life situations might this be an issue? 2 1 Insert Your Full Title Here Insert Your Name Here Purdue University Global Identify the Class Here Identify the Instructor Name Identify the Assignment Due Date Restate the Full Title Here Share a quick introduction to your assignment. Part 1: Prospect Form Funding Source #1: Provide the APA formatted citation for this source you have identified. Briefly summarize the goals and mission for this source. Funding Source #2: Provide the APA formatted citation for this source you have identified. Briefly summarize the goals and mission for this source. Selected Funding Source: Describe which source is a better fit for your early childhood program and include detailed information to support your response. Complete the table below to provide the contact information for the funding option you have selected. Name of Funding Source Contact person Address/Phone Web address Trustees Notes: Include interest areas, geographical restrictions, grant amounts, application guidelines, letter or proposal required, etc. Part 2: Funding Plan Description of organization that is being funded Briefly describe your organization that you are funding. Donor Groups Donor Group #1 Identify a donor group that appeals to you to meet the needs of your funding plan. Be specific. Donor Group #2 Identify another donor group that appeals to you to meet the needs of your funding plan. Be specific. Fundraising Initiatives Fundraising Initiative #1 List and briefly explain a fundraising initiative, provide the following information: how much money you plan to generate with this initiative, what you plan to fund with this initiative, and when will this event be held. Fundraising Initiative #2 List and briefly explain a fundraising initiative, provide the following information: how much money you plan to generate with this initiative, what you plan to fund with this initiative, and when will this event be held. Fundraising Initiative #3 List and briefly explain a fundraising initiative, provide the following information: how much money you plan to generate with this initiative, what you plan to fund with this initiative, and when will this event be held. Part 3: Donation Request Letter Include a letter heading and greeting appropriate to your prospective funding source. [Your Child Care Centers Name] [Your Name] [Street Address] [City, State, Zip Code] [Today’s Date] [Name of Recipient] [Title] [Company] [Address] [City, State, Zip Code] Dear [Name of Recipient]: Start your letter with a declarative statement to introduce yourself and your role within your organization. Then, identify your organization by name, explain what it does, and why you are asking for money. Next, describe what the funds will be used for and the difference that the donation will make to your program. Finally, end your letter by directly asking for the donation. [Closing,] [Signature] [Your Typed Name, Title] [Contact Information] Part 4: Marketing Plan Month Marketing Activity Responsible Party Action Needed Fall Describe the marketing activity event and how it is seasonally related to the enrollment needs of your organization. Identify the party responsible for organizing the marketing activity. Be specific, Break down the role that the responsible party will play in the marketing activity. Winter Describe the marketing activity event and how it is seasonally related to the enrollment needs of your organization. Identify the party responsible for organizing the marketing activity. Be specific. Break down the role that the responsible party will play in the marketing activity. Spring Describe the marketing activity event and how it is seasonally related to the enrollment needs of your organization. Identify the party responsible for organizing the marketing activity. Be specific. Break down the role that the responsible party will play in the marketing activity. Summer Describe the marketing activity event and how it is seasonally related to the enrollment needs of your organization. Identify the party responsible for organizing the marketing activity. Be specific. Break down the role that the responsible party will play in the marketing activity. Review the Assignment Rubric for more information. References Please include at least two full references in APA format. Walmart Marketing Plan Bryant Mungo ECPI University BUS314: Marketing Management Professor Angela Federici 09/25/21 Introduction Walmart is a worldwide retail corporation whose headquarters is in Arkansas, USA. Wal-Mart runs a large chain of discount department stores and also a chain of warehouse stores. Wal-Mart prides itself on being the largest majority private employer and the largest retailer or grocery in the US. Walmart has a presence in fifteen countries and stores totaling 11,510 stores. Fifty-five of the stores operate under a different name (Parnell and Lester, 2018). Across these, Walmart offers various products and services at a reasonable price. These products include electronics, toys, hardware, houseware and furnishings, sporting goods, toys, clothes, automotive, jewelry, and grocery, among many others. Services offered include Walmart MoneyCard, Pickup Today, Financial services, and Walmart Pay. Purpose of a Marketing Plan This marketing plan aims to provide Walmart with market information that will ensure its competitiveness in the already competitive retail market. Besides, the plan will assist in designing future strategies that will be helpful to Walmart as far as maintaining profitability and customer loyalty is concerned. As it is known, a company can only survive in the market if it is financially healthy; therefore, strategizing on plans that will make the company stay afloat in the market is essential. Through the profits made, a company can maintain its stability in the market. Gains realized in Walmart have always been good, but staying in the comfort zone is risky, thus setting goals and surpass them. Therefore, for Walmart to continue registering profits, it is essential that it understands the changing individual needs of its customers and subsequently address them effectively. The profitability can also be enhanced by minimizing operational costs while still delivering quality products and services to the market. All these are realized very much on the marketing plan; a good marketing plan equals good returns and market growth. Walmart’s current market goals and objectives are focused on achieving sustainable competitive advantages in the business world by providing low-priced products. The company also focuses on aggregating research expenses on potential customers and prospective products by a 25% margin. The company hopes to achieve these goals and objectives in different ways. One of the ways is by ensuring that its customers have a strong association with Walmart’s products and services. A marketing plan that is geared toward attaining customer loyalty for products and services is thus critical. Another plan would be to research potential customers as well as future brands. By conducting the research, Walmart may have a perfect idea of the kind of brands it ought to introduce in the market and the brands that should be withdrawn. Mission Statement The Wal-Mart mission statement is to assist people in saving money so they can have a better life. The statement defines the company’s purpose, what they stand for, how they will conduct their businesses, and why they are in the business. The goals and objectives of Walmart are consistent with its mission (Ferguson, 2019). The saving of money ensures that people afford to live a better life. This is very much aligned with the company’s objective of low-priced and high-quality goods and services. These goals and objectives are also consistent with the recent trends in the external environment where it can compete competitively with rival companies. Offering low-priced and high-quality commodities ensures customer loyalty, thereby shielding the company. Marketing Plan For a business to keep up with its competitors and continually achieve success, having an operational plan is an inevitable step. Through excellent planning, the enterprise is able to coordinate its finances and all the internal and external factors affecting its operations (Ostaev et al., 2019). For this report on Walmart enterprise, we are going to use the SWOT analysis is an essential component of the marketing plan. Strengths Walmart enterprise deals with an unlimited variety of products with recognizable brands in all the sectors of the items. More than 60 million different products are accessible through the company’s online store (Jindal et al., 2021). It acts as a purchasing hub for the customers since they find all that they need in one place. Secondly, the company has global significance. It has continually opened new locations leading to an increased operating capacity. The company opened 48 new outlets in Central America, 16 in Chile, 10 in the United Kingdom, and 5 in China in 2017 (Martinez, Galvan & Alam, 2017). Further, the entity’s relatively low prices of the products compared to the competitors win a big proportion of the global market customers since most are average income earners (Jindal et al., 2021). Weaknesses Several instances of lawsuits due to the poor working environment, poor salaries, and neglected healthcare have often faced the company’s management (Jindal et al., 2021). Due to the fair prices of the products available for sale in Walmart stores, the profit margin is considerably shallow hence a limitation to attaining higher revenue levels. The company employs a cost leadership strategy. Gender segregation is not an exemption in Walmart. In 2007, a lawsuit was filed in US federal court against Walmart, purporting that female employees are discriminated against and taken advantage of in exchange for bonuses and promotion (Martinez, Galvan & Alam, 2017). Finally, the uniqueness of the Walmart brand is not very profound. Imitation and breaking the originality of their marketable goods is an easy task for other businesses with a similar line of operation. The company does not possess a distinctive competitive line over its competitors, and this reduces the sale efficiency of its products. Opportunities Walmart Company is not limited to growth opportunities. Despite being an international enterprise, the outlets of Walmart’s business are yet to land in some global markets. This is an opportunity for the firm to establish its brand to all prospective consumers around the globe. Such locations that are yet to experience more of Walmart’s impact are; China, Latin America, and Middle East nations (Jindal et al., 2021). Walmart is well placed to buy, merge and form joint ventures with other upcoming enterprises due to its strong brand. From the production and sale law, low-priced products reflect low-quality raw materials. Most of Walmart’s products are cheaply sold, insinuating that they are of low quality (Jindal et al., 2021). This is an area the enterprise can develop high-quality products to show health concerns to the customers. Threats Controversial product selling activity is the main threat in Walmart stores. In 2017, the company was taken to bars for arguably selling a fake beer brand. WX produced the beer, but it had the “Trouble Brewery” trademark, which was a production plant that did not exist (Martinez, Galvan & Alam, 2017). Over time, Walmart has won the most significant proportion of customers in all the markets. However, this makes the company become the wholesome target of similar business operators. The competing partners tend to present better bonus sales compared to Walmart. Further, the rivals enjoy the negative reputation of Walmart treating her employees poorly. On a similar note, the devolved economic setup has seen the online market become crowded. New private and public companies are venturing into the digital selling of similar products as Walmart’s (Jindal et al., 2021). This is a threat to the future business extensions of Walmart. Marketing Mix Every business wants to maximize the revenues generation of their services through managing their products, distribution locations, promotion strategies, and the price levels of their products. This strategy is termed as 4Ps (place, product, price, and promotion). Efficient coordination of these elements assists the business in developing and executing effective marketing techniques. Let’s consider the 4Ps of the Walmart company. Product Walmart deals with a wide variety of products, ranging from beauty items, automotive products, hardware equipment, jewelry, home furnishings, and electronics, among others. The company offers these products in retail services (Jindal et al., 2021). Further, Walmart has integrated into offering on-demand digital content streaming services and more private-label brands from Sam’s Choice and Great Value. To help gain and retain loyal customers, the company employs effective, convenient, and efficient service delivery on all the items. For instance, the sales team is trained in assisting the customers in locating products on the store shelves easily. The whole team of human resources in Walmart enhances this market mix element by ensuring quality products are made available to the buyers. They make sure that a variety of products are accessible by the customers in the physical and online stores (Fulgoni, 2018). Customers’ satisfaction rises when they can avail what they need by just one-stop shopping. Walmart ensures this is achieved. Pricing Walmart company products are considered to have consumer-friendly prices. The company applies the Everyday Low Price (EDLP) model as a factor in the revenue-gaining technique. The primary goal of this model is to attract an unlimited number of customers who will purchase a lot of products from the company’s stores hence an increased volume of sales and, consequently, a profitable business venture (Fulgoni, 2018). Despite the thin profit margin in the products, the high sales maintain a sizeable amount of revenue for the company, making it competitive in the retail market. Further, Walmart applies a market-oriented pricing strategy for most of the products associated with house branding and media content (accessible from the movie streaming supplemental, Vudu). Finally, the flat rate (Fixed rate) subscription pricing strategy is embraced in Walmart for unlimited deliveries, mostly on the products purchased from the online stores. The company adjusts on the type of pricing strategy to use depending on the market trends (Parnell & Lester, 2018). Place In this market mix element, Walmart employs an intensive distribution channel design where it offers the same variety and quantity of goods among all the stores in the market (Jindal et al., 2021). Further, the internal protocol of how the company operations are to be carried out is similar within all the company’s outlets. The entity has global significance, with locations in more than 24 nations (Parnell & Lester, 2018). The outlets are strategically located to make customers’ shopping more convenient due to the easy accessibility of the physical stores as well as the online services offered by the company. The organization’s efforts to combine the use of online and offline methods of operation increase the target market coverage. Customers who cannot access the Walmart products due to the vast distance from the nearest physical store can opt to order online, and the item will be delivered. Logistics are perfectly and widely considered. Promotion The promotion market mix entails sales promotions, advertisements, public relations, and personal selling. Walmart advertises its services and operations on websites, newspapers, television, and company-affiliated magazines (Parnell & Lester, 2018). Considering the sales promotions, the company is highly involved in creating discounts and special deals for the customers, and this acts as a plan to attract many of them to the stores and websites. Personal selling is put into practice inside the stores where the sales personnel convinces the customers to try out consuming different products. Finally, the company utilizes press coverage and charity initiatives as methods to boost public relations (Fulgoni, 2018). The activities create a good image of the company to the customers and other shareholders who will most likely settle for Walmart to serve their needs. Digital Marketing Activities According to Peeroo (2019), Walmart’s company website is used to encourage online shopping and offers details about the company dynamics as well as internal news. Walmart also uses Email marketing for promotions and replying to reviews. The company employs content marketing to sell products and engage customers. Walmart uses content marketing to engage its customers by using well-structured editorial content that revolves around customers’ problems, ideas, and questions. The Email platform keeps customers engaged via sharing of new trends and unique offers to customers via emails (Pandey et al., 2021). Also, the company replies to customer experiences where it also requests feedback. Customers are kept engaged with the company website by encouraging them to ask any relevant questions about the company’s products and services including other insights. Social Media Marketing The major platforms used by Walmart Company for marketing and customer engagement include the use of its Facebook page on which it has over 32.8 million followers. Walmart has several Twitter accounts with over 1 million followers where it posts images and videos. Also, the company uses LinkedIn to engage over 2 million followers where it makes about 2 posts weekly (Zhang et al., 2021). Also, Walmart has an Instagram page with over 2.2 million followers where it focuses on company branding as well as driving sales. Walmart uses Facebook mainly to engage its internal stakeholders, promote work culture, CSR, and promote business deals and products. The company’s Twitter accounts are used for fan engagement, driving sales, and gaining feedback from followers. Walmart’s LinkedIn is used to improve its social media image and showcase its work culture. Also, LinkedIn is used to cover associated stories for example media events, supply chain stories, and CSR-related issues (Pandey et al., 2021). Walmart uses its Instagram page to brand its image and to showcase its CSR efforts and its business associate stories. The company runs marketing campaigns on Instagram using Instagram influencers. Walmart encourages its consumers to engage with the brand by using its digital platforms to invite customers to share their impressions about the purchased products. Besides, the company stimulates customer engagement using giveaways and prizes that act as incentives. It also gives promotional offers on products. Digital/Social Media Marketing Assessment A look at Walmart Company’s digital and social media strategy and activities reveals that the company’s move to switch to the digital world is working well towards the achieving of business goals and mission (Kumar & Bhadwaj, 2018). In a few years, the company has millions of active followers on each of its digital platforms. The fact that the company was voted by Forbes Magazine as the best in email marketing is proof that the use of digital marketing and engagements is behind the recent shooting of its earnings. I think the strongest aspects in reaching and engaging with target consumers and customers are the use of Facebook, Instagram, and the company website. Facebook comes as number one for the platform has a wider catchment of 2.89 billion worldwide with the company having over 32.8 million followers. The use of a Facebook account is reliable in gaining feedback. Instagram on the other hand has increased in popularity as a marketing platform amongst it’s over a billion users. The platform is visually appealing and has followers of all ages especially youths (Magnani et al., 2019). The company website is also viable for it allows customers to find and access information at any given time. It also increases credibility and lowers advertising costs. If I were on the marketing team at Walmart, I would advocate for the use of artificial intelligence tools to determine the type of content being sponsored by our close competitors to determine where to put many efforts. I would also advocate for constant and consistent sharing of rich content on Twitter (for instance 4 times weekly). References Ferguson, E. (2019). Walmart’s Mission Statement and Vision Statement, Generic and Intensive Strategies. Panmure Journal. Fulgoni, G. M. (2018). How limited data access constrains marketing-mix analytical efforts: Why data barriers prevent marketers from optimizing marketing spend. Journal of Advertising Research, 58(4), 390-393. Jindal, R. P., Gauri, D. K., Li, W., & Ma, Y. (2021). The omnichannel battle between Amazon and Walmart: Is the focus on delivery the best strategy? Journal of business research, 122, 270-280. Martínez, A. B., Galván, R. S., & Alam, S. (2017). Financial Analysis of Retail Business Organization: A Case of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Nile Journal of Business and Economics, 3(5), 67-89. Parnell, A., & Lester, L. (2018). Competitive Strategy and the Walmart Threat: Positioning for Survival and Success. SAM Advanced Management Journal. Ostaev, G. Y., Markovina, E. V., Gorbushina, N. V., Mukhina, I. A., Timoshkina, E. V., Mironova, M. V., & Kravchenko, N. A. (2019). Agricultural business planning management: development, motivation, strategy, and decision-making. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(5), 10960-10967. Kumar, N., & Bhardwaj, S. (2018). Amazon and Walmart are on collision course. Magnani, A., Liu, F., Xie, M., & Banerjee, S. (2019, May). Neural product retrieval at Walmart. com. In Companion Proceedings of The 2019 World Wide Web Conference (pp. 367-372). Pandey, R., Dillip, D., Jayant, J., Vashishth, K., Nikhil, N., Qi, T. J., … & Qhi, L. Y. (2021). Factors Influencing Organization Success: A Case Study of Walmart. International journal of Tourism and hospitality in Asia Pacific (IJTHAP), 4(2), 112-123. Peeroo, S. (2019). Customer-initiated conversations on Facebook pages of Tesco and Walmart. In Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (pp. 43-51). Springer, Singapore. Zhang, Y., Lyu, Y., & Liu, J. (2021). WalMart’s Journey to Digital Transformation. Frontiers in Economics and Management, 2(4), 44-52. BL 431 – THE LAW OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS Read the quotes and then explain the legal implications of what the person is saying. For instance, if the quote were something like the following: “I’m thinking of selling my car for $5,000.” Legal implication: the party’s statement seems to be close to constituting an offer to sell his car for $5,000. However, in order to make a valid offer, three requirements must be met: 1) the offer must exhibit the offeror’s present intent to be bound by a promise or action, 2) the terms of the offer must be sufficiently definite and 3) the offer must be communicated to the offeree. In this instance, the offer is deficient since it does not indicate the offeror’s present intent to be bound. Instead, the offeror is simply stating his future intention toward selling the car. He is saying that he might, at some point in the future, consider selling his car for $5,000. This is different than saying he is willing to sell it right now for $5,000 (present intent). Thus, no legal offer has been created. Some answers may be a little redundant, in that they will refer to the same rules of contracts as previous answers. If this is the case, you do not have to re-state the same rule in each answer. You may simply refer to the rule you have cited in a previous question. Analyze the following statements from the video and explain whether they have (attempt to have, or fail to have) any legal significance: Oscar: How much are you asking for the Celica? We’re friends. How about letting me have it for four thousand? Vinny: I can’t do it. Maybe five… Oscar: Okay. I’ll take it. But you gotta let me pay you four thousand now and the other thousand in two weeks. Maria: You want sixty-five hundred for it, right? Maria: I’ll take it. Oscar: I just bought it. Maria: I’ll give you five thousand for it, on the condition that it will pass the smog test (assume that this negotiation is taking place in a State like California that requires any vehicle sold to pass a smog test). Oscar: I said I’ll pay you five thousand. Vinny: Is that a firm offer? You’re gonna give me the cash now? Oscar: Yes. I’ll give you cash. Five thousand. Now. Vinny: Okay. Deal. Maria: Fifty-five hundred. Vinny: You gonna match that offer? Oscar: What do you mean, match that offer? I just bought the damn car for five thousand. I don’t have to match any offer. Vinny: Hey, I still had the keys in my hands. That’s what counts. I give you the keys, then I’ve sold it to you. PART 2 – Case Analysis (10 points) Please read the text of the cases provided below: Lucy v. Zehmer, Sunrise Cooperative v. Perry and Colorado Carpet v. Palermo. Answer the short answer questions following the opinions in the same document as your answers to Part 1. Please number your answers and make sure to answer all of the parts of each numbered question to receive full credit. CASE #1 – Intent to Contract 196 Va. 493, 84 S.E.2d 516 Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia W. O. LUCY AND J. C. LUCY v. A. H. ZEHMER AND IDA S. ZEHMER. Record No. 4272. November 22, 1954. Appeal from a decree of the Circuit Court of Dinwiddie County. Hon J. G. Jefferson, Jr., judge presiding. Reversed and remanded. JUDGE: BUCHANAN BUCHANAN, J., delivered the opinion of the court. This suit was instituted by W. O. Lucy and J. C. Lucy, complainants, against A. H. Zehmer and Ida S. Zehmer, his wife, defendants, to have specific performance of a contract by which it was alleged the Zehmers had sold to W. O. Lucy a tract of land owned by A. H. Zehmer in Dinwiddie county containing 471.6 acres, more or less, known as the Ferguson farm, for $50,000. J. C. Lucy, the other complainant, is a brother of W. O. Lucy, to whom W. O. Lucy transferred a half interest in his alleged purchase. The instrument sought to be enforced was written by A. H. Zehmer on December 20, 1952, in these words: ‘We hereby agree to sell to W. O. Lucy the Ferguson Farm complete for $50,000.00, title satisfactory to buyer,‘ and signed by the defendants, A. H. Zehmer and Ida S. Zehmer. The answer of A. H. Zehmer admitted that at the time mentioned W. O. Lucy offered him $50,000 cash for the farm, but that he, Zehmer, considered that the offer was made in jest; that so thinking, and both he and Lucy having had several drinks, he wrote out ‘the memorandum‘ quoted above and induced his wife to sign it; that he did not deliver *495 the memorandum to Lucy, but that Lucy picked it up, read it, put it in his pocket, attempted to offer Zehmer $5 to bind the bargain, which Zehmer refused to accept, and realizing for the first time that Lucy was serious, Zehmer assured him that he had no intention of selling the farm and that the whole matter was a joke. Lucy left the premises insisting that he had purchased the farm. W. O. Lucy, a lumberman and farmer, thus testified in substance: He had known Zehmer for fifteen or twenty years and had been familiar with the Ferguson farm for ten years. Seven or eight years ago he had offered Zehmer $20,000 for the farm which Zehmer had accepted, but the agreement was verbal and Zehmer backed out. On the night of December 20, 1952, around eight o’clock, he took an employee to McKenney, where Zehmer lived and operated a restaurant, filling station and motor court. While there he decided to see Zehmer and again try to buy the Ferguson farm. He entered the restaurant and talked to Mrs. Zehmer until Zehmer came in. He asked Zehmer if he had sold the Ferguson farm. Zehmer replied that he had not. Lucy said, ‘I bet you wouldn’t take $50,000.00 for that place.‘ Zehmer replied, ‘Yes, I would too; you wouldn’t give fifty. ‘ Lucy said he would and told Zehmer to write up an agreement to that effect. Zehmer took a restaurant check and wrote on the back of it, ‘I do hereby agree to sell to W. O. Lucy the Ferguson Farm for $50,000 complete.‘ Lucy told him he had better change it to ‘We‘ because Mrs. Zehmer would have to sign it too. Zehmer then tore up what he had written, wrote the agreement quoted above and asked Mrs. Zehmer, who was at the other end of the counter ten or twelve feet away, to sign it. Mrs. Zehmer said she would for $50,000 and signed it. Zehmer brought it back and gave it to Lucy, who offered him $5 which Zehmer refused, saying, ‘You don’t need to give me any money, you got the agreement there signed by both of us.‘ The discussion leading to the signing of the agreement, said Lucy, lasted thirty or forty minutes, during which Zehmer seemed to doubt that Lucy could raise $50,000. Lucy suggested the provision for having the title examined and Zehmer made the suggestion that he would sell it ‘complete, everything there,‘ and stated that all he had on the farm was three heifers. Lucy took a partly filled bottle of whiskey into the restaurant with him for the purpose of giving Zehmer a drink if he wanted it. Zehmer did, and he and Lucy had one or two drinks together. Lucy said that while he felt the drinks he took he was not intoxicated, and from the way Zehmer handled the transaction he did not think he was either. …On January 2 Lucy wrote Zehmer stating that the title was satisfactory, that he was ready to pay the purchase price in cash and asking when Zehmer would be ready to close the deal. Zehmer replied by letter, mailed on January 13, asserting that he had never agreed or intended to sell. Mr. and Mrs. Zehmer were called by the complainants as adverse witnesses. Zehmer testified in substance as follows: He bought this farm more than ten years ago for $11,000. He had had twenty-five offers, more or less, to buy it, including several from Lucy, who had never offered any specific sum of money. He had given them all the same answer, that he was not interested in selling it. On this Saturday night before Christmas it looked like everybody**519 and his brother came by there to have a drink. He took a good many drinks during the afternoon and had a pint of his own. When he entered the restaurant around eight-thirty *497 Lucy was there and he could see that he was ‘pretty high.‘ He said to Lucy, ‘Boy, you got some good liquor, drinking, ain’t you?‘ Lucy then offered him a drink. ‘I was already high as a Georgia pine, and didn’t have any more better sense than to pour another great big slug out and gulp it down, and he took one too.‘ … After Zehmer had, as he described it, ‘scribbled this thing off,‘ Lucy said, ‘Get your wife to sign it.‘ Zehmer walked over to where she was and she at first refused to sign but did so after he told her that he ‘was just needling him [Lucy], and didn’t mean a thing in the world, that I was not selling the farm.‘ Zehmer then ‘took it back over there * * * and I was still looking at the dern thing. I had the drink right there by my hand, and I reached over to get a drink, and he said, ‘Let me see it.’ He reached and picked it up, and when I looked back again he had it in his pocket and he dropped a five dollar bill over there, and he said, ‘Here is five dollars payment on it.’ * * * I said, ‘Hell no, *498 that is beer and liquor talking. I am not going to sell you the farm. I have told you that too many times before.’‘ Mrs. Zehmer testified that when Lucy came into the restaurant he looked as if he had had a drink. When Zehmer came in he took a drink out of a bottle that Lucy handed him. She went back to help the waitress who was getting things ready for next day. Lucy and Zehmer were talking but she did not pay too much attention to what they were saying. She heard Lucy ask Zehmer if he had sold the Ferguson farm, and Zehmer replied that he had not and did not want to sell it. Lucy said, ‘I bet you wouldn’t take $50,000 cash for that farm,‘ and Zehmer replied, ‘You haven’t got $50,000 cash.‘ Lucy said, ‘I can get it.‘ Zehmer said he might form a company and get it, ‘but you haven’t got $50,000.00 cash to pay me tonight.‘ Lucy asked him if he would put it in writing that he would sell him this farm. Zehmer then wrote on the back of a pad, ‘I agree to sell the Ferguson Place to W. O. Lucy for $50,000.00 cash.‘ Lucy said, ‘All right, get your wife to sign it.‘ Zehmer came back to where she was standing and said, ‘You want to put your name to this?‘ She said ‘No,‘ but he said in an undertone, ‘It is nothing but a joke,‘ and she signed it. She said that only one paper was written and it said: ‘I hereby agree to sell,‘ but the ‘I‘ had been changed to ‘We‘. However, she said she read what she signed and was then asked, ‘When you read ‘We hereby agree to sell to W. O. Lucy,’ what did you interpret that to mean, that particular phrase?‘ She said she thought that was a cash sale that night; but she also said that when she read that part about ‘title satisfactory to buyer‘ she understood that if the title was good Lucy would pay $50,000 but if the title was bad he would have a right to reject it, and that that was her understanding at the time she signed her name. On examination by her own counsel she said that her husband laid this piece of paper down after it was signed; that Lucy said to let him see it, took it, folded it and put it *499 in his wallet, then said to Zehmer, ‘Let me give you $5.00,‘ but Zehmer said, ‘No, this is liquor talking. I don’t want to sell the farm, I have told you that I want my son to have it. This is all a joke. ‘ Lucy then said at least twice, ‘Zehmer, you have sold your farm,‘ wheeled around and started for the door. He paused at the door and said, ‘I will bring you $50,000.00 tomorrow. * * * No, tomorrow is Sunday. I will bring it to you Monday.‘ She said you could tell definitely that he was drinking and she said to her husband, ‘You should have taken him home,‘ but he said, ‘Well, I am just about as bad off as he is.‘ … The defendants insist that the evidence was ample to support their contention that the writing sought to be enforced was prepared as a bluff or dare to force Lucy to admit that he did not have $50,000; that the whole matter was a joke; that the writing was not delivered to Lucy and no binding contract was ever made between the parties. [1] It is an unusual, if not bizarre, defense. When made to the writing admittedly prepared by one of the defendants and signed by both, clear evidence is required to sustain it. [2] In his testimony Zehmer claimed that he ‘was high as a Georgia pine, ‘ and that the transaction ‘was just a bunch of two doggoned drunks bluffing to see who could talk the biggest and say the most.‘ That claim is inconsistent with his attempt to testify in great detail as to what was said and what was done. It is contradicted by other evidence as to the condition of both parties, and rendered of no weight by the testimony of his wife that when Lucy left the restaurant she suggested that Zehmer drive him home. The record is convincing that Zehmer was not intoxicated to the extent of being unable to comprehend the nature and consequences of the instrument he executed, and hence that instrument is not to be invalidated on that ground. 17 C.J.S., Contracts, § 133 b., p. 483; Taliaferro v. Emery, 124 Va. 674, 98 S.E. 627. It was in fact conceded by defendants’ counsel in oral argument that under the evidence Zehmer was not too drunk to make a valid contract. … The appearance of the contract, the fact that it was under discussion for forty minutes or more before it was signed; Lucy’s objection to the first draft because it was written in the singular, and he wanted Mrs. Zehmer to sign it also; the rewriting to meet that objection and the signing by Mrs. Zehmer; the discussion of what was to be included in the sale, the provision for the examination of the title, the completeness of the instrument that was executed, the taking possession of it by Lucy with no request or suggestion by either of the defendants that he give it back, are facts which furnish persuasive evidence that the execution of the contract was a serious business transaction rather than a casual, jesting matter as defendants now contend. … If it be assumed, contrary to what we think the evidence shows, that Zehmer was jesting about selling his farm to Lucy and that the transaction was intended by him to be a joke, nevertheless the evidence shows that Lucy did not so understand it but considered it to be a serious business transaction and the contract to be binding on the Zehmers as well as on himself. The very next day he arranged with his brother to put up half the money and take a half interest in the land. The day after that he employed an attorney to examine the title. The next night, Tuesday, he was back at Zehmer’s place and there Zehmer told him for the first time, Lucy said, that he wasn’t going to sell and he told Zehmer, ‘You know you sold that place fair and square.‘ After receiving the report from his attorney that the title was good he wrote to Zehmer that he was ready to close the deal. Not only did Lucy actually believe, but the evidence shows he was warranted in believing, that the contract represented a serious business transaction and a good faith sale and purchase of the farm. In the field of contracts, as generally elsewhere, ‘We must look to the outward expression of a person as manifesting his intention rather than to his secret and unexpressed intention. ‘The law imputes to a person an intention corresponding to the reasonable meaning of his words and acts.’‘ First Nat. Bank v. Roanoke Oil Co., 169 Va. 99, 114, 192 S.E. 764, 770. At no time prior to the execution of the contract had Zehmer indicated to Lucy by word or act that he was not in earnest about selling the farm. They had argued about it and discussed its terms, as Zehmer admitted, for a long time. Lucy testified that if there was any jesting it was about paying $50,000 that night. The contract and the evidence show that he was not expected to pay the money that night. Zehmer said that after the writing was signed he laid it down on the counter in front of Lucy. Lucy said Zehmer handed it to him. In any event there had been what appeared to be a good faith offer and a good faith acceptance, *503 followed by the execution and apparent delivery of a written contract. Both said that Lucy put the writing in his pocket and then offered Zehmer $5 to seal the bargain. Not until then, even under the defendants’ evidence, was anything said or done to indicate that the matter was a joke. Both of the Zehmers testified that when Zehmer asked his wife to sign he whispered that it was a joke so Lucy wouldn’t hear and that it was not intended that he should hear. [4] The (subjective) mental assent of the parties is not requisite for the formation of a contract. If the words or other acts of one of the parties have but one reasonable meaning, his undisclosed intention is immaterial except when an unreasonable meaning which he attaches to his manifestations is known to the other party. Restatement of the Law of Contracts, Vol. I, § 71, p. 74. ‘* * * The law, therefore, judges of an agreement between two persons exclusively from those expressions of their intentions which are communicated between them. * * *.‘ Clark on Contracts, 4 ed., § 3, p. 4. [5] An agreement or mutual assent is of course essential to a valid contract but the law imputes to a person an intention corresponding to the reasonable meaning of his words and acts. If his words and acts, judged by a reasonable standard, manifest an intention to agree, it is immaterial what may be the real but unexpressed state of his mind. 17 C.J.S., Contracts, § 32, p. 361; 12 Am. Jur., Contracts, § 19, p. 515. So a person cannot set up that he was merely jesting when his conduct and words would warrant a reasonable person in believing that he intended a real agreement, 17 C.J.S., Contracts, § 47, p. 390; Clark on Contracts, 4 ed., § 27, at p. 54. [6] Whether the writing signed by the defendants and now sought to be enforced by the complainants was the result of a serious offer by Lucy and a serious acceptance by the defendants, or was a serious offer by Lucy and an acceptance in secret jest by the defendants, in either event it constituted a binding contract of sale between the parties. [7] Defendants contend further, however, that even though a contract was made, equity should decline to enforce it under the circumstances. These circumstances have been set forth in detail above. They disclose some drinking by the two parties but not to an extent that they were unable to understand fully what they were doing. There was no fraud, no misrepresentation, no sharp practice and no dealing between unequal parties. The farm had been bought for $11,000 and was assessed for taxation at $6,300. The purchase price was $50,000. Zehmer admitted that it was a good price. There is in fact present in this case none of the grounds usually urged against specific performance. … The complainants are entitled to have specific performance of the contracts sued on. The decree appealed from is therefore reversed and the cause is remanded for the entry of a proper decree requiring the defendants to perform the contract in accordance with the prayer of the bill. Reversed and remanded. END OF CASE CASE #2 – Statute of Frauds, Leading Purpose Rule Not Reported in N.E.2d, 1992 WL 179626 (Ohio App. 6 Dist.) 1992 Court of Appeals of Ohio, Sixth District, Huron County. SUNRISE COOPERATIVE, Appellee, v. Robert PERRY, et al., Appellant. No. H-91-32. July 31, 1992. DECISION AND JUDGMENT ENTRY This case is an appeal from a judgment of the Norwalk Municipal Court. The present action was brought by appellee, Sunrise Cooperative, a feed supplier, against one of its customers, Robert Perry, for payment on his feed account and against appellant, Farm Credit Services of Mid America (“Farm Credit”), alleging Farm Credit guaranteed Perry’s feed account. On June 25, 1991, the trial court entered a judgment in favor of Sunrise Cooperative and against Farm Credit and Perry, jointly and severally. On August 12, 1991, the trial court issued its findings of fact and conclusions of law. Farm Credit is appealing this judgment; Perry has not appealed. The facts of this case are as follows. Perry had borrowed funds from Farm Credit in order to finance his business of raising hogs. In September 1989, Perry had an unpaid debt of approximately $26,000 owed to Farm Credit. To cure the $26,000 defaulted loan, Farm Credit entered into a new loan agreement with Perry. Farm Credit loaned Perry $43,364, $10,000 of which was allocated for feed. In turn, Perry agreed to pay back the loan and give Farm Credit a share of the proceeds upon sale of the hogs. This loan was secured by an agreement which covered Perry’s equipment, livestock and crops. To facilitate the new loan agreement with Perry, Farm Credit asked Sunrise Cooperative to extend credit to Perry, assuring Sunrise Cooperative of payment for the feed sold to Perry. Perry had previously been placed on a cash only basis with Sunrise Cooperative because of prior unpaid debts. In reliance on Farm Credit’s guarantee, Sunrise Cooperative agreed to extend credit to Perry to purchase feed for his lot of hogs. Sunrise Cooperative claimed Farm Credit guaranteed payment for feed for that lot of hogs; Farm Credit claimed that there was a $10,000 limit to this guarantee. In accordance with this agreement, Sunrise Cooperative sold Perry $15,228.25 worth of feed, and Farm Credit paid Sunrise Cooperative $10,000. However, neither Perry nor Farm Credit has paid Sunrise Cooperative the remaining $5,228.25 balance owed. Following a bench trial, the court rendered judgment in favor of Sunrise Cooperative. It is from this judgment that Farm Credit raises the following assignments of error: … With respect to Farm Credit’s first assignment of error, Farm Credit argued that no contract of guarantee existed for more than $10,000, claiming there was no consideration, no express promise, and no meeting of the minds. However, consideration did support the agreement between Farm Credit and Sunrise Cooperative. Under William Lipstraw Co. v. Seufert, “[b]enefit to creditor or disadvantage to debtor, although slight, is sufficient consideration to support agreement to extend * * * credit.” William Lipstraw Co. v. Seufert (1930), 36 Ohio App. 272, paragraph five of the syllabus. Farm Credit guaranteed payment to Sunrise Cooperative on Perry’s feed account in exchange for Sunrise Cooperative’s sale of feed to Perry. In providing such a guarantee, Farm Credit attempted to insure that its previous loan to Perry would be repaid and that it would obtain a share of the proceeds upon sale of the hogs. Thus, Farm Credit’s guarantee of payment was supported by sufficient consideration. Farm Credit’s argument that no express promise was made and that there was no meeting of the minds to guarantee more than $10,000, raises a question of fact. However, the findings of the trier of fact are presumed to be correct…unless such a finding is against the manifest weight of the evidence. Seasons Coal Co. v. Cleveland (1984), 10 Ohio St.3d 77, 80. … Sunrise Cooperative testified that Farm Credit guaranteed payment on Perry’s feed account to feed out the lot of hogs and that Farm Credit placed no $10,000 limit on it guarantee. Sunrise Cooperative further testified that it only agreed to extend credit to Perry because of Farm Credit’s guarantee. Furthermore, Farm Credit in fact recognized its obligations under the guarantee by paying Sunrise Cooperative $10,000 on Perry’s feed account. This testimony presents sufficient evidence to support the trial court’s finding that an express promise was made and a finding that there was a meeting of the minds with respect to that promise. Since the elements of a contract, consideration, express promise and meeting of the minds, were met, the trial court properly found that a contract of guarantee was created between Sunrise Cooperative and Farm Credit. … Farm Credit argues in its second assignment of error that its oral guarantee is barred by the statute of frauds and, thus, is not enforceable by Sunrise Cooperative. *3 R.C. 1335.05 <ohio’s statute=”” of=”” frauds=””>states that:</ohio’s> “No action shall be brought whereby to charge the defendant, upon a special promise, to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person; * * * unless the agreement upon which such action is brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, is in writing and signed by the party to be charged therewith or some other person thereunto by him or her lawfully authorized.” R.C. 1335.05. However, Ohio has recognized an exception to the statute of frauds. Where the promisor’s leading object is to subserve its own pecuniary or business interest, an oral promise to pay the debt of another is enforceable. Wilson Floors Co. v. Sciota Park, Ltd. (1978), 54 Ohio St.2d 451, the syllabus. In Wilson Floors, a bank loaned money for the construction of apartments and an office building, and the bank held mortgages on the owner’s property as security. Id., at 452. The general contractor working on the project subcontracted with Wilson Floors Company. Id., at 451. The general contractor, however, fell behind in paying Wilson Floors, and Wilson Floors stopped working. Id., at 452. The bank, determining it would be more cost effective to complete the project rather than to foreclose on the mortgage, assured Wilson Floors that payments would be made so that Wilson Floors would continue working. Id., at 452, 453. When Wilson Floors completed the job, the bank refused to pay them. Id., at 453. However, the court held that the bank’s oral promise was enforceable. Id. This court finds the test of Wilson Floors is applicable to the present case. As in Wilson Floors, Farm Credit loaned money to raise hogs and sell them when they were fed out. Farm Credit admitted it had a lien on Perry’s hogs, and that it expected to collect prior debts owed by Perry as well as earn additional money when the hogs were fed out and sold. Farm Credit made assurances to Sunrise Cooperative that payment would be made so that Sunrise Cooperative would continue to provide Perry with feed for the hogs on credit, then Farm Credit failed to pay. The trial court found that Farm Credit’s leading purpose was to subserve its own pecuniary interest. As stated above, the trial court’s findings of fact are presumed to be correct unless against the manifest weight of evidence. Seasons Coal, supra, at 80. … Farm Credit further suggests that even if this were a contract of guarantee, Sunrise Cooperative needed to first seek payment from Perry, the primary obligor, before seeking payment from Farm Credit, the guarantor. However, the Wilson Floors court stated that when a promise of guarantee is made to further the promisor’s own pecuniary interest, the promise is enforceable regardless of whether the third party seeks payment from the primary obligor. Wilson Floors, supra, at 459. Since the court finds that Farm Credit made the guarantee with the object to subserve its own pecuniary interest, the promise is enforceable, and Sunrise Cooperative need not seek payment from Perry. Therefore, Farm Credit’s second assignment of error is not well-taken. On consideration whereof, the court finds substantial justice has been done the party complaining, and judgment of the Norwalk Municipal Court is affirmed. It is ordered that appellant pay the court costs of this appeal. GLASSER, P.J., and ABOOD and MELVIN L. RESNICK, JJ., concur. END OF CASE CASE #3 – Statute of Frauds – Specially Manufactured Goods 668 P.2d 1384, 45 A.L.R.4th 1113, 36 UCC Rep.Serv. 1516 Supreme Court of Colorado. COLORADO CARPET INSTALLATION, INC., d/b/a Sierra Range Carpets, Inc., a Colorado corporation, Petitioner, v. Fred PALERMO and Zuma Palermo, Respondents. No. 82SC168. Sept. 12, 1983. EN BANC. QUINN, Justice, for the majority. I In July 1980 Colorado Carpet Installation, Inc., doing business as Sierra Range Carpets, Inc. (Colorado Carpet), commenced an action in the District Court of Adams County against Fred and Zuma Palermo for breach of contract. The claim was based on an alleged oral agreement in which the Palermos agreed to pay $4,775.75 to Colorado Carpet for the purchase and installation of carpeting, other flooring materials, and bathroom tile for the Palermo home in Thornton, Colorado. The Palermos in their answer denied the existence of a contract and affirmatively asserted that the statute of frauds, section 4-2-201(1), C.R.S.1973, rendered any such agreement unenforceable. The controversy was tried to the court and arose as follows. Colorado Carpet is a Colorado corporation engaged in the business of selling and installing carpeting, tile and other flooring materials. In April 1980, Jack Duran, the president of Colorado Carpet, began negotiations with the Palermos for the sale and installation of carpeting, carpet padding, tile and vinyl floor covering in the downstairs and upstairs areas of their home. Colorado Carpet did not maintain an actual retail store or warehouse for these materials, but arranged to purchase them from other distributors. In the course of his negotiations with the Palermos, Duran delivered carpet samples to the Palermo home, measured the home, and assisted Mrs. Palermo in locating at local retail outlets the type and brand of flooring materials that she wanted. Further negotiations ensued, including a written proposal from Duran. This written proposal, which referred to Colorado Carpet as “the seller” and to the Palermos as “the customer,” stated that Colorado Carpet offered for the Palermos’ acceptance the following items: a total of 195 square yards of Seduction and Amaretto carpeting, along with padding, at $15.95 per square yard, for a total price of $3110.45; 48 square yards of kitchen carpeting at $8.50 per square yard, for a total price of $399.50; FN1 55 square yards of deck carpeting at $7.50 per square yard, for a total price of $412.50; approximately 220 square feet of ceramic tile at $3.50 per square foot, for a total price of $770; and 9 square yards of vinyl floor covering at $9.50 per square yard, for a total price of $85.50. The proposal expressly included all labor. According to Duran, the source of Colorado Carpet’s profit from such a transaction would be the markup on the sale of the materials and not their installation, the latter being provided at cost. He estimated the labor cost at $2.00 per square yard for installing the upstairs, downstairs and kitchen carpeting, and $1.50 per square foot for installing the tile. FN1. At $8.50 per square yard, the price of 48 square yards of kitchen carpeting should have been $408. Although the Palermos never made a written acceptance of Colorado Carpet’s proposal, Duran testified that Mrs. Palermo orally accepted the proposal on or about April 25, 1980, shortly after he submitted it to her. Mrs. Palermo, in contrast, denied accepting the written proposal. It was her testimony that neither she nor her husband ever agreed to purchase any carpeting from Colorado Carpet and that she had contacted Duran only about a tiling job for the upstairs and downstairs bathrooms. On April 30 and May 1, 1980, Colorado Carpet placed orders with Georgia and California manufacturers for the Seduction (downstairs) and the Amaretto (upstairs) carpeting. These orders called for both carpets to be cut into segments measuring 12 feet by 73 feet in order to permit effective installation in the upstairs and downstairs sections of the Palermo home. The orders were filled in due course, and the carpets were eventually delivered to a Denver warehouse. Colorado Carpet deferred ordering the carpet padding and kitchen carpet at this time because these were stock items and could be purchased immediately before the installation was to commence. Colorado Carpet purchased and delivered the ceramic tile to the Palermo home for eventual installation in the upstairs and downstairs bathrooms. Mrs. Palermo, however, had a disagreement with Colorado Carpet’s tile man over some repair work in connection with the tile installation and arranged with some other contractor to supply and install other tile. Duran, on behalf of Colorado Carpet, attempted unsuccessfully to renegotiate with the Palermos but to no avail. Colorado Carpet removed its tile from the home, returned half of it to the supplier for a refund and sold the other half. It also shipped the Seduction carpeting back to the California manufacturer in exchange for some credit and was able to sell the Amaretto carpeting to a local purchaser. The trial court found that Colorado Carpet’s proposal for the sale and installation of the carpeting and other materials had been orally accepted by the Palermos, thereby resulting in a contract, and determined that the contract was enforceable for two reasons: first, the agreement constituted a service contract for the performance of labor, rather than a contract for the sale of goods, and thus was not subject to the “writing” requirement of the statute of frauds section of the Uniform Commercial Code, section 4-2-201(1), C.R.S.1973; and second, even if the entire agreement was construed as a contract for the sale of goods, that part of the agreement relating to the purchase and installation of carpeting fell within the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds, section 4-2-201(3)(a), C.R.S.1973, and thus was enforceable on that basis. The court awarded damages to Colorado Carpet in the amount of $1,356.50, based upon lost profits, labor, and storage and shipping costs in connection with all the carpeting and padding ordered under the contract, not just the upstairs and downstairs carpeting. The court of appeals reversed the judgment, reasoning that although the agreement was a contract for the sale of goods, it did not satisfy the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds. We granted certiorari to consider whether the oral agreement in question constituted a contract for the sale of goods within the meaning of section 4-2-201(1) of the Uniform Commercial Code, and, if so, whether it qualified for the “specially manufactured goods” exception of section 4-2-201(3)(a). II. We first address the court of appeals’ determination that the contract was one for the sale of goods, rather than for the performance of labor or services. We conclude that the agreement in question involved a contract for the sale of goods as contemplated by section 4-2-201(1), C.R.S.1973. [1] This section prohibits the enforcement of contracts “for the sale of goods for the price of $500 or more … unless there is some writing sufficient to indicate that a contract for sale has been made between the parties and signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought ….” By its terms, the statute applies only to contracts for the sale of goods, and not to contracts for labor or services. E.g., Robertson v. Ceola, 225 Ark. 703, 501 S.W.2d 764 (1973); George F. Mueller & Sons, Inc. v. Northern Illinois Gas Co., 12 Ill.App.3d 362, 299 N.E.2d 601 (1973); 3 R. Duesenberg & L. King, Bender’s Uniform Commercial Code Service § 2.02[4] at 2-24 (1982); cf. Samuelson v. Chutich, 187 Colo. 155, 529 P.2d 631 (1974) (statutory warranties imposed by Uniform Sales Act not applicable to service *1388 contracts). The Uniform Commercial Code defines “goods” to mean “all things (including specially manufactured goods) which are movable at the time of identification to the contract for sale other than the money in which the price is to be paid, investment securities … and things in action.” Section 4-2-105(1), C.R.S.1973. A “sale,” by statutory definition, “consists in the passing of title from the seller to the buyer for a price,” and a “contract for sale” includes a present sale of goods as well as a contract to sell goods at a future time. Id. 4-2-106(1). [2] [3] In this case the subject of the contract involved “goods” because the carpeting and other materials were movable at the time that Colorado Carpet procured them for installation pursuant to the agreement. Since the agreement contemplated that title to the carpeting and other materials would pass to the Palermos, it constituted a “contract for sale.” The scope of the contract, however, included not only the sale of goods but also the performance of labor or service. Thus, we must determine whether such a mixed contract qualified as a contract for the sale of goods or, instead, constituted a contract for labor or service outside the scope of section 4-2-201(1), C.R.S.1973. The performance of some labor or service frequently plays a role in sales transactions. “Goods,” however, are not the less “goods” merely because labor or service may be essential to their ultimate use by the purchaser. The mere furnishing of some labor or service, in our view, should not determine the ultimate character of a contract for purposes of section 4-2-201(1) of the Uniform Commercial Code. Rather, the controlling criterion should be the primary purpose of the contract-that is, whether the circumstances underlying the formation of the agreement and the performance reasonably expected of the parties demonstrates the primary purpose of the contract as the sale of goods or, in contrast, the sale of labor or service. We agree in this respect with the following statement in Bonebrake v. Cox, 499 F.2d 951, 960 (8th Cir.1974): “The test for inclusion or exclusion is not whether [goods and services] are mixed, but, granting that they are mixed, whether their predominant factor, their thrust, their purpose, reasonably stated, is the rendition of service, with goods incidentally involved ( e.g., contract with artist for painting) or is a transaction of sale, with labor incidentally involved ( e.g., installation of a water heater in a bathroom).” Accord, e.g., Care Display, Inc. v. Didde-Glaser, Inc., 225 Kan. 232, 589 P.2d 599 (1979); Burton v. Artery Co., Inc., 279 Md. 94, 367 A.2d 935 (1977); Meyers v. Henderson Construction Co., 147 N.J.Super. 77, 370 A.2d 547 (1977). See generally Annot., Applicability of U.C.C. Article 2 to Mixed Contracts for Sale of Goods and Services, 5 A.L.R. 4th 501 (1981). This “primary purpose” test, we believe, is designed to promote one of the expressed statutory policies of the Uniform Commercial Code-“[t]o simplify, clarify, and modernize the law governing commercial transactions.” Section 4-1-102(2)(a), C.R.S.1973. Useful factors to consider in determining whether “goods” or “service” predominates include the following: the contractual language used by the parties, see, e.g., Triangle Underwriters, Inc. v. Honeywell, Inc., 604 F.2d 737 (2d Cir.1979); Bonebrake v. Cox, supra; Fifteenth Street Investment Co. v. People, 102 Colo. 571, 81 P.2d 764 (1938); whether the agreement involves one overall price that includes both goods and labor or, instead, calls for separate and discrete billings for goods on the one hand and labor on the other, see, e.g., Triangle Underwriters, Inc. v. Honeywell, Inc., supra; Aluminum Company of American v. Electro Flo Corp., 451 F.2d 1115 (10th Cir.1971); the ratio that the cost of goods bears to the overall contract price, see, e.g., Lincoln Pulp & Paper Co., Inc. v. Dravo Corp., 436 F.Supp. 262 (D.Me.1977); *1389 Van Sistine v. Tollard, 95 Wis.2d 678, 291 N.W.2d 636 (Wis.Ct.App.1980); and the nature and reasonableness of the purchaser’s contractual expectations of acquiring a property interest in goods (goods being defined as things that are movable at the time of identification to the contract, section 4-2-105(1), C.R.S.1973), see generally Marshall, The Applicability of the Uniform Commercial Code to Construction Contracts, 28 Emory L.J. 335, 365-76 (1979). Considering the contract under these guidelines, we are satisfied that, as a matter of law, its primary purpose was the sale of goods and not the sale of labor or service.FN4 The language in Colorado Carpet’s proposal referred to the parties as “seller” and “customer.” In addition, the agreement called for an overall contract price that included both the cost of goods and labor, and, as the trial evidence established, the charge for labor was slight in relation to the total contractual price.FN5 Finally, the carpeting and other materials were movable when Colorado Carpet procured them for the purpose of selling them to the Palermos. The fact that these materials might later be installed in the Palermo home and assume the character of fixtures does not undermine the primary purpose of the contract as one for a sale of goods. See Saliba v. Reed Electric Co., 90 Colo. 287, 8 P.2d 1095 (1932). We therefore agree with the court of appeals that the agreement between Colorado Carpet and the Palermos constituted a contract for the sale of goods, with labor or service only incidentally involved, and thus within the statute of frauds provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code. FN4. While some cases have concluded that certain installation agreements involving flooring materials are service contracts, we find them distinguishable from the instant case. See, e.g., Ranger Construction Co. v. Dixie Floor Co., Inc., 433 F.Supp. 442 (D.S.C.1977) (emphasizing that the agreement was a “construction contract” and not a contract for the sale of goods, one party being referred to as a “subcontractor” rather than a “materialman”); Dionne v. Columbus Mills, Inc., 311 So.2d 681 (Fla.Dist.Ct.App.1975) (installer provided all materials except the carpet itself which was furnished by the hiring party). FN5. At the rate of $2.00 per square yard as the labor charge for installation of the upstairs, downstairs and kitchen carpets, and $1.50 per square foot for installation of the tile, the contract price of $4,777.75 represents a total labor charge of $926 ($596 for 298 square yards of carpeting and $330 for 220 square feet of tile). The record contains no evidence of a labor charge for installation of the vinyl floor covering. III. We turn now to the question whether the contract qualified for the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds. Section 4-2-201(3)(a), C.R.S.1973, states that a contract for the sale of goods which does not meet the “writing” requirements of section 4-2-201(1), C.R.S.1973, is nonetheless enforceable under the following circumstances: “If the goods are to be specially manufactured for the buyer and are not suitable for sale to others in the ordinary course of the seller’s business and the seller, before notice of repudiation is received and under circumstances which reasonably indicate that the goods are for the buyer, has made either a substantial beginning of their manufacture or commitments for their procurement ….” [4] The plain terms of section 4-2-201(3)(a), C.R.S.1973, make clear that four distinct criteria are necessary to satisfy the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds: (1) the goods must be specially made for the buyer; (2) the goods must be unsuitable for sale to others in the ordinary course of the seller’s business; (3) the seller must have substantially begun to have manufactured the goods or to have made a commitment for their procurement; and (4) the manufacture or commitment must have been commenced under circumstances reasonably indicating that the goods are for the buyer and prior to the seller’s receipt of notification of contractual repudiation. In this case there is no dispute that the third and fourth statutory criteria have been established. There is evidence *1390 demonstrating that Colorado Carpet, before receipt of the Palermos’ repudiation of the agreement and under circumstances reasonably indicating that the upstairs and downstairs carpeting was for them, placed special orders with carpet manufacturers for the procurement of these two pieces of carpeting. There being no controversy about these matters, we confine our consideration to the statutory provisions requiring the goods to be “specially manufactured for the buyer” and “not suitable for sale to others in the ordinary course of the seller’s business.” A. The “specially manufactured goods” exception is premised on notions of both evidentiary reliability and fairness. Certain marketing practices provide sufficiently reliable evidence on the matter of a contractual relationship as to dispense with the written requirements of the statute of frauds. It is a reasonable assumption, for example, that a seller will not make or procure goods not suitable for sale to others in the normal course of the seller’s business unless a purchaser has contracted with the seller to purchase these goods. See Impossible Electronics Techniques, Inc. v. Wackenhut Protective Systems, Inc., 669 F.2d 1026 (5th Cir.1982); 3 R. Duesenberg & L. King, supra, § 2.02[4] at 2-30. Denying enforcement of the contract under such circumstances can result in unfairness to the seller by encumbering him with unsalable goods. Impossible Electronics Techniques, Inc. v. Wackenhut Protective Systems, Inc., 669 F.2d at 1037. There is no unfairness in nonenforcement, however, when the goods are of a class customarily sold by the seller and are readily marketable to others in the ordinary course of the seller’s business. [5] The term “specially manufactured” refers to the character of the goods as specially made for a particular buyer, and not to whether they were “specially made” in the usual course of the seller’s business. Id. Thus, although not articulated in the Uniform Commercial Code, “the unsalable quality of the goods presumably must be found in their characteristics of special manufacture and not in such tests as lost markets, passed seasons, or the objective inability of the particular seller to dispose of the goods for reasons unrelated to their nature as prescribed by the buyer.” 2 R. Duesenberg & L. King, supra, § 2.02[4] at 2-32. It has been held that “[i]f with slight alterations the goods could be sold, then they are not specially manufactured; if, however, essential changes are necessary to render the goods marketable by the seller to others, then the exception does apply.” Impossible Electronic Techniques, Inc. v. Wackenhut Protective Systems, Inc., 669 F.2d at 1037. It is in the light of these standards that the evidentiary state of the record must be considered. B. [6] There is no evidence from which one may reasonably conclude that the upstairs and downstairs carpets were “specially made” within the intendment of section 4-2-201(3)(a), C.R.S.1973. These styles of carpets had been observed by Mrs. Palermo in retail carpeting outlets in the Denver area, and both carpets were ordered by Colorado Carpet as stock items from carpet manufacturers in California and Georgia. No special dying, weaving or other treatment was required to fill the orders. The carpeting was not cut to any unusual shape nor even to the precise dimensions of the rooms where they were to be installed, but rather was cut in a rectangular shape with footage adequate for the entire project. In short, there is no showing of any unusual or special features of the carpeting that might attest to its character as specially made for a particular buyer. See, e.g., Maderas Tropicales v. Southern Crate & Veneer Co., 588 F.2d 971 (5th Cir.1979); Saliba v. Reed Electric Co., supra. The record is similarly deficient in establishing that the upstairs and downstairs carpeting satisfied the other statutory requirement of section 4-2-201(3)(a), C.R.S.1973: “not suitable for sale to others in the ordinary course of the seller’s business.” The business of Colorado Carpet was to purchase carpeting from wholesalers or manufacturers and then to resell the carpeting to retail purchasers at a price inclusive of a labor charge for installation. As a dealer in carpeting and other flooring materials, Colorado Carpet continually dealt with goods of this nature and reasonably could be expected to find a buyer for them. There certainly was nothing in the character of the upstairs and downstairs carpeting that required basic or essential changes to be made in order to render them marketable to other purchasers. The dimensions of both pieces of carpeting were such that each could be easily recut, if necessary, to accommodate retail purchasers who might be looking for these particular brands in different dimensions. Indeed, the record shows that Colorado Carpet received credit from the manufacturer upon its return of the upstairs carpet and had little difficulty in selling the downstairs carpet to a local purchaser. This state of the record is manifestly insufficient to support the trial court’s determination that the upstairs and downstairs carpeting qualified for the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds. We also conclude that there was no evidence to support the trial court’s inclusion of the carpet padding and the kitchen carpet in the “specially manufactured goods” category. The record shows that these materials were stock items, and, far from being cut or processed to conform to the needs of the customer, they were never ordered or obtained by Colorado Carpet in connection with the Palermo agreement. It was the burden of Colorado Carpet to present sufficient evidence permitting the fact finder to reasonably conclude by a preponderance of the evidence that the goods included in its sales agreement with the Palermos satisfied the statutory criteria for the “specially manufactured goods” exception to the statute of frauds. It failed to carry its burden of proof on this issue, and, as the court of appeals correctly ruled, the trial court erred in enforcing the contract. The judgment of the court of appeals is affirmed. Colo.,1983. Colorado Carpet Installation, Inc. v. Palermo 668 P.2d 1384, 45 A.L.R.4th 1113, 36 UCC Rep.Serv. 1516 ______________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS Case #1 – Lucy v. Zehmer The Defendant, Zehmer, claimed that he did not enter into a contract because he and Lucy were not serious during their discussions. The Court pointed out the following facts in finding that Zehmer had formed an agreement: The appearance of the contract, the fact that it was under discussion for forty minutes or more before it was signed; Lucy’s objection to the first draft because it was written in the singular, and he wanted Mrs. Zehmer to sign it also; the rewriting to meet that objection and the signing by Mrs. Zehmer; the discussion of what was to be included in the sale, the provision for the examination of the title, the completeness of the instrument that was executed, the taking possession of it by Lucy with no request or suggestion by either of the defendants that he give it back. 3 According to the Court in its analysis of whether the parties had the intent to form an agreement, did it matter what Zehmer actually believed he was doing? Why or why not? What is important in a court’s determination of the parties’ intent? Why didn’t the Court find that Zehmer lacked capacity (due to intoxication) to form a contract? Case #2 – Sunrise Cooperative v. Perry, et al. In this case, Farm Credit is arguing that the Ohio Statute of Frauds prevents their promise to guarantee Perry’s debt from being enforced. Explain their argument and what would be required to make such a promise enforceable. The Ohio court recognized an exception to the Statute of Frauds. When and under what circumstances, does this exception apply? The court found Farm Credit’s promise to be an enforceable guarantee…but shouldn’t Sunrise cooperative have to attempt to collect from Perry first? Why or why not? Case #3 – Colorado Carpet v. Palermo According to the Court, was the contract in question in Colorado Carpet, a contract governed by the UCC, or the common law? How did they determine which law applied? To what evidence did the court refer in making this determination? In this case, did it matter whether the UCC applied? Why or why not? What are “specially manufactured goods” and how are they relevant to this case? What criteria are necessary to establish whether goods are “specially manufactured”? The Colorado Supreme Court determined that the carpets in question were not “specially manufactured goods”, why? How could you change the facts of the case to make the specially manufactured goods exception apply? Business Plan Overview In order to make the completion of the Business Plan more manageable, each individual section will be due throughout the semester. You are welcome to make several drafts of each section, and you will combine all of the sections together for the final draft. Each section should be in a business plan format (Refer to business plan examples in “Content” tab). Your Business Plan consists of the following sections: 1. Cover Page Monday 2. Executive Summary ( Friday) 3. Business Description (Tuesday) 4. Industry Analysis (Tuesday) 5. Products and Services (Tuesday) 6. Marketing and Sales (Wednesday) 7. Financial Statements (Thursday) 8. References (APA format) (Friday) 9. Appendix Monday 10. video presentation 15 Final Draft of the Plan (includes changes and every section as one document) is due November 19, 2021 Final Presentation is due November 19, 2021 Here is the context of the Business Plan assignment: You are starting your own business in your respective Metro area. The type of business you choose to start is your decision. It may be a retail store, a restaurant, a beauty salon, an auto service facility, a tour and limousine service, an accounting service, a gourmet cookie bakery……………almost any business you choose! Please see the attached file for more details… Attachment(s): Topic: Capital punishment The “not bias” group must explain why views on this topic are not bias, but grounded in fact Provide 3 points with an explanation for each on why capital punishment should NOT be allowed Provide information on what I will actively do to erase the bias in the debate in themselves, their community and the healthcare field. The chosen actions must be based on EVP. Case 7-1 Doing Crunches at Nestlé: Continuous Improvement of Human Assets With instant coffee, baby food, and bottled water in the mix, Nestlé crunches more than just chocolate. The world’s #1 food and drinks company in terms of sales, Nestlé is also the world leader in coffee (Nescafé). It also makes coffee for the home-brewing system, Nespresso. Nestlé is one of the world’s top bottled water makers (Nestlé Waters), one of the biggest frozen pizza makers (DiGiorno), and a big player in the pet food business (Friskies, Purina). Its most well-known global food brands include Buitoni, Dreyer’s, Maggi, Milkmaid, Carnation, and Kit Kat. The company also owns Gerber Products. North America is Nestlé’s most important market.(1) Nestlé has over 2,000 brands, which are made in 418 factories located in 86 countries, and employees nearly 330,000 employees selling products in 191 countries.(2) How does one feed this growing concern? Mergers and acquisitions is one answer, yet that does not solve the skills-gap issue faced worldwide. The firm credits their success to their top-down/bottom-up approach to training. Top-Down. Their Rive-Reine International Training Centre in Switzerland, since the late 1980s, has served as the focal point for mentoring and training from senior management. Trainee selection matches local domestic managers’ candidate nominations, who hail from over 80 countries, with corporate-driven selection criteria usually resulting in a class of 15 to 20 nationalities from differing areas of expertise. Who teaches these classes? “Course leaders” as they are called provide instruction to about 1,700 managers and are comprised predominately of highly experienced executives from numerous locations, with consultants teaching only 25% of the 70 courses offered per annum. The courses have two differing foci: internal operations and working with external stakeholders. Executive Courses/Industry Analysis: This series of courses has been created to assist managers who attended management courses between five and ten years ago to develop the ability to identify and work with key external stakeholders (i.e., customers, competitors, suppliers). The focus is on industry analysis from the stakeholder’s point of view and the actions they might take (i.e., What are our competitors’ mostly likely actions and how do we counteract them?). Management Courses/Operations and Business Value Chain: Two-thirds of the classes in this program are taken by managers who have been with the company 5 years or less. Here managers learn about the firm’s business model (its internal operations) and the underlying values that drive that model.(3) Bottom-up. An important factor in Nestlé’s productivity is the skill set of entry-level workers. Employers invest in the skills of new entrants as an alternative to hiring more experienced people, partly on grounds of cost but also for the opportunity to shape ways of working around specific technologies and processes and particular company values.(4) For most employees at Nestlé to be successful, they must have a passion for learning, and their recruitment process emphasizes this. Once hired, employees’ training is predominately “on-the-job” (OTJ), where an employee’s supervisor serves as mentor, providing motivation and guidance to ensure employees’ growth. Before training can begin, whether formally or informally, employees must possess the basic skill set necessary for continued learning (i.e., reading, writing, computer usage, oral communications, etc.); this is usually provided through an employee’s schooling. In certain countries, their education may have been inadequate and the worker may decide to improve their skill set, especially in the area of communications. Special programs have been established to provide such training on a country-by-country basis. Once employees have acquired the basic skill set, individualized development formal training programs are created that increase workers’ knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs). New employees with high school or university qualifications inevitably enter management-training programs in their local centers. Local Training Centers. In addition to centralized training, residential training centers exist for many of their local operations—the net effect being that “people development” occurs predominately at local centers. This decentralized approach for employee training and development makes each manager accountable and directly involved in employee learning. Coaching and counseling skills are therefore emphasized where needed through a myriad of programs. Besides training current managers, local centers look to develop future managers by developing supervisory skills of ex-apprentices as well as technical personnel in the areas of IT management, maintenance and electrical engineering. Specialists are also “home-grown” through continuous training, given local market and employment conditions. Those seeking a purely administrative career path will find that OJT plays a critical role supported by in-house training. Even at the local level, outsourcing of training and education increases with an employee’s rank and use of new technologies. Production is one of the key success factors for Nestlé, and therefore employees (two-thirds of whom work in factories) need continuous OTJ on new factory technology and equipment; the faster the change, the greater the need for training. New technology also means learning how to work better and differently with others. Team and inter-team management training (including self-managed work teams) focusing on developing flex-manufacturing capabilities is needed in order to maximize equipment utilization. Training methods are also changing with the times, especially related to the Internet. Distance learning, the use of information technology to deliver content, has led to the new methods of corporate instruction and special corporate training assistants and has allowed employees to obtain training and education that align with their life styles. For example, employees in Singapore are given the option to attend online, job-related night courses, which, if they lead to some formal qualification (i.e., certificate, diploma, degree), would qualify for cost reimbursement.(5) The Singapore example indicates that although there is a commonality of training among local centers, training can be significantly different by location. New employees at Nestlé take management-training courses, but the approach of these courses varies widely by country. For example, in Japan the courses are short and usually last about 3 days each. In India, however, the programs run for 12 months. In West African countries, the management training programs run even longer, typically 18–24 months.(6) Case 8-2 Amazon.com: Selling Employee Performance With Organization and Leadership Review Amazon.com, which started as the biggest online bookstore, has become a household name by expanding rapidly in the retail market. It offers millions of movies, games, music, electronics, and other general merchandise products in several categories, including apparel and accessories, auto parts, home furnishings, health and beauty aids, toys, and groceries. Shoppers can also download e-books, games, MP3s, and films to their computers or handheld devices, including Amazon’s own portable e-reader, the Kindle. Amazon also offers products and services, such as self-publishing, online advertising, an e-commerce platform, hosting, and a cobranded credit card.(1) To keep this megastore running at a fast pace, Amazon hired 115,000 employees, who generated $74 billion in 2013. Target and Home Depot made a combined income of close to $74 billion in the same year, yet they employed more than 340,000 people between them in their retail stores.(2) Why does Amazon need only one third of its competitors’ labor force to produce the same revenue? Like the other mega retailer, Walmart, Amazon has delivered creative business solutions to their own processes to continuously increase their operating effectiveness. However, their strategy focuses on enhancing the customer-shopping experience and providing excellent customer service rather than providing the lowest-priced products. To meet their customers’ needs, Amazon must deliver more speed and efficiency in its giant warehouse. They use more automated work processes that reduce the company’s operational costs and also increase labor efficiency and employee safety. The quality of Amazon’s warehouse labor has become the critical issue in the firm’s success; and hence, hiring and retaining the best, most suitable candidates for the company’s manual labor positions is a key success factor. That being said, Amazon’s turnover rate at these lowest-ranked positions in the organization is high since Amazon lets go of its lowest-performing employees to make room for new, more appropriate candidates while promoting the very best. To detect the lowest- and highest-performing employees, Amazon initiated a performance evaluation system called the Organization and Leadership Review (OLR).(3) OLR actually has two main goals: (1) finding future leaders and preparing them to be able to face the most challenging tasks presented in a fast-paced work environment; and (2) determining the 10% of employees who are the least effective and taking necessary corrective action with them. OLRs take place twice a year to grant promotions and find the least effective employees.(4) Only the top-level managers attend these meetings, where there could be two reasons why an employee’s name may be mentioned. Either the employee is being considered for a promotion, or the employee’s job might be at stake. OLRs start with the attendees reading the meeting agenda. Then supervisors suggest the most deserving subordinates to be considered for promotion. All executives in the room evaluate these suggestions and then debate the alternatives. Promotions are given at the end. During the process, instead of using hard data, executives tend to evaluate employees’ performance on the basis of personal, anecdotal experiences. Anyone in the meeting may deny a promotion; therefore, ambitious employees seeking a promotion should also be very friendly with their boss’s peers. If an employee’s supervisor cannot present that worker well enough, another’s favorite subordinate will get the promotion.(5) In terms of promotion, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos expects the managers to set the performance bar quite high to allow only the most exceptional talent to progress.(6) Promotions are protected by well-written guidelines, which focus on delivery and impact, but not on internal politics. People spend less time campaigning for their own promotions, and top performers are highly compensated based upon the quality of their work.(7) Therefore, only a few promotions are available each year, and receiving positive feedback from a supervisor is quite rare. The approval that employees get from their supervisor is not enough to earn a promotion; employees still have to “fight” for a promotion, which may not occur immediately. A New Financial Advisory Practice in Detroit, MI Year 1 strategy On this assignment your team is comprised of licensed professionals who desire to start a wealth management practice in Detroit. As aspiring entrepreneurs, you will be required to work together to present a Zoom presentation to last between 11 and 15 minutes to explain your plan of launching this business and how will you become profitable. It can be video or slide show presentation. Your presentation must include: A breakdown of the average wage earner in Detroit I want you to educate me about the culture of that city (without mentioning Eminem) Whom out of that population can afford your service? How you plan to market to that population? Where will you locate your office and how much will your rent be? How would you grow your business consistently over time? How will you determine if a strategy isn’t working? How can you do this and stay within your budget? How will you pay yourselves as your cash flow personally is low as you try to start a business? How would you differentiate yourselves from any bank or other financial institution in town who believes they offer the same service as you? What is so special about your business that makes it a better choice for potential clients? Other Important variables to your case. After all of you have paid off your student loans for business and finance school combined you have a fixed budget of 40k to spend on this venture. You charge $300/hour for consultations You all are from Ohio and have no personal connections to the city MKT 445 lecture 1 lecture 2 case Ch 11 reading is uploaded (don’t feel obligated to read it if you don’t need to) All lectures are attached above The Case is uploaded as well ONE SHORT CASE STUDy. NO WORD COUNT AS LONG AS THE ANSWERS ARE ANSWERED PROPERLY. Required text book: Hardy Hospital Case Study Caroline Highgrove, Hardy Hospital’s director of materials management, glanced at the papers spread across her desk. She wondered where the week had gone. On Monday, the director of university operations, Drew Paris, had asked Caroline to look into the purchasing and supplies systems for the hospital. Drew specifically wanted Caroline to evaluate the current materials-management system, identify ways to reduce costs, and recommend a final plan of action. Drew explained that the university was under pressure to cut expenses, and hospital inventory did not seem to be under control. As Caroline reviewed her notes, she was struck by the variations in order sizes and order frequencies for the hospital’s stock-keeping units (SKUs). For some SKUs, inventory ran out before new orders came in, whereas for other SKUs, excessively high stock levels were being carried. The university and hospital’s computerized materials-management system was about a decade old and generally worked well; however, employees often ignored or did not update key information. Thus, data integrity was a major problem in this information system. Hospital and university supply orders were classified as either regular stock or special order. The hospital was the originator of almost all special orders. Regular stock items, such as bed sheets, uniforms, and syringes, were characterized by their long-standing and frequent use throughout the university and hospital, and by a low risk of obsolescence. When a department needed a regular stock item, that department generally ordered (requisitioned) the item. If the item was in stock, it would be delivered to the department by the next delivery date. sirtravelalot/Shutterstock.com Regular stock items were characterized by their long-standing and frequent use throughout the hospital. When the university did not normally stock an item, individual hospital departments could special-order them. Special-order items were supposed to be those of an experimental nature or critical to patient health care, but not used frequently. Hospital departments requiring these special items bypassed the university purchasing system. Once a special order was placed, the hospital department informed university purchasing so that it could eventually authorize payment on the vendor’s invoice. Hospital department coordinators, doctors, or head nurses were responsible for initiating and/or authorizing special orders. In total, these special orders required a significant amount of work that took department coordinators and head nurses away from their duties. University purchasing kept no records on the hospital’s special-order inventories or for the 215 secondary hospital stocking points such as exam rooms and moveable carts. One department’s head nurse explained that many departments were afraid of running out of regular stock items. University purchasing didn’t understand the importance and nature of hospital inventory, and they were slow to respond. The nurse cited the months-long period university purchasing process needed to place new items on the regular stock list, and the long lead times sometimes involved in receiving orders requisitioned from the university’s approved vendor list. Because the university was a state institution, strict bidding and purchasing procedures had to be followed for both regular stock and special orders. For example, three written bids were required for an individual order of $2,000 or more. The processing of these bids often took up to 2 months. For orders between $800 and $1,999, three telephone bids were necessary. In these situations, purchases could be made only from the lowest bidder. Orders under $800, or items on the state contract list, could be ordered over the phone, without any bids. State contract list items were those for which statewide needs had been combined and one contract left to cover all of them. Caroline had gathered information on the costs of ordering and storing hospital supplies. For order costs, she estimated that, on average, the purchasing, account payables, and receiving personnel spent three hours processing a single purchase order. A single purchase order typically included four SKUs (i.e., each SKU on a purchase order was called a line item). The average hospital storeroom’s wage was $18.50 an hour; with employee benefits and associated overhead, the cost of one worker-hour came to $24. For inventory-holding costs, the university warehouse and hospital storeroom used 36,750 square feet of storage space. The university stored an average of $4.15 million in hospital supplies in this space. Records indicated that the average annual variable and semivariable cost for storage space this year would be $4.60 per square foot. Five warehouse workers and storeroom associates were required to handle the hospital’s supplies. These individuals each earned $32,000 a year; benefits and overhead rates for these employees were the same as for other personnel, about 20 percent. Other warehouse costs, including obsolescence and taxes, were expected to reach $400,000 this year. The hospital operated 52 weeks per year. Also, the state recently had floated a bond issue at 8.9 percent, and Caroline thought that might be a good estimate of the cost of money to finance inventory, but she wasn’t sure what other costs to include in inventory-holding costs. After reviewing her notes on the hospital’s materials-management situation, Caroline decided to take a closer look at some individual regular stock items. She sorted through the papers on her desk and found 30 SKUs of interest. She wanted to analyze all 30 SKUs but decided to begin with one SKU widely used in the hospital—Strike Disinfectant. Data on this SKU are shown in Exhibits 11.16 and 11.17. Exhibit11.16.Hardy Hospital Strike Disinfectant Data* Case Size Cost per Case Order Lead Time Strike Disinfectant* 4 gallons $84.20 2 weeks Beginning SKU Balance 96 Week 1 Receipt 200 Week 7 Ending Balance 110 Week 16 Exhibit11.17.Hardy Hospital Aggregate Strike Disinfectant Weekly Demand as Measured by Hospital Requisitions Discussion Questions Please answer the following. What are good estimates of order cost and inventory-holding cost? (State all assumptions and show all computations.) What is the EOQ and reorder point with safety stock for Strike Disinfectant given your answer to question 1? Compute the total order and inventory-holding costs for a fixed-quantity system (FQS) and compare to the current order Q’s. Can you save money by adopting an FQS? What are your final recommendations, including what you would recommend regarding regular and special orders, the state bidding system, and overall control of the university materials-management system? Explain the reasoning for your recommendations. Instructor Resource Creswell, Research Design 5e SAGE Publishing, 2018 Lecture Notes Chapter 10: Mixed Methods Procedures This chapter presents information on designing a mixed methods procedures section for a research proposal. Previous chapters have discussed the collection of quantitative and qualitative data but not the process for combining the two forms of data in the study. The blending of the two types of data can help to develop a stronger understanding of the research question or process. Chapter 10 begins with a discussion of the components of a mixed methods procedure and discusses how to design the procedures for a mixed methods study. Recommendations for conveying the nature of mixed methods research and what is are discussed. Conveying the nature of mixed methods and its characteristics is essential to a good mixed methods procedure. Components of Mixed Methods Procedures Mixed Methods Research It is useful to convey a basic definition and description of the approach in a method section of a proposal. This may include: Defining mixed methods research It involves the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data in response to research questions or hypotheses The procedures for both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis will be conducted rigorously The two forms of data are integrated in the design analysis These procedures are incorporated into a distinct mixed methods design that also includes the timing of the data collection as well as the emphasis These procedures can also be informed by a philosophy (worldview) or a theory Discuss the many different terms used for mixed methods Educate the reader about the background of mixed methods by reviewing the history of this approach to research Discuss the reasons for choosing mixed methods; it is a useful strategy to have a more complete understanding of research problems Comparing different perspectives drawn from quantitative and qualitative data Explaining quantitative results with a qualitative follow-up data collection and analysis Developing better contextualized measurement instruments by first collecting and analyzing qualitative data and then administering the instruments to a sample Developing cases or documenting cases for comparison Augmenting experiments or trials by including perspectives of individuals Developing a more complete understanding of changes needed for a marginalized group with a combination of qualitative and quantitative data Having a better understanding of the need for or impact of an intervention program Indicate the type of mixed methods design that will be used in the study and the rationale for choosing it Note the challenges this former research poses for the researcher Types of Mixed Methods Designs Convergent Mixed Methods Design Description of the design The researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data in a single phase Analyzes them separately Compares the results to see if the findings confirm or disconfirm each other Data collection The qualitative data can assume any of the forms previously discussed (interviews, observations, documents, etc.) The intent of this type of data collection is to locate and obtain information from a small sample but to gather extensive information from the sample Data analysis and integration The two databases are analyzed separately and then brought together; this can be done through: Side-by-side comparison Changing qualitative codes for themes into quantitative variables (this is called data transformation) Merging the two forms of data into a table or graph Interpretation Typically written into the discussion section of the study The discussion section includes a report comparing results from the two databases noting whether there is convergence or divergence between the two sources Validity Should be based on both quantitative and qualitative validity Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design Description of the design The researcher collects quantitative data in the first phase Analyzes the results and uses them to plan phase 2 The quantitative phase informs the types of participants to be purposefully selected for the qualitative things in the types of questions that will be asked Data collection The data collection proceeds into distinct phases: Phase 1 consists of rigorous quantitative sampling Phase 2 consists of purposeful sampling. Intent is to follow up quantitative data with more in depth information Data analysis and integration The two databases are analyzed separately Quantitative results used to plan the qualitative follow-up Qualitative data analysis follows Interpretation Typically written into the discussion section of the study Quantitative is reported first; then second-phase results are reported The third form of interpretation asks a question “How do the qualitative findings help explain the quantitative results?” Validity Establish validity of scores from the quantitative measures Discuss the validity of qualitative findings Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design Description of the design The researcher collects qualitative data in the first phase Analyzes the results and uses them to plan phase 2 The qualitative phase informs the quantitative phase Data collection The qualitative data collected and is used in the second phase to: Create an instrument Develop new variables The intent of this type is to develop better instruments and to see if data from a few individuals can be generalized to a larger sample Data analysis and integration The two databases are analyzed separately The researcher uses the results of phase 1 to build into quantitative measures Interpretation Typically written into the discussion section of the study Qualitative results are reported first and then quantitative Validity Should be based on both quantitative and qualitative validity A concern might be whether the research uses the appropriate steps to develop the instrument Several Complex Mixed Methods Designs Framework for considering complex applications: Intersecting a secondary method (mixed methods) within a primary quantitative or qualitative design (e.g., an intervention) Intersecting mixed methods within another methodology (e.g., evaluation) Intersecting mixed methods within a theoretical framework (e.g., social justice) Complex mixed methods designs Mixed methods experimental (intervention) design – quantitative and qualitative data within an experiment or trial Mixed methods case study design – mixed methods within a single or multiple case study Mixed methods participatory social justice design – core mixed methods design within a larger framework Mixed methods evaluation design – one or more core designs in an evaluation A Procedure for Embedding Core Designs into Complex Designs Identify quantitative and qualitative data collection in the study Draw a diagram of steps in the procedure Look into the steps for opportunities to collect quantitative and qualitative data In the steps where you collect both forms of data, ask how the databases are being connected Discuss procedures of using core designs Mixed methods notation provides shorthand labels and symbols that can be important aspects of mixed methods research QUAL and QUAN (capitalized) indicates an emphasis on priority on the quantitative or qualitative data, analysis, and interpretation in the study Quan and Qual stand for quantitative and qualitative, respectively A plus sign indicates a convergent or merging integration of data collection An arrow indicates a sequential form of data collection Parentheses – indicate that one form of data collection is embedded within another or embedded within a larger design Double arrows mean that the flow of activities can go both ways Factors Important in Choosing a Mixed Methods Design Choice based on outcomes expected; this requires a researcher to determine the outcome anticipated and then to link it to the types Choice based on integrating the data will be used together; the researcher needs to consider whether mixed methods integration of the two databases will be through merging, explaining, building, or embedding Choice based on the timing of the data collection; this considers whether the two databases are collected concurrently or sequentially Choice based on the emphasis placed on each database; a mixed methods study can use an equal emphasis on both databases or an unequal emphasis Choice based on type of design most suited for a field; for quantitatively oriented fields, the explanatory sequential approach seems to work well Choice based on a single researcher or team; if the investigator is a single researcher, the sequential strategies are best because the investigation can be broken into two tasks Examples of Mixed Methods Procedures See Examples 10.1–10.4 that illustrate mixed methods procedures. 3 pages essay about Containerization for High Performance Computing. 5 sources need to be used. Extra tips will be provided on the payment once it completed Select one substance (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, etc.) or food (chocolate, sugar, soda, cookies, bread, etc.) or behavior (watching television/Netflix, playing video games, shopping, texting, being on Facebook, online gaming, negative self-talk, sex, etc.) and completely abstain for at least a 4-week period. Keep a journal of your daily experiences. Follow the format from this example: Day #, Date, Time: Quite the opposite of the night before last, I had one of the best night’s sleep ever last night. I woke up to my alarm, ready to get out of bed. I had morning energy that I have not had in a long time. I really think that wine was affecting my sleep, and in turn, my next day’s energy and clarity of thinking. When I came home from work and began to cook however, my cravings for wine returned. I think it was the association of chopping and sautéing food that made me crave a glass of wine while cooking. Instead, I filled a stem glass with club soda and lime. Honestly, once I was finished cooking and sitting down to dinner with my family, the cravings went away. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was an 8. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking wine. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: I have had a headache all week, but I’m not sure if that is related to me experiencing withdrawal symptoms. Mood: I felt a little frustrated that I couldn’t open a bottle of wine, but the feeling passed after dinner. Thoughts: I am hopeful that I can abstain for 4 weeks, but I’m not entirely optimistic for some reason. Habits are so hard to break. Especially when there are other people relying on you to follow through with a certain behavior. How do you go about finding that fine line in not wanting to let people down but also maintaining your sobriety? What if the only way to calm my thoughts would be to drink wine? Addicts use substance as a coping mechanism. What happens when they are taken away? Source of support: My colleagues are supportive of my choice to give up wine. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Grading You will need to have at least 30 entries minimum to receive full credit There is no set length for each entry but no less than 3-4 sentences Some entries may be 10 sentences, and some may be a full page depending on what you have to say and how you are feeling that day Your final grade will reflect the following: Correct formatting First and last entry All items were addressed Insight as it relates to substance use and relapse Description of the stages of change experienced Depth of entries Formatting your journal; finished product to be in a Word document: Include the date and time of each entry Number your days, #1- #30, or more Make your first entry a description of your project Include why you chose the substance, food, or behavior from which to abstain Explain where you are in the Stages of Change model and why Describe what you expect to gain or learn from this experience Make the last entry a detailed summary of the experience Describe your physical, emotional, and spiritual experiences Describe any insight regarding the physical, emotional, or spiritual need the substance, food or behavior served for you Relate this to addiction and relapse Explain where you ended up in the Stages of Change model and why Content: Use a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) to describe the difficulty or ease of abstaining that day Explain where you are in the Stages of Change model and why Describe any physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms experienced Describe how your mood was affected by abstaining or relapsing Describe your thoughts related to addiction and relapse Discuss any source of support Discuss anyone’s attempt to sabotage your efforts Stages of Change Project Day 1 – 8:30pm – 10/10/2021 Today I start the beginning of the Stages of Change Project, I will be giving up soda for 30 days. As a young adult I want to have discipline and get away from all the sugary drinks. I am currently in the action plan of the stages. I have already prepared and I am now taking action for the next 30 days. I want to gain more energy and be able to maintain my focus. Today was an easy day, just starting out. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 1. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: N/A Mood: I was in a good mood. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 2 – 7:00pm – 10/11/2021 Today was an okay day. I wanted a soda while I ate, that went away I ate my food. I had water with lemons to keep myself hydrated. I have been feeling tired and waking up in the middle of the night, I’m trying to figure out why. I hope it improves over time. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 4. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: N/A Mood: I woke up in a great mood. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 3 – 11:15am – 10/12/2021 As I was eating lunch at work, I had the temptation to wake to drink a soda, to be exact a big red. But I have been waking up in the middle of the night. I woke up at about 1:30am and 4:15am, my alarm goes off at 6:30, so I’ve been tired these last few days. The temptation is real, so early on. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 7. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: I have had a headache. Mood: My mood has been mild, slightly moody. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 4 – 1:40pm – 10/13/2021 Today I am tired, I had a slush with my food. My issue is that I want a soda when I am eating lunch and dinner. So drinking water and or juice is my alternative. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 6. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: I am experiencing a mild headache. Mood: I felt a little frustrated that I couldn’t open a bottle of wine, but the feeling passed after dinner. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 5 – pm – 10/14/2021 Day 6 – pm – 10/15/2021 Day 7 – pm – 10/16/2021 Day 8 – pm – 10/17/2021 Day 9 – pm – 10/18/2021 Day 10 –12:55 pm – 10/19/2021 Last night, I tossed and tired and woke up with a major headache. I feel like my body is having withdrawals from no soda. When I got in the bed last night, I wasn’t really tired, I’ve been drinking more water and having more energy. But since I didn’t sleep so good last night, I took an hour nap and since then I have been pretty good. On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 6. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: N/A Mood: I was in a good mood. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 11 – 1:30pm – 10/20/2021 Today has been going good, last night was the first night I sleep the entire night without waking up. That felt great. I have not craved a soda On a 1-10 scale (1=easy—10=hard) today’s difficulty or ease of abstaining was a 2. Stage of Change: I am currently in the action stage in the Stages of Change model because I am abstaining from drinking soda. Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms: N/A Mood: I was in a good mood. Thoughts: I hope that I can be successful for the next 4 weeks. I believe this will be a hard task but rewarding. Source of support: My colleagues and family are supportive of my choice to give up soda. Sabotage: No one attempted to sabotage my efforts today. Day 12 – pm – 10/21/2021 Day 13 – pm – 10/22/2021 Day 14 – pm – 10/23/2021 Day 15 – pm – 10/24/2021 Day 16 – pm – 10/25/2021 Day 17 – pm – 10/26/2021 Day 18 – pm – 10/27/2021 Day 19 – pm – 10/28/2021 Day 20 – pm – 10/29/2021 Day 21 – pm – 10/30/2021 Day 22 – pm – 10/31/2021 Day 23 – pm – 11/01/2021 Day 24 – pm – 11/02/2021 Day 25 – pm – 11/03/2021 Day 26 – pm – 11/04/2021 Day 27 – pm – 11/05/2021 Day 28 – pm – 11/06/2021 Day 29 – pm – 11/07/2021 Day 30 – pm – 11/08/2021 Chapter 11 Assignment CHAPTER 12 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: BODY LANGUAGE AND PROXEMICS WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND BODY LANGUAGE? HOW DOES SPACE IMPACT COMMUNICATION? HOW DO WE READ FACIAL EXPRESSIONS? NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION—SILENT LANGUAGE Psychologists tell us that more than 90% of the emotional impact of a message comes from nonverbal sources. Cultural anthropologists, sociologists, and social psychologists describe the nonverbal portion of any message as extremely important. It is the nonverbal message that contains the relational portion of the message and we tend to believe the nonverbal more. Nonverbal communication can repeat the verbal message (a wave while saying good-bye), substitute for the verbal (a silent wave good-bye), or complement and accent the nonverbal (a finger circling the ear to indicate someone’s crazy). Over fifty years ago an exciting science was uncovered and explored. It was called body language and has since also been named kinesics. Body language analyses and kinesics are based on the behavioral patterns of nonverbal communication. There are even clinical studies that reveal the extent to which body language can actually contradict verbal com-munication. A classic example is the young woman who told her psychiatrist that she was in love with her boyfriend while shaking her head from side to side in subconscious denial. Again, that is why we tend to believe the nonverbal more. These signals from the uncon-scious can be extremely important in reading others. We need to understand that others are reading our body language. Dr. Edward Hess revealed a kinetic signal, the unconscious widening of a pupil when one sees something pleasant (presented at the American College of Medical Hypnotists). This can be very useful in a poker game. When a player sees an op-ponent’s pupils widen, he can be sure that his opponent is holding a good hand. The other player may not be conscious of his ability to read this signal any more than the other person is conscious of telegraphing his lucky cards. Also, advertisers can use this when showing focus groups a commercial they plan to air (especially when considering the expense of ad time during the Super Bowl). While the commercial is being shown, the eyes of the 99 100 MANAGING CONFLICT: AN INTROSPECTIVE JOURNEY TO NEGOTIATING SKILLS audience/focus group are observed. The marketing people detect when there is any widening of the pupils, which is a subconscious indication of a pleasant response. Another study showed that the pupils of a man’s eyes became twice as large when he saw a picture of a beautiful nude woman. Body language can include any non-reflexive or reflexive movement of a part or all of the body, used to communicate an emotional message to the outside world. To understand this unspoken language, you must also take into consideration cultural and environmental differ-ences. Keep in mind that verbal messages use a single channel—we cannot say two words simultaneously. Nonverbal messages do not arrive in a sequenced manner. We see people’s facial expressions, their head and body movements, the way they are dressed, and their ges-tures. Additionally, verbal messages are discrete; that is, they have a clear beginning and end. Nonverbal messages are continuous and, unlike the spoken word, they are mostly not deliber-ate. There are just too many nonverbal channels to be able to control all of them. Therefore, how can we know the meaning of the signals we are reading? Verbal and nonverbal messages differ in their degree of ambiguity. In general, nonverbal messages are more ambiguous. The best way to find out is to ask for verbal clarification. The theory and research with nonverbal communication focuses on the structures and conditions within which communication takes place (the communication environment), the physical characteristics of the communicators, and their behaviors. Most nonverbal research (but not all) is on appearance and behavior of the person com-municating. The body is the message, which is the face, head, and body. When reading body language, the focus is on these aspects: • gestures • eye contact • facial expressions • vocal behavior • trunk and shoulders • arm and wrist • hand and fingers • hip • leg and ankle • foot and neck • overall posture • general presentation of self (including clothing) • touch • personal space It is important to remember there are influential nonverbal cues that are not visible body movements. These include posture, body shape or physique, attractiveness, height, weight, hair, skin color or tone, odors (body or breath), clothes, jewelry, and accessories (such as handbags or attaché cases). Body movement and position generally include gestures, move-ments of the body (limbs, hands, head, feet, and legs), facial expressions (smiles, frowns), eye behavior (blinking, direction and length of gaze, and pupil dilation), and posture. Positions of CHAPTER 12 101 the head, shoulders, and brows are considered major areas of nonverbal communication. There are gender similarities and differences. Another dimension to consider in nonverbal communication is vocal behavior, which deals with how something is said; the nonverbal vocal cues surrounding common speech. There are the sound vibrations made with the vocal cords during talk that are a function of changes in pitch, duration, loudness, and silence. In addition, there are the sounds that result from physiological mechanisms other than the vocal cords, like the oral or nasal cavities. There is research on pitch level, duration of sound (clipped or drawn out), pauses, loudness, resonance, rate, rhythm, and intruding sounds (“uh,” “um,” “ah”). Laughing, belching, yawning, swallow-ing, moaning may affect the outcome of the interaction. Keep in mind that “it is not the words we say, but the music we play” (Dave Wolffe). Verbal and nonverbal communication systems operate together. Nonverbal communication functions to express emotions, convey attitudes (like/dislike, dominance/submission, etc.), presenting one’s self to the other, accompanying speech for the purpose of emphasis, feedback, managing turn-taking, attention, etc. (my background is Italian—I simply cannot talk without using hand gestures). Furthermore, there is agreement in our culture or subcultures on some signal or gesture, such as “A-OK,” “Peace,” and “V for Victory.” Make sure you consider the physical environment (store, church/temple, school, play-ground, club/bar, home, street, etc.) because environments can affect our moods, choices of words, and actions. Other factors that are part of this analysis are furniture, architectural style, interior décor, lighting, colors, temperature, noise, and music. You also form an im-pression by the so-called traces of activity such as trash, discarded food, and wastepaper. Timing and the perception of time need to be considered because they are clearly a part of understanding nonverbal communication factors. The frequency, tempo, and rhythm of actions definitely impact communication even though they may not be part of the physical environment. Now to broaden our analysis of nonverbal communication even further, consider the spa-tial environment. There are studies called proxemics and small-group ecology (ecology is the relationship of an individual to the environment). These researchers are concerned with how people respond to spatial relationships in formal and informal settings. We know that humans have a sense of territory, a need for a shell of territory around them. This ranges from the city dweller with a tight and close shell to the larger bubble of the suburbanite with the yard/open spaces to the country people with wide-open space. The fact is that we all possess zones of ter-ritory. We carry these zones with us and we respond in different ways if our space or territory is threatened or breached. Actually, how we guard our zones and how we aggress to other zones is an integral part of how we relate to others. Proxemics is the study of the use and perception of intimate, personal, social, and public space. Anthropologist Edward T. Hall coined the word 102 MANAGING CONFLICT: AN INTROSPECTIVE JOURNEY TO NEGOTIATING SKILLS proxemics to describe his theories and observations about zones of territory and how we use them.1 Hall’s proxemics chart of space and social interaction describes: • his theories and observations about zones of territory and how people use them • the ways people use space to communicate facts and signals to others; suggestions on how to standardize and classify by measurement Table 12.1: Hall’s Proxemics Chart of Space and Social Interaction CLOSE DISTANCE Actual contact 11⁄2 feet to 21⁄2 feet 4 feet to 7 feet 20 feet to 25 feet FAR DISTANCE From six to 18 inches 21⁄2 feet to 4 feet 7 feet to 12 feet Over 25 feet DISTANCE ZONE Intimate Distance Personal Distance Social Distance Public Distance Hall reminds us that distances are arrived at by human interactions and not by measure-ments. Cultural differences are critical to understand. For example, there is no Japanese word for privacy, but this does not mean there is no concept of privacy. To the Japanese, privacy exists in terms of their house/living space. There is no Arabic word for rape (rape reflects attitude toward the body). Intimate and personal distance: Between two women in most U.S. cultures, a close intimate state is acceptable, while in an Arab culture such a state is acceptable between two men. Men will frequently walk hand in hand in many Arab and Mediterranean countries. Think about crowded subway cars, elevators, crowded beaches, clubs/bars, and concerts. When you are at close intimate distance, you are overwhelmingly aware of your partner. Hall points out that this is a way to standardize a baby science and that there are dozens of clarifications necessary. When two people meet in the street, they usually stop at a far personal distance (21⁄2 to 4 feet) from each other in order to chat. At a party, they may tend to move toward the close phase of personal distance. People are making a statement with their distance. A boss uses distance to dominate a seated employee. To the employee, he or she tends to loom above and gain height and strength. The boss is reinforcing “you work for me” without saying it. The big boss will have a big desk to put him or her at a distance. Social and public space: The close phase is generally the distance at which we transact impersonal business. It is the distance we assume when we meet the client, the new director, or the manager. It is the distance the homeowner (especially female) keeps from the (espe-cially male) repair person, shop clerk, or delivery person. Eye contact in the intimate/personal distance zone should not be constant and direct (unbroken stares can get creepy). However, at the social distance it is not proper to look briefly and then look away. The only contact you CHAPTER 12 103 have is visual, and so tradition dictates that you hold the person’s eyes during conversation. According to Hall, failing to hold the person’s eyes is the same as excluding him or her from the conversation. Public space is the farthest extension of our territorial boundaries. The close phase of public distance is suited for more formal gatherings like a teacher’s lecture to students, or a facilita-tor at a conference. The far phase of public distance is for politicians; actors in the theater; and safety or security, as with dangerous animals. Certain animal species will let you come within only a certain distance before moving away. While on the subject of animal species and distance, there is frequently the danger of misinterpreting the true meaning of territorial zones. For example, a lion will retreat from a human who comes too close and enters his danger zone. But, when he can retreat no longer and the human still advances, the lion will turn and approach the human. A lion trainer takes advantage of this and moves toward the lion in his cage. The animal retreats, as is its nature, to the back of the cage as the lion trainer advances. When the lion can go no farther, he turns and, in accordance with his nature, snarls and ad-vances on the trainer in a straight line. Because the trainer is aware of this, a lion’s platform is placed between him and the lion. The lion, approaching in a straight line, climbs the platform to get at the human trainer. At this point the trainer moves out of the lion’s danger zone and the lion stops advancing. Audiences imagine that the trainer’s gun, whip, and chair are holding a dangerous beast at bay. For centuries, actors were aware that the distance of the stage from the audience can create illusions. At a distance, it is easy to lie with exaggerated motions of the body. Frequently, the public sphere is used to impress the audience, not necessarily to tell the truth. (I suggest you watch the 1934 propaganda film Triumph ofthe Will and notice how Hitler staged his speeches to the German people.) Stage actors need to use stylized, affected, and symbolic movements (that is, gross movements using the entire body) to communicate emotions. The gestures of traditional stage have been refined, studied, and practiced for years. Actually we could say that there is a cultural attachment involved with gestures of the stage. An illustration is the Japanese kabuki theater, which contains symbolic culture-oriented gestures (half of which we Westerners do not understand). Television and motion pictures combine long shots and close-ups. Up close, a movement of the lips and the blink of an eye will convey a message as much as the gross movement of the body does in a long shot. Close-ups of gross movements are misinterpreted. This is probably why there is difficulty adapting movies and television to the stage and vice versa. In conclusion, this chapter and the applied exercises are intended merely to introduce the reader to the fascinating work being done in body language, kinesics, small group ecology, and proxemics. Competencies in these areas are important for many careers that require nonverbal communication. Even the criminal justice field uses body-language specialists for jury selec-tion (and reading jurors during trial), witnesses, and understanding the judge’s gestures. 104 MANAGING CONFLICT: AN INTROSPECTIVE JOURNEY TO NEGOTIATING SKILLS 12.1 APPLIED EXERCISE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION OF OTHERS 1. Observation: at a singles’ club/bar, observe the nonverbal communication between people. 2. Develop a list of ways that people telegraph their interest/disinterest in one another. 3. Focus on: • gestures • eye contact • facial expressions • vocal behavior • trunk and shoulders • arm and wrist • hand and fingers • hip • leg and ankle • foot and neck • overall posture • general presentation of self (including clothing) • touch • personal space 4. Summarize your observation and see if you can come up with unstated but important rules about nonverbal communication (include gender differentiation). 5. Note how the same gestures, etc., would be interpreted at home, in the street, or at school/ church. 6. Discuss the gender similarities and differences. CHAPTER 12 105 12.2 APPLIED EXERCISE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION—SELF-ASSESSMENT 1. Interview a close friend or relative and find out how he or she knows from your nonverbal communication when you are: • angry • sad • disgusted • fearful • depressed • happy • surprised These are part of our genetic makeup; these are some of our basic physical reactions. 2. Ask them to focus on: • gestures • eye contact • facial expressions • vocal behavior • trunk and shoulders • arm and wrist • hand and fingers • hip • leg and ankle • foot and neck • overall posture • general presentation of self (including clothing) • touch • personal space 3. Summarize their observations and note how many things are unconscious. 106 MANAGING CONFLICT: AN INTROSPECTIVE JOURNEY TO NEGOTIATING SKILLS 12.3 APPLIED EXERCISE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION—SPACE 1. Observe your dog or cat for at least 30 minutes. 2. Describe your pet and how you communicate with it. 3. Identify and list the gestures that you read from your pet. 4. Identify and describe any territory elements. 5. Identify and list the gestures that you transmit to your pet and note the behavior. 12.4 APPLIED EXERCISE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION—SILENT MEAL 1. Have a meal set up buffet style and invite the group to eat. 2. As people enter, instruct them to put away cell phones, iPads, laptops, all technology. 3. Instruct everyone that there is to be no verbal or written communication. 4. Allow the group to enjoy the meal without talking for at least 25 minutes. Debrief • Summarize their observations. • Describe how the group passed the time. • Develop a list of ways that people telegraph their messages. • Share feelings that people experienced as time passed. NOTE 1. Hall, E.T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension. New York: Doubleday. Also, (1959). The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday. Chapter 18 Guided Notes How to use this document: Print or download this document and be ready to take notes. While reading the chapter, review the questions and look for the answers within the text. Course learning objectives are included in bold lettering to help you navigate exactly what the learning goal is for within that reading section. It is often helpful to also notate where you found/read the information for specific questions so you can easily reference the section later. Section 18.1 The blood functions in 3 major ways, to ____________________________, _____________________________ and __________________________________. How is blood a connective tissue? An example of blood protective the body is_____________________________. ______________, ____________ and _____________ are three examples of how the body is used in regulation of homeostasis. Plasma is____________________________ and makes up approximately _____________________ of the volume of your blood. The three large, solid, or “formed” elements of blood are ______________________, ___________________ and _________________________. _____________________, also known as erythrocytes are produced by _________________________ and function as ________________________________. _______________________, also known as leukocytes are produced by _________________________ and function as ________________________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe the overall composition of plasma, including the major types of plasma proteins, their functions and where in the body they are produced. Plasma itself is a mixture of ________________________________________________. What is serum? How is it different than plasma? The major proteins associated with plasma are ___________________, ____________________ and ________________________. __________________________ functions most importantly as a colloid (______________________________define colloid) which affects _______________________. It also transports lipids, solutes, Ca++, and buffers blood pH. It is the most abundant protein in plasma. The normal pH of blood is _____to ____. (You may need to look this up in another chapter of the book) ________________________ are the transport proteins of the blood (think “shuttle busses”) and make up ______% of these proteins. ________________ is the major components of blood clots. These proteins are created by the __________________(which organ?) Osmolarity refers to _______________________________________. If the osmolarity of blood is high _____________________________________________ of the tissues may occur. Alternatively, if osmolarity of the blood is low _________________________________________ may occur. When blood is spun in a centrifuge the top layer will be the ________________ because it is _________(least/most) dense. The bottom layer will be the ___________________ because it is the _______(least/most) dense. In between these layers is the _______________________ which is made up of _______________ and ____________________. Check your understanding: How could liver cancer, cirrhosis, hepatitis or liver failure affect the viscosity or osmolarity of the blood? How might these conditions impair blood clotting or promote disease processes such as GI bleeds (bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract). If someone has a clotting disorder, this may be an issue with what plasma protein? When erythrocytes die, their hemoglobin, a large, energetically expensive molecule to manufacture, is recycled. What class of plasma protein shuttles this molecule to be used in a new cell? A patient has pitting (severe) edema in the lower extremities. Formulate a hypothesis using correct terminology from this section to explain why this may be. Use an internet search for the following: A D-dimer test is an important blood test used by doctors to identify ______________________________________. Knowing what you know about blood at this point, what might this test tell you about the composition of blood proteins? Section 18.2 Chapter Learning Objective: Identity, microscopic anatomy, numbers, formation, & functional roles of the formed elements of blood The prefix “eryth” refers to _______________. The root word “cyto” refers to ______________. The process that creates new blood, especially the formed elements is called ______________. Beyond infancy, this process occurs in the ________________. The prefix “myel” refers to __________________. All formed elements trace their origins to a single ______________________________(type of cell) in the bone marrow. The root word “poiesis” means __________________. _________________________is the protein within RBCs that gives them their red pigment and is responsible for transport of _________ from the lungs to the body cells and ________ from the body cells to the lungs. Chapter Learning Objective: With respect to the functional roles of formed elements State the function of red blood cells. Erythrocytes are different from other cells in that they have lost ____________________. Which make them mitotically __________(active/inactive). Therefore, they ____________(can/cannot) reproduce themselves. RBC’s have a particular shape to them. This shape can be described as ____________________________________. This might help the RBC by ________________________, ___________________________ or _______________________. Chapter Learning Objective: With respect to the functional roles of formed elements Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin, as well as its breakdown products. A _____________ group binds O2 with a _____ atom at it’s center. Each hemoglobin can carry _______ molecules of O2 at a time. This is because _______________________. This is how most O2 is carried throughout the body. _______________________ is a measure of how many RBCs are in a given volume of blood, usually expressed as ____________(unit) _____________________ is the measure of the percentage of blood volume that is composed of erythrocytes. It may also be called ______________________. Remember back to introductory biology lab class. When considering water, ____CC = _____mL = _____ g. Although it is slightly different with blood because of blood’s components, this rule is generally followed. Also 1 mL = ________µL and __________L An H&H blood test is often ordered by doctors as part of the diagnostic process. Look up this term. What two pieces of information does this test provide? Erythropoisis occurs in the ____________________(tissue) while hemolysis (death of the RBCs) occurs in the ___________________(organ). _________________ abundance in the bloodstream gives feedback to the body about the number of erythrocytes in circulation. Chapter Learning Objective: With respect to the functional roles of formed elements Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin, as well as its breakdown products. Macrophages convert heme first into __________________and then into ____________ which then binds to __________________ so it can be transported to the _________________(organ) for further breakdown. The _______________(organ) regulates production of new erythrocytes. Normal range – Men Normal range – Women Units Hematacrit Hemaglobin concentration RBC count The three categories of anemia are ________________________________, __________________________________ and _______________________________. Anemia related to nutrient deficiencies are categorized as ______________. Anemia related to loss of blood including clotting disorders, trauma, GI bleeds etc. are categorized as ______________________. Anemia related to destruction of blood cells is called ____________________. Symptoms of anemia include: ______________________, __________________________ and _______________________________. Check your understanding: Why would someone who is in renal (kidney) failure present with low H&H values? Women who menstruate, women who are pregnant and those who have recently given birth may develop a condition where they crave foods rich in iron such as red meat and cruciferous vegetables. Explain why they may have these cravings. In emergency medicine when blood loss is a concern, normal saline will often be given IV to bring a patient’s blood pressure back into normal ranges and reduce tachycardia this can often induce what is called dilutional anemia. What category of anemia would this fall under? What organ system(s) will likely be affected by this treatment? Is this a quick fix or a long term fix and why? Section 18.3 An antigen is ____________________________________________. In ABO blood typing there are _____ (how many?) types of antigens, types ________________________________. “They occur on the surface of cells and enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign matter” – Section 18.3. Rewrite this sentence in your own words. What “foreign matter” may be an issue if this were a patient? Chapter Learning Objective: List the type of antigen and the type of antibodies present in each ABO blood type. Chapter Learning Objective: Predict which blood types are compatible and what happens when the incorrect ABO or Rh blood type is transfused. Complete the following table: Phenotype A B AB o Genotypes – list all possibilities Antigens present Antibodies present May safely accept blood from May donate blood to Review figure 18.12. The A and B antigens are ___________molecules which means they are made up of both ______________________ (class of macromolecule) and _____________________ (class of macromolecule) however, A and B antigens differ only in that A __________________________ while B ________________________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Explain the role of surface antigens on RBCs in determining blood groups. Review the table above. What do you notice about the phenotype and the type(s) of antigen(s) present? Review the table above. What do you notice about the phenotype and the type(s) of antibody(s) present? Chapter Learning Objective: State which blood type is considered the universal donor and which blood type is considered the universal recipient, and explain why. A person with type AB blood is considered the universal ________________ because _______________________________. Someone with type O blood considered the universal ________________ because _______________________________. Someone who has A or B blood is neither because _________________________________. The most common blood type is ___________ while the rarest blood type is _______. If a mismatch of blood types occurs during a transfusion a ________________ reaction will occur which means the RBCs will ____________________________. This can cause __________________________. Anti A serum will react with _______________________________(list all), Anti B serum will react with ____________________________. If neither react, the blood must be type ___________. If both react, the blood must be type __________. Agglutination means ___________________________. Someone who is Rh+ must have the genotype _______________ or __________. Someone who is Rh- must have the genotype ________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe how the presence or absence of Rh antigen results in blood being classified as positive or negative. Only people with Rh ____(+ and/or -) blood will have Rh antigens. Based on this information, the Rh factor exhibits what type of inheritance? Simple dominance Codominance Incomplete dominance In Rh+ individuals, being exposed to Rh- blood ________(will/will not) result in antibodies being produced. On the contrary, Rh- individuals, being exposed to Rh+ blood ________(will/will not) result in antibodies being produced. HDN is __________________________________________ and is the result of __________________________________. This condition can cause ____________________________. Rh- expectant mothers may be given _______________________ to proactively offset the chance of severe HDN in the infant. The most common cause of HDN is mismatch of ______________________________ although ________________________ mismatch is the most severe. Make a list of ABO and Rh combinations that would result in severe HDN that may require a transfusion. Section 18.4 Chapter Learning Objective: List the five types of leukocytes in order of their relative prevalence in normal blood and classify each type as granulocyte or agranulocyte. Chapter Learning Objective: With respect to the functional roles of formed elements Describe functions for each of the five major types of leukocytes as well as the two major subtypes of lymphocytes (T and B). Type of leukocyte (in order of relative prevalence) Granulocyte? (check if yes) Agranulocyte (check if yes) Function Luekopoiesis begins with ________________ cells which are _________________(same/different) than erythropoiesis. _________blasts differentiate into ______________ (either ____________________, ________________ or __________________). ________blasts develop into ____________________. ________blasts develop into _____________________. What organelles are present in leukocytes? How is this different than erythrocytes? Cytoplasmic granules are present in _______________ but not in ________________________ ______________________ are the most abundant WBCs, amounting to ____-____% of the circulating leukocytes. Their main function is to _________________________________. If someone has elevated numbers of these cells, a condition called _______________, they likely have __________________________________________________(disease or medical condition). __________________________ are low in abundance but provide important functions in weakening/destroying _____________ and disposing of _______________ , ___________________ and ______________________. ________________________ are the rarest of the WBCs but secrete the chemicals ____________________, a chemical that ______________________________(function and/or affect) and _______________, a chemical that ______________________________(function and/or affect). A macrophage is a ___________________ cell that has left the bloodstream and consumes ___________________________. The normal range of WBCs for a healthy person is _________.A person with leukemia will have a WBC count of >__________ (include units). This is caused by_______________________________________. The difference between B and T prolymphocytes is _______________________ _________________________________________________. Check your understanding: Someone suffering with seasonal allergies is likely to have elevated levels of what type(s) of leukocyte cells? If myoblasts began multiplying uncontrolled but their development was otherwise normal, what types of mature WBCs would be produced in excess? What types would not? A person with leukemia has a very high WBC count but they are very susceptible to opportunistic infections. Why wouldn’t patients be less susceptible to infection with this condition? Section 18.5 Based on the individual parts of the full term, hemostasis means ___________________(hemo) __________________(stasis) Chapter Learning Objective: Explain how platelets differ structurally from the other formed elements of the blood Platelets are __________________________________________ rather than cells. Chemicals which platelets secrete include ________________________ which _______________________________(function), __________________________ which ________________________________(function), _______________________________ which __________________________(function) and _________________________________ which _____________________(function). The three mechanisms of hemostasis are _____________________________, ____________________________ and ________________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Distinguish between the terms hemostasis and coagulation. Hemostasis is ________________________________ while coagulation is _____________________________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe the vascular phase including the role of endothelial cells. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe the role of platelets and the steps involved in the formation of the platelet plug. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe the basic steps involved in the formation of the insoluble fibrin clot. Platelets do not normally adhere to endothelium tissue because they are lined with __________________, thus blood clots usually do not occur without blood vessels becoming damaged. However, when damage does occur, _____________________ is exposed to __________________ which causes _______________________________________________________. The chemicals involved in degranulation are __________________________, _________________________ and ____________________________. ______________________ also known as clotting, involves more than _________ steps starting with _____________________ and the finally converting intermediates to __________________________. Chapter Learning Objective: Differentiate between the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting mechanisms. Extrinsic mechanism for coagulation is ________________________________________(describe) while intrinsic ____________________________________________________(describe) The release of __________________________ initiates and stimulates the extrinsic pathway. This chemical is released by ______________________. Describe why the process of clotting is called a “cascade”. When a clot is no longer needed, ________________, or dissolution of the clot, will occur. Chapter Learning Objective: Explain the role of calcium ions and vitamin K in blood clotting. Clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X require ___________________(which vitamin), thus deficiencies in it may lead to ______________________________. The ion ________ is also important in this process as it is involved in ____________________________________________(what steps). Certain disease processes can cause clotting of the blood within unbroken blood vessels. The term used to describe these clots is __________________. These clots can _____________smaller blood vessels or they can break apart, sending pieces known as ________________ into the blood stream. Clots that arise in the limbs may travel back to the heart and lungs putting a patient at risk for ___________________________(medical condition). Check your understanding: A patient with a History of the Electoral College of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is prescribed Coumadin (also called warfarin), a “blood thinner” or anticoagulant to prevent further DVTs and pulmonary emboli from forming. The patient accidentally takes 8 mg rather than the prescribed 4mg. Look up this medication, what part(s) of the clotting cascade are interrupted? How might this type of overdose be treated and why? A DVT from a lower extremity can be caused by multiple factors including immobility, especially after a surgery or major injury to the area. Explain why these two factors may form a DVT. Large lacerations may include sutures or stiches in order for hemostasis to occur. Knowing what you know about the process, what part of hemostasis is hindered in this situation? Chapter 19 Guided Notes How to use this document: Print or download this document and be ready to take notes. While reading the chapter, review the questions and look for the answers within the text. Course learning objectives are included in bold lettering to help you navigate exactly what the learning goal is for within that reading section. It is often helpful to also notate where you found/read the information for specific questions so you can easily reference the section later. Section 19.1 The heart is about the size of a person’s __________. Chapter Learning Objective: Describe the position of the heart in the thoracic cavity. The heart lies within a partitian called the ____________________ with its lower end just above the ___________________. It is said that the heart is on the left side of the chest. How is this true if it sits under the sternum? Chapter learning objective: Describe the layers of the pericardium and the location of the pericardial cavity. The heart is enclosed in the _____________________________. Which is a _________ walled sac that fits around the heart. The fluid within the sac called ___________________ acts to ______________________________(function). The prefix peri means ______________________. The prefix epi means ________________________. The prefix endo means____________________________. The root word myo means_______________________. Section 19.2 Chapter learning objective: Discuss the structure and significance of the endocardium. The epicardium is ____________________________(describe). It is different than the endocardium by _______________________________________________(describe) The function of the endocardium is _____________________________. The endocardium is found _________________________________________(where?) Chapter learning objective: Identify the myocardium and describe its histological structure, including the significance of intercalated discs. The myocardium is located __________________________ and is composed of ______________. It is the ___________layer of the heart and performs all of the work of the heart. Chapter learning objective: Identify and describe the function of the primary internal structures of the heart, including chambers, septa, valves, papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, venous and arterial openings. The superior chambers of the heart that receive blood are the ____________. The inferior or lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out are the ___________________. Atria have ___________ walls because they pump blood to ________________ therefore have a very ______________ workload. Conversely, ventricles have ________________ walls because they _______________________ therefore they have a relatively _____________________ workload. The ________________ ventricle has the thickest muscle because ____________________________________. Chapter learning objective: Explain the major factors that aid in movement of blood through the heart and produce one-way flow. The function of the valves of the heart is to ________________________________. Chapter learning objective: Compare and contrast the structure and function of the atrioventricular and the semilunar valves The right AV valve, also known as the ____________ valve, separates the ___________ and ________________________. The left AV valve, also known as the ____________ valve, separates the _________________ and _________________. The _______________muscles are conical (cone shaped) muscles attached to the valves via ___________________ (which structures). These structures work together to _________________________________________________. The two semilunar valves are the ____________ and ___________________ which ____________________________________________(function). The semilunar valves _________(do or do not) have chordae tendineae because _____________________________________________________. Chapter learning objectives: Identify the major blood vessels entering and leaving the heart and classify them as either an artery or a vein and as containing either oxygen-rich or oxygen-poor blood. Describe blood flow through the heart naming all chambers and valves passed. Explain how the heart is a double pump and why this is significant Describe the systemic and pulmonary circuits and discuss the functions of each. State which blood vessel type carries oxygen-rich blood and which type carries oxygen-poor blood in each circuit. The two great arteries that bring blood away from the heart are the ___________________ which leaves the _____________________ and goes to the _________________________ and the ____________________ which leaves the _________________________ and goes to the __________________________. Below is a simple outline drawing of a heart. Complete the following labeling. (you can redraw this on a separate piece of paper if you wish or do this digitally) Label the following structures: Left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium, aorta, pulmonary artery, superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary veins, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, septa. Label the flow of blood through the heart include an indication if the blood is oxygenated or deoxygenated (color coding would be appropriate or label as O2 rich/poor) Add a label or drawing of where the blood goes to after leaving the heart and where the blood is coming from when it is returning. The purpose of the systematic circuit is to _________________________________. The purpose of the pulmonary circuit is to _________________________________. The purpose of the coronary circuit is to ___________________________________. Chapter learning objective: Discuss the significance of collateral coronary circulation The heart requires a constant supply of oxygen via the blood because ________ ___________________________________. If this oxygen supply is disrupted, particularly because of a blockage in a coronary artery, the result may be a ______________________________ also known as a heart attack. Breaking apart the work myocardial infarction into its subcomponents, this term means (myo)_______________ (caridal) _________________ (infarction) _____________________________. Chapter learning objectives: Identify the right and left coronary arteries and their branches, the cardiac veins, and the coronary sinus. Trace blood flow through the coronary circulation from the aorta to the right atrium. The left coronary artery branches into the ______________________ and _______________________________. The _________________________, also known as the left anterior descending (LAD) branch supplies blood flow to the ____________________________(which structures). The ______________________ branch supplies a second source of blood to the _____________________ as well as _________________. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the ______________________________ ______________________________________ structures. 1Coronary arteries – included for additional resource Check your understanding: A myocardial infarction of the Left Anterior Descending artery is also known as “the widow maker” because of its high mortality rate. Why would a blockage in this artery be especially damning to the function of the heart? Congestive heart failure is the result of dysfunctional heart valves. In this disease process the valves allow blood to backflow into the atria. Critically think about this dysfunction and predict how this might affect someone who is in congestive heart failure. The systemic and pulmonary circuits are sometimes thought of as a “figure 8”. Explain how this accurately describes the interaction of these systems. The heart is sometimes described as a “double pump”. Why is this? Section 19.3 A cardiomyocytes is a __________________________(break apart the word into its sub terms). Within cells, glycogen _________________________________________(function)*You may need to look this up in another chapter or even another resource. Intercalated means __________________________. Interdigitating folds _______________ surface area between adjoining cells by __________________________(describe or draw). Mechanical junctions act to __________________________________________(function) between connecting cells. Electrical junctions are ___________ junctions which allow _______ to easily cross from one cell to another. This allows cells of the heart to ______________________________. *To further review cell to cell communication and connection, review the PDF Review of cell junctions found on the Additional Learning Resources tab of Blackboard. Cardiac muscle lacks satellite cells, this makes them unable to ______________________. The _____node is located _______________________________(where) and initiates ________________and determines _____________. Because of this function, it is also called the __________________. The ______ node is located _____________________________(where) and keeps ________________ from getting to the _____________ by any other route. In this way, it is like an electrical __________________ (similar to the rubber/plastic coating around the wires of your computer charger!) The __________ is the pathway that carries signals from the AV node. This is forked into the _______ and_____________ bundle branches enter the ___________ and go to the _______________. The _____________________ also known as the _____________fibers are nerve-like in their action and are specialized for ___________________ rather than contraction. The electrical impulses that start contraction of the heart begin in the __________________because that is closes to the SA Node. The order of structures an electrical impulse encounters is first the _________, which originates the signal, followed by the ___________ then it travels down the _________________ and finally the _____________________. Based on the function of cardiomyocytes, if one part of the heart does not contract, how will this affect the contraction of the rest of the heart? The following questions are associated with the following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-X9rYD8zSQg which is also found within the Additional Learning Resources area of Blackboard The ___________node is also called the pacemaker but the ________ is also called the gatekeeper. The SA node makes the ___________contract. The P-wave of an EKG is associated with the contraction of the _______ and thus the _________ node. The AV node is called the ___________ because _______________________. Why is it important that the conduction of the AV node is slightly delayed? The AV node create contraction of the _______________________. Section 19.4 Chapter learning objective: Define cardiac cycle, systole, and diastole. The term _____________refers to contraction while ________________ refers to relaxation. The normal heart rate for an adult human is __________(range). If the SA node is damaged, the _________ may takeover as the source of electrical conduction but will do so at a slower rate of ______________(range). If both of these areas are damaged a _____________________ may be necessary because other firing spots would produce a heartrate of _____________ which is not survivable. These are all called _______________ because they originate outside of the SA Node. Chapter learning objective: List the phases of the cardiac muscle action potential and explain the ion movements that occur in each phase. For the following questions you may want to watch the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIVCuC-Etc0 as well as section 19-4B The pacemaker potential is caused by ________________________ and exists at a range of _______ to _______ mV which is known as the threshold potential. At this threshold, voltage-gated channels open and allow ________ into the cell from the extracellular fluid producing the _________phase of the action potential. At ~0mV _______ions channels close The SA node causes the ________to contract, followed by a short delay and the AV node causing the ___________ to contract. This delay is essential because ___________________________________. Ventricular systole means _______________________________. This starts _____________________ which causes blood to be pushed _______________________. Practice! Use the following link to access a drag and drop activity to help you practice ion movement in the cardiac action potential. Make a copy of this document to be able to your your own copy. Once you have completed the graph save your slide as a png or jpeg (Filedownload png or jpg) and inset it into this document as an image. https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1T61TXIJyng3e7-R9bPZQZN-S6OlYn2xJpBZvadtv5Ig/edit?usp=sharing Chapter learning objective: Contrast the way action potentials are generated in cardiac pacemaker cells, in cardiac contractile cells and in skeletal muscle cells. Compare and contrast cardiac muscle contraction and skeletal muscle contraction. Compare and contrast the role of nerves in the depolarization of cardiac pacemaker cells, ventricular contractile cells, and skeletal muscle cells. In cardiac cells the action potential is caused by ________________ while in skeletal muscle cells it is generated by ____________________. Cardiomyocytes have a ____________resting potential of ______mV. You may also use the figures below to compare and contrast the action potential and contraction of skeletal muscles and cardiomyocytes. Write any notes or observations in the space below/to the right Chapter learning objective: Explain the significance of the plateau phase in the action potential of a cardiac contractile cell. The action potential of skeletal muscle cells is _______________________(describe) while cardiac action potentials are ____________________________(describe) and have a characteristic __________________________(shape). This allows the cardiac muscle to sustain a prolonged contraction which enables the heart to ______________ ____________________________________________________.They also have a ___________ refractory period which prevents _________________________ and _________________ which could/would result in ____________________________ if this was not the case. The plateau phase of the cardiac action potential is cause by the influx of ________(which ion?) The written recording of the electrical conduction of the heart is called a __________________________________ or _________ for short. The __________ corresponds to the contraction of the atria while the ____________ corresponds to the contraction of the ventricles. The ___________ corresponds to ventricular repolarization. The ___________ represents the amount of time associated needed for the signal to reach the ventricles. The _______________ refers to how long it takes for the ventricles to repolarize. In an emergency situation where fibrillation is occurring within the heart, delivering an external electrical shock to the heart may cause the heart to reset the action potential, much like rebooting your computer or phone. This is called _________________________. Section 19.5 Chapter learning objective: Define cardiac cycle, systole, and diastole. One __________________ consists of a complete ____________, also known as______ and ______________ also known as ____________ of all 4 heart chambers. Flow is governed by ______________ which ______________ fluid to move and ___________________ which ___________ flow. A fluid will flow when the ______________________ is greater at one point than another, thus called a ___________________________. Mercury is used in measuring pressure because it is so ___________. The ability for the pressure of a substance to force the mercury up a tube is why we measure pressures in __________(unit). __________________ is a pressure we will study in the next chapter but is measured using a _____________________ and is read in these units. A negative pressure is felt as a ___________(describe) in, while a positive pressure is felt as a ___________(describe) out. Heart valves are _____________________(describe) tissues and rely on pressure changes to_________________ and ______________. __________________ is a pressure we will study in the next chapter but is measured using a _____________________ and is read in these units. Chapter learning objective: Relate the heart sounds to the events of the cardiac cycle. The “lubb-dupp” sound heard when listening to someone’s heart is the sound of _______________________________. When pressure in the atria is ________ it will be squeezing blood out to the ________________________. Thus, when pressure is high, volume is ___________. When pressure is __________in the ventricles, it will be squeezing blood out to the ________________________. The contraction of the ventricles causes a ______________(opening/closing) of the ___________________ valves. Below is a diagram of an ECG. Label this figure with the correctly placed letters P, Q, R, S, T and corresponding terms atrial depolarization, ventricular depolarization, ventricular repolarization, diastasis, ventricular ejection, atrial systole, ventricular systole. The amount of blood that actually enters into the ventricle is known as the _______________ while a smaller value, known as ___________ actually expelled from the heart upon contraction and is measured as the ______________. In a normal resting heart this is approximately _________ (how much/percent). This measurement is important because it is a good indication of ____________________. If a heart is ____________ it may expel much _________ blood than it actually contains. During exercise, you can expect this value to ____________. Chapter learning objectives: Describe the phases of the cardiac cycle including ventricular filling, isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, and isovolumetric relaxation. Relate the EKG waveforms to the normal mechanical events of the cardiac cycle. Explain how atrial systole is related to ventricular filling. Relate the opening and closing of specific heart valves in each phase of the cardiac cycle to pressure changes in the heart chambers. Ventricular filling occurs when ________________________. This is also when the atria is _________________ and ________________(depolarize or repolarize). At the end of ventricular filling each ventricle contains an ____________________________ which is approximately ___________mL of blood. This also corresponds with the _____ wave on an EKG. Isovolumetric contraction occurs when ________________ and is related to the _________ wave(s) in the EKG. In this time, the atria _____(depolarize or repolarize) and the ventricles ___________(depolarize or repolarize). During this time, iso refers to the same __________________. Blood is not moved during this time because _________________. Ventricular ejection is when _______________________________. This corresponds with the ______________phase of the cardiac action potential and the ________ wave of an EKG. Chapter learning objectives: Define end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) and calculate stroke volume (SV) given values for EDV & ESV. Explain the relationship between changes in HR and changes in filling time and EDV End diastolic volume (EDV) is _____________________________(define) while end systolic volume (ESV) is _____________________________(define). Stroke volume (SV) is ________________________________ (define) Write the formula for how to determine stroke volume from EDV and ESV. The left ventricle pumps blood to _____________. Therefore, if the left side of the heart is sending out more blood than the right side, also known as left sided CHF, ______________________ (what may happen). The right ventricle sends blood to _________________. Therefore, if the right side of the heart is sending out more blood than the left also known as right sided CHF, ______________________________(what may happen). Congestive heart failure (CHF) is ____________________________________ and may be caused by ___________________ ________________________________, ______________________, and/or________________. Section 19.6 The ____________________ and _________________ within the cardiac centers of the _____________________(part of the brain) regulate ________________ and ____________ of the heart. The _____________________ communicates via the left and right cardiac nerves as part of the _____________nervous system. The ____________________ communicates via left and right ___________ nerves as part of the __________________ nervous system. In general the _____________ nerves dominate control of contraction strength while the _____________ nerves dominate control of heart rate. Impulses that the vagus nerve carry to the heart are _____________________(parasympathetic/sympathetic) and ____________ the heart rate. _________________________ is the amount of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute. Chapter Learning Objectives: Define cardiac output, and state its units of measurement. Calculate cardiac output, given stroke volume and heart rate. Predict how changes in heart rate (HR) and/or stroke volume (SV) will affect cardiac output. The formula for calculating CO is ______________________________ and it is expressed in _____________(units). Write out an example of a standard CO at resting values. How does this change if heart rate is increased or decreased? How does this increase or decrease if stroke volume is increased or decreased. Think back to last section, what factors or conditions would affect stroke volume? What types of activities, diseases or conditions may affect heart rate? Chapter Learning Objective: Discuss the concept of cardiac reserve with respect to stroke volume (SV). Cardiac reserve is ________________________________ and can be affected by _____________________________. Low Cardiac reserve may make it impossible for someone to ______________________________. Cardiac reserve is related to stroke volume because __________________________. The prefix tachy means ____________, thus tachycardia is _______________________. Someone may become tachycardic if ______________________________(reason(s)). The prefix brady means _____________, thus bradycardia is ______________________. Bradycardia is common when someone is ________________ or if they ________________. Other clinical reasons someone may become bradycardic are ________________________. The prefix chronos means _____________ thus, chronotropic agents ________________ either positively (They ________________ the heart rate) or negatively (they ______________________ the heart rate). A chronotropic drug will ____________________(describe). A inotropic drug will _______________________(describe). Chapter Learning Objective: Discuss the influence of positive and negative chronotropic agents on HR. _____________________(____)[abbreviation] and _______________________(____)[abbreviation] are collectively known as catecholomines which are ______________________(define/describe). These chemicals both have _______________(positive/negative) chronotropic effects. Tachycardia which exceeds 200 bpm is incompatable with adequate profusion because _______________________________. __________________ receptors are located in the muscles and joints and provide information about physical exertion back to the heart. _____________________ receptors are found in the aorta and internal carotid arteries and give the brain information about ___________________ and adjust ____________ accordingly. This is usually done through a __________feedback loop. ________________ receptors also found in the aorta, carotid arteries and medulla sense changes in _________, ___________ and ________. These sensors regulate ________________ as well as _______________. Knowing what you know about cardiac action potential, the imbalance of ________, _________ and/or __________ ions may contribute to changes in heart rate or stroke volume. The term preload refers to ____________(define). Chapter Learning Objective: Explain the significance of the Frank-Starling Law of the heart. The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that ____________________ or in short _______ is proportionate to ________. Contractility refers to _________(define) and is dependent on ________. A positive inotropic agent will ___________________ while a negative inotropic agent will _______________. Ca++ tends to have a strong __________ effect because ________________________(explain). K+ on the other hand has a strong ______________ effect because __________________________(explain). Afterload is __________________(define) and is heavily influenced by _________________. Hypertension, or __________________(define) _____________(increases/decreases) afterload. Increased afterload on the right side is often the result of ___________________________________________. Prolonged strain due to increased afterload can cause pulmonary or aortic _______________. Consider someone experiencing bradycardia. Explain the effects of this rhythm on EDV, SV and contractility. Check your understanding: In major crush injuries, it is recommended that the object crushing the person not be removed until cardiac stabilization equipment and medication is available. This is because once pressure is released, crushed cells rapidly release intercellular fluids which contain a large amount of K+ ions. Explain why the sudden influx of K+ in/around the heart could be problematic. Matt is a 43 year old male in generally good health but has not exercised regularly for several years. He decides he wants to increase his fitness by running. He takes his pulse prior to running on day 1 and records a resting heart rate of 85 bpm. After several weeks of running he takes his resting heart rate again and finds it is now 65 bpm. Explain what has happened to Matt’s heart in terms of SV and CO. In autopsies, one pathology often found is the enlargement of the aortic arch due to chronic untreated hypertension. Explain in terms of preload and/or afterload why this might happen. What is the clinical term for this? CHAPTER 6 Arrests and Use of Force LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.Define what an arrest is. 2.Describe the four elements of a lawful arrest. 3.Compare and contrast the two types of seizure (actual and constructive). 4.Describe the circumstances surrounding Tennessee v. Garner and the effect of the decision on the use of force by law enforcement. 5.Construct a continuum of force in response to a situation with legal justification. 6.Compare and contrast the legal requirements for an arrest with and without a warrant. 7.Explain when an officer may make an arrest without a warrant. 8.Describe the circumstances when knock and announce is required, as well as when it is not. 9.Explain the legal requirements of an arrest warrant. 10.Describe what actions an officer may or may not perform after an arrest. KEY TERMS actual seizure arrest arrest warrant bench warrants blanket exceptions capias citation citizen’s arrest constructive seizure deadly force exigent circumstances John Doe warrants neutral and detached magistrate nondeadly force posse comitatus protective sweeps punitive force reasonable force seizure telephonic warrants use-of-force continuums THE  IMPORTANT CASES in Arrests and Use of Force PAYTON V. NEW YORK (1980) In the absence of exigent circumstances or consent, the police may not enter a private home to make a routine warrantless arrest. TENNESSEE V. GARNER (1985) It is constitutionally reasonable for a police officer to use deadly force only when the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a threat of serious physical harm to the officer or others. WILSON V. ARKANSAS (1995) The knock-and-announce rule is part of the Fourth Amendment’s requirement that searches and seizures be reasonable, but that rule is not rigid and is subject to exceptions based on law enforcement interests. ATWATER V. CITY OF LAGO VISTA (2001) An arrest for an offense not punishable with jail or prison time is constitutional. BRIGHAM CITY, UTAH V. STUART (2006) Police may enter a home and make an arrest without a warrant if they have objectively reasonable basis for believing that an occupant is seriously injured or immediately threatened with such injury. CHAPTER OUTLINE THE BROAD PICTURE: ARRESTS ARE SEIZURES OF PERSONS Arrests and the Fourth Amendment Arrest Is Just One Form of Seizure The Top Ten Intrusive Searches and Seizures of Persons What Is the Legal Test to Determine Whether a Seizure Has Occurred? ARREST DEFINED Forced Detention and Arrest The Length of Detention and Arrest THE FOUR ELEMENTS OF AN ARREST Seizure and Detention The Intention to Arrest Arrest Authority Understanding by the Arrestee ARRESTS WITH A WARRANT When Is a Warrant Needed? The Issuance of a Warrant The Contents of a Warrant The Service of a Warrant The Time of the Arrest The Possession and Expiration of a Warrant Other Legal Authorizations ARRESTS WITHOUT A WARRANT Felonies Committed in the Presence of Officers Misdemeanors Committed in the Presence of Officers Crimes Committed in Public Places When Exigent (Emergency) Circumstances Are Present When There Is Danger to the Officer Entering a Home Without a Warrant WHAT THE POLICE CAN DO AFTER AN ARREST Police Can Search the Arrestee, Including a Strip Search Police Can Search the Area of Immediate Control Police Can Search the Passenger Compartment of a Motor Vehicle Police Can Use Handcuffs Police Can Monitor the Arrestee’s Movement Police Can Search the Arrestee at the Place of Detention Police Can Collect a DNA Sample WHAT THE POLICE CANNOT DO DURING AN ARREST Police Cannot Enter Third-Party Residences Police Cannot Conduct a Warrantless Protective Sweep Unless Justified Police Cannot Invite the Media to “Ride Along” KNOCK-AND-ANNOUNCE IS REQUIRED BY THE CONSTITUTION, BUT WITH EXCEPTIONS The General Rule The Exceptions How Long Must the Police Wait before Entering? OTHER ARREST ISSUES Can the Police Detain a Suspect while Obtaining a Warrant? Can the Police Arrest for Traffic Violations or Petty Offenses? Are Arrests for Offenses Not Punishable by Prison or Jail Time Valid? Are Citizen’s Arrests Valid? USE OF FORCE DURING AN ARREST What Governs Police Use of Force? What the Court Has Ruled in General about Police Use of Force Nondeadly versus Deadly Force The Use of Nondeadly Force The Use of Deadly Force The Use-of-Force Continuum THE FOURTH AMENDMENT to the U.S. Constitution provides that “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” An arrest constitutes a “seizure” of a person, so the restrictions of the Fourth Amendment apply. Police officers must be well informed about the law of arrest, because successful prosecution usually depends on the legality of the arrest. If the arrest is legal, then searches of the arrestee and the area within his or her control are also legal; conversely, if the arrest is illegal, any evidence obtained thereafter is not admissible in court. The validity of an arrest is determined primarily by federal constitutional standards, particularly the requirement of probable cause. An arrest, with or without a warrant, is not valid unless there is probable cause—as determined by federal constitutional standards as expressed by the U.S. Supreme Court. In arrests (seizures of persons, as distinguished from searches and seizures of things), probable cause “exists if the facts and circumstances known to the officer warrant a prudent man in believing that the offense has been committed” and that the person being arrested committed it. State laws that are not consistent with constitutional standards are invalid, but state laws that give more rights to suspects or defendants than are required by the Fourth Amendment are valid. For example, traffic offenders may be constitutionally arrested if there is probable cause, but state law may prohibit the police from making an arrest and provide instead for the issuance of a citation for the offender to appear in court on a specified date. In sum, state laws can give more rights to suspects and defendants but cannot take away basic constitutional rights. THE BROAD PICTURE: ARRESTS ARE SEIZURES OF PERSONS What happens when persons are seized (arrested) by the police? This section addresses what the Fourth Amendment says about the seizure of persons as opposed to the seizure of things (discussed in Chapter 7). Both come under the Fourth Amendment, but the rules differ slightly. Arrests and the Fourth Amendment When analyzing the constitutionality of seizures under the Fourth Amendment, the first question should be whether in fact a seizure under the Fourth Amendment has occurred. If no such seizure has occurred, then the provisions of the Fourth Amendment do not apply, because those provisions apply only to “unreasonable searches and seizures.” If a seizure did in fact occur, the question then becomes what kind of seizure was it, and what kind of protection is given by the courts in that type of seizure? Some contacts with the police are not considered seizures under the Fourth Amendment, because the degree of intrusiveness is slight or minimal. For example, the following contacts do not come under the Fourth Amendment because they are not deemed seizures: ♦The police asking questions of people on the street to gather general information. ♦The police asking a driver to get out of a car during a routine traffic stop (Pennsylvania v. Mimms, 434 U.S. 106 [1977]). ♦The police boarding a bus and asking questions of the passengers that a person is free to refuse to answer (Florida v. Bostick, 501 U.S. 429 [1991]). ♦The police driving alongside a person “to see where he was going” (Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 657 [1988]) and asking questions of witnesses to a crime. Arrest Is Just One Form of Seizure Seizures of persons are usually associated with arrest, but arrest is only one form of seizure—although one of the most intrusive. There are other intrusions into a person’s freedom that do not constitute arrest but nonetheless come under the protection of the Fourth Amendment. For example, stop and frisk, border searches, and roadblocks are seizures that come under the Fourth Amendment, but the constitutional requirements for these types of police actions differ from those for an arrest because they are lesser forms of intrusion. The term seizure under the Fourth Amendment is therefore broader than the term arrest. Every arrest is a seizure, but not every seizure is an arrest. seizure the taking of a person into custody. In Brower v. Inyo County, 489 U.S. 593 (1989), the Court said that seizure “requires an intentional acquisition of physical control,” adding that a seizure for purposes of the Fourth Amendment “does not occur whenever there is a governmentally caused termination of an individual’s freedom of movement … but only when there is governmental termination of freedom of movement through means intentionally applied” [emphasis added]. Brower v. Inyo County (1989) The Top Ten Intrusive Searches and Seizures of Persons This top ten list is presented to illustrate the degrees of intrusiveness in search and seizure cases. As gathered from Court decisions, the intrusiveness of searches and seizures of persons under the Fourth Amendment can be ranked as follows (with 1 being the most intrusive and 10 the least intrusive): 1.Surgery to remove a bullet from a suspect’s chest (Winston v. Lee, 470 U.S. 753 [1985]). 2.Removal of heroin capsule using stomach pump (Rochin v. California, 342 U.S. 752 [1969]). 3.Anal and cavity searches (Kennedy v. Los Angeles Police Department, 887 F.2d 920 [9th Cir. 1989]). 4.Arrest (United States v. Santana, 427 U.S. 38 [1975]). 5.Removal of blood in a hospital (Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 457 [1966]). 6.Stationhouse detention (Hayes v. Florida, 470 U.S. 811 [1985]). 7.Stop and frisk (Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 [1968]). Winston v. Lee (1985) Rochin v. California (1969) Kennedy v. Los Angeles Police Department (1989) United States v. Santana (1975) Schmerber v. California (1966) Hayes v. Florida (1985) Terry v. Ohio (1968) HIGHLIGHT  There Is No Bright-Line Rule as to When a Person Has Been Seized No bright-line rule applicable to all investigatory pursuits can be fashioned. Rather, the appropriate test is whether a reasonable person, viewing the particular police conduct as a whole and within the setting of all the surrounding circumstances, would have concluded that the police had in some way restrained his or her liberty so that he or she was not free to leave. As the Court stated: “The test is necessarily imprecise because it is designed to assess the coercive effect of police conduct, taken as a whole, rather than to focus on particular details of that conduct in isolation. Moreover, what constitutes a restraint on liberty prompting a person to conclude that he is not free to ‘leave’ will vary, not only with the particular police conduct at issue, but also with the setting in which the conduct occurs.” Source: Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567 (1988). 8.Immigration and border searches (Au Yi Lau v. United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, 445 F.2d 217 [9th Cir. 1971]). 9.Routine traffic stop of a vehicle (Carroll v. United States, 267 U.S. 132 [1925]). 10.Roadblocks to control the flow of illegal aliens (United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543 [1976]). Au Yi Lau v. United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (1971) Carroll v. United States (1925) United States v. Martinez-Fuerte (1976) This list is illustrative and admittedly subjective. Individual perceptions (including those of professors and students) differ about which type of search and seizure is more intrusive. Its significance, however, lies in that the list shows how, over the years, Court decisions have established a sliding scale of intrusion as well as a sliding scale of constitutional protection. The general rule is this: The more severe the intrusion, the greater is the protection given by the courts. For example, in Winston v. Lee, 470 U.S. 753 (1985), the Court held that surgery (number 1 on the list) under general anesthetic to remove a bullet from a suspect’s chest for use as evidence cannot be undertaken even with probable cause and a judicial order (the highest possible form of protection in Fourth Amendment cases) unless there are compelling reasons. This is because such a procedure is highly intrusive (could have put a life at risk from the operation to remove a bullet lodged in the suspect’s chest) and violates the Fourth Amendment. In contrast, persons subjected to roadblocks to control the flow of illegal aliens (number 10 on the list) do not need much protection under the Fourth Amendment, because roadblocks are not highly intrusive and there is a strong governmental interest involved (United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543 [1976]). What Is the Legal Test to Determine Whether a Seizure Has Occurred? Whose perception determines whether a person has in fact been seized? This question is important because the perception of the police may be different from that of a suspect. For example, arrest may not be in an officer’s mind when detaining a suspect, but the suspect may feel that he or she is under arrest. Whose perception determines whether a person has been seized—that of the police or that of the person detained? The answer is: neither. In the leading case on this issue, the Court held that the appropriate test to determine if a seizure has occurred is whether a reasonable person, viewing the particular police conduct as a whole and within the setting of all the surrounding circumstances, would have concluded that the police had in some way restrained a person’s liberty so that he or she was not free to leave (Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567 [1988]). In sum, it is the perception of a reasonable person based on a totality of circumstances. Michigan v. Chesternut (1988) The Court in Chesternut said that there can be no single, clear rule applicable to all investigatory pursuits. In this case, after observing the approach of a police car, Chesternut began to run. Officers followed him “to see where he was going.” As the officers drove alongside Chesternut, they observed him pull a number of packets from his pocket and throw them to the ground. The officers stopped and seized the packets, concluding that they might be contraband (they were illegal narcotics). Chesternut was arrested, and a subsequent body search revealed more illegal narcotics. Chesternut was charged with felony narcotics possession and convicted. On appeal, he sought exclusion of the evidence, alleging that the officers’ investigatory pursuit “to see where he was going” constituted a seizure under the Fourth Amendment. The Supreme Court rejected this contention, noting that Chesternut was not seized before he discarded the drug packets and that the activity of the officers in following him to see where he was going did not violate the Fourth Amendment. In another case, Florida v. Bostick, 501 U.S. 429 (1991), without any suspicion and with the intention of catching drug smugglers, two uniformed law enforcement officers boarded a bus in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, that was en route from Miami to Atlanta. The officers approached Bostick and asked to see some identification and his bus ticket. The officers also asked Bostick for consent to search his bag and told him he could refuse consent. Bostick consented to the search of his bag, and cocaine was found. In court, he sought to suppress the evidence, alleging it was improperly seized. The Florida Supreme Court agreed with Bostick, adopting an inflexible rule stating that the officers’ practice of “working the buses” was per se unconstitutional. Florida v. Bostick (1991) On appeal, the U.S. Supreme Court rejected the Florida rule, holding that the result of such a rule was that the police in Florida (as elsewhere) could approach persons at random in most places, ask them questions, and seek consent to search, but they could not engage in the same behavior on a bus. Rather, the Court said, “[T]he appropriate test is whether, taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding the encounter, a reasonable passenger would feel free to decline the officers’ requests or otherwise terminate the encounter.” This was reemphasized by the Court in a later decision when it said that a seizure by the police of the person within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment occurs only when, “taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding the encounter, the police conduct would have communicated to a reasonable person that he was not at liberty to ignore the police presence and go about his business” (Kaupp v. Texas, 583 U.S.626 [2003]). Kaupp v. Texas (2003) Who decides what is a “reasonable person” under this standard? The answer: the jury or judge that tries the case. The standard they use is subjective and can vary from one jury or judge to another. In United States v. Mendenhall, 446 U.S. 544 (1980), the Court suggested the following circumstances could cause a reasonable person to believe they were not free to leave: 1.the threatening presence of several officers, 2.the display of a weapon by an officer, 3.some physical touching of the person, and 4.the use of language or tone of voice indicating that compliance with the officer’s request was required. United States v. Mendenhall (1980) ARREST DEFINED An arrest is defined as the taking of a person into custody against his or her will for the purpose of criminal prosecution or interrogation (Dunaway v. New York, 442 U.S. 200 [1979]). It occurs “only when there is governmental termination of freedom of movement through means intentionally applied” (Brower v. County of Inyo, 489 U.S. 593 [1989]). An arrest deprives a person of liberty by legal authority. Mere words alone do not normally constitute an arrest; there must be some kind of restraint. A person’s liberty must be restricted by law enforcement officers to the extent that the person is not free to leave of his or her own volition. It does not matter whether the act is termed an “arrest” or a mere “stop” or “detention” under state law. The totality of circumstances (judged by the standard of a reasonable person) determines whether or not an arrest has taken place. arrest the taking of a person into custody against his or her will for the purpose of criminal prosecution or interrogation. Dunaway v. New York (1979) Brower v. County of Inyo (1989) This section looks at which actions constitute arrest and how long a person can be detained before a temporary detention becomes an arrest. Forced Detention and Arrest When a person is taken into custody against his or her will for purposes of criminal prosecution or interrogation, it is an arrest under the Fourth Amendment, regardless of what state law says. For example, suppose state law provides that a police officer may “detain” a suspect for four hours in the police station for questioning without having “arrested” that person. If the suspect is detained in the police station against his or her will, that person has been arrested under the Constitution, regardless of how state law calls it, and is therefore entitled to rights given to suspects who have been arrested. Conversely, no arrest or seizure occurs when an officer simply approaches a person in a public place and asks if he or she is willing to answer questions—so long as the person is not involuntarily detained. A voluntary encounter between a police officer and a member of the public is not an arrest or a seizure. For example, there is no seizure if an officer approaches a person who is not suspected of anything and, without show of force or intimidation, asks questions of the person—who may or may not respond. IN ACTION WHAT THE POLICE MAY DO AFTER AN ARREST Officer Lewis makes a traffic stop after observing a driver fail to stop at a stop sign. Officer Lewis identifies the driver (Frank Roberts) through his driver’s license, vehicle registration, and insurance paperwork. Officer Lewis notices marijuana in the ashtray of the vehicle and asks Roberts if he has been smoking marijuana. Roberts admits that he has. Officer Lewis places Roberts under arrest, handcuffs him, and places him in the backseat of his police vehicle. Having placed Thomas under arrest, Officer Lewis conducts a search of the vehicle. During the vehicle search, Officer Lewis discovers a handgun in the unlocked glove compartment and a baggie of marijuana under the front passenger seat. Officer Lewis then transports Roberts to the police station to be booked into jail on the warrant and weapon and drug possession charges. 1.Is the discovery of the marijuana in the vehicle’s ashtray lawful? Explain. 2.Is the search of Thomas’s vehicle after his arrest lawful? Explain. 3.Is the seizure of the drug evidence from the vehicle lawful? Explain. 4.In your opinion, will the drug and weapon evidence be admissible in court? The Length of Detention and Arrest An important question concerns how long the suspect can be detained and how intrusive the investigation must be before the stop becomes an arrest requiring probable cause. The answer depends on the reasonableness of the detention and the intrusion. The detention must not be longer than that required by the circumstances, and it must take place by the “least intrusive means,” meaning that it must not be more than that needed to verify or dispel the officer’s suspicions. In the words of the Court in United States v. Sharpe, 470 U.S. 675 (1985): “In assessing whether a detention is too long to be justified as an investigative stop, we consider it appropriate to examine whether the police diligently pursued a means of investigation that was likely to confirm or dispel their suspicions quickly, during which time it was necessary to detain the defendant.” Detention for a longer period of time than is necessary converts a stop into an arrest. United States v. Sharpe (1985) In sum, a person has been seized if, under the totality of circumstances, a reasonable person would not have felt free to leave. This rule applies to seizures of persons in general, such as in stop and frisk, not just in arrest cases. THE FOUR ELEMENTS OF AN ARREST Four elements must be present for an arrest to take place: ♦Seizure and detention ♦Intention to arrest ♦Arrest authority ♦The understanding of the individual that he or she is being arrested Seizure and Detention This first element of an arrest may be either actual or constructive. Actual seizure is accomplished by taking the person into custody with the use of hands or firearms (denoting use of force without touching the individual) or by merely touching the individual without the use of force. In contrast, constructive seizure is accomplished without any physical touching, grabbing, holding, or use of force; it occurs when the individual peacefully submits to the officer’s will and control. See an example of the state of Missouri’s Uniform Complaint and Summons in Figure 6.1. actual seizure the taking of a person into custody with the use of hands, force, or firearms. constructive seizure occurs without any physical touching, grabbing, holding, or use of force when the individual peacefully submits to the officer’s will and control. Mere words alone do not constitute an arrest. The fact that a police officer tells a person, “You are under arrest,” is not sufficient. The required restraint must be accompanied by actual seizure or peaceful submission to the officer’s will and control. Furthermore, mere authority to arrest alone does not constitute an arrest. There must be either an actual or a constructive seizure. When neither takes place, no arrest takes place. The case of California v. Hodari, 499 U.S. 621 (1991), illustrates the element of seizure and detention in an arrest situation. In this case, two police officers were patrolling a high-crime area of Oakland, California, late one night. They saw several youths huddled around a small red car parked at the curb. When the youths saw the police car approaching, they fled. Officer Pertoso, who was wearing a jacket with the word “POLICE” embossed on its front, left the car to give chase. Pertoso did not directly follow the youth who turned out to be Hodari; instead, Pertoso took another route that brought him to Hodari on a parallel street. Hodari was looking behind himself as he ran and did not turn to see Pertoso until they were right in front of each other—whereupon Hodari tossed away what looked like a small rock. The officer then tackled Hodari and recovered the rock, which turned out to be crack cocaine. California v. Hodari (1991) The issue on appeal was whether Hodari had been seized within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment, thus necessitating a warrant, when he dropped the crack cocaine. The Court said no and admitted the evidence, saying: To constitute a seizure of the person … there must be either the application of physical force, however slight, or where that is absent, submission to the officer’s “show of authority” to restrain the subject’s liberty. No physical force was applied in this case, since Hodari was untouched by [Officer] Pertoso before he dropped the drugs. Moreover, assuming that Pertoso’s pursuit constituted a “show of authority” enjoining Hodari to halt, Hodari did not comply with that injunction and therefore was not seized until he was tackled. Thus, the cocaine abandoned while he was running was not the fruit of a seizure … and his motion to exclude evidence of it was properly denied. To summarize, there was no seizure because no physical force (actual seizure) had been applied prior to the suspect’s tossing away the crack cocaine, nor had the suspect voluntarily submitted to the authority of the officer (constructive seizure). The Intention to Arrest The second element is intention to arrest. An arrest has taken place when a police officer indicates, by words or deeds, that he or she intends to take the suspect into custody. In this case, the intention to arrest is clear because it is either expressed or clearly implied in the officer’s action. Without the requisite intent, there is no arrest even if a person is temporarily stopped or inconvenienced. For example, no arrest occurs when an officer pulls over a motorist to issue a ticket, asks a motorist to step out of his or her car, stops a motorist to check his or her driver’s license, or stops a person to warn of possible danger. In these cases, there may be a temporary deprivation of liberty and a certain amount of inconvenience, but there is no intent by the police officer to take the person into custody; therefore, there is no arrest. The requirement of intention to arrest is hard to prove because it exists only in the mind of the police officer. There are cases, however, in which actions clearly indicated that the officer intended to take the person into custody, even though intent to arrest was later denied by the officer. For example, when an officer places handcuffs on a suspect, the intent to arrest likely exists even if the officer denies such intent. In short, “actions speak louder than words.” When it is not clear from the officer’s actions whether there was an intent to arrest, the Supreme Court has said that “a policeman’s unarticulated plan has no bearing on the question whether a suspect was ‘in custody’ at a particular time” (Berkemer v. McCarty, 468 U.S. 420 [1984]). The test is the interpretation of a reasonable person, regardless of what the officer had or did not have in mind. For example, Officer Phillips invites a suspect to the police station for interrogation about a murder. The officer does not inform the suspect that she is free to leave; neither does the officer allow the suspect, upon her request, to leave prior to the end of the interrogation. The officer later testifies that he had no intention to arrest the suspect and that he merely wanted to “ask a few questions.” Under the Fourth Amendment, however, that suspect had been arrested because a reasonable person under the same circumstances would likely conclude that an arrest had been made. Berkemer v. McCarty (1984) FIGURE 6.1Missouri Uniform Complaint and Summons Arrest Authority The third element of arrest, authority to restrain, distinguishes arrest from deprivations of liberty (such as kidnapping or illegal detention) by private individuals. When there is proper authorization, the arrest is valid; conversely, when proper authorization is lacking, the arrest is invalid. Invalid arrest can arise in the following cases: (1) when the police officer mistakenly thinks he or she has authority to arrest and (2) when the officer knows that he or she is not authorized to make the arrest but does so anyway. Whether a police officer has arrest authority when off duty varies from state to state. Some states authorize police officers (by law, court decision, or agency policy) to make an arrest any time they witness a criminal act. In these states, the officer is, in effect, on duty twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, for purposes of making an arrest, whether in uniform or not. Other states authorize police officers to make an arrest only when they are on duty. This policy minimizes possible department liability for acts done by police officers when they are not on duty. Understanding by the Arrestee The fourth element of an arrest, the understanding that he or she is being arrested, may be conveyed to the arrestee through words, actions, or both. In most cases, the police officer says, “You are under arrest,” thereby conveying intention through words. Similarly, some actions strongly imply that a person is being taken into custody even though the police officer makes no statement. Examples of actions that strongly imply arrest include a suspected burglar being subdued by police and taken to a squad car and a person being handcuffed and then taken to the police station even though no words are spoken. The element of understanding is not required for an arrest in the following three instances: (1) when the suspect is drunk or under the influence of drugs and does not understand what is going on, (2) when the suspect is insane, and (3) when the suspect is unconscious. ARRESTS WITH A WARRANT Black’s Law Dictionary defines an arrest warrant as “a writ or precept issued by a magistrate, justice, or other competent authority, addressed to a sheriff, constable, or other officer, requiring him to arrest the body of a person therein named, and bring him before the magistrate or court to answer, or to be examined, concerning some offense which he is charged with having committed.”1 There are different types of arrest warrants. Among these are bench warrants, issued when a person does not appear for a hearing; telephonic warrants, issued after a telephone communication between the issuing judge and the officer applying for it; and John Doe warrants, issued when the person to be arrested is well described in the warrant but not identified by name. arrest warrant a writ issued by a duly authorized person that instructs a law enforcement officer to bring the person to a magistrate or judge in connection with an offense with which he or she has been charged. bench warrants issued when a person does not appear for a hearing. telephonic warrants issued after a telephonic communication between the issuing judge and the officer. John Doe warrants issued when the person to be arrested is well described in the warrant, but not identified by name. Warrant forms vary from state to state and even from one city to another, but they typically include the following: which court is issuing it, the name of the person to be arrested, the offense charged and some specifics of the offense, an order for the officer to bring the arrested person before the issuing court, the date the warrant was issued, and the judge’s or magistrate’s signature. (Figure 6.2 shows an example of an arrest warrant from the state of Tennessee.) FIGURE 6.2Arrest WarrantFIGURE 6.3Arrest Custody Report This section looks at when a warrant is needed, what happens when one is issued, the contents of a warrant, what happens when a warrant is served, the time of day arrests can be made, the possession and expiration of a warrant, and legal authorizations other than a warrant. When Is a Warrant Needed? Most arrests are made without a warrant. Nonetheless, there are specific instances when a warrant is needed, including the following: 1.A warrant is needed if the crime is not committed in the officer’s presence. When crimes are not committed in the presence of an officer, the victim reports the crime to the police and then the police investigate. Examples include the following: ♦Report by a victim of a robbery. ♦Report by a victim of a sexual assault. ♦Report by a wife of her husband’s murder. After investigation, the police present an affidavit to the judge or magistrate and ask for an arrest warrant to be issued. If the judge or magistrate concludes probable cause exists, the warrant is issued and then executed by the police. This sequence, however, is subject to exceptions, particularly in cases where exigent (emergency) circumstances make it necessary for the police to take prompt action to prevent the suspect’s escape. 2.A warrant is needed if the suspect is in a private residence and there is no reason for an immediate arrest. The police may not enter a private home to make a routine warrantless arrest (Payton v. New York, 445 U.S. 573 [1980]). In this case, after two days of intensive investigation, detectives assembled sufficient evidence to establish probable cause to believe that Payton had murdered the manager of a gas station. They went to Payton’s apartment to arrest him without a warrant. The warrantless entry and arrest were authorized by New York law. They knocked on the metal door, and when there was no response, they summoned emergency assistance and then used crowbars to open the door and enter the apartment. No one was there, but in plain view was a .30-caliber shell casing that was seized and later admitted into evidence at Payton’s murder trial. Payton v. New York (1980) Payton was convicted; he appealed, alleging that the Fourth Amendment requires police officers to obtain a warrant if making a felony arrest in a private residence when there is time to obtain a warrant. The Supreme Court agreed, saying that a warrant is needed in these types of cases (routine arrests in the absence of consent) and that state laws authorizing warrantless arrests in routine felony cases are unconstitutional. (See the Case Brief for more details on this case.) 3.A warrant is needed in home entries for minor offenses. In the case of a minor offense, a warrantless entry into a home to make an arrest is seldom justified. For example, suppose an officer suspects a person of driving while intoxicated, a nonjailable offense in the particular state. The officer goes to the suspect’s home to make an arrest before the alcohol can dissipate from the suspect’s body. The officer cannot enter the home without a warrant or consent. Given the state’s relatively tolerant view of this offense, an interest in preserving the evidence cannot overcome the strong presumption against the warrantless invasion of homes. Thus, in determining whether there are exigent circumstances, a court must consider the seriousness of the offense (Welsh v. Wisconsin, 466 U.S. 740 [1984]). However, home entry in felony or misdemeanor cases is justified if there is valid consent or if state law or state court decisions allow it. Welsh v. Wisconsin (1984) The Issuance of a Warrant To secure the issuance of a warrant, a complaint (by the victim or a police officer) must be filed before a magistrate or judge showing probable cause for arrest of the accused. It must set forth facts showing that an offense has been committed and that the accused is responsible for it. If it appears to the magistrate from the complaint and accompanying documents or testimony that probable cause exists for the charges made against the accused, the magistrate issues an arrest warrant. In most states, the issuance of arrest warrants is strictly a judicial function and must therefore be performed by a judge or judicial officer. The issuing party must also be “neutral and detached.” However, some states hold that, because the requirement of probable cause is designed to be applied by laypeople (as when a police officer arrests a suspect without a warrant based on probable cause), a non-judicial officer such as a court clerk may properly issue warrants if empowered to do so by statute and if otherwise “neutral and detached.” For example, the Court has decided that a municipal court clerk can issue an arrest warrant for municipal ordinance violations as long as such an issuance is authorized by state law (Shadwick v. City of Tampa, 407 U.S. 345 [1972]). Shadwick v. City of Tampa (1972) CASE BRIEF Payton v. New York, 445 U.S. 573 (1980) The Leading Case on Home Arrests Facts: After two days of intensive investigation, New York City detectives had assembled sufficient evidence to establish probable cause to believe that Payton had murdered the manager of a gas station. Early the following day, six officers went to Payton’s apartment intending to arrest him. They had not obtained a warrant. Although light and music emanated from the apartment, there was no response to their knock on the metal door. They summoned emergency assistance and, about thirty minutes later, used crowbars to break open the door and enter the apartment. No one was there. In plain view was a .30-caliber shell casing that was seized and later admitted into evidence at Payton’s murder trial. Payton was convicted, and he appealed. Issue or Issues: Does the Fourth Amendment prohibit the police from making a nonconsensual entry into a suspect’s home to make a routine felony arrest without a warrant? Yes. Decision: The case was remanded to the New York Court of Appeals for further proceeding not inconsistent with the Court’s decision. Holding: In the absence of consent, the police may not enter a suspect’s home to make a routine felony arrest without a warrant. Case Significance: The Payton case settled the issue of whether the police can enter a suspect’s home and make a warrantless arrest in a routine felony case, meaning cases in which there is time to obtain a warrant. The practice was authorized by the state of New York and twenty-three other states at the time Payton was decided. These authorizations are now unconstitutional, and officers must obtain a warrant before entering a suspect’s home to make a routine felony arrest. Excerpts from the Opinion: Unreasonable searches or seizures conducted without any warrant at all are condemned by the plain language of the first clause of the Amendment. Almost a century ago, the Court stated in resounding terms that the principles reflected in the Amendment “reached farther than the concrete form” of the specific cases that gave it birth, and “apply to all invasions on the part of the government and its employees of the sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies of life.” Without pausing to consider whether that broad language may require some qualification, it is sufficient to note that the warrantless arrest of a person is a species of seizure required by the Amendment to be reasonable. The simple language of the Amendment applies equally to seizures of persons and to seizures of property. Our analysis in this case may therefore properly commence with rules that have been well established in Fourth Amendment litigation involving tangible items. As the Court reiterated just a few years ago, the “physical entry of the home is the chief evil against which the wording of the Fourth Amendment is directed.” And we have long adhered to the view that the warrant procedure minimizes the danger of needless intrusions of that sort. It is a “basic principle of Fourth Amendment law” that searches and seizures inside a home without a warrant are presumptively unreasonable. Yet it is also well settled that objects such as weapons or contraband found in a public place may be seized by the police without a warrant. The seizure of property in plain view involves no invasion of privacy and is presumptively reasonable, assuming that there is probable cause to associate the property with criminal activity. The term neutral and detached magistrate means that the issuing officer is not unalterably aligned with the police or prosecutor’s position in the case. Several cases illustrate the meaning of this term: ♦A magistrate who receives a fee when issuing a warrant but not when denying one is not neutral and detached (Connally v. Georgia, 429 U.S. 245 [1977]). ♦A magistrate who participates in the search to determine its scope lacks the requisite neutrality and detachment (Lo-Ji Sales, Inc. v. New York, 442 U.S. 319 [1979]). ♦A state’s chief investigator and prosecutor (state attorney general) is not neutral and detached, so any warrant issued by him or her is invalid (Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443 [1971]). neutral and detached magistrate an issuing officer who is not unalterably aligned with the police or prosecutor’s position in the case. Connally v. Georgia (1977) Lo-Ji Sales, Inc. v. New York (1979) Coolidge v. New Hampshire (1971) The warrant requirement assumes that the complaint or affidavit has been reviewed by a magistrate before it is issued. Therefore, pre-signed warrants, which are used in some jurisdictions, are of doubtful validity. Nonetheless, they continue to be used, primarily because their use has not been challenged in court. The Contents of a Warrant The contents of a warrant vary from state to state and are usually specified in that state’s criminal procedure code. For example, California provides that the arrest warrant contain the following: the name of the person to be arrested, the crime allegedly committed, the time and date of the issuance of the warrant, provisions for bail, the jurisdiction where the warrant is issued, the duty of the officer to bring the person arrested before a magistrate, the signature of the judge, and the court that issued the warrant.2 In contrast, for misdemeanor charges, Michigan requires that the warrant: be directed to a law enforcement officer, order the officer to immediately arrest the accused and take the person, without unnecessary delay, before a magistrate of the judicial district in which the offense is charged to have been committed, and that the warrant, along with a proper return noted on the warrant, be delivered to the magistrate before whom the arrested person is taken.3 HIGHLIGHT  A Home Is a Person’s Castle “And the law of England has so particular and tender a regard to the immunity of a man’s house, that it stiles it his castle, and will never suffer it to be violated with immunity…. For this reason no doors can in general be broken open to execute any civil process; though, in criminal causes, the public safety supersedes the private.” Source: William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England. Laws in all the states obviously require that the defendant or suspect be named in the warrant. In cases, however, where the name is unknown to the police, state laws provide that the person be identified with reasonable certainty. A John Doe warrant—one in which only the name John Doe appears because the real name of the suspect is unknown to the police—is valid only if the requirement of being identified “with reasonable certainty” is present. Some jurisdictions allow the issuance of a John Doe warrant based on DNA identification even though the name of the suspect has not been ascertained. This practice enables the prosecutor to prevent the statute of limitations from running out on an offense. The Service of a Warrant An arrest warrant is directed to, and may be executed by, any peace officer in the jurisdiction. In some states, a properly designated private citizen can also serve a warrant. The rules for serving warrants within and outside of a state differ. 1.Service within a state. Inside the state of issuance, a warrant issued in one county or judicial district may be served by peace officers of any other county or district in which the accused is found. Some states, such as Texas and California, have statutes giving local police officers statewide power of arrest—thereby allowing the police officers of the county or district where the warrant was issued to make the arrest anywhere in the state. Even if statewide power of arrest is given, it is better, whenever possible, to inform local police agencies of activity within their jurisdiction as a matter of courtesy and to avoid jurisdictional misunderstanding. 2.Service outside the state. A warrant generally does not carry any authority beyond the territorial limits of the state in which it is issued. For example, an arrest cannot be made in Washington on the basis of a warrant issued in Missouri. There are exceptions, perhaps the most important of which is the hot (or fresh) pursuit exception, which authorizes peace officers from one state who enter another state in hot pursuit to arrest the suspect for a felony committed in the first state. Most states have adopted a uniform act authorizing hot pursuit service of a warrant. Another exception occurs when an in-state officer makes an arrest based on a “hit,” which refers to the officer’s finding, through a search of a national computerized database, that a warrant has been issued in another state for a person presently in the officer’s state. The Time of the Arrest In general, felony arrests may be made at any time, day or night, but misdemeanor arrests are usually made during daylight hours. In some states, an arrest for any crime—felony or misdemeanor—can be made at any hour of the day or night. The Possession and Expiration of a Warrant The arresting officer does not need to have the arrest warrant in his or her possession at the time of the arrest as long as it is shown to the accused after the arrest if so requested. An arrest warrant should be executed without unreasonable delay. But unlike a search warrant, which must be served within a limited period of time, an arrest warrant does not expire until it is executed or withdrawn. Other Legal Authorizations The use of an arrest warrant is one way in which a person is taken into custody or held accountable by the courts. Other ways are the following: ♦Citation. A citation is a writ from a court ordering a person to appear in court at a specified time. Statutes in many states authorize the use of a citation for less serious offenses, such as traffic violations. A citation means the offender does not have to be taken into custody for that offense at that time. In the event of the person’s failure to appear at the time and date indicated, however, an arrest warrant may be issued. ♦Capias. Capias is the general name for several types of writs that require an officer to take a defendant into custody. A capias is more generic than a bench warrant in that it is used to bring a person before the court for a variety of reasons, some of which are not necessarily related to a criminal case (as in cases of protecting a witness or a hearing judgment). It may also be issued when a defendant skips bail or is indicted by a grand jury if the defendant is not already in custody. In contrast, a bench warrant is more specific; it is usually issued to effect an arrest when a person has been found in contempt, when an indictment has been handed down, or when a witness disobeys a subpoena. citation a writ from a court ordering a person to appear in court at a specified time. capias the general name for several types of writs that require an officer to take a defendant into custody. HIGHLIGHT  Example of a State Law on Arrest Article 140—Arrest Without a Warrant § 140.05 Arrest Without a Warrant; in General. A person who has committed or is believed to have committed an offense and who is at liberty within the state may, under circumstances prescribed in this article, be arrested for such offense although no warrant of arrest therefore has been issued and although no criminal action therefore has yet been commenced in any criminal court. §140.15 Arrest Without a Warrant; When and How Made by Police Officer. 1.A police officer may arrest a person for an offense, pursuant to section 140.10, at any hour of any day or night. 2.The arresting police officer must inform such person of his authority and purpose and of the reason for such arrest unless he encounters physical resistance, flight or other factors rendering such procedure impractical. 3.In order to effect such an arrest, such police officer may use such physical force as is justifiable pursuant to section 35.30 of the penal law. 4.In order to effect such an arrest, a police officer may enter premises in which he reasonably believes such person to be present, under the same circumstances and in the same manner as would be authorized, by the provisions of subdivisions four and five of section 120.80, if he were attempting to make such arrest pursuant to a warrant of arrest. Source: New York State criminal procedure law. ARRESTS WITHOUT A WARRANT Although arrest warrants are preferred by the courts and desirable for purposes of protecting police from liability lawsuits, they are, in fact, seldom used in police work. About 95 percent of all arrests are made without a warrant. Police officers have a general power to arrest without a warrant in five situations: ♦Felonies committed in the presence of officers. ♦Misdemeanors committed in the presence of officers. ♦Crimes committed in public places. ♦When exigent (emergency) circumstances are present. ♦When there is danger to the arresting officer. Felonies Committed in the Presence of Officers The authority to arrest for felonies committed in the presence of officers is generally based on old common law principles, which have since been enacted into law in various states. For example, suppose that an officer on patrol sees a robbery being committed. She can make the arrest without a warrant. (See Figure 6.3.) The term in the presence of a police officer refers to knowledge gained firsthand by the officer through any of his or her five senses—sight, hearing, smell, touch, or taste. Therefore, the police may make a warrantless arrest if probable cause is established by any of these means: ♦Sight. The officer sees Fred stab Jim or Steve breaking into a residence. ♦Hearing. The officer hears a shot or a cry for help from inside an apartment. ♦Smell. The officer smells gasoline, gunpowder, gas fumes, or marijuana. ♦Touch. The officer examines doors or windows in the dark or touches a car muffler or engine hood to determine if a motor vehicle has just been used. ♦Taste. The officer tastes a white powder to identify it as sugar, salt, or something else. Taste is the least used of the five senses—and the least reliable. Misdemeanors Committed in the Presence of Officers The rule in most states is that misdemeanors committed in the presence of officers also give the police authority to make an arrest. Under the old common law, however, the police could not make an arrest if the misdemeanor was merely reported to them by a third party. In states that still observe this common law rule, the officer must obtain an arrest warrant or have the complaining party file a complaint, which can then lead to the issuance of a warrant or summons. However, this common law rule requiring a warrant for these types of cases is now subject to so many exceptions that police authority to arrest even for misdemeanors not committed in the presence of police officers has become the rule rather than the exception. Crimes Committed in Public Places The police are not required to obtain an arrest warrant before arresting a person in a public place, even if there is time and opportunity to do so, as long as the police are duly authorized to make the arrest by statute (United States v. Watson, 423 U.S. 411 [1976]). This applies in both felonies and misdemeanors. In the Watson case, the Court noted that such authorization is given by federal law and “in almost all of the States in the form of express statutory authorization.” The warrantless arrest is valid because a person in a public place has minimum protection under the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Watson (1976) When Exigent (Emergency) Circumstances Are Present The term exigent circumstances has many meanings, as the following examples illustrate. ♦Example 1: Possibility of disappearance. An officer is told by a reliable informant that he has just bought cocaine from a stranger in Apartment 23 at the corner of Main and Commerce and that the seller was getting ready to leave. Given the possibility of the suspect’s disappearance, the officer can make the arrest without a warrant. ♦Example 2: Hot pursuit. In cases of hot pursuit, when a suspect enters his or her own or another person’s dwelling, an officer can follow and make the arrest without a warrant. In one case, police officers, acting without a search or arrest warrant, entered a house to arrest an armed robbery suspect who had been seen entering the place just minutes before. The Supreme Court upheld the warrantless entry and search as reasonable because to delay the entry would have allowed the suspect time to escape (Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294 [1967]). exigent circumstances emergency circumstances that make obtaining a warrant impractical, useless, dangerous, or unnecessary, and that justify warrantless arrests or entries into homes or premises. United States v. Williams (1979) The term hot pursuit denotes some kind of chase, but it need not be a lengthy one. The fact that the pursuit ended almost as soon as it began does not render it any less a hot pursuit sufficient to justify an entry without warrant into a suspect’s house. The following factors are relevant in a fleeing-suspect case: (1) the seriousness of the offense committed, (2) the officer’s belief that the suspect was armed, and (3) the likelihood that the suspect might escape if police did not act quickly (United States v. Williams, 612 F.2d 735 [3rd Cir. 1979]). In sum, exigent circumstances are those emergency circumstances that make obtaining a warrant impractical, useless, dangerous, or unnecessary, and that justify warrantless arrests or entries into homes or premises. When There Is Danger to the Officer In Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294 (1967), the Court said, “The Fourth Amendment does not require officers to delay in the course of an investigation if to do so would gravely endanger their lives or the lives of others.” This safety consideration has been extended by lower courts to include the safety of informants and the public. Warden v. Hayden (1967) Be aware, however, that the rules on arrests without a warrant are generally based on common law and court decisions. They can be, and often are, superseded by laws enacted by state legislatures that either limit or expand the power of the officer to make an arrest without a warrant. The state laws govern the conduct of the police in that particular jurisdiction—unless they are declared unconstitutional by the courts. Entering a Home Without a Warrant The situations described in the preceding sections all involved arrests made without a warrant. An issue related to arrest is: May an officer enter a home without a warrant? The Court says yes, in some situations. In one case, the Court held that police may enter a home without a warrant when “they have an objectively reasonable basis for believing that an occupant is seriously injured or imminently threatened with such injury” (Brigham City, Utah v. Stuart, 547 U.S. 47 [2006]). In this case, officers responded to a call about a loud party at a residence. Upon arrival, they heard shouting from inside the residence. They also saw two juveniles drinking beer in the backyard. They went to the backyard and saw, through a screen door and window, a fight taking place in the kitchen involving four adults and a juvenile. The officers opened the screen door, announced their presence, and entered the kitchen. They arrested the adults involved in the fight and subsequently charged them with contributing to the delinquency of a minor, disorderly conduct, and intoxication. The defendants claimed that police entry was illegal because they did not have a warrant. The Court disagreed, saying that “law enforcement officers may enter a home without a warrant to render emergency assistance to an injured occupant or to protect an occupant from imminent injury.” Brigham City, Utah v. Stuart (2006) WHAT THE POLICE CAN DO AFTER AN ARREST Arrest is a significant part of the criminal justice process—for both the suspect and the police officer. For the suspect, the arrest signifies the start of a deprivation of freedom that can last (if the suspect is convicted) until the sentence has been served. For the police, it sets in motion certain procedures that must be followed for the arrestee to be processed properly. Some of the things an officer can do after an arrest, according to court decisions, include the following: ♦Police can search the arrestee, including a strip search, upon admittance to a detention facility. ♦Police can search the area of immediate control. ♦Police can search the passenger compartment of a motor vehicle. ♦Police can use handcuffs. ♦Police can monitor the arrestee’s movements. ♦Police can search the arrestee at the place of detention. ♦Police can collect a DNA sample from the arrestee All of the preceding situations are discussed next. Police Can Search the Arrestee, Including a Strip Search After an arrest, the police may automatically search the arrested person regardless of the offense for which the person has been arrested (United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218 [1973]). In Robinson, the Court said that a “custodial arrest of a suspect based on probable cause is a reasonable intrusion under the Fourth Amendment; that intrusion being lawful, a search incident to the arrest requires no additional justification.” United States v. Robinson (1973) The “full body search” rule in Robinson applies to all kinds of arrests—whether the suspect is arrested for a brutal murder or for shoplifting. The rule is designed to protect the police and prevent the destruction of evidence. For a long time, however, authorization to body search did not authorize the more intrusive strip or body-cavity searches when the suspect is placed in jail or a detention facility. Courts were split on this issue, but in general strip searches were valid only if there was something to justify it, such as if the police have reasonable suspicion that the suspect may have hidden drugs in his or her cavities. This changed, however, with the Court’s recent 5-to-4 decision in Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Burlington (566 U.S. — [2012]). Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Burlington (2012) In Florence, the Court held that strip searches are constitutional for any type of arrest and detention in jails or other detention facilities. In this case, Albert Florence was arrested in New Jersey in 2005, after his wife was pulled over for speeding. He was a passenger in the car which was driven by his wife. A records search revealed that Florence had an outstanding warrant for an unpaid fine. That information, however, was incorrect as the fine had, in fact, been paid. Florence was held for six days in two jails in New Jersey where he was strip-searched in each jail. He later challenged the validity of the strip searches, saying there was no justification for them. The Court disagreed, holding that every detainee who will be admitted to the general population may be required to undergo a strip search, to allow jails to discover weapons or contraband that might be smuggled into the jail. This decision alters the landscape of what can happen after an arrest of suspects. About 13 million people are admitted each year to the nation’s jails. Prior to the decision, strip searches and other more invasive forms of search were prohibited in some states, and courts were divided on the constitutionality of strip searches in the absence of reasonable suspicion that such searches would yield contraband. In sum, officers may now conduct a strip search before placing a person in jail, prison, or other detention facility even if there is no reasonable suspicion that the strip search might yield drugs or other contraband. Police Can Search the Area of Immediate Control Once a lawful arrest has been made, the police may search the area within the suspect’s immediate control (sometimes known in police lingo as the “grab” or “lunge” area), meaning the area within which the suspect may grab a weapon or destroy evidence (Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752 [1969]). How far from the suspect does the “area within immediate control” extend? The Court has not set clear limits. In Chimel, the Court defined the allowable area of search as follows: When an arrest is made, it is reasonable for the arresting officer to search the person arrested in order to remove any weapons that the latter might seek to use in order to resist arrest or effect his escape…. In addition, it is entirely reasonable for the arresting officer to search for and seize any evidence on the arrestee’s person in order to prevent its concealment or destruction. And the area into which an arrestee might reach in order to grab a weapon or evidentiary items must, of course, be governed by a like rule. Chimel v. California (1969) The most limited (and most accurate) interpretation of the phrase area into which an arrestee might reach is that the search is limited to the person’s wingspan, meaning the area covered by the spread of the suspect’s arms and hands. However, a number of courts have permitted the police to search areas in a residence that are beyond a defendant’s reach even without a warrant if: (1) there is some type of emergency requiring immediate action that cannot await the preparation of a search warrant (such as possible destruction of evidence), and (2) the search is focused on a predetermined target (such as narcotics in a particular dresser drawer), rather than being a general exploratory search. In one case, an accused was sitting on a bed at the time of her arrest; the area underneath her bed was deemed to be within her reach. In another case, the search of a kitchen shelf six feet away from the arrestee was considered by the court as a search incident to an arrest, although an officer stood between the arrestee (who was being arrested for forgery) and the shelf while the arrest was being made. In sum, the “grab” area is defined on a case-by-case basis. The Court has also held that a search incident to arrest is valid only if it is “substantially contemporaneous with the arrest and is confined to the immediate vicinity of the arrest” (Vale v. Louisiana, 399 U.S. 30 [1970]). If the search goes beyond the area of immediate control, the officer must obtain a search warrant. Police Can Search the Passenger Compartment of a Motor Vehicle The Court has held that, when the police have made a lawful custodial arrest of the occupant of a car, they may, incident to that arrest, search the car’s entire passenger compartment (front and back seats) and open any containers found therein (New York v. Belton, 453 U.S. 454 [1981]). However, the Court has recently limited searches of the passenger compartment incident to arrest in Arizona v. Gant (556 U.S. 332 [2009]). (This case is discussed in detail in Chapter 7.) New York v. Belton (1981) Police Can Use Handcuffs The use of handcuffs in arrests is either governed by departmental written policy or unwritten departmental practice. For example, the General Order of the Houston Police Department has this policy: “All persons under arrest will be properly handcuffed behind the back prior to being thoroughly searched and will remain handcuffed while being transported in any police vehicle.”4 The Court has not provided guidance on this issue, and there are no authoritative court decisions prohibiting or requiring it. The matter is left to agency policy or practice. Police training, however, either requires or strongly encourages its use. Officer safety, public safety, and making escape difficult are the main justifications for police departments requiring the use of handcuffs. Police Can Monitor the Arrestee’s Movement The police may accompany an arrested person into his or her residence after a lawful arrest if they allow the arrestee to go there before being transported to the police station. For example, suppose Frank is arrested by virtue of an arrest warrant. After the arrest, Frank asks permission to go to his apartment to inform his wife and pick up some things he will need in jail. The officer may allow Frank to do that, but the movements of the arrestee can be monitored. In one case, the Supreme Court said, “It is not unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment for a police officer, as a matter of routine, to monitor the movements of an arrested person, as his judgment dictates, following an arrest. The officer’s need to ensure his own safety—as well as the integrity of the arrest—is compelling” (Washington v. Chrisman, 455 U.S. 1 [1982]). The Court held that the officer is allowed to remain with the arrestee at all times after the arrest. Washington v. Chrisman (1982) Police Can Search the Arrestee at the Place of Detention Once brought to the place of detention (usually either a jail or a police lockup), the arrestee may be subjected to a complete search of his or her person if this was not done during the arrest. This procedure is valid even in the absence of probable cause to search. The justification for the search of an arrestee’s person on arrival at the station is that it is simply an inventory incidental to being booked in jail. The inventory, which is a search under the Fourth Amendment, has these legitimate objectives: (1) to protect the arrestee’s property while he or she is in jail, (2) to protect the police from groundless claims that they have not adequately safeguarded the defendant’s property, (3) to safeguard the detention facility by preventing the introduction of weapons or contraband, and (4) to ascertain or verify the identity of the person arrested. Such searches may include the individual’s wallet or other personal property. This rule that a routine inventory search is lawful applies only when the prisoner is to be jailed. If the suspect is brought in merely to be booked and then released, an inventory search is not appropriate. Police Can Collect a DNA Sample Police officers may collect a DNA sample from an arrestee. In Maryland v. King, 560 U.S. — (2013), the Court recently held that it is constitutional to take DNA samples from felony arrestees who are booked on serious charges, because the collection and analysis of DNA serves a legitimate government interest, that of accurately identifying arrestees, and the insertion of a swab inside the arrestee’s mouth is a minimal intrusion. So long as such DNA collection and analysis is performed solely for identification purpose and does not provide any other private medical information about the individual, it is considered a routine booking procedure Maryland v. King (2013) WHAT THE POLICE CANNOT DO DURING AN ARREST There are many actions the police cannot take during an arrest, including the following: ♦Police cannot enter a third-party residence, except in exigent circumstances ♦Police cannot conduct a warrantless sweep ♦Police cannot invite the media to ride along Let us look at each of these prohibitions in turn. Police Cannot Enter Third-Party Residences In the absence of exigent circumstances, police officers executing an arrest warrant may not search for the person named in the warrant in the home of a third party without first obtaining a separate search warrant to enter the home. For example, in Steagald v. United States, 451 U.S. 204 (1981), federal agents learned from an informant that a federal fugitive could probably be found at a certain address. They procured a warrant for his arrest, but the warrant did not mention the address. Armed with the arrest warrant, the agents went to the address, which was the residence of a third party. The Court held that the arrest warrant could not be used as a legal authority to enter the home of a person other than the person named in the warrant. Steagald v. United States (1981) In Minnesota v. Olson, 495 U.S. 91 (1990), the Court said that a warrantless, nonconsensual entry of a residence to arrest an overnight guest was not justified by exigent circumstances and therefore violated the Fourth Amendment. In this case, the police suspected a man named Olson of being the driver of a getaway car used in a robbery and murder. The police arrested the suspected murderer and recovered the murder weapon. They then surrounded the home of two women with whom they believed Olson had been staying. Without seeking permission and with weapons drawn, they entered the home and found Olson hiding in a closet. They arrested him, and he implicated himself in the crime. On appeal, Olson sought to exclude his statement, saying that there were no exigent circumstances to justify the warrantless entry. The Court agreed, saying that Olson’s status as an overnight guest was sufficient to show that he had a reasonable expectation of privacy in the home. The Court further said that there were no exigent circumstances justifying the warrantless entry, so the statement could not be admitted in court. Minnesota v. Olson (1990) Police Cannot Conduct a Warrantless Protective Sweep Unless Justified The practice of warrantless protective sweeps (where the police look at rooms or places in the house other than where the arrest takes place) was authorized by the Court in Maryland v. Buie, 494 U.S. 325 (1990), as long as the sweep is justified. In this case, police officers obtained and executed arrest warrants for Buie and an accomplice in connection with an armed robbery. On reaching Buie’s house, the officers went through the first and second floors. One of the officers watched the basement so that no one would surprise the other officers. This officer shouted into the basement and ordered anyone there to come out. Buie emerged from the basement and was placed under arrest. Another officer then entered the basement to see if anyone else was there. Once in the basement, the officer noticed in plain view a red running suit similar to the one worn by one of the suspects in the robbery. The running suit was admitted into evidence at Buie’s trial over his objection, and he was convicted of robbery with the use of a deadly weapon. protective sweeps the police look at rooms or places in the house other than where the arrest takes place Maryland v. Buie (1990) Buie challenged the legality of the protective sweep (which led to the discovery of the evidence) on appeal. The Court rejected Buie’s challenge, saying that “[t]he Fourth Amendment permits a properly limited protective sweep in conjunction with an in-home arrest when the searching officer possesses a reasonable belief based on specific and articulable facts that the area to be swept harbors an individual posing a danger to those on the arrest scene” (emphasis added). This means that protective sweeps when making arrests are not always valid; a search is valid only if the searching officer can justify it “based on specific and articulable facts that the area to be swept harbors an individual posing a danger to those on the arrest scene.” In the absence of such justification, a protective sweep is invalid. Police Cannot Invite the Media to “Ride Along” The Court has held that the practice of media ride-alongs violates a suspect’s Fourth Amendment rights and is therefore unconstitutional (Wilson v. Layne, 526 U.S. 603 [1999]). In this case, federal marshals and local sheriff’s deputies invited a newspaper reporter and a photographer to accompany them while executing a warrant to arrest the Wilsons’ son in their home. The early-morning entry led to a confrontation with the Wilsons. A protective sweep revealed that the son was not in the house. The reporters (who did not participate in executing the warrant) photographed the incident, but the newspaper never published the photographs. Wilson v. Layne (1999) The Wilsons sued, claiming a violation of their Fourth Amendment rights. Balancing the petitioners’ right to privacy and the benefits of a media ride-along, the Court said, “Surely the possibility of good public relations for the police is simply not enough, standing alone, to justify the ride-along into a private home. And even the need for accurate reporting on police issues in general bears no direct relation to the constitutional justification for the police intrusion into a home in order to execute a felony arrest warrant.” KNOCK-AND-ANNOUNCE IS REQUIRED BY THE CONSTITUTION, BUT WITH EXCEPTIONS The Constitution requires that the police must announce their presence and purpose before breaking into a dwelling. There are exceptions to this requirement, however. This section looks at the general rule and the exceptions. The General Rule Federal and state statutes require that an officer making an arrest or executing a search warrant announce his or her presence, purpose and authority before breaking into a dwelling. The idea is to enable voluntary compliance by the suspect and avoid violence. Breaking into the premises without first complying with the knock-and-announce requirement may or may not invalidate the entry and any resulting search, depending on the law or court decisions in the state. Some states invalidate the entry and resulting search; others do not. The Court has addressed the issue of whether the knock-and-announce rule is required by the Constitution. The Court said that the Constitution requires an announcement but not in all cases, and that violation of the rule does not require exclusion of the evidence seized after the unlawful entry. In Wilson v. Arkansas, 514 U.S. 927 (1995), police officers obtained an arrest warrant for the suspect and a search warrant for her home. At Wilson’s residence, the officers identified themselves as they entered the home through an unlocked door and stated that they had a warrant. They did not, however, knock-and-announce, because Arkansas law did not require it. The police seized drugs, a gun, and some ammunition. Tried and convicted of violating state drug laws, Wilson moved to suppress the evidence, saying that knock-and-announce was required by the Fourth Amendment in all cases. Wilson v. Arkansas (1995) In a unanimous opinion, the Court ruled that the “knock-and-announce common law principle is part of the Fourth Amendment’s requirement that searches and seizures be reasonable.” It quickly added, however, that this did not mean that every entry must be preceded by an announcement, recognizing that “the common law principle of announcement was never stated as an inflexible rule requiring announcement under all circumstances.” In essence, the Court held that, although knock-and-announce is part of the requirement of reasonableness in searches and seizures, it is not a rigid rule and is subject to exceptions based on law enforcement interests. Such “reasonableness” need only be based on reasonable suspicion, not on probable cause. The Exceptions The Court in Wilson did not enumerate the legally acceptable exceptions to the knock-and-announce rule, leaving that determination for another day. There are cases where, because of exigent circumstances, an announcement is not required or necessary because of officer or third-person safety or to preserve evidence. The usual instances are the following: ♦When announcing presents a significant threat of danger to the officers—for example, when the police are serving a warrant on a fugitive who is armed and dangerous. ♦When there is danger that contraband or other property sought might be destroyed. Some states permit a magistrate to issue so-called “no-knock” search warrants, particularly in drug cases. They authorize entry without announcement because otherwise the evidence might be destroyed. ♦When officers reasonably believe that persons within the premises are in imminent peril of bodily harm, as when the police hear a scream for help from inside a residence. In Brigham City, Utah v. Stuart, 547 U.S. 47 (2006), the Court also held that the police may enter a residence without a warrant if they reasonably believe an occupant is, or is about to be, seriously injured. ♦When people within are reasonably believed to be escaping because they are aware of the presence of the police. ♦When the person to be arrested is in the process of committing the crime. Be aware, however, that some states require officers to knock-and-announce without exception. In these states, the above exceptions do not apply. Exceptions to the announcement requirement are governed by law, court decisions, and agency regulations and so vary from state to state. The Court has ruled, however, that blanket exceptions—exceptions that apply to a certain type of case regardless of circumstances—are not allowed in drug-dealing cases even by judicial authorization (Richards v. Wisconsin, 520 U.S. 385 [1997]). blanket exceptions exceptions that apply to a certain type of case regardless of circumstances Richards v. Wisconsin (1997) In Richards, a judge in Wisconsin created a rule that did away with the knock-and-announce requirement in all warrants to search for evidence involving drugs. The justification for the rule was that drug-dealing cases frequently involved threats of physical violence or possible destruction of evidence anyway, so there was no need to knock-and-announce. The Supreme Court disagreed, saying that the Fourth Amendment does not allow a bright-line exception to the knock-and-announce requirement in cases involving drug dealing. They added that even in these cases, exceptions to the requirement must be made on a case-by-case basis, and depend on what the police know at the time they attempt entry. It is safe to say that if the Court is disinclined to allow a blanket exception in drug cases, it is hard to imagine what types of cases would justify a blanket exception. MYTH vs. REALITY MYTH Police may enter a dwelling without knocking anytime they suspect drugs are inside. FACT Police must knock and announce unless they have reasonable suspicion that the drugs inside the house will be destroyed, based on the circumstances when they seek to enter the dwelling. How Long Must the Police Wait before Entering? While the Court has ruled that knock-and-announce is constitutionally required, it has not set a length of time that officers must wait before entering. It depends on whether the wait was reasonable under the circumstances of that entry. This principle was set in United States v. Banks, 550 U.S. 31 (2003). In this case, police officers had an arrest warrant for Lashawn Banks, a suspected drug dealer. They knocked loudly on his apartment door and waited for about 20 seconds. Banks did not come to the door and so the officers broke the door down and entered. Banks was at that time in the shower. He later testified that he heard nothing until he heard his door crash. The police recovered crack cocaine, weapons, and other evidence of drug dealing. Banks filed a motion to suppress the evidence, claiming the entry to be unlawful because the officers waited “for an unreasonably short time before forcing entry,” and therefore violated his Fourth Amendment right. On appeal, the Court, in a unanimous decision, disagreed, saying that the actions of the officers were reasonable. The Court said that, as in cases involving the use of force, “reasonableness must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight.” The Court concluded that the 20-second wait was reasonable because a longer wait could have resulted in the destruction of evidence. United States v. Banks (2003) It must be noted that the requirement and rules for knock-and-announce are the same in arrests (this chapter) and in searches and seizures of things (Chapter 7). The rules are discussed in detail in this chapter; they are summarized in Chapter 7. OTHER ARREST ISSUES There are other arrest issues important for law enforcement officers to know. Among these are: ♦Can the police detain a suspect while obtaining a warrant? ♦Can the police arrest for traffic violations or petty offenses? ♦Are arrests for offenses not punishable by prison or jail time valid? ♦Are citizen’s arrests valid? These issues are discussed next. HIGHLIGHT  How Long Must the Police Wait before Entering? “On the record here, what matters is the opportunity to get rid of cocaine, which a prudent dealer will keep near a commode or kitchen sink. The significant circumstances include the arrival of the police during the day, when anyone inside would probably have been up and around, and the sufficiency of 15 to 20 seconds for getting to the bathroom or the kitchen to start flushing cocaine down the drain. That is, when circumstances are exigent because a pusher may be near the point of putting his drugs beyond reach. It is imminent disposal, not travel time to the entrance, that governs when the police may reasonably enter; since the bathroom and kitchen are usually in the interior of a dwelling, not the front hall, there is no reason generally to peg the travel time to the location of the door, and no reliable basis for giving the proprietor of a mansion a longer wait than the resident of a bungalow, or an apartment…. And 15 to 20 seconds does not seem an unrealistic guess about the time someone would need to get in a position to rid his quarters or cocaine.” Source: United States v. Banks, 540 U.S. 31 (2003). Can the Police Detain a Suspect while Obtaining a Warrant? The Court has held that, under exigent circumstances and where there is a need to preserve evidence until a warrant can be obtained, the police may temporarily restrain a suspect’s movements without violating his or her Fourth Amendment right (Illinois v. McArthur, 531 U.S. 326 [2001]). Illinois v. McArthur (2001) In Illinois v. McArthur, a woman asked police officers to accompany her to the trailer where she lived with her husband, McArthur, while she removed her belongings. The woman went inside, where McArthur was, while the officers waited outside. When the woman came out, she told the officers that McArthur had drugs in the trailer. This established probable cause. The officers knocked and asked permission to search the trailer, which McArthur denied. One officer then left to obtain a warrant. When McArthur stepped onto his porch, the officer prevented him from reentering his trailer. McArthur did reenter the trailer on three occasions, but the officer stood in the doorway and observed him. When the other officer returned with a warrant, they searched the trailer and found drugs and drug paraphernalia. On appeal, the Court ruled that, under exigent circumstances and where there is a need to preserve evidence until the police obtain a warrant, they may temporarily restrain a suspect without violating his or her Fourth Amendment rights. The minimal nature of the intrusion and the law enforcement interest involved justified the brief seizure. Can the Police Arrest for Traffic Violations or Petty Offenses? Most states classify offenses as either felonies or misdemeanors. Some states have additional categories such as traffic offenses, violations, and petty offenses. City or municipal ordinances may create additional offenses. Penalties vary, as do permissible police actions after detention. In some states, an arrest is required in some traffic offenses; in others, an arrest is left to the officer’s discretion. Other jurisdictions do not authorize any arrest at all; issuing citations is the only allowable procedure. Are Arrests for Offenses Not Punishable by Prison or Jail Time Valid? For a long time it was not clear whether the police could constitutionally arrest an offender a for minor offense not punishable by prison or jail time. Arrest for minor and nonjailable offenses is currently authorized in all fifty states and the District of Columbia. The issue was settled by the Court, however, in the case of Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318 (2001), in which the Court said that such arrests are constitutional. Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001) In this case Atwater, who was driving her children home from school, was arrested by a police officer for her child not wearing a seat belt. The offense was punishable under Texas law by a fine of not more than $50. Atwater pleaded no contest and paid the $50 fine but later challenged the law, claiming it violated her Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches and seizures, and was not authorized under common law. On appeal, the Court held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit a warrantless arrest for a minor criminal offense that is punishable only by a fine. (Read the Case Brief to learn more about the Atwater case.) CASE BRIEF Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318 (2001) The Leading Case on Whether the Police Can Arrest Suspects on Nonjailable Offenses Facts: At the time of the incident, Texas law required all front-seat passengers to wear a seat belt, a crime punishable by a fine of not more than $50. The law also authorized a police officer to arrest without a warrant for a violation of the law, although the police may choose to merely issue a citation. Atwater was driving a vehicle with her two young children in the front seat; no one was wearing a seat belt. An officer observed the violation and stopped Atwater—telling her as he approached the vehicle that she was going to jail. Following the release of Atwater’s children to a neighbor, the officer handcuffed Atwater, placed her in his police car, and took her to the police station, where she was made to remove her shoes, jewelry, and eyeglasses and empty her pockets. Officers later took her mug shot and placed her in a cell for about an hour. She was then taken before a magistrate and released on bond. She later pleaded no contest and paid a $50 fine. Atwater later sued the City of Lago Vista under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, alleging that the officer violated her Fourth Amendment rights by arresting her for a seat belt violation without a warrant. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed a grant of summary judgment in favor of the city. Atwater filed a petition for appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, which was granted. Issue or Issues: Does the Fourth Amendment forbid a warrantless arrest for a minor criminal offense punishable only by a fine? No. Decision: The decision of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals was affirmed. Holding: The Fourth Amendment does not forbid a warrantless arrest for a minor criminal offense, such as a misdemeanor seat belt violation, punishable only by a fine. Case Significance: This case settles an issue of concern to the police: whether the police can arrest persons who violate laws or ordinances that are not punishable with prison or jail time. At present, all fifty states and the District of Columbia have laws authorizing such warrantless arrests. Atwater maintained that such arrests were not authorized at common law and that the history and intent of the framers of the Constitution did not allow such arrests. The Court disagreed, saying that it was unclear whether such arrests were authorized under common law or that the framers of the Fourth Amendment were concerned about warrantless arrests by local constables and other peace officers. The Court then said: “We simply cannot conclude that the Fourth Amendment, as originally understood, forbade peace officers to arrest without warrant for misdemeanors not amounting to or involving breach of the peace.” Given these arguments, the Court held that warrantless arrests for nonjailable offenses are constitutional. Excerpts from the Opinion: “The Court rejects Atwater’s request to mint a new rule of constitutional law forbidding custodial arrest, even upon probable cause, when conviction could not ultimately carry any jail time and the government can show no compelling need for immediate detention. She reasons that, when historical practice fails to speak conclusively to a Fourth Amendment claim, courts must strike a current balance between individual and societal interests by subjecting particular contemporary circumstances to traditional standards of reasonableness. Atwater might well prevail under a rule derived exclusively to address the uncontested facts of her case, since her claim to live free of pointless indignity and confinement clearly outweighs anything the City can raise against it specific to her. However, the Court has traditionally recognized that a responsible Fourth Amendment balance is not well served by standards requiring sensitive, case-by-case determinations of government need, lest every discretionary judgment in the field be converted into an occasion for constitutional review. Complications arise the moment consideration is given the possible applications of the several criteria Atwater proposes for drawing a line between minor crimes with limited arrest authority and others not so restricted. The assertion that these difficulties could be alleviated simply by requiring police in doubt not to arrest is unavailing because, first, such a tiebreaker would in practice amount to a constitutionally inappropriate least-restrictive-alternative limitation, and, second, whatever guidance the tiebreaker might give would come at the price of a systematic disincentive to arrest in situations where even Atwater concedes arresting would serve an important societal interest. That warrantless misdemeanor arrests do not demand the constitutional attention Atwater seeks is indicated by a number of factors, including that the law has never jelled the way Atwater would have it; that anyone arrested without formal process is entitled to a magistrate’s review of probable cause within 48 hours; that many jurisdictions have chosen to impose more restrictive safeguards through statutes limiting warrantless arrests for minor offenses; that it is in the police’s interest to limit such arrests, which carry costs too great to incur without good reason; and that, under current doctrine, the preference for categorical treatment of Fourth Amendment claims gives way to individualized review when a defendant makes a colorable argument that an arrest, with or without a warrant, was conducted in an extraordinary manner, unusually harmful to his privacy or physical interests. The upshot of all these influences, combined with the good sense (and, failing that, the political accountability) of most local lawmakers and peace officers, is a dearth of horribles demanding redress. Thus, the probable cause standard applies to all arrests, without the need to balance the interests and circumstances involved in particular situations. An officer may arrest an individual without violating the Fourth Amendment if there is probable cause to believe that the offender has committed even a very minor criminal offense in the officer’s presence. Are Citizen’s Arrests Valid? Many state statutes authorize a citizen’s arrest—an arrest made by a citizen without a warrant. It is a practice that had its beginnings in common law, and which continues to this day. In the words of one court, “There have been citizen arrests for as long as there have been public police—indeed much longer (People v. Taylor, 222 Cal.App.3rd 612 [1990]). citizen’s arrest an arrest made by a citizen or nonlaw enforcement personnel without a warrant People v. Taylor (1990) At common law, citizen’s arrests were limited to situations where the following are present: (1) a felony (or a misdemeanor involving a breach of the peace) has been committed, and (2) the citizen has probable cause to believe that the person arrested committed the crime. This common law rule has been modified by legislation in many states. One problem with the common law authorization of citizen’s arrests is that the definition of “breach of the peace” varies from one state to another and is usually unclear even to persons knowledgeable in the law. In essence, at present what is allowed or not allowed in citizen’s arrests is governed by state law and court decisions and varies from state to state. The citizen who makes a citizen’s arrest runs three risks (assuming that state’s statute is based on common law): (1) the crime committed may not be in the category of a felony; (2) if it is a misdemeanor, that it does not constitute a breach of the peace; and (3) if the arrest turns out to be illegal, the citizen is exposed to civil liability under state tort law for false imprisonment and to criminal liabilities. In general, the person making a citizen’s arrest is allowed to use as much reasonable force as police officers could use making a similar arrest. Should the citizen making the arrest use more force than is allowed, serious legal consequences may result. Some states provide by law that police officers, when making an arrest, may enlist the aid of citizens and that citizens are obliged to respond. This is not a citizen’s arrest but an arrest in aid of the police. At common law this was known as the posse comitatus. Posse comitatus is the common law authority of a police officer to compel any able-bodied person to assist in keeping the peace or arresting a felon. Arrests by police officers with probable cause outside their territorial jurisdiction are valid but they are in the category of citizen’s arrests and are therefore subject to the above limitations. posse comitatus the common law authority of a police officer to compel a person to assist in keeping the peace or arresting a felon. USE OF FORCE DURING AN ARREST This section addresses the issues surrounding the use of force during an arrest, including the factors that govern the use of force by police, the difference between nondeadly and deadly force, and the rules surrounding their use. What Governs Police Use of Force? The use of force, nondeadly or deadly, is governed by: (1) the Constitution of the United States, particularly the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; (2) state law, usually the Penal Code or Code of Criminal Procedure, which defines when an officer may or may not legally use force; (3) judicial decisions, if any, specifying what type of force can be used and when; and, most important, (4) departmental or agency rules. Officers must be familiar with all of these sources but particularly with their police department’s rules on the use of force. Departmental rules are often more limiting than state law and are binding on the officer, regardless of what state law allows. For example, suppose the law of the state of California provides that deadly force may be used to prevent the escape of a jail inmate. In contrast, assume that the policy of the San Francisco Police Department limits the use of deadly force only to cases of self-defense by the police and therefore precludes the use of deadly force to prevent jail escapes. The departmental policy is binding on San Francisco police officers. Violation of departmental policy makes the act punishable even if the use of force is authorized by the state law. In contrast, assume that departmental policy allows the officer to use deadly force to prevent escapes, but state law prohibits it. In this case, state law prevails over departmental policy. The general rule on use of force is that the more limiting rule binds the police officer. What the Court Has Ruled in General about Police Use of Force One risk to which an officer is exposed when using force is the possibility of a lawsuit by the person arrested, claiming damages for excessive use of force. Graham v. Conner(490 US. 396 [1989]) is the leading case on police civil liability for excessive use of force. In Graham, an officer saw the suspect and a friend hastily enter and leave a store. In reality, Graham, a diabetic, had asked Berry, a friend, to drive him to a convenience store to buy orange juice, which he needed to control his condition. Seeing a long line in the store, Graham asked Berry to drive him to a friend’s house instead. Based on his suspicion, the officer made an investigative stop and ordered Graham and Berry to wait while he ascertained what happened in the store. Meantime, other officers arrived and an encounter ensued in which Graham sustained multiple injuries. He was released when the officer learned that nothing had happened in the store. Graham sued, claiming his Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable search and seizure was violated. Graham v. Conner (1989) On appeal, the Court ruled that police officers may be held liable under the Constitution and federal law for using excessive force. Such liability, however must be based on the standard of “objective reasonableness.” The Court said that the reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of “a reasonable officer on the scene,” rather than “with the 20/20 vision of hindsight.” The Court added, “Not every push or shove, even if it may later seem unnecessary in the peace of a judge’s chamber,” violates the Fourth Amendment. It concluded by saying, “The calculus of reasonableness must embody allowance for the fact that police officers are often forced to make split-second judgments—in circumstances that are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving—about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation.” In sum, reasonableness is the standard by which police use of force is judged. Nondeadly versus Deadly Force Despite the preceding rules, or perhaps because of them, the law on the use of force during an arrest can be confusing unless viewed in a proper legal framework. That framework is this: There are two kinds of force in police work—nondeadly force and deadly force. Nondeadly force is force that, when used, is not likely to result in serious bodily injury or death. In contrast, deadly force is force that, when used, poses a high risk of death or serious injury to its human target, regardless of whether or not death, serious injury, or any harm actually occurs. Examples of deadly force are the use of firearms, knives, and lead pipes. Use of nightsticks and chokeholds are considered by some courts to be deadly force, but much depends on how they are used. It is important to know that these two types of force in policing are governed by very different rules for purposes of legal liabilities. nondeadly force force that, when used, is not likely to result in serious bodily injury or death. deadly force force that, when used, poses a high risk of death or serious injury to its human target. The Use of Nondeadly Force The rule is that nondeadly force may be used as long as it is reasonable force. One of the largest police departments in the country words its general policy on use of force this way: “All reasonable means may be used to effect an arrest. Officers will use only that amount of force that is necessary to secure the arrest and detention of suspects” (General Order No. 500-01: Houston Police Department, March 12, 2002). Reasonable force is force that a prudent and cautious person would use if exposed to similar circumstances. It is limited to the amount of force necessary to accomplish lawful results. Anything beyond that is unreasonable force. For example, the police arrest a suspect who kicks, uses fists, and refuses to be handcuffed. The police may use as much force as is necessary to bring that person under control. However, suppose that after subduing the arrestee, the police administer a few extra blows. Such force is unreasonable, because it is unnecessary to accomplish the lawful purpose of placing the suspect under control. That force becomes punitive. reasonable force force that a prudent and cautious person would use if exposed to similar circumstances. The problem for police officers, however, is that reasonable force is subjective, meaning it depends on the circumstances in each case and ultimately the perception of the judge or jury that tries the case. What may be reasonable to an officer at the time of arrest may look unreasonable to the judge or jury when the case is being tried weeks or months after the incident took place. The officer must be able to remember the circumstances that led to the use of a certain amount of force and hope that the judge or jury would consider it reasonable. Most states allow the use of nondeadly force in specific circumstances, such as to overcome an offender’s resistance to a lawful arrest, to prevent escape, to retake a suspect after escape, to protect people and property from harm, and to protect the officer from bodily injury. The opposite of reasonable force is unreasonable force. Unfortunately, that contrast does not give the police a clear idea of what is allowed or prohibited, particularly in situations where there is no time to think. Given this, it is best to think of the opposite of reasonable force as punitive force, meaning force that is used to punish rather than to accomplish lawful results. This distinction is more instructive because an officer, even in highly emotional situations, generally knows whether the force he or she is using is necessary to control the situation or is being used to punish the person being arrested. punitive force force that is used to punish rather than to accomplish lawful results. The Use of Deadly Force The rule on the use of deadly force is more specific, narrow, and precise than that on the use of nondeadly force. The rules vary in felony and misdemeanor cases. HIGHLIGHT  Research on Police Use of Force, Tasers, and Other Less-Lethal Weapons The National Institute of Justice’s study, “Police Use of Force, Tasers, and Other Less-Lethal Weapons,” reported that when officers used force, injury rates to citizens ranged from 17 to 64 percent, while officer injury rates ranged from 10 to 20 percent. Most njuries involve minor bruises, strains, and abrasions. The study’s most significant finding was that, while results were not uniform across all agencies, the use of pepper spray and conducted energy devices (CEDs) “can significantly reduce injuries to suspects and the use of CEDs can decrease injuries to officers.” During the past twenty years, new less-lethal weapons technologies have emerged. Pepper spray was among the first to achieve widespread adoption by police forces, and more recently, CEDs (such as Tasers) have become popular. More than 15,000 law enforcement and military agencies use Tasers. Such use has caused controversy (as did pepper spray) and has been associated with in-custody deaths and allegations of overuse and intentional abuse. Here is how it works: CEDs produce 50,000 volts of electricity when used on people. The electricity stuns and temporarily disables people, making them easier to arrest or subdue. The CEDs cause involuntary muscle contractions that cause people to fall, with some people experiencing serious head injuries or bone breaks from the falls; at least six deaths have occurred because of head injuries suffered during CED-related falls. The study says that more than 200 Americans have died after being shocked by Tasers, but despite the dangers, most CED shocks produce no serious injuries. The study cites a Police Executive Research Forum survey of more than 500 law enforcement agencies nationwide, noting that most agencies have a use-of-force continuum. Use-of-force continuums are covered in training, where officers learn to use suitable force levels depending on circumstances. The continuum covers various circumstances up to the use of firearms. The survey also found that most agencies allow only soft tactics against a subject who refuses, without physical force, to comply with commands. However, if the subject tenses and pulls when an officer tries to handcuff him or her, most agencies allow chemical agents and hard empty-hand tactics, such as punching. Many also allow for CED use at this point but about 40 percent do not. Almost 75 percent allow CED use if the suspect flees, and almost all allow it when the subject assumes a boxer’s stance. Most agencies do not allow baton use until the subject threatens the officer by assuming the boxer’s stance. The study experts noted that safety margins of CED use on normal healthy adults may not be applicable to small children, those with diseased hearts, the elderly, and other at-risk people. Some 31 percent of surveyed agencies forbid CED use against clearly pregnant women, 25.9 percent against drivers of moving vehicles, 23.3 percent against handcuffed suspects, 23.2 percent against people in elevated areas, and 10 percent against the elderly. However, many agencies, while not forbidding use in these circumstances, do restrict CED use except in necessary, special circumstances. The study experts concluded that while CED use is not risk free, there is no clear medical evidence that shows a high risk of serious injury or death from its direct effects. The experts concluded that enforcement agencies need not avoid using CEDs, provided they are used in accordance with accepted national guidelines. However, caution is urged in using multiple activations. Source: Source: National Institute of Justice, “Police Use of Force, Tasers, and Other Less-Lethal Weapons,” study released by the Office of Justice Programs of the U.S. Department of Justice, May 2011. Deadly Force in Felony Cases Tennessee v. Garner, 411 U.S. 1 (1985), sets the following guideline on the use of deadly force to arrest a suspect: It is constitutionally reasonable for a police officer to use deadly force if the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a threat of serious physical harm, either to the officer or to others. Tennessee v. Garner (1985) In Garner, two Memphis, Tennessee, police officers answered a “prowler inside” call one evening. Upon arriving at the scene, they saw a woman standing on her porch and gesturing toward the adjacent house where, she said, she heard glass shattering and was certain that someone was breaking in. One officer radioed the dispatcher to say they were on the scene, while the other officer went into the yard behind the neighboring house. The officer heard a door slam and saw someone run across the backyard. The suspect, Edward Garner, stopped at a six-foot-high chain-link fence at the edge of the yard. With the aid of a flashlight, the officer saw Garner’s face and hands. He saw no sign of a weapon and admitted later that he was reasonably sure Garner was unarmed. While Garner was crouched at the base of the fence, the officer called out, “Police, halt,” and took a few steps toward him. Garner then began to climb over the fence. The officer shot him. Garner died; $10 and a purse taken from the house were found on his body. MYTH vs. REALITY MYTH Police may shoot a fleeing felon if it is the only way to prevent the felon from escaping. FACT Police may use deadly only if he or she has probable cause to believe the suspect poses a serious threat to the officer or others or has committed a serious crime. The Court in Garner concluded that the use of deadly force to prevent the escape of an apparently unarmed suspected felon was constitutionally unreasonable. It emphasized that “where the suspect poses no immediate threat to the officer and no threat to others, the harm resulting from failing to apprehend him does not justify the use of deadly force,” adding that “a police officer may not seize an unarmed nondangerous suspect by shooting him dead.” The Garner decision rendered unconstitutional the then-existing “fleeing felon” statutes in nearly half of the states, insofar as those statutes allowed the use by the police of deadly force to prevent the escape of a fleeing felon regardless of the circumstances. Fleeing felon statutes are constitutional only if they comport with the requirements set in Garner. Tennessee v. Garner set the following guideline on the use of deadly force to arrest a suspect: “It is constitutionally reasonable for a police officer to use deadly force when the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a threat of serious physical harm, either to the officer or to others” (emphasis added). But then the Court adds: … if the suspect threatens the officer with a weapon or there is probable cause to believe that he has committed a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of serious physical harm, deadly force may be used if necessary to prevent escape, and if, where feasible, some warning has been given. The Court in Garner also said that the use of deadly force to prevent the escape of an apparently unarmed suspected felon was unconstitutionally unreasonable. It emphasized that “where the suspect poses no immediate threat to the officer and no threat to others, the harm resulting from failing to apprehend him does not justify the use of deadly force,” adding that “a police officer may not seize an unarmed nondangerous suspect by shooting him dead.” Tennessee v. Garner was not a criminal prosecution case; the officer who killed the suspect was not being prosecuted for murder or manslaughter. Instead, it was a civil case, in which the plaintiffs sought money damages from the department and the state of Tennessee for Garner’s death. Nonetheless, Garner is the only case decided by the Court thus far that sets guidelines for the use of deadly force by the police. Use of Deadly Force in Misdemeanor Cases In misdemeanor cases, the safest rule for the officer to follow is: Never use deadly force, except if absolutely necessary for self-defense or the defense of the life of a third person. The use of deadly force in other circumstances in misdemeanor cases exposes the officer to possible criminal and civil liabilities. It raises questions of disproportionality, because the classification by the penal code of the offense as a misdemeanor signifies that the state does not consider the act so serious as to warrant a more severe penalty. Death is too serious a result to prevent the escape of a misdemeanor offender. The Use-of-Force Continuum use-of-force continuums description of an escalating series of actions an officer may appropriately use, from no force to deadly force. Most law enforcement agencies have policies that guide their use of force. Use-of-force continuums describe an escalating series of actions an officer may take to resolve a situation. A use-of-force continuum generally has many levels, and officers are instructed to respond with a level of force appropriate to the situation at hand, acknowledging that the officer may move from one part of the continuum to another in a matter of seconds. An example of a use-of-force continuum from the National Institute of Justice follows.5 ♦Officer presence—No force is used. Considered the best way to resolve a situation. ♦The mere presence of a law enforcement officer works to deter crime or diffuse a situation. ♦Officers’ attitudes are professional and nonthreatening. ♦Verbalization—Force is not physical. ♦Officers issue calm, nonthreatening commands, such as “Let me see your identification and registration.” ♦Officers may increase their volume and shorten commands in an attempt to gain compliance. Short commands might include “Stop,” or “Don’t move.” ♦Empty-hand control—Officers use bodily force to gain control of a situation. ♦Soft technique: Officers use grabs, holds, and joint locks to restrain an individual. ♦Hard technique: Officers use punches and kicks to restrain an individual. ♦Less-lethal methods—Officers use less-lethal technologies to gain control of a situation. ♦Blunt impact: Officers may use a baton or projectile to immobilize a combative person. ♦Chemical: Officers may use chemical sprays or projectiles embedded with chemicals to restrain an individual (e.g., pepper spray). ♦Conducted energy devices (CEDs): Officers may use CEDs to immobilize an individual. CEDs discharge a high-voltage, low-amperage jolt of electricity at a distance. ♦Lethal force—Officers use lethal weapons to gain control of a situation. Should only be used if a suspect poses a serious threat to the officer or another individual. ♦Officers use deadly weapons such as firearms to stop an individual’s actions. SUMMARY ♦The term seizure is broader than the term arrest. All arrests are seizures, but not all seizures constitute an arrest. ♦Some contacts with the police are so minimally intrusive they are not considered seizures. ♦Neither the perception of the person detained nor of the officer determines whether a seizure has taken place. Instead, the trial judge or jury determines whether a reasonable person under the same circumstances would consider the situation a seizure. ♦Arrests have four elements: seizure and detention, intention to arrest, arrest authority, and understanding by the arrestee. ♦There are two types of arrests: with a warrant and without a warrant. Each is governed by a different set of legal rules. ♦After an arrest, the police may search the arrestee and the area of immediate control. ♦The general rule is that the police must knock-and-announce before making an arrest. This rule, however, is subject to many exceptions. ♦The rules for police use of nondeadly and deadly force differ. For nondeadly force, only reasonable force can be used. For deadly force, department policy must be strictly followed. ♦The use-of-force continuum, used in many police departments during training, familiarizes officers with the proper use of force. ♦Tennessee v. Garner holds that it is constitutional to use deadly force when the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a threat of serious physical harm, either to the officer or to others. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.Are the terms seizure and arrest similar or different? Justify your answer and give examples. 2.What is the proper legal test to determine whether a person has been seized under the Fourth Amendment and therefore is entitled to constitutional protection? 3.Assume you are a police officer who is detaining a suspect. What standard will you use to determine if the detention is still a valid detention or if it has turned into an arrest? 4.Identify the four elements of an arrest, and then give an example of each element. 5.“A police officer may make an arrest any time he or she sees a crime being committed.” True or false? Explain. 6.What are exigent circumstances? Give examples in police work of exigent circumstances. Why is it important for police officers to know about exigent circumstances? 7.What can the police validly do after an arrest? What can they not validly do after an arrest? 8.What is meant by the “area of immediate control” where the police can search after an arrest? Does that phrase have a fixed meaning in terms of distance from where the arrest took place? 9.Suppose an officer has just arrested a suspect five yards from her car. Can the officer search her car? In other words, is it an “area of immediate control”? Justify your answer. 10.“A citizen can make an arrest any time he or she sees a crime being committed.” True or false? Explain your answer. 11.Suppose a campus police officer sees a student park a motor vehicle with expired license plates and without a campus sticker. Can the officer arrest the student? 12.State the rules on police use of nondeadly force in felony and misdemeanor cases. 13.What are the differences in the rules on police use of deadly force in felony and misdemeanor cases? 14.What did Tennessee v. Garner say about police use of deadly force? TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1.Assume you are a police officer and have a warrant to arrest a parolee (who is on parole for robbery) for parole violation and possession of drug paraphernalia. You are now at the parolee’s apartment. Do you need a warrant, assuming you have time to obtain one? Should you knock-and-announce before making an arrest? Defend your answer. 2.You are a university police officer. Jim, a student, has just parked his car in a university parking lot. Jim gets out of the car. You recognize Jim from a recently issued campus poster and immediately realize he is wanted for sexual assault. Jim is thirty yards away from his car. You arrest Jim, place handcuffs on him, and then search his car. During the search you recover a pound of marijuana and burglary tools in the car’s passenger compartment. Are the marijuana and the burglary tools admissible in court? Explain your answer. 3.Alice was stopped by a patrol officer one night and questioned for twenty minutes. In court during the trial, she said she felt she was under arrest. The officer denied this, saying this was furthest from his mind; he merely wanted to ask Alice questions to determine if she was a resident of the neighborhood. Was Alice arrested or not? Justify your answer using the standard of a reasonable person under the same circumstances. RECOMMENDED READINGS “Understanding the Police Use of Force,” http://www.ci.westminster.co.us/res/ps/pd/topics_pdforce.htm. Jennifer Cook. Discretionary warrantless searches and seizures and the Fourth Amendment: A need for clearer guidelines. South Carolina Law Review, 641–659 (2002). Elizabeth Forbes. Warrantless Arrests in Police Standoffs: A Common Sense Approach to the Exigency Exception. Criminal Law Bulletin 45, 6–23 (2009). Craig Hemmens. The Police, the Fourth Amendment, and Unannounced Entry: Wilson v. Arkansas. The Criminal Law Bulletin 33, 29–58 (1997). L. Richardson. Arrest efficiency and the fourth amendment. Minnesota Law Review, June 2011, vol. 95, issue 6, pp. 2035–2098. NOTES 1.Henry C. Black, Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th ed. (St. Paul, MN: West, 1968), p. 147 2.California Penal Code, §816. 3.Michigan Court Rules, 764.1. 4.General Order No. 500-01: Houston Police Department, Subject: Effecting Arrests and Searches, March 12, 2002. 5.National Institute of Justice, http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/law-enforcement/officer-safety/use-of-force/continuum.htm. Chapter Nine of Experiencing the Humanities by Richard Jewell Introduction–What Are Art’s Parts? In the three pictures above, the first one has people, objects, and colors. The second is of a violin on a wall. The third is an architectural object–part of a building. In each of these works–and in other works of art–there are elements that usually exist in any kind of art. These elements are the basics of what makes art “art.” The use of each of these four main parts or elements is extremely important in most art: tension medium perspective plan These elements of art in the visual, sculptural, architectural, and other sight arts are discussed in this chapter.  (Elements of literature and music are discussed in their own separate chapters.) What do these four elements mean? The tension or pairing of opposites in works of art better conveys beauty.  Medium is the materials used to make a work of art, and different mediums have different affects. Perspective is the three-dimensional quality of a work, and its successful use helps draw a viewer more deeply into the work.  And a plan is the pattern, organization, or map system of a work of art–how its parts or divisions are arranged–such that the viewer’s eyes are drawn to key parts. Beauty In Tension What do we mean when we say that a particular work of art is beautiful? One thing we obviously mean is that it is pleasing to our senses. And since, as human beings, we all have similar sensory equipment, we all tend to find (at least in general), the same kinds of things beautiful: sunsets, for example, and their brilliant panoply of color, or the haunting songs of birds, or perhaps the curve of warm marble lying in the sun. These things and many more are recreated in art, and it is the power and wonder of such recreation that make art beautiful to us. There is another reason why art is beautiful, too, and this is a sometimes surprising type of beauty. It has to do with tension. Tension is very important for an object to be beautiful. Tension is created in art when, for example, a story has heroines and heroines on the one hand, and terrible villains or obstacles on the other. Tension is created in architecture when hard, vertical stretches of columns are placed against delicately curving columns. Tension is created in music when harsh, loud sounds compete with gentle, soft ones. And tension is created in dance when hard, jerky movements that take effort are combined with, or opposed to, gentle, flowing movements that seem effortless. Often it is just such tension that makes works of art special to us. The tension speaks to both the good and the bad, the easy and the difficult in life. Art that is happy all the time–like elevator music, flower-print wallpaper, and smile-face designs–is not necessarily good art. Good art often is filled with tension. Why tension? Our own lives are filled with opposites and with striving to move from point A to point B. We describe our emotional lives in terms of opposites: happy, sad; angry, passionate; crying, laughing. Good art echoes these opposites in our lives, makes us feel these opposites–good art helps us to recognize these opposites and, sometimes, learn how to accept or deal with them better. This is one of the reasons why art is such a very special and very dear language to us as a human race: we need this language of the feelings, this language of tensions, to help us understand and improve our lives in ways regular languages often can’t. This tension is why really good art sometimes contains ugliness, hate, and depictions of sin, brutality, and other things we would never hope to see in real life–good art often, perhaps most of the time–shows us great contradictions that life can bring in the worst possible circumstances. And we learn from the resolution of those crises, so that within ourselves we can learn how to surmount our own ugliness, brutalities, and hatred, whether from within us or from those outside of us. These bad things in life hurt, and art is a healer. And in that healing lies true beauty. Medium–the Materials Medium is the stuff or material out of which the work of art is formed–the stuff you can actually see or touch after the work of art is made. In the visual arts, medium is such things as canvas, paper, wood, cloth, glass, tile, and video screen; and inks, pigments, chalk markings, and points of light on a video screen. Medium makes a big difference in transmitting the feelings of art. Imagine, for example, what kind of emotional responses you might have to the same subject in these different mediums: a comic strip picture of Charlie Brown in Peanuts a tile mosaic or stained glass picture of Charlie Brown a televised or video picture of Charlie Brown a woodcut or engraving in wood or metal of Charlie Brown Just the difference between a visual work of art that moves (video) and does not (comics, photographs, paintings, etc.) is great in how it affects us. In addition, think of the great differences between seeing visual works of art with no color (woodcuts, charcoals) and the those that do. Color deeply affects how we respond to works of art. Finally, consider the great difference between video screen or electronic works of visual art and all others that are on unmoving objects like paper or wood. Video seems much more alive, more full of possibility and energy, even when only one picture is constantly transmitted. In fact, some futuristic art critics suggest that holograms– three-dimensional pictures–may become the paintings of choice in the future: we will walk into the middle of a painting and feel as if we are actually right in the middle of it. Even in traditional (non-video) visual arts, the mediums make a great difference in how we feel–how we receive with our eyes–the work of art. Oil paintings, for example–if you see the real thing and not just a poster reproduction–have thick swirls and layers of oil. The thickness of the paint itself contributes an illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. In addition, the thickness and textures of the oil make it look infinitely richer and more substantial than just a photograph of the same work of art. Similarly, charcoals, ink drawings, pastels, and watercolors convey a sense of sparseness and plainness, sometimes graceful and even pretty, but certainly more bare and simple. Likewise the partially carved surfaces of woodcuts and etchings conveys a richer, fuller physical texture to the picture, especially if we are allowed to touch it. And the use of different woods offers various forms of naturalness and warmth–wood is considered “warm”; whereas the cold smoothness of etchings in metal conveys a coolness and efficiency wood cannot offer. Other traditional works of art convey varying degrees of coolness or warmth as well: mosaic tile work often is cool, smooth, and clean, while tapestries are warm of touch and look and a bit fuzzy of image close up, lending a softness to their appeal. Glass is cool and hard but yet filled with light (as stained glass windows) and requires an almost abstract sense of design with fewer specific details. And photographs and video displays have a precision unrivaled by any traditional visual works of art: photographs–and video pictures–are able to give us the subject so exactly that it is as if the subject had been collapsed into a two-dimensional form. Each of these different mediums has its emotional affect upon us. Perspective: Two- and Three-Dimensional Art “Perspective” means “viewpoint” or “vantage point.”  In visual art, it has to do with how much and/or how well a work of art tries to show three dimensionality. Some forms of visual art obviously are three dimensional: sculpture and architectural structures such as buildings are the most obvious examples.  Perspective in them is created, often, simply by the very fact that they are three dimensional: they look three dimensional because they are three dimensional, and the proportions of their parts look exactly like they are in real life: a statue that looks like a six-foot human is, indeed, a six-foot statue of a human.  This kind of perspective is, then, simply a real or natural perspective. Other forms of visual art obviously are meant to be two dimensional: paintings, drawings, visual designs on the surfaces of buildings or crafts, and TV, movies, and videos all are examples of art that occurs in real life in just two dimensions.  Such visual works have no perspective at all–they are simply flat, two-dimensional objects or designs and do not pretend to be anything more. A major design element of many two-dimensional visual arts, however, is that they are meant to look three dimensional.  In artistic language, they have “perspective” of some kind.  The more they succeed at being successfully three-dimensional in a way that enhances their artistic qualities, the better their perspective. The most obvious examples of two-dimensional art meant to look three dimensional are traditional paintings from approximately the fifteenth through the early twentieth centuries.  Renaissance, Gothic, and modern paintings almost always pretend to be in some fashion a picture of reality: when we see such a painting, it is as if we, the viewers, have come across the painter’s house and are looking out a window in it.  Van Gogh’s rooms, fields, and skies show some objects as close and others as more distant; da Vinci’s The Last Supper makes Jesus and his disciples look like they are sitting at a real table; and, of course, almost any modern movie or TV program attempts to photograph scenes so that we have a sense of their three dimensional attributes, as if we are present in the scenes.  Even the famous painting The Scream by  Edvard Munch is powerful in part because of the perspective of the bridge fading into the distance behind the screamer. Two-dimensional art, on the other hand, makes no pretense at being more than something drawn or painted on a flat surface.  Most crafts with designs on them show two-dimensional designs.  Likewise, designs on the surfaces of buildings usually are meant to be, however attractive, nothing more than a flat or nearly flat image.  Many paintings created before the fifteenth-century Renaissance are the same way: they make little or no pretense at trying to show three dimensions.  Even if they show scenes, they rarely try to make them appear anything more than flat.  Likewise, some contemporary paintings (and other designs)–in particular, works by abstract painters such as Kandinsky and Miro, Cubists and Surrealists such as Picasso and Dali, and iconic painters such as Andy Warhol–attempt obviously or subtly to overthrow the conventions of three dimensional perspective and, instead, convey emotion and meaning by a partial or complete return to two dimensionality. An especially interesting use of perspective–of the addition of three-dimensional aspects–exists in some sculptural and architectural forms.  Rodin, the famous French sculpture, made beautiful statues of men and women with bursting, realistic muscles and tendons and a wide variety of emotions on their faces.  Many of the statues are larger than life; however, if one examines parts of them, especially feet and hands and sometimes other parts of the bodies, he or she will discover that these parts are larger in proportion to the trunk of the body itself.  David’s sculpture by Michelangelo is another famous example: viewed from a distance far above the street, all parts of it look proportional; however, the feet and hands are noticeably larger when viewed closely. David made them larger than normal because if Michelangelo had not, these parts would have appeared too small from the distance below. In buildings, too, perspective may play an important part.  The greatest towers of the world, such as Chicago’s Sears Tower and the Eiffel Tower in Paris, soar not only because of their height but also because the perspective element has been designed to make them look taller and more slender than they are.  Many of the monolithic buildings of Nazi and early Russian Communist architecture have a perspective that makes them look even more gigantic, squat, and overwhelming than they are.  Perspective often is used in mild but significant ways in crafts and in two-dimensional designs, often to make normally flat pictures or designs look like they might jump off of their surfaces or to make them appear larger or more delicate than they are. If a work of art can embody competing perspectives successfully, the effect often is of a heightened tension.  The great monuments of Greek and Roman architecture, places such as the Parthenon and the Pantheon, often successfully incorporate competing perspectives to create beauty through tension.  They often are very large, bulky structures that somehow manage to look both delicate and powerful, inviting and indicative of authority, at the same time, largely because of the competing perspectives. Visual Plans of Art There are other basic plans, organizations, or maps for the way visual arts are designed. This means, simply, that what we see on the canvas or paper has been preplanned, pre-organized, to fit a certain visual pattern. Here are some of the basic visual plans artists frequently use. They are used in the sculptural and stage arts, too, at times: Radial — Main lines radiate from a central point. Pyramidal — Main elements form one or more triangles. Rectangular or columnar — Main object forms a vertical rectangle or column. Parallel or bisected — Left and right sides parallel each other. Mixed — Two or more plans dominate. Breakaway — Plans purposely compete in unharmonious tension. Let’s look at each of these plans in turn. The radial plan has its major lines radiating from a center point. Or you could say that all major lines “point to” a single place on the canvas. This single place or center point usually is not in the exact center of the canvas, but rather off to the side, top, or bottom. In fact, occasionally the center point may even be off the canvas such that we see only the lines converging or pointing toward it, but not the point itself. In the radial plan we can find a strong sense of unity, wholeness, strength, a feeling of oneness and concentration because everything is focused on one central point or idea. And we can examine the contents of such a painting or drawing, often, by asking ourselves, “What is in the central point that the artist considers so important?” Two good examples of radial plans are Giotto’s Death of St. Francis (ca. 1325) and Giorgione and Titian’s Sleeping Venus (ca. 1505).  Death of St. Francis is a picture of a number of people watching St. Francis die. If you were to draw lines between the eyes of most of these people and St. Francis, whom they are watching, these lines would demonstrate the radial plan of this painting: the sight lines radiate outward from St. Francis.  Likewise, in Sleeping Venus, lines already exist that radiate from the sleeping figure of Venus, lines that are part of the existing objects in the painting.  In both cases, the radiating lines draw the eyes of us, the viewers, to the central figure of each of these paintings. The pyramidal plan has main elements that form a triangle (with the point at the top). Many buildings have pyramids as part of their plan. In two-dimensional art, close-up portraits of people’s faces with heads and shoulders are pyramidal, as are medieval and renaissance paintings and drawings of three human figures with one on top and two lower down on the left and the right. The pyramidal point often offers a feeling of solidity, stability, and concreteness on the bottom, even while the top soars or points to the sky or heavens. We sometimes can examine the contents of this kind of painting or drawing while asking ourselves, “What is on top, what is on bottom, and how are they different yet related?” Two examples of pyramidal plans are Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory by Paul Cézanne and, from the Vatican, Sistine Madonna by Raphael.  Both show obvious pyramids using lines and groupings of people. In the first, there is a portrait of a seated woman: the pyramid is Madame Cézanne. In the second, Sistine Madonna, several pyramids show lines and groupings of people. The rectangular or columnar plan has a main object that forms an upright or vertical rectangle or column. Most architectural forms–buildings–use this plan in some way. Paintings or drawings of one human figure from head to toe, of a single tree, and of an entrance to a building are examples of two-dimensional versions of the rectangular or columnar plan. This plan gives a feeling of solidness because it is solidly planted on the ground; yet it also is solid at the top. The resulting feeling may be that the object we see is huge–and fills up all of reality. We often can examine this kind of painting or drawing by asking ourselves, “What is the importance of this object that the artist is trying to show us?” We can find rectangular or columnar plans in two examples. One is The Thinker by Thomas Eakins. The other is the Portico of the Pantheon in Rome. The parallel or bisected plan has two sides that are parallel to each other, almost as if the basic lines were drawn on one side in wet ink, and then the side were folded over to impress the same ink lines on the right side. Architects often use this kind of plan. In two-dimensional art, this plan often is used in paintings or drawings of buildings or of nature, especially trees. The bisected plan offers balance and harmony–as in nature and life, things are repeated. There is a sense of safety, security, and comfort in looking at a bisected plan. We may be able to examine the contents of a bisected work of art by asking ourselves, “What kind of harmony is the artist trying to show, and what tensions, if any, does the artist bring into this harmony?” An example of a parallel or bisected plan is Raphael’s School of Athens. Another is a part of the TWA Terminal Building at Kennedy Airport by architect Eero Saarinen. The mixed plan has two or more of the above plans used to create its basic form. The parallel or bisected plan, for example, sometimes contains two sets of rectangular objects like each other. And the pyramidal may also be parallel if both sides of the pyramid are similar. Other works of art may use different plans on different parts of the canvas, all in one work of art. The mixed plan offers several emotional feelings, sometimes in harmony with each other and sometimes competing on purpose. We can examine the contents of a mixed-plan painting or drawing by finding the different plans in use and asking ourselves, “How does each plan, separately, affect my feelings about this picture?” One example of a mixed plan is Leonardo da Vinci’s famous The Last Supper (1495-8), which uses radial, bisected, columnar, and pyramidal plans. Another is Michelangelo’s building Tomb of Guiliano de Medici, which uses pyramidal, columnar, and bisected plans. The breakaway plan has elements that break away from, or disobey, the other plans. It has become popular especially in the most recent century. For example, a painting or drawing using a pyramidal plan may have, on one side, an arm or tree branch suddenly sticking out toward nowhere. Or a parallel-plan painting or drawing may suddenly have, on one side, an object that is glaringly obvious in the way it is not balanced by something similar on the other side. The feelings we get from such breakaways are surprise, confusion, and interruption. We can examine the contents of a breakaway element sometimes simply by asking ourselves, “What is so special or important about this element that the artist wants it to stand out? Why?” An example of breakaway elements in a sculpture is Jose de Rivera’s Construction #1: Homage to the World of Minikauski. An example in a painting is  Giorgio de Chirico’s Melancholy and Mystery of a Street. Both have mixed plans; in each, the plans appear to compete with each other, thus heightening your feeling of tension as you view it. Chapter PowerPoint Assignment Instructions What should you do? First: You will pick a topic from any chapters not covered in class. EX: Chapter 13-Global view of the Family, Courtship and Mate Selection, Child Rearing Patterns Chapter 14-Choose a perspective, Credentialism, Teachers, subcultures, homeschooling Chapter 15-Durkheim (in relation to religion), World religions, a religious organization, religion in the schools What should It Include: You must create a PowerPoint presentation (.pptx file) with at least 12-15 informational slides.  It must also have a title slide and the beginning and a reference slide at the end (this is in addition to your information slides).  This should be a professional looking power point.  You can put pictures, graphs, diagrams, statistics etc. just be sure to not overload a slide with too much information. You can add a slide and split the info over two slides to make it look professional. Also, Do not submit slides with one sentence or a few random words. Your title slide should include the Title of your Topic(you can create your own title don’t just name it Chapter 14), your name and class(ex: SOCI 1301.80). Your works cited or reference slide must include 3-5 references and at least one must be a scientific article.  Do not just give me a weblink to your references. Type them out in MLA format and you can put the weblink at the end. Your textbook should be one of your references. How to choose your Scientific Articles: If you do not know how to find a scientific sociological article you will need to find time to visit via chat or call the library for assistance.  You can search for them through the library link (see your information page in the left hand column in your class on blackboard), on Google scholar, or other search engines. You want your article(s) to come from a scientific journal. You must be sure the article you choose is actually available and not just an abstract and be sure to have a link for the article included in sited reference.   Your article should relate to the topic in your power point and you should use quotes or paraphrasing from your article(s) and other reference materials.  They must be cited in MLA format.  Be sure to quote properly.  If you list a reference and it is unclear how or where you used it in your paper it will not be counted as a reference. Submitting your PowerPoint: You can follow an MLA format for your power point.  ***It must be submitted as a powerpoint document ending in .pptx.   Blackboard does not support other documents very well and often they cannot be opened.  I can only grade what I can see so failure to upload a powerpoint can greatly reduce the points you can receive or even cause you to receive a zero*** Note: If you use Office 365 on the Lamar website you must download your PowerPoint as a copy to your computer or flashdrive so that it will be a .pptx document.  Then you can upload to blackboard.  If you do not upload a .pptx document then you will receive a zero for the grade. Do not upload a pdf. Child Psychology 3103 Class Assignment (CA) #5: The Internet as Source of Information about Sex and Sexuality North American parents tend to give their children little information about sex. Although both parents and adolescents express a desire for open communication about sexual issues, parents often feel that they lack the knowledge and communication skills to talk openly about sex. Increasingly, the Internet has become a source of information about sexual matters. Your task is to locate a site on the Internet that gives information on adolescent sexuality or advice on discussing sex with children. Thoroughly review and critique the information provided by the site. For example, what topics are covered? Are values discussed in addition to the biological details of sex? Are the more difficult topics, such as homosexuality, contraception, oral sex, and STDs, discussed? How is sex defined? Does it include activities and behavior other than vaginal intercourse? If so, what topics/issues/behaviors are covered? Does the site provide information about risky sexual activities? Do they warn parents and teens about the consequences of risky sexual behavior? What is the quality of the information at the site? Does the information seem accurate (supported by research in the text)? What specific advice, if any, is given for improving communication between parents and children? Is information at the site provided in a culturally sensitive manner? Explain. Who do you think can benefit from visiting the site? Is it appropriate for teenagers? For children? For Parents? Explain. Respond to these questions in no more than 2 pages. Submit this assignment in the Dropbox for CA#5/The Internet as a Source of Information about Sex and Sexuality before 11:59 p.m. on due date. Class Assignment (CA) #5 The Internet as a Source of Information about Sex and Sexuality SCORING RUBRIC* Student’s Name ________________________________________________________ __ Identified internet site (Location/name given) (max. 1 point) __ Evidence that site was visited and information at site reviewed (max. 3 points) __ Commented on information regarding various topics at site (max. 2 point) __ Noted definitions of sex, including traditional and less traditional descriptions (max. 2 points) __ Commented on accuracy, appropriateness of information, cultural sensitivity (max 2 point) Total Points: ____________________ Adapted from Berk, L., Harris, S., Christensen, Cl., Ashkenaz, Carloni, J., Murphy, D., & Hnatov, N. (2009). Instructor’s Classroom Kit for Berk. Child Development (8th Edition), 408. Research Project Directions: Topic: Epidemiology and Cornavirus Must include: -Once you have chosen specifically your topic pertaining to epidemiology and Coronavirus, fill out the chart below and present in a PowerPoint presentation. Must be quite in depth. -10 references must be included in bibliography -Include pictures in presentation. Major topic you are investigating: Question #1 related to your topic Questions #2 related to your topic Question #3 related to your topic Question #4 related to your topic CHM 1040 GENERAL CHEMISTRY II LAB WEEK 4 LAB WORKSHEET ON CHAPTER 6 NAME: ______ Required materials for this Week 4 Lab Worksheet: Calculator Appendix 2 from the table found in the E-book in your Connect Account For the enthalpies of formation,  (kJ/mol): Appendix 2 is found at the end of the e-book found in your Connect account. Please see the image below on where to find Appendix 2: Equations from your E-book. When you multipy an equation by “X” to solve for the number of moles asked, you also multiply the dH values by “X”. When you divide an equation by “X” to solve for the number of moles asked, you also divide the dH values by “X”. When you write the reverse reaction, you change the sign of dH (from – to + or + to -) To find dHo of any equation from the tables, write the balanced equation first and then find the values of dH from the first column in Appendix 2. Put the values down under each reactant and product. Don’t forget to multiply by the number of moles. Add the values from the product side and do the same for the reactant side. To calculate dH of the reaction subtract the sum of the values of the reactant side from the product side See last equation under key equations. Examples: N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g) dH values from the Appendix are: 0 + 3(0) 2(-46.3) Don’t forget to multiply the dH values with the moles in a balanced equation dHo = (Sum of values on product side – sum of values on reactant side) dHo = -92.6 – (0) dHo = -92.6 kJ (this value is for 2 moles and therefore the units are kJ instead of kJ/mole. If you divide this value by number of moles given for the product, the units will then be kJ/mole) Oxidation Reduction Loss of Hydrogen atoms from the reactants CH4 C Gain of Hydrogen atoms N2 NH3 Gain of the Oxygen atoms by the reactants C CO2 Loss of Oxygen atoms CO2 C Loss of an electron by metals or metal ions Cu Cu+1 Cu+2 Cu Gain of an electron Cu+1 Cu Cu Cu+2 Any reactant that gets oxidized, is a reducing agent. Pb Pb+2 (Pb lost 2 electrons and therefore Pb got oxidized. Since it gave up to 2 electrons (or oxidized), it is a reducing agent. Any reactant that gets reduced, is an oxidizing agent. Cu+2 Cu (Cu gained 2 electrons and therefore Cu got reduced. Since it gained 2 electrons (or reduced), it is an oxidizing agent. Week 4 Lab Questions (START HERE): Calculate the dHo for the combustion of Methane (CH4). (2 points) CH4(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) (don’t forget to balance the equation before you start the calculations). Show your work. Did CH4 get oxidized or reduced? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Did O2 get oxidized or reduced? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Is CH4 an oxidizing or reducing agent? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Is O2 an oxidizing or reducing agent? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Calculate the dHo of the decomposition reaction of HI using the values from the table in Appendix 2 (2 points) HI(g) H2 (g) + I2 (g) dHo = ____________ (don’t forget to balance the equation before you start the calculations). Show your work. Calculate the dHo for 1 mole of decomposition of HI (without using the tables). Show your work. (1 point) Calculate the dHo for 6 moles of decomposition of HI (without using the tables). Show your work (1 point) Consider this reaction: H2(g) + O2 (g) H2O (g) dHo = __________ Balance the equation and put the correct number of moles in the equation above. (1 point) Classify the forward reaction as (1) Combustion, (2) Decomposition, (3) Single replacement, (4) Double replacement, (5) Neutralization, (6) Synthesis. Circle the correct answer. (1 point) In this reaction did Hydrogen get oxidized or reduced? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Based on your answer above is Hydrogen an oxidizing or reducing reactant? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) In this reaction did Oxygen get oxidized or reduced? Circle the correct answer. (1 point) Based on the answer above, is Oxygen an oxidizing or reducing agent? Circle the correct (1 point) Calculate the dHo of the Synthesis reaction using the values from the table in Appendix 2. Show your work. (2 points) If 4 moles of H2 is used in a balanced equation for the synthesis reaction, how many moles of water will be produced (without using the tables). Show your work. (1 point) If 4 moles of H2 is used for the Synthesis reaction, calculate the enthalpy of the reaction without using the tables. Show your work. (1 point) If 4 moles of H2O is required to be produced, how many moles of H2 and how many moles of O2 will be required (without using tables). Show your work. (1 point). If 1 mole of water is required to be produced, how many moles of H2 and O2 will be required (without using tables)? Show your work. (1 point) If 6 moles of water is decomposed, how many moles of H2 and O2 will be formed? (1 point) If 6 moles of water is decomposed, calculate the enthalpy of the reaction without using the values from the table available in Appendix 2 of your textbook. (2 points) Solve the following problems from your textbook. (10 points each). Practice Exercise on Page 186 (First solve Example 6.1 and then attempt the practice exercise). Practice Exercise on Page 187 (First solve Example 6.2 and then attempt the practice exercise). Practice Exercise on Page 191 (First solve Example 6.3 and then attempt the practice exercise). Practice Exercise on Page 194 (First solve Example 6.5 and then attempt the practice exercise). Practice Exercise on Page 196 (First solve Example 6.6 and then attempt the practice exercise). Practice Exercise on Page 203 First solve Example 6.10 and then attempt the practice exercise). Solve example 6.9 and then attempt the Hess’ law questions below. Show how the equations listed below with dHo values can be manipulated to calculate the dHo of the following equation (5 points) 2KCl(s) + H2SO4 (l) 2HCl (g) + K2SO4 (s) dHo = ? HCl (g) + KOH (s) KCl (s) + H2O (l) dHo = – 200.0 kJ H2SO4 (l) + 2KOH (s) K2SO4 (s) + 2 H2O (l) dHo = -340.0 kJ Use the following two equations ½ N2 (g) + O2 (g) NO2 (g) dHo = +35 kJ ½ N2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) NO (g) dHo = +90.4 kJ to calculate the dHo of NO (g) + ½ O2 (g) NO2 (g) dHo = Use the following equations: (5 points) Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO (g) 2Fe (s) + 3 CO2 (g) dHo = -27 kJ CO (g) + ½ O2 (g) CO2 (g) dHo = -283 kJ To calculate the dHo of 2Fe (s) + 3/2 O2 (g) Fe2O3 (s) PHAR 6130 Group Number: Active Learning Exercise: Cholesterol Metabolism For the following case, you will work in your groups for the second hour of the class and prepare and answer the questions at the end of the exercise. Please only hand in one assignment for the group. A fifteen-month old infant girl named Anna (shown below) is brought into the clinic. You immediately notice her distinctive facial features. Her parents, Jozef and Mária Horváth, brought Anna in immediately because she recently suffered a seizure. From observing Hannah, you notice she has not yet learned how to walk and doesn’t say any words. The parents confirm that Anna is not doing the things her two older brothers did when they were at her age. They comment that Anna always seems tired, but they have attributed it to her lack of interest in eating. You take her measurements and find she weighs 8.1 kg and is 63 cm tall. You measure her head circumference and find it is 45 cm. You send out a blood sample for a CBC (complete blood count), BMP (basic metabolic panel) and thyroid panel. You also order a total cholesterol test. The results show that Anna has a low level of total cholesterol in her plasma. During your examination, you notice that the second and third toes on Anna’s feet are conjoined. Left: Hannah Horvath, age 15 months. Right: Hannah’s foot. Left: Hannah Horvath, age 15 months. Right: Hannah’s foot. 1) What is your initial diagnosis of Anna? 2) What test(s) would you order to confirm your diagnosis? 3) What treatment(s) would you recommend? 4) What is your prognosis for Hannah? 5) What type of genetic testing/counseling would you recommend? 6) Does the family’s last name have any special relevance? The internet and social media in medicine: Modern marvel or menace in the medical field (Tentative) Many social media tools are available for health care professionals(HCP), including social networking platforms, blogs, microblogs, media-sharing sites, and virtual reality and gaming environments, which are all internet-based. These can be used to improve or enhance professional networking and education.  They also present potential risks to patients and HCPs regarding the distribution of poor-quality information, damage to professional image, breaches of patient privacy, violation of personal–professional boundaries, and licensing or legal issues. (Ventola, 2014) Preserving patient privacy and confidentiality in all environments is the main issue in the context of social-media usage in healthcare and research. A review of ethical issues tried to raise important questions about the appropriate use of social media and the internet in healthcare settings. Technology has placed at the disposal of the healthcare community various potent tools to improve patient care. Since EHRs are easily available to physicians, they can access the complete medical histories of patients and make the most well-considered medical decisions. Doctors can quickly identify possible medication errors. They can do this by using apps such as barcode scanners, and patient safety improves as a result. (Jones, 2016) Although the medical marvels bring new life into the person-to-person experience but can also take away from it. While this can make things easier for the doctors and patients, it can also make things easier for those that would cause harm to systems and people. We use everything from kiosks to in-body technology to make life easier, but malicious hackers may cause security concerns. Things such as magnetic nanoparticles can be used not only to detect and even remove harmful bacterial infections in food, but the same technology can be used to detect as well as cause bioterrorist attacks. (Security, unk) References Jones, M. (2016, December 26). https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare. Retrieved from Healthcare In America: https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare-how-technology-impacts-the-healthcare-industry-b2ba6271c4b4 Security, A. (unk, unk unk). https://alpinesecurity.com/blog/hacking-humans-with-nanotechnology/. Retrieved from https://alpinesecurity.com: https://alpinesecurity.com/blog/hacking-humans-with-nanotechnology/ Ventola, C. L. (2014, July unk). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103576/ References Jones, M. (2016, December 26). https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare. Retrieved from Healthcare In America : https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare-how-technology-impacts-the-healthcare-industry-b2ba6271c4b4 Security, A. (unk, unk unk). https://alpinesecurity.com/blog/hacking-humans-with-nanotechnology/. Retrieved from https://alpinesecurity.com: https://alpinesecurity.com/blog/hacking-humans-with-nanotechnology/ Ventola, C. L. (2014, July unk). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103576/ Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices C. Lee Ventola P T. 2014 Jul; 39(7): 491-499, 520. PMCID: PMC4103576 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587037/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103576/ https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-016-1691-0 https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare-how-technology-impacts-the-healthcare-industry-b2ba6271c4b4?gi=2893df3f4692 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587037/
Hacking Humans with Nanotechnology
Anthony Arnopoulos Clouds report 1 MCEN 4151 10/24/2021 It’s so Fluffy Introduction For our third assignment of the year, our teacher decided to give us the opportunity to depict one of the most undervalued things in the world; clouds. For the last few months I have been keeping my eye out for one of the most interesting clouds that I could see. I finally got some clouds that captured my attention. The reasoning behind how it caught my attention you may ask? Is the reasoning behind this assignment. The purpose behind this assignment is to appreciate the natural paintings that surround us and to grasp a better understanding of the phenomena behind them. Picture Details For my image, I took this photo in one of the most beautiful places in the world; Boulder, Colorado. At approximately 3:59 on September 13th, 2021, I happened to look up into the big blue sky, pulled out my phone camera, aimed it at a 80 degree angle (from the ground) to the sky and snapped the photo. I personally thought this was a good photo purely because it showed a lot of vibrant colors, depth, and contrast. Indepth Analysis From this photo and its skew-t diagram, we can pick some details out that would help us better understand the clouds. The few things that we can look at is the type of clouds/weather patterns and the skew-t diagram of this particular day. To start us off, I would like to talk about the actual types of clouds in the picture. I identified statocumulus, cumulus and stratus clouds. I identified the types of clouds by referring to the following image (via. sciencefacts.net). I came to this conclusion by referencing my memory, the picture and the picture above. During this day, I remember the clouds veins very close to the ground. I then looked at the detail in the clouds and compared them to what the cumulus, stratocumulus, and stratus cloud look like. After careful consideration and detailed analysis I came to my final conclusion. It was also convincing to me that these were the right kinds of clouds due to the fact of weather. Looking back on the prior days and the day of, there were no signs of raining or any type of moisture build up. This means that by the human eye the clouds seemed to be stable. Which leads me to my final point; how can we tell if it is going to rain and our atmosphere is unstable? We can easily come to this conclusion by referring to the skew-t diagram (provided to us by the University of Wyoming). Using the following skew-t graph from a near by station in Denver, Colorado, we can come to the conclusion about the atmosphere and its stability. The CAPE value or the convective available potential energy is all we need to know to determine if the atmosphere is stable or unstable. If our CAPE value is anything other than zero, our atmosphere is unstable. This is because there is enough potential energy to create an updraft in storms that allow for rain and condensation to form. Looking back at our values on our skew-t graph, we can see that the CAPE value is zero. This means that our atmosphere is stable and there is no potential energy in our atmosphere. Photographic Tecniques As for the camera details and setup, I decided to go with an iPhone 11 pro camera and took the photo in the portrait orientation. For the settings of the camera, the iPhone has limited variability so I used the default settings of the phone (settings of which are not very clear). This photo was taken with the iPhone 11’s 12 MP telephoto camera with a ƒ/2.0 aperture. As for the post processing, I used the iPhone’s editing tools to bring out more color and depth in the photo. The settings that I decided to change in the photo can be seen below: Setting: Value: Exposure -39 Brilliance Highlights 53 -39 Contrast 7 By using these post processing values, I was able to change the photo as depicted below: Original Post processed By closely looking at the images, we can see just how small but drastic the post processing did for my photo. Conclusion: In conclusion I think I was perfectly able to capture the true beauty of the world’s natural art. Though I may have had the most expensive equipment for the job I think I was able to show the world how beautiful clouds can really be. The vibrant colors, the textures, the depth, and the clouds themself all come together to create a masterpiece. If I was to change anything about what I did for this photo would be to perhaps take the photo with a higher grade camera. I think the iPhone’s camera was able to capture the beauty for this assignment’s intent but I still think it could be better with different focal lengths, exposures, size of views. Overall, I think I was able to capture my intent and share it with the world. Though the camera that I used may not be the best, I personally believe that no matter what camera you use, you cannot fully capture the true beauty of the world without References “Types of Clouds: Their Formation & Meaning Explained with Diagram.” Science Facts, 18 Nov. 2020, https://www.sciencefacts.net/types-of-clouds.html. Atmospheric Soundings, http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html. “Types of Clouds: Their Formation & Meaning Explained with Diagram.” Science Facts, 18 Nov. 2020, https://www.sciencefacts.net/types-of-clouds.html. CNL-523 Topic 1: Short Answer Questions Directions: Provide short answers of 150-200 words each for the following questions/statements. Do not exceed 250 words for your response. Use the textbook and any other scholarly resources to support your responses. Include at least three to four scholarly journal articles beyond the textbook and course readings. Explain the difference between psychological tests and psychological assessments. Explain the significance of utilizing both psychological tests and assessments within the counseling field. Identify and describe the four different types of psychological tests discussed in Chapter 2 of the textbook? Briefly describe a historical overview of significant events that occurred during the development of appraisals within the counseling field. References: © 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. © 2017. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. History 3215, Assignment 1A: Primary-source paper guidlelines This assignment is intended to give you practice with primary-source material. A primary source is anything that dates from the period you’re studying – in this case, a personal letter from Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Primary sources are vitally important for historians, as they give us a view of events as they happened, or of attitudes and mindsets as they developed. While they are most often textual – written material – they can also be images or objects from the time. Of course, like any sources, primary documents have their limitations; they can be biased, short-sighted, or based on wrong information, for example. Part of the historian’s task is to take such shortcomings into account when drawing conclusions from them, and to point them out to readers. Your paper will: 1/summarise and explain Henry’s letter; 2/put this writing in its historical context – that is, what moved Henry to write this? What did he hope the letter would accomplish? What else was happening at this time? Historical context is what you’ll be getting from your secondary sources – that is, the writings of modern scholars in this field. A good general guideline is to stick to work that’s been published within the last 20 years – you want the most recent work that’s built on the work of past knowledge. 3/discuss the significance of this writing to the events of the time. Did this letter change anything, and if so, what? Why was it important? And, of course, like any paper, this one will have a beginning, a middle, and an end – that is, it will start with a clear statement of your purpose in writing it (your “question”), progress through a logical sequence of arguments supported by evidence, and it will conclude with an answer to your original question and a tidying up of any loose ends that your paper has raised. For more general guidelines on writing historical essays, have a look at the folder for Assignment 2. Communications Management Plan Template www.ProjectManagementDocs.com Communications Management Plan Template This Project Communications Management Template is free for you to copy and use on your project and within your organization. We hope that you find this template useful and welcome your comments. Public distribution of this document is only permitted from the Project Management Docs official website at: www.ProjectManagementDocs.com Communications Management Plan Company Name Street Address City, State Zip Code Date Table of Contents Introduction 2 Communications Management Approach 2 Communications Management Constraints 3 Stakeholder Communication Requirements 3 Roles 4 Project Team Directory 6 Communication Methods and Technologies 6 Communications Matrix 8 Communication Flowchart 9 Guidelines for Meetings 9 Communication Standards 10 Communication Escalation Process 11 Glossary of Communication Terminology 12 Introduction The purpose of the Communications Management Plan is to define the communication requirements for the project and how information will be distributed. The Communications Management Plan defines the following: What information will be communicated—to include the level of detail and format How the information will be communicated—in meetings, email, telephone, web portal, etc. When information will be distributed—the frequency of project communications both formal and informal Who is responsible for communicating project information Communication requirements for all project stakeholders What resources the project allocates for communication How any sensitive or confidential information is communicated and who must authorize this How changes in communication or the communication process are managed The flow of project communications Any constraints, internal or external, which affect project communications Any standard templates, formats, or documents the project must use for communicating An escalation process for resolving any communication-based conflicts or issues This Communications Management Plan sets the communications framework for this project. It will serve as a guide for communications throughout the life of the project and will be updated as communication needs change. This plan identifies and defines the roles of persons involved in this project. It also includes a communications matrix which maps the communication requirements of this project. An in-depth guide for conducting meetings details both the communications rules and how the meetings will be conducted, ensuring successful meetings. A project team directory is included to provide contact information for all stakeholders directly involved in the project. Communications Management Approach Approximately 80% of a Project Manager’s time is spent communicating. Think about it – as a Project Manager you are spending most of your time measuring and reporting on the performance of the project, composing and reading emails, conducting meetings, writing the project plan, meeting with team members, overseeing work being performed, meeting with clients over lunch and many more activities related to your projects. You should give considerable thought to how you want to manage communications on this project. By having a solid communications management approach you’ll find that many project management problems can be avoided. In this section give an overview of your communications management approach. The Project Manager will take a proactive role in ensuring effective communications on this project. The communications requirements are documented in the Communications Matrix presented in this document. The Communications Matrix will be used as the guide for what information to communicate, who is to do the communicating, when to communicate it and to whom to communicate. As with most project plans, updates or changes may be required as the project progresses or changes are approved. Changes or updates may be required due to changes in personnel, scope, budget, or other reasons. Additionally, updates may be required as the project matures and additional requirements are needed. The project manager is responsible for managing all proposed and approved changes to the communications management plan. Once the change is approved, the project manager will update the plan and supporting documentation and will distribute the updates to the project team and all stakeholders. This methodology is consistent with the project’s Change Management Plan and ensures that all project stakeholders remain aware and informed of any changes to communications management. Communications Management Constraints All projects are subject to limitations and constraints as they must be within scope and adhere to budget, scheduling, and resource requirements. Project planning and documentation are no exception to this rule. There may also be legislative, regulatory, technology, or organizational policy requirements which must be followed as part of communications management. These constraints must be clearly understood and communicated to all stakeholders. While communications management is arguably one of the most important aspects of project management, it must be done in an effective manner and within the constraints of the allocated budget, time, and resources. All project communication activities will occur within the project’s approved budget, schedule, and resource allocations. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that communication activities are performed by the project team and without external resources which will result in exceeding the authorized budget. Communication activities will occur in accordance with the frequencies detailed in the Communication Matrix in order to ensure the project adheres to schedule constraints. Any deviation of these timelines may result in excessive costs or schedule delays and must be approved by the project sponsor. ABC Corp. organizational policy states that where applicable, standardized formats and templates must be used for all formal project communications. The details of these policy requirements are provided in the section titled “Standardization of Communication” in this document. ABC Corp. organizational policy also states that only a Vice President or higher level employee may authorize the distribution of confidential information. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that approval is requested and obtained prior to the distribution of any confidential information regarding this project. Stakeholder Communication Requirements Most projects consist of a broad range of stakeholders all of whom may have differing interests and influence on the project. As such, it is important for project teams to determine the communication requirements of these stakeholders in order to more effectively communicate project information. There are a number of methods for determining stakeholder communication requirements; however, it is imperative that they are completely understood in order to effectively manage their interest, expectations, and influence and ensure a successful project. As part of identifying all project stakeholders, the project manager will communicate with each stakeholder in order to determine their preferred frequency and method of communication. This feedback will be maintained by the project manager in the project’s Stakeholder Register. Standard project communications will occur in accordance with the Communication Matrix; however, depending on the identified stakeholder communication requirements, individual communication is acceptable and within the constraints outlined for this project. In addition to identifying communication preferences, stakeholder communication requirements must identify the project’s communication channels and ensure that stakeholders have access to these channels. If project information is communicated via secure means or through internal company resources, all stakeholders, internal and external, must have the necessary access to receive project communications. Once all stakeholders have been identified and communication requirements are established, the project team will maintain this information in the project’s Stakeholder Register and use this, along with the project communication matrix as the basis for all communications. Roles Project Sponsor The project sponsor is the champion of the project and has authorized the project by signing the project charter. This person is responsible for the funding of the project and is ultimately responsible for its success. Since the Project Sponsor is at the executive level communications should be presented in summary format unless the Project Sponsor requests more detailed communications. Program Manager The Program Manager oversees the project at the portfolio level and owns most of the resources assigned to the project. The Program Manager is responsible for overall program costs and profitability as such they require more detailed communications than the Project Sponsor. Key Stakeholders Normally Stakeholders includes all individuals and organizations who are impacted by the project. For this project we are defining a subset of the stakeholders as Key Stakeholders. These are the stakeholders with whom we need to communicate with and are not included in the other roles defined in this section. The Key Stakeholders includes executive management with an interest in the project and key users identified for participation in the project. Change Control Board The Change Control Board is a designated group which is reviews technical specifications and authorizes changes within the organizations infrastructure. Technical design documents, user impact analysis and implementation strategies are typical of the types of communication this group requires. Customer You should identify the customer if the project is the result of a solicitation. In such a case, the customer will be involved in reviewing prototypes, approval of designs and implementation stages and acceptance of the final project the project generates. The customer for this project is . As the customer who will be accepting the final deliverable of this project they will be informed of the project status including potential impacts to the schedule for the final deliverable or the product itself. Project Manager The Project Manager has overall responsibility for the execution of the project. The Project Manager manages day to day resources, provides project guidance and monitors and reports on the projects metrics as defined in the Project Management Plan. As the person responsible for the execution of the project, the Project Manager is the primary communicator for the project distributing information according to this Communications Management Plan. Project Team The Project Team is comprised of all persons who have a role performing work on the project. The project team needs to have a clear understanding of the work to be completed and the framework in which the project is to be executed. Since the Project Team is responsible for completing the work for the project they played a key role in creating the Project Plan including defining its schedule and work packages. The Project Team requires a detailed level of communications which is achieved through day to day interactions with the Project Manager and other team members along with weekly team meetings. Steering Committee The Steering Committee includes management representing the departments which make up the organization. The Steering Committee provides strategic oversight for changes which impact the overall organization. The purpose of the Steering Committee is to ensure that changes within the organization are effected in such a way that it benefits the organization as a whole. The Steering Committee requires communication on matters which will change the scope of the project and its deliverables. Technical Lead The Technical Lead is a person on the Project Team who is designated to be responsible for ensuring that all technical aspects of the project are addressed and that the project is implemented in a technically sound manner. The Technical Lead is responsible for all technical designs, overseeing the implementation of the designs and developing as-build documentation. The Technical Lead requires close communications with the Project Manager and the Project Team. Project Team Directory The following table presents contact information for all persons identified in this communications management plan. The email addresses and phone numbers in this table will be used to communicate with these people. Role Name Title Organization/ Department Email Phone Project Sponsor White VP of Technology IT [email protected] (555) 555-1212 Program Manager Brown PMO Manager PMO [email protected] (555) 555-1313 Project Manager Black Project Manager PMO [email protected] (555) 555-1414 Project Stakeholders See Stakeholder Register See Stakeholder Register See Stakeholder Register See Stakeholder Register See Stakeholder Register Customer J. Doe XYZ Corp Manager IT [email protected] (615) 555-8121 Project Team Technical Lead Communication Methods and Technologies Many times, the methods and technologies used to communicate are just as important of a consideration as the information being communicated. Imagine a large project with many stakeholders who all have different technological capabilities. Some may have access to a share drive while others do not. Some may have access to video teleconferencing and others only have telephone and email capabilities. In order to be effective, project information must be communicated to everyone involved by some method using available technology. Determining communication methods and what technologies are available should be part of determining stakeholder communication requirements. The project team will determine, in accordance with ABC Corp. organizational policy, the communication methods and technologies based on several factors to include: stakeholder communication requirements, available technologies (internal and external), and organizational policies and standards. ABC Corp. maintains a SharePoint platform within the PMO which all projects use to provide updates, archive various reports, and conduct project communications. This platform enables senior management, as well as stakeholders with compatible technology, to access project data and communications at any point in time. SharePoint also provides the ability for stakeholders and project team members to collaborate on project work and communication. For stakeholders who do not have the ability to access SharePoint, a web site will also be established for the project. Access to the website will be controlled with a username and password. Any stakeholders identified who are not able to access SharePoint will be issued a unique username and password in order to access the web site. The project manager is responsible for ensuring all project communications and documentation are copied to the web site and that the content mirrors what is contained on the SharePoint platform. ABC Corp. maintains software licenses for MS Project software. All project teams are responsible for developing, maintaining, and communicating schedules using this software. PERT Charts are the preferred format for communicating schedules to stakeholders. The project schedule will be maintained on both the SharePoint platform and the project website. All project communication and documentation, in addition to being maintained on the SharePoint platform and project website, will be archived on the internal ABC Corp. shared drive which resides in the PMO program directory. Organizational naming conventions for files and folder will be applied to all archived work. Communications Matrix The following table identifies the communications requirements for this project. Communication Type Objective of Communication Medium Frequency Audience Owner Deliverable Format Kickoff Meeting Introduce the project team and the project. Review project objectives and management approach. Face to Face Once Project Sponsor Project Team Stakeholders Project Manager Agenda Meeting Minutes Soft copy archived on project SharePoint site and project web site Project Team Meetings Review status of the project with the team. Face to Face Conference Call Weekly Project Team Project Manager Agenda Meeting Minutes Project schedule Soft copy archived on project SharePoint site and project web site Technical Design Meetings Discuss and develop technical design solutions for the project. Face to Face As Needed Project Technical Staff Technical Lead Agenda Meeting Minutes Soft copy archived on project SharePoint site and project web site Monthly Project Status Meetings Report on the status of the project to management. Face to Face Conference Call Monthly PMO Project Manager Slide updates Project schedule Soft copy archived on project SharePoint site and project web site Project Status Reports Report the status of the project including activities, progress, costs and issues. Email Monthly Project Sponsor Project Team Stakeholders PMO Project Manager Project Status Report Project schedule Soft copy archived on project SharePoint site and project web site Communication Flowchart Flowcharts provide a visual representation of a process or processes which often allow a better understanding of how the process is intended to work. Project communications may be extremely complex depending on the size and scope of the project and the number of stakeholders. A flowchart provides all stakeholders with a better understanding of the steps involved with the distribution of all project communications. The communication flowchart below was created to aid in project communication. This flowchart provides a framework for the project team to follow for this project. However, there may be occasions or situations which fall outside of the communication flowchart where additional clarification is necessary. In these situations the Project Manager is responsible for discussing the communication with the Project Sponsor and making a determination on how to proceed. Guidelines for Meetings Meeting Agenda Meeting Agenda will be distributed 5 business days in advance of the meeting. The Agenda should identify the presenter for each topic along with a time limit for that topic. The first item in the agenda should be a review of action items from the previous meeting. Meeting Minutes Meeting minutes will be distributed within 2 business days following the meeting. Meeting minutes will include the status of all items from the agenda along with new action items and the Parking Lot list. Action Items Action Items are recorded in both the meeting agenda and minutes. Action items will include both the action item along with the owner of the action item. Meetings will start with a review of the status of all action items from previous meetings and end with a review of all new action items resulting from the meeting. The review of the new action items will include identifying the owner for each action item. Meeting Chair Person The Chair Person is responsible for distributing the meeting agenda, facilitating the meeting and distributing the meeting minutes. The Chair Person will ensure that the meeting starts and ends on time and that all presenters adhere to their allocated time frames. Note Taker The Note Taker is responsible for documenting the status of all meeting items, maintaining a Parking Lot item list and taking notes of anything else of importance during the meeting. The Note Taker will give a copy of their notes to the Chair Person at the end of the meeting as the Chair Person will use the notes to create the Meeting Minutes. Time Keeper The Time Keeper is responsible for helping the facilitator adhere to the time limits set in the meeting agenda. The Time Keeper will let the presenter know when they are approaching the end of their allocated time. Typically a quick hand signal to the presenter indicating how many minutes remain for the topic is sufficient. Parking Lot The Parking Lot is a tool used by the facilitator to record and defer items which aren’t on the meeting agenda; however, merit further discussion at a later time or through another forum. A parking lot record should identify an owner for the item as that person will be responsible for ensuring follow-up. The Parking Lot list is to be included in the meeting minutes. Communication Standards Standardization is a proven way to simplify the complexities of project management communications. Many organizations develop and use standard templates or formats for the various communication tools used throughout projects. Standard templates and formats may be applied to certain types of project meetings or specific types of communication (i.e. emails, status reports, etc.). By using standardization, organizations can help ensure that its project teams and stakeholders have a thorough understanding of what is expected and achieve consistent and effective communications. In addition to standard templates and/or formats, organizations may standardize file naming or sharing conventions. An organization may use SharePoint or some other type of Web Portal/Network tool (blogs, message boards, etc.) as a standard platform from which to share information and communicate. Additionally, an organization may have standard file naming conventions for their stored data on their internal share drives. Many of these tools and new technologies are used in today’s projects with team members and stakeholders often spread over wide geographic areas. Standardization provides a level of simplicity to an organization’s communication platforms and improves effectiveness and efficiency. For this project, ABC Corp. will utilize standard organizational formats and templates for all formal project communications. Formal project communications are detailed in the project’s communication matrix and include: Kickoff Meeting – project team will utilize ABC Corp. standard templates for meeting agenda and meeting minutes. Additionally, any slides presented will use the ABC Corp. standard slideshow template. Project Team Meetings – project team will utilize ABC Corp. standard templates for meeting agenda and meeting minutes. Additionally, any slides presented will use the ABC Corp. standard slideshow template. Technical Design Meetings – project team will utilize ABC Corp. standard templates for meeting agenda and meeting minutes. Additionally, any slides presented will use the ABC Corp. standard slideshow template. Monthly Project Status Meetings – project team will utilize ABC Corp. standard templates for meeting agenda and meeting minutes. Additionally, any slides presented will use the ABC Corp. standard slideshow template. Project Status Reports – project team will utilize ABC Corp. standard templates for meeting agenda and meeting minutes. Additionally the standard project status report document, available on the share drive, will be used to provide project status. Informal project communications should be professional and effective but there is no standard template or format that must be used. Communication Escalation Process As issues or complications arise with regards to project communications it may become necessary to escalate the issue if a resolution cannot be achieved within the project team. Project stakeholders may have many different conflicting interests in a given project. While escalations are a normal part of project management, there must be a documented process that defines how those escalations will take place. Efficient and timely communication is the key to successful project completion. As such, it is imperative that any disputes, conflicts, or discrepancies regarding project communications are resolved in a way that is conducive to maintaining the project schedule, ensuring the correct communications are distributed, and preventing any ongoing difficulties. In order to ensure projects stay on schedule and issues are resolved, ABC Corp. will use its standard escalation model to provide a framework for escalating communication issues. The table below defines the priority levels, decision authorities, and timeframes for resolution. Priority Definition Decision Authority Timeframe for Resolution Priority 1 Major impact to project or business operations. If not resolved quickly there will be a significant adverse impact to revenue and/or schedule. Vice President or higher Within 4 hours Priority 2 Medium impact to project or business operations which may result in some adverse impact to revenue and/or schedule. Project Sponsor Within one business day Priority 3 Slight impact which may cause some minor scheduling difficulties with the project but no impact to business operations or revenue. Project Manager Within two business days Priority 4 Insignificant impact to project but there may be a better solution. Project Manager Work continues and any recommendations are submitted via the project change control process ** NOTE: Any communication including sensitive and/or confidential information will require escalation to VP level or higher for approval prior to external distribution. Glossary of Communication Terminology Term Definition Communication The effective sending and receiving of information. Ideally, the information received should match the information sent. It is the responsibility of the sender to ensure this takes place. Stakeholder Individuals or groups involved in the project or whose interests may be affected by the project’s execution or outcome. Communications Management Plan Portion of the overall Project Management Plan which details how project communications will be conducted, who will participate in communications, frequency of communications, and methods of communications. Escalation The process which details how conflicts and issues will be passed up the management chain for resolution as well as the timeframe to achieve resolution. Sponsor Acceptance Approved by the Project Sponsor: Date: This free Project Communications Management Plan Template is brought to you by www.ProjectManagementDocs.com 1 Computer Forensics w/labs Jones & bartlett learning https://www2.jblearning.com/my-account/login System Forensics, Investigation, & Response (3rd edition) [email protected] Happiness79!! The Creative Process Assignment 2: Creative Strategy Details The Creative Process Assignment 2: Creative Strategy Details What is the objective? To create a strategic ocument (“The Brief”) that will contain information and insights that are useful for the creative development of your ad. It will serve as a basis for all of your work this semester, leading up to the creation of your final ad. You will be referring to it as you develop the copy, layout and idea for your ad, so spend the necessary time to develop a well thought-out strategy. What creative is required? An 8.5” x 11” typed document, written and formatted according to the sample provided, which is based on answering a series of standard strategic questions. Your research for your brand and your product. This can be based on materials you source from the internet. Distill it down to a few key bullet points. A detailed description of your target audience, especially psychographics. Include pictures of who you envision as a typical example of the person who might be the target. A cover page with the brand and product logos, your name, photo, course name, and project title (ie Assignment 2: Creative Strategy) Assignment must be uploaded as a single PDF to Slate before the deadline. What are the steps? Choose a brand you like or find interesting that you want to create your own ad for. Select a product sold by that brand to feature in your ad. Research the brand and product. Find as many relevant and interesting facts as you can. Visit the store, website, look at their ads, read reviews, buy the product if it’s affordable. The more you know, the more creative insights you will have. Develop a Creative Strategy for your ad with the key information as taught in our lessons that follows the blank strategy attached. When is it due? See your Slate Calendar for the exact day/time. As always, handing in work after the deadline will result in a late penalty. Increasing late penalties are incurred for every day it is late. The assignment will not be accepted after 72 hours. What is it worth? The project is worth 10% of your final mark. Creative Strategy Value the key facts What do we know about the product? Key facts based on research: What’s unique and interesting about the product or brand? Dig deep to uncover facts and stories that are relevant and contain some insights. 1.5 the objective What do we want to happen? Identify what you’d like the consumer to think/feel/do after seeing the ad. (Remember, the goal isn’t just to sell stuff – it’s what the ad is trying to do as a piece of communication.) 1.5 the target Who are we talking to? 1) A detailed description of the Demographics of the primary target group. (WHO you want to buy the product.) 2) A detailed description of the Psychographics of the target group. (WHY they buy the product.) 3) Add some visuals of how you see the target consumer. 1.5 the main message What one thing do we want the ad to say? Clearly communicate the main promise the ad makes to the consumer, which is often the main benefit they receive from the product. Keep it short: one sentence, one focus. 1.5 the tone and manner How will we communicate the message? What is the style/personality for the advertising? (3-5 words) 1.5 THE ONE IDEA Put it all together in a single sentence. Using the TARGET/BENEFIT/REASON format outlined in the strategy presentations, write your creative brief as one sentence: “To those who…the brand/product is/does…because…” 2.5 evaluation The Creative Strategy is typed up and saved as a PDF. Organize and format it neatly. The assignment answers all questions above. Answers are thoughtful, insightful, well-articulated and show depth of reflection. Keep things concise. Deductions for spelling or grammatical mistakes. missed deadline After deadline on due day: Minus 10% After 24 hours: Minus 30% After 48 hours: Minus 50% Project not accepted after 72 hours. Total 10 Assignment 2: Creative Strategy Marking Sheet The Creative Process Assignment 5.1A: Spelling Analysis Assigned Spelling Word Student Response What is the phoneme confusion? What type of error did the student make? Why did that confusion most likely occur? rabbit wabbit The student confused the phonemes /w/ and /r/. This is an error in manner and place of articulation. The student substituted the glide /w/ for the liquid /r/, and sound was made with the lips instead of placing the tongue on the palate. chat jat tan tam zoo soo let led ring rin hog hok yellow lello van fan moose moz When you prepare your work for this course be sure that you are conducting research, using professional and scholarly sources such as those I have provided in Web Links. Once you have conducted your research then prepare your work using your own words to explain what you learned as a result of your research. Just write down what the information means to you. You will need to include a references list and in-text citations with your work. Whenever you either quote or paraphrase someone’s work you also need to credit the source in the body of your work with a citation. This is essentially saying these are not my words, or my thought. I took this from this person or source. You will also need to list that source in your References section. Please look in Web Links for the APA Style web site I provided to help you understand how to do this. Work that includes research and is submitted in APA style formatting will earn more points. Criminal Procedure – Course Outline CRJU 250 & LAWS 250 INSTRUCTOR: Robert A. Arruda E-Mail: Via the Mercy College Blackboard e-mail Portal COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course will acquaint the student with the criminal procedures that are followed in most states throughout the nation. The path of the criminal will be traced from arrest, to arraignment, to the grand jury, to trial, etc. The New York Criminal Procedure Law and Court cases that have been defined, limited and interpreted criminal procedure will be discussed. COURSE MATERIALS: Required Text: del Carmen, R.V., Hemmens, C. 2017. Criminal Procedure: Law and Practice, 10th ed. Boston, MA. Cengage Learning. Overall Course Objective: To introduce students to the procedures used in the American criminal justice system to protect society. This course will examine the legal requirements in use by the criminal justice system to investigate, arrest, and prosecute those believed to have violated the law. The legal protections afforded to those suspected of violating the law will also be examined. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the conclusion of this course students will: Be able to distinguish between the jurisdiction of the federal and state court systems. Be able to explain the process used before, during and after a criminal court trial. Be able to apply the concept of probable cause in arrests and searches. Be able to explain how the exclusionary rule deters police misconduct. Be able to explain the four elements of an arrest. Be able to explain the term “search and seizure”. Be able to explain what kinds of searches are not subject to the fourth amendment. Students With Disabilities. Mercy College is committed to achieving equal educational opportunities and full participation for persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities who may need classroom accommodations are encouraged to contact the Office of ACCESSibility before the semester begins to learn about the different accommodations available and the process for obtaining reasonable accommodation(s). Please contact the Office at (914) 674-7523(914) 674-7523, [email protected] or visit our website at www.mercy.edu/student-affairs/access. COURSE GRADING: 1. Class participation via “Discussions” portal of Blackboard = 30 points 2. Quiz #1 = 20 points 3. Quiz #2 = 20 points 4. Quiz #3 = 20 points 5. Reaction paper = 10 points 100 points Course Grading Scale: The following grading scale will be used to determine your final letter grade in this course. Letter Grade Numerical Range Quality Point Value Description A 93-100 4.00 Excellent A- 90-92 3.67 Very Good B+ 87-89 3.33 Very Good B 83-86 3.00 Good B- 80-82 2.67 Good C+ 77-79 2.33 Satisfactory C 73-76 2.00 Satisfactory C- 70-72 1.67 Passing but Unsatisfactory D 60-69 1.00 Passing but Unsatisfactory F 0-59 0.00 Failure FW 0-59 0.00 Failure due to stopped attending COMPETENCIES: This course focuses on developing critical thinking skills and reasoning. In discussions and your reaction paper students will be evaluated on their skills in critical, logical and creative thinking as well as effective reading and writing: and information literacy. Feedback for improvement will be provided. COURSE SCHEDULE: Week Chapter/s and Reading Schedule Assignment Schedule 1. Introduction to our course DB 1 PART I: INTRODUCTION. 2. 1 The Court System and Sources of Rights. DB 2 3. 2 Overview of the Criminal Justice Process. DB 3 PART II: LEVELS OF PROOF AND THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE. 4. 3 Probable Cause and Reasonable Suspicion. DB 4 5. 4 The Exclusionary Rule. DB 5 PART III: SEARCHES AND SEIZURES OF PERSONS. 6. 5 Stop and Frisk and Stationhouse Detention. Quiz 1 7. 6 Arrests and Use of Force. DB 6 PART IV: SEARCHES AND SEIZURES OF PROPERTY. 8. 7 Searches and Seizures of Things. DB 7 9. 8 Motor Vehicle Stops, Searches, and Inventories. DB 8 10. 9 Plain View, Open Fields, Abandonment, and Border Searches. DB 9 PART V: IDENTIFICATIONS, CONFESSIONS, AND ADMISSIONS. 11. 10 Lineups and Other Means of Pretrial Identification. Quiz 2 12. 11 Confessions and Admissions: Miranda v. Arizona. DB 10 PART VI: CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF POLICE MISCONDUCT. 13. 12 Basic Constitutional Rights of the Accused During the Trial. DB 11 14. 13 Sentencing, the Death Penalty, and Other Forms of Punishment. Paper 15. 14 Legal Liabilities of Law Enforcement Officers Quiz 3 15 Electronic Surveillance and the War on Terror. Instructions for Discussion Board assignments. DB assignments are in Course Materials. Ten (10) Discussion Board (DB) assignments, each worth 3 points. Your answer is worth 2 points. Your classmate responses are worth .5 points each. Your DB answer is due by 11:59PM EST on Wednesday of the week of the DB assignment. You also need to submit at least 2 responses to your classmates for each DB assignment. Your classmate responses are due by 11:59PM EST on Saturday of the week of the DB assignment. Be sure to carefully read and answer each DB question, and complete both your DB answer and required 2 responses based on research, using professional sources, and to submit all of your DB work in text, and in APA style. Be sure to carefully read and answer each DB question, and submit both your DB answer and required 2 responses based on research, using professional sources, in text, and to submit all of your DB work in APA style so your work can earn more points. Quizzes: There will be three quizzes. They are in Course Materials for weeks 6, 11 & 15. Quiz 1 must be taken during week 5. Quiz 2 must be taken during week 10. Quiz 3 must be taken during week 15. Each quiz is ten multiple choice questions. Each question is worth 2 points. You may only open each quiz one time. Once you open the quiz you will have 60 minutes to complete and submit it. Instructions for the Reaction Paper: Students will prepare a 2 to 3 page reaction paper in which they will “react” to the following topic: Is The Patriot Act being used to protect America, or, is its use violating the rights of Americans? This paper is due no later than the last day of week 14. Prepare your reaction paper in APA style. Your 1st reaction paper should include: 1. What you learned from your research about The Patriot Act.. 2. A discussion of how The Patriot Act is being used to protect America, and whether or not its use is violating the rights of Americans. 3. Your reaction to the information you learned about The Patriot Act, which is how you feel about it. Submit your paper as an Attachment in Course Material. Work that is submitted based on research, using professional sources, in APA style, and in text will earn more points than work that does not include research and is not in APA style. It will also be important for everyone to submit work by the due date. If you anticipate any difficulty with submitting an assignment by the due date communicate with me in advance. This will allow us to resolve the issue. Work that is submitted late is subject to the following: a. Being graded down, or depending on the circumstances, b. Receiving a zero (0) for the assignment. Academic Integrity Policy Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an honest, truthful and responsible manner. Students are required, to be honest, and ethical in carrying out all aspects of their academic work and responsibilities. Dishonest acts in a student’s academic pursuits will not be tolerated. Academic dishonesty undermines the College’s educational mission as well as the student’s personal and intellectual growth. In cases where academic dishonesty is uncovered, the College imposes sanctions that range from failure of an assignment to suspension and expulsion from the College, depending on the severity and reoccurrence of the case(s).Examples of academic dishonesty include, but are not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, obtaining an unfair advantage, and falsification of records and official documents. Cheating is the unauthorized use or attempted use of material, information, notes, study aids, devices, or communication during an academic exercise. Examples of cheating include, but are not limited to:•Copying from another student during an examination or allowing another to copy your work•Providing assistance to acts of academic misconduct.•Unauthorized collaboration on a take-home assignment or examination•Using notes during a closed book examination• Submitting another’s work as your own•Unauthorized use during an examination of any electronic device, such as cell phones, computers, or internet access to retrieve or send information•Allowing others to research or write assigned papers for you or to complete your assigned projects. Plagiarism is the act of presenting another person’s idea, research or writings as your own. Self-Plagiarism is the act of turning in one’s own work (papers, exams, cases, etc.) in its original form or with only minor modifications in more than one course for academic credit. Self-Plagiarism is a violation of this policy. Examples of plagiarism include, but are not limited to:• Copying another person’s actual words or images without the use of quotation marks and citations attributing the words to their source• Presenting another person’s ideas or theories in your own words without acknowledging the source•Engaging in plagiarism, via the Internet or other web-based or electronic sources, which includes (but is not limited to) purchasing of, downloading term papers or other assignments and then submitting that work as one’s own, or copying or extracting information and then pasting that information into an assignment without citing the source, or without providing proper attribution. Obtaining unfair advantage is any action taken by a student that gives that student an unfair advantage, or through which the students attempt to gain an unfair advantage in his/her academic work over another student. Examples of obtaining an unfair advantage include, but are not limited to:•Gaining advance access to examination materials by stealing or reproducing those materials•Retaining, purchasing, sharing, or posting examinations, or the students’ written work, like cases, papers, etc., without explicit faculty permission•Intentionally obstructing or interfering with another student’s work. Falsification of Records and Official Documents include, but are not limited to, acts of forging authorized signatures or falsifying information on an official academic record. Consequences for Policy Violation Sanctions for Academic Integrity Violations. If a faculty member believes that the appropriate sanction is academic in nature (e.g., a reduced grade) and the student does not contest either their guilt or the particular reduced grade that the faculty member has chosen, then the student shall be given either a warning or the reduced grade, unless the student is a repeat offender, in which case a sanction more severe than a warning should be applied by the Dean/ Associate Dean. The reduced grade may apply to the particular assignment where the violation occurred or to the course grade, at the faculty member’s discretion. A reduced grade may be an “F”, or another grade that is lower than the grade that the student would have earned but for the violation. If a faculty member determines that a student has committed an act of cheating or plagiarism, and the student withdraws from the course, that student will receive an “FW” for the course regardless of the time of withdrawal. The faculty member shall inform the Dean/ Associate Dean of the resolution via email and the Dean/ Associate Dean shall update the applicable Student Violation of the Academic Integrity Policy Form to reflect that resolution. In a case where a student admits to the alleged academic dishonesty but contests the academic sanction imposed by the faculty member, or in a case where a student denies the academic dishonesty, the student may appeal by following the process described below. A student who is found to be dishonest in the submission of academic assignments or other work, or in carrying out their academic responsibilities may receive a warning, a zero for the submitted assignment or exam, a failing grade for the course, or may be subject to further suspension or expulsion from the College, depending on the severity of the offense(s). Regardless, all incidents of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Academic Unit Head and School Dean/ Associate Dean and may be retained by the College in the student’s records. Reporting Violations and Student Appeal Processes The process to report or to appeal an academic integrity violation is as follows:1. A faculty member who suspects that a student has committed a violation of the Academic Integrity Policy shall review with the student the facts and circumstances of the suspected violation whenever feasible. 2. Should the faculty member conclude that there has been an incident of academic dishonesty, the faculty member shall complete submit the Academic Integrity Reporting Form (located on Mercy Connect under the faculty tab). The faculty member must indicate the sanction for the student violation of the policy on the form. 3. The Academic Integrity Form will be submitted electronically to the Dean and Associate Dean of the appropriate School, and an official notification of violation will be sent to the student. The student may appeal to the Dean or Associate Dean of the School through email within one week of the date of notification. The Dean or Associate Dean will then ask the student and faculty member to submit supporting evidence and may request to meet with both parties separately. After a review of the evidence, the Dean or Associate Dean shall decide to either uphold or overturn the violation and communicate the decision through an email to the student within one week of the filed appeal.4. Should the student choose to appeal the Dean’s/ Associate Deans’ decision, the Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs shall request the evidence examined by the Dean/ Associate Dean. After a review of the evidence, the Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs shall determine if there is enough evidence to convene the Academic Appeals Committee and send a letter to the student, within one week of requesting an appeal, to inform the student of this determination. If the Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs believes that further review is warranted, the Academic Appeals Committee will be convened to review the case.5. If the Academic Appeals Committee is convened, the Dean/ Associate Dean, faculty member, and student will be permitted to participate. The faculty member and student are permitted to submit any additional documentation they believe is necessary, including written statements and documentary evidence. The Academic Appeals Committee shall convene within two weeks of the filing of the appeal submission and shall issue a written decision of its finding within one week of convening. The Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs shall send copies of the Committee’s decision to the student, the faculty member, and the appropriate Dean/Associate Dean for archiving in the student’s confidential academic integrity record. Unless the resolution exonerates the student, the Student Violation of Academic Integrity Form shall be placed in a confidential academic integrity file created for the purposes of identifying repeat violations, gathering data, and assessing and reviewing policies.6. If the Academic Appeals Committee finds that no violation occurred, the Office of the Provost shall remove all material relating to that incident from the student’s confidential academic integrity file and destroy the material. The Dean/ Associate Dean shall work with the faculty member to remove the sanction in the course. Judicial Sanctions In a case where the allegation of cheating or plagiarism is severe, or where the student has a History of the Electoral College of violations of the Academic Integrity Policy which conduct warrants suspension or expulsion from the College, the school Dean shall impose a sanction in addition to or in lieu of academic sanctions, as he/she deems is warranted under the circumstances. If the student contests the judicial sanction imposed, the student may appeal to the Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs. Prof. Robert Arruda For this video, choose one item that addresses a current issue and makes connections to class concepts. The item may be print or video—for example, an article from the current edition of a newspaper or magazine, a segment from a news or talk show, a YouTube video, vlog, or any program that features current affairs. Your item (up to 2 minutes) will be embedded in a PowerPoint that you will use to supplement your presentation. You may use clips of a video, pause a video as necessary to identify concepts, or use a clip for a full 2 minutes. However, you cannot use over two minutes of video in your own presentation. Items cannot be more than 90 days old. Clips and articles can be embedded in a PowerPoint that you will use to supplement your presentation or you can share your screen and show these separately during your presentation. Remember, your PowerPoint is there to guide you during your presentation. Do not overload this with text. Submit a 4-5 minute video in which you: Use any software you are comfortable with, including Panopto, in order to record yourself speaking and presenting a PowerPoint at the same time. You and your PowerPoint must be visible during the entirety of the presentation. This cannot just be a recording of your face presenting and it cannot just be a voice over with your PowerPoint – Video and screen option should be selected on any media you use. Clearly identify the argument. Present the premises and conclusion in your chosen article or video clip and explain their importance. Did the speakers/writers use deductive or inductive reasoning? In your article or video clip, identify three of the following: vague/ambiguous language; credibility; cognitive bias; rhetoric; logical fallacies; generalizations; arguments from analogy; cause and effect reasoning; and value judgments about morality, law, or aesthetics. Explain why you think the argument fits this concept. Also, identify if this was purposeful and why, and how this affects the strength of the argument. Provide a conclusion to your video. Was the argument convincing? What is your position? (30 seconds max) Length: 5 minutes maximum You will be graded on: Your ability to identify arguments made about relevant issues in our world today How well you identify class concepts. Accuracy and a clear explanation are required Your use of terminology from the textbook/class lectures Your ability to showcase your critical thinking skills Your ability to use Panopto, Screen cast-o-matic or any other media to complete your presentation Your presentation skills and delivery Philosophy Critical thinking: each question should be answers in 1 page. The paradox of perception lead friends of empiricism to argue for different views about the nature of physical objects and our knowledge of physical objects. Explain the difference between Locke’s and Berkeley’s views on this topic. Explain what epistemic injustice is and what the presence of epistemic injustice implies about our ability to have true beliefs about social and political questions. Identify a set of things or events to track information about. Create a C++ console application that implements the things or events as a set of classes. There should be at least three classes including one parent class and two child classes. The application contains at least seven files including: ● A header and implementation file for each class. ● An application file that creates objects from the classes. Each class contains: Fields At least two instance fields that represent properties for each object created for the thing or event. At least two static fields that represent properties shared across all objects created for the thing or event. Methods At least two constructors for the parent class and at least three constructors for the child classes, including zero-parameter constructors. For the child classes, include a constructor that also calls a nonzero-parameter parent constructor. Getter methods for each field. Setter methods for each field, including validation logic for each numeric field. If the incoming value is invalid, print an error message and don’t change the field’s value. A method that prompts the user for values for each instance field. For the child classes, incorporate the parent version by calling it. A method that prints all the values stored in an object. For the child classes, incorporate the parent version by calling it. ● A main function that: Creates at least two objects from the parent class and at least three objects from each child class using each of the constructors. There will be at least eight objects created: two from the parent class and three each from the child classes. After each one is created, print all of its values. For one of the child objects, calls the setter and getter methods in sequence for each field in the object. For one of the parent objects, prints all of its values, calls the method that prompts the user to change values, and then prints all of its values again. For one of the child objects, prints all of its values, calls the method that prompts the user to change values, and then prints all of its values again. Case Study – Company Selection 1414 unread replies.2525 replies. Choose the company you will do your case study on. Remember: The company MUST operate globally Company chosen: CVS(Health) Write one page on the background of your company. Realize, you will likely want your background to be longer than 1 page in your final paper, but I just want to see that you have started. Paper 1 (needed by the 23rd of September) Requirements: Minimum of 1 full page 12 pt. font Times New Roman No extra blank lines. Remember, the final paper will be APA formatting. Cite any sources that you use Have at least 2 sources Use APA formatting for your citations and reference page. Paper 2 ( needed by the 24th of October) Create an Executive Summary based on the current global operations of the company that you selected for the Case Study. This executive summary will cover the global operations portion of your case study assignment and should include details about the following: Current global operations of the company. Benefits the company has gained from operating globally. Challenges the company has faced due to its global position. Technology used to support the current global position of the company. Additional requirements of the Executive Summary are as follows: 1-2 pages (double spaced) 12 pt. Times New Roman APA Formatting This summary should be of proper quality to present in a corporate environment (grammar & formatting). Cite all sources used At least 2 sources APA Formatting Paper 3( needed by the 24th of October) Create an Executive Summary based on the current cybersecurity position of the company that you selected for the Case Study. This executive summary will cover the company’s cybersecurity technology and should include details on the following: Current cybersecurity strategy for the company. Any past cybersecurity challenges or achievements the company has had. Technology used to support the current cybersecurity infrastructure of the company. Recommendations for improving cybersecurity within the company. Additional requirements of the Executive Summary are as follows: 1-2 pages (double spaced) 12 pt. Times New Roman APA Formatting This summary should be of proper quality to present in a corporate environment (grammar & formatting). Cite all sources used At least 2 sources Use an APA-style bibliography Paper 4( needed by the 24th of October) Based on your research and course material, write a case study report paper describing the company, some of the possible benefits that the company might have gained by operating globally, the technology used to support a global position (such as cybersecurity) and the IT strategy used to gain market share and retention. Provide recommendations of the type(s) of technology the company could benefit from, and methods by which that technology could support decision making. Describe any challenges that the company has faced or is currently facing as a result of operating in a global society. The last section of the report should make suggestions on improving the company’s standing in various areas that you determined need improvement based on the textbook and your research. This section should include the rationale of your recommendation. The entire report should in APA formatting (Use Times New Roman font). The “body” of the document (excluding title page, references, tables and figures) should be a minimum of 8‐10 double spaced pages long. Note that your Background and two Executive Summaries are part of this case study. They should answer several parts of the requirements and set you up to continue the case study. These assignments should all be put together into one document and DO count towards your page count. Submit your case study assignment here. You case study should: include a title page Entire paper in APA formatting include background information about the company include an executive summary on the global operations of the company include an executive summary on the cybersecurity of the company include details about the following: IT strategy used to gain market share and retention Recommendations on the types of technology the company could benefit from (think of different Information Systems that may be helpful) Suggestions on improving the company’s standing. Focus on IS/IT-based suggestions, but anything that would be beneficial can be listed if evidence is provided. include a bibliography At least 3 peer-reviewed sources At least 6 sources total be 8-10 double-spaced pages of actual written content Your font throughout the whole paper should be 12 pt. Times New Roman. (This is what I will change it to when I check your page count) This page count DOES include your Background and the two Executive Summaries. Any blank space between pages (such as between your executive summaries), extra blank lines, tables, charts, figures, title pages, and reference pages do NOT count towards the page count. Use parenthetical notation to cite your sources in your paper Remember, professional quality means formatting AND punctuation/grammar Plagiarism score from Turnitin must be at 20% or lower. Anything higher will result in a 0. If your initial submission is higher than this, it is your responsibility to check the score and resubmit before the due date. You have unlimited submissions. NOTE: It is perfectly acceptable to add to or make changes to your background, executive summaries, or your table/figure from what you previously submitted. I understand that as your research continues, you may find new information or come to different conclusions. NOTE: The number of sources listed above is a minimum not a maximum. Dasia’s Assessment Data Dasia was asked to look at each of the make-believe or nonsense words below, say the sounds that she knew, and say the whole word. Nonsense Word Dasia’s Response – Sounds Dasia’s Response – Whole Word fep /f/ /ĕ/ /p/ fep /f/ /ĭ/ /b/ fib zot /z/ /ŏ/ /t/ zot /z/ /ŏ/ /t/ zot wid /w/ /ĭ/ /d/ wid /w/ /ī/ /d/ wide yug /y/ /ǔ/ /g/ yug /y/ /ǔ/ /j/ yuj kav /k/ /ă/ /v/ kav /k/ /ă/ /v/ kav bim /b/ /ĭ/ /m/ bim /d/ /ĭ/ /m/ dim hoj /h/ /ŏ/ /j/ hoj /h/ /ŏ/ /g/ hog lun /l/ /ǔ/ /n/ lun /l/ /ǔ/ /n/ lun ras /r/ /ă/ /s/ ras /r/ /ă/ /s/ ras deb /d/ /ĕ/ /b/ dip /d/ /ĭ/ /p/ dip Dasia’s Writing Sample Yistrbay I wit to see a dig rid truk (Yesterday I went to see a big red truck.) 1 4 Davit Hovsepyan Course number 1 Mrs. Llit 10.22.2021 Martin Luther The history of Christianity is fascinating to read about, more so when one wants to compare today’s happenings with those of the ancient ages. The Church started as one huge organization, so to speak, that believed in the Roman Empires and Kings as the true gods, and this role was later passed down to the Pope, who now acted as the mediator between man and God. All this while, nobody was allowed to touch the Bible; only the ordained men of the lord were allowed to read the Bible to the people and interpret it for them. These aspects of people not being allowed to read the Bible resulted in them being asked to follow blindly the teachings of the Pope and the priest, who in most cases were manipulating them for their selfish gains. But it was not long before some truly ordained men of God saw that what they were doing was not correct and thus, started telling the people of the truth. In turn, this resulted in a religious war that led to the disintegration of the Church into groups that we know of today.  One of these truly ordained priests that are renowned for all these is Martin Luther (Gonzalez, 2010). The life of Martin Luther is one that is encompassed by a lot of fascinating stories that touch on the history of Christianity. As such, there are a lot of words that can be used to explain and describe his life and, in turn, be used to write a good novel. Parental conflict, spiritual agony, princes, emperors, popes, kidnapping, revolution, humor, massacre, politics, courage, romance, disguises, and controversy are just some of the instances that one cannot forget to mention when talking about the life of Martin Luther. His fixed mindset made him to be regarded as the man that ignited the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther was in 1483 born into a strict German Catholic family who did everything to make sure that Luther had a successful career in law. But since Luther was never interested in the career path that his parents had chosen for him, he ran away from home to pursue a career in theology, whereby he ended up becoming a monk and a professor of theology. Life in the school of theology was one that Luther struggled to adapt since many of his beliefs conflicted with those of the Church. But he would later experience some peace in his heart after being made a priest that allowed access to the Bible (Hendrix, 2015). He found solace while reading the book of Romans 1:17 that states that “The just will live by Faith.” As such, through this verse, he was no longer terrified of God or enslaved by the system of religious merits. He now believed that it was only through faith that his life would be saved. During his time, the Pope was the ruler of the Western World and everybody, even the kings, bowed before him. No one dared to challenge the Pope politically or spiritually due to the fear that they would burn in hell for challenging the Pope, who they had been made to believe was their God. Just the same way that John Huss developed the interest for the Bible and knew the truth was the same way that Martin Luther developed. He admonished the Catholic Church for lying to the people concerning their faith that it was only through indulgence that they would make it to heaven. Besides that, the Pope, who was expected to show the Church the right way to follow, was the one who had indulged himself in all manner of sinful activities and still wanted the people to pay homage to him as lord’s representative on earth (Gonzalez, 2010). Through the Bible, he found out that it was not mandatory to take all their problems to the Pope or the priest who would, in turn, forgive them of the sins or answer their needs. He found out that through prayers, one could communicate with God directly and also ask for forgiveness. And thus, it was not long before Martin Luther started advocating for the true gospel. He started his confrontation in 1517 at the age of 33, whereby on October 31st of that year, he nailed 95 Theses to the door of the Cathedral at Wittenberg. The 95 Theses told the truth about the Church and what the Pope and the priests were doing to manipulate the people (Dr. Andrew, 2014). The growing followers of Martin Luther became an imminent threat to the Roman Catholic Church, and thus, he had to be stopped before getting out of control. In 1521, the Pope had had much of him and could not let him continue destabilizing the Church; he was thus summoned at the edict of worms. The edict of worms was a meeting that was held at Worms in 1521 whereby there was a Diet of the Holy Roman Empire to deliberate on the charges levelled against Martin Luther. Since there was a lot of confusion both politically and religious, Martin ended up being summoned by the political authorities on the orders of the Pope where he was excommunicated, but that did not stop him from telling people the truth about the Catholic Church. He would later be declared the enemy of the state and heretic. These events strengthened many of his followers to believe in the gospel, and in turn, they started war aimed at freeing themselves from the Roman Catholic Church. Luther continued to draft damaging reports about the Catholic Church, accusing them of pedaling corruption in the society on one side and the extremes of the Radical Reformation on the other (Dr. Andrew, 2014). He also did speak out against clerical celibacy in which he argued from Apostle Paul’s point of view that it is the choice of a person to decide to dedicate his life to serve by not getting married rather than being forced into life celibacy. He also accused them of abuses, denying the scriptures and the communion wine to the non-clergy, salvation by works, the cut of the saints, and other Catholic doctrines.  All these trickled down to religious and political reforms in Germany and later across Europe, leading to the birth of Protestantism. In response to the teaching of Luther and other reformers, many of the Peasants who saw the Roman Catholic Church as oppressors started revolting against their rule, and this later plunged into war. The war lasted for almost a year; besides, Peasant’s reason for starting the war was also misplaced. The Peasant believed that Luther’s attack on the Church and its administration meant that the reformers would back him on the attack on the social hierarchy, and as such, this made the war have some little impact on church reformation. In conclusion, the rebellion that Luther started boldly was more than that of other religious dissenters who came before him since it was through his rebellion and fixed mindset that Protestant Reformation was born. Today, anyone can comfortably practice faith anywhere. The spread of his messages was made possible thanks to the printing press that produced pamphlets across Germany that influenced other thinkers. As such, this contributed to the freedom of thought throughout Europe and this, in turn, contributed to the intellectual advancement witnessed in the 17th and 18th centuries. References Dr Andrew, S. (2014). Martin Luther’s Contributions to the Church’s View of Vocation. At Work and Theology. Gonzalez, J. L. (2010). The Story of Christianity: The Reformation to the Present Day. New York: HarperCollins Publisher. Hendrix, S. H. (2015). Martin Luther: Visionary Reformer. New Haven: Yale University Press. Grading Rubric and Assignment Expectations Discussion Board: Basic information and etiquette regarding the use of online Discussion Board posts can be found in the syllabus. Additionally, it is also important to understand the purpose of a Discussion Board, which is to ensure students comprehend the covered material and can intelligently articulate their understanding when needed. When answering discussion board topics, unless otherwise specified, here are the bare minimum requirements of student posts. Students are first required to make an original post in response to the Discussion Board topic. Original posts should be a minimum of 600 words (roughly one page of single spaced, typed text) and should be substantive in nature. Students are then required to post a minimum of two 100-word comments in response to other student posts. Said posts are judged on whether or not they contribute in a meaningful way toward the overall discussion. Hence, simply agreeing or disagreeing with someone else’s post, without providing an intelligent justification as to why, does not satisfy the responsive posting requirement. Please Note: References are not counted toward the total discussion board word count. In formulating both original and responsive posts, students should primarily discuss their own ideas. These ideas, of course, should be informed by material within the text, as well as other academic sources. Hence, when developing original posts, it is necessary that students cite (using APA format) at least three sources of information. (Please use both in-text citations and reference listings for each source.) The use of properly cited quotes within any post is perfectly acceptable; however, the use of excessive quotes may distract from the originality of your post and result in a lower overall grade. Plagiarism, of course, nets absolutely no grade at all. Given the nature of online Discussion Boards, timely posts are necessary in order for the class to move forward as a whole. However, I understand that as graduate students, most people have lives beyond just their school work. As such, I reserve the right to allow students to make-up one missed original post (with a late penalty assessed). With this, it should be noted that as the rest of the class would have already moved on to the next topic, it is not possible to make-up responsive post points. Nonetheless, if students are in need of a make-up post, it is their responsibility to request permission from the instructor. * Scroll down to see Grading Rubric Table Below Discussion Board Grading Rubric (based on 50 possible points) Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Below Expectations Unacceptable Original Post 35 points (70%) The post meets the required minimum standards, including word count and the use of at least three reference sources. The post fully addresses the topic(s). The post expresses original thought that substantially contributes to the online conversation in a meaningful way. 25 points (50%) The post approximates the required minimum standards, but is still no less than 60 words below the minimum word count or uses less than two reference sources. The post expresses original thought that contributes to the online conversation. 15 points (30%) The post is at least 120 words below the minimum word count or uses only one reference source. The post expresses original thought but provides only a cursory discussion of the topic(s). 5 points (10%) The post is more than 180 words below the minimum word count or fails to use any academic resources to support its text. The post demonstrates little or no effort in substantially addressing the discussion topic(s). Responsive Posts 10 points (20%) Provides meaningful responses to at least two other original posts. 5 points (10%) Provides superficial comments to at least two other original posts. 0 points (0%) Does not reply to at least two other original posts. ———— Mechanics 5 points (10%) The student clearly articulates his/her thoughts while adhering to proper grammar, sentence structure, and citation rules. 0 points (0%) The student writes with incomplete sentences and/or fails to clearly articulate his/her thoughts. There are numerous errors with grammar, sentence structure, and/or citation rules. ————– ———— Summary:  Your chapter will have a lot of specific information about the circumstances migrants encounter crossing the Mexico/U.S. border and the working conditions they experience and suffer, including the specific stories from Abelino, Crencensio, or Benardo.  Thus, rather than summarize every component of the chapter, keep your summary to one single spaced paragraph that is concise.  Make sure to identify/explain the author’s main argument (thesis) for the chapter, and then clarify with supporting evidence the author provides for supporting the thesis argument. Analysis:  For your analysis you are to explain why this chapter is significant to immigration. You should take one of the life stories of either Abelino, Crencensio, or Benardo for this section and use that person’s story as evidence to support your analysis. So, in one paragraph explain the conditions of the person’s suffering connecting it their migration process, working conditions, and Theory Correlation:  You’re reading, and the PowerPoint have exposed you to some basic theories of immigration, such as Lee’s push/pull theory or the economic neo-classical model, among others.  Utilize one of those theories from Beyond a Border and explain how it helps make sense of immigrants’ experiences. I would recommend citing a specific part of the book to make sure that you grasp the theory clearly and accurately, which will help you apply it to the chapter. Quote Significance:  Re-type one quote from the text–a sentence or two that you found thought-provoking.  Then explain in one paragraph why this quote is important with regard to understanding immigration and migrants’ experiences and how it connects to the author’s main argument. Discussion Question:  Please create an open-ended discussion question that can generate further discussion about your chapter.  Your question should spark discussion about your chapter and be something that the class can answer.  Remember, everyone in the class has read this chapter and did their paper on it, so find a way to develop a complex question so that students can think even more critically about how to answer it. You do not have to respond to your own question, but make sure that the question requires other students to provide a detailed answer, not simply a yes or no type answer. Hint: The first page of your writeup should comprise of the summary and analysis (2 paragraphs overall-these should be lengthy paragraphs beyond the typical 3-5 sentences); while the second page should consist of two paragraphs, one the theory correlation, the other the quote significance, then finally the discussion question.  Make sure at the end of your paper, to give a reference of the book in appropriate APA citation. Your paper needs to be a full 2 pages (single-spaced) minimum (it can go over). *Don’t worry about the discussion question, I will add that. If the person assigned has any questions at all, please let me know 🙂 I really need to receive an “A” on this website, that’s why I’m paying to get it done. If there is any plagiarism, or the instructions weren’t properly followed and you’re just “assuming” what you’re doing is correct, no payment will be given. If I don’t receive any questions through message, I’m going to assume that the person assigned knows exactly what to do and can successfully follow everything below. Thank You Development Across Lifespan Final Project Instructions Your website should contain one major entry, in complete sentences and in your own words, for each of the following topics: 1.) parenting, 2.) physical development, 3.) behaviorism and social learning, 4.) intelligence theory, 5.) cognitive development, 6.) moral development, 7.) identity development, 8.) gender role development. Topics 1-3 are due no later than Wednesday, September 29th (submit the URL of your site, only #1-3 must be completed) Topics 4-6 are due no later than Monday, October 18th (only #1-6 must be completed) Finally, all topics 1-8 are due no later than Sunday, November 28th (Final submission. Everything must be completed) You will receive your payment on the final submission of November 28th ~ For each topic, you will write in your own words and in complete sentences (no bullet points): 1) What you know about a topic that relates to you (including major theories and theorists), 2) How that information relates to your own developmental History of the Electoral College (when you think about your childhood and adolescence, what can you remember that illustrates this concept or theory?) 3) How you can use that understanding in your planned career (i.e., how knowing what you know impacts your role as a teacher, nurse, coach, etc.). This should be more than one sentence or two; it should really reflect your thinking about how the information will impact you in the future. When looking at option 2, it states to write about “me”, my childhood and adolescence. The only information I will be providing about myself is that I am female, I recently turned twenty, and I am attending University and in my junior year . Other than that, please make the rest up, write appropriately and pick the most lighthearted/carefree descreptions depending on the topic. Here is an example of what your project should look like: https://sites.google.com/view/julie-earnest/physical-development This example gives you an idea of what your website should look like if you want to receive a 100% for your final. Guidelines: The website should also contain relevant photos, videos, audio files, and links. Remember if you’ve never made a “website” before, this is just like turning in a PowerPoint project, but in a website format, and instead of turning in a file, you are submitting a URL. As seen in the previous provided example, please make sure that the website has some kind of table of contents with links to clearly worded topics. It must also have a date stamp and timestamp. The hosting service that was used in the previous example was “Google sites”, however, you can use any hosting service (google sites, weebly.com, wix, etc.) that you want to use. Just remember, it must be accessible to your instructor without requiring any type of login. Grading Rubric: All students’ websites will be graded using the following rubric: -Communication of the topic, its role in your developmental history, and impact on career (80 points or 10 points per topic) -Overall quality of presentation (including organization of content), writing, grammar, punctuation, and APA usage (if any citations or references are used) (20 points). This is a huge grade, that’s why I’m paying to get this done. If there are any questions at all, please do not hesitate to ask, I’ll be glad to assist in any way possible! Thank You So Much for Your Effort in bringing this project to life! ACCTG 331Fall 2021 Understanding DEI in the Accounting Profession: Tableau Visualization Case Background Information Diversity is what makes each individual unique. Tangible or intangible, diversity is any dimension or characteristic gained through personal experience that offers people the ability to differentiate from one another. Examples of characteristics that make individuals diverse include age, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and abilities. Inclusion can be simply defined as the state of being valued, respected, and supported and is cultivated by “creating a culture that strives for equity and embraces, respects, and values differences from all people”. Diversity recognizes differences among individuals while inclusion focuses on acknowledging and accepting those differences. Consequently, equity is the outcome of diversity and inclusion. Enhancing equity promotes “justice, impartiality, and fairness within the procedures, processes, and distribution of resources” and ensures equal access to opportunities and resources to individuals at all levels of an organization. Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DE&I) are important to the accounting profession. Diversity leads to innovative and creative solutions to business problems, and metrics such as forming a management team composed of at least 30% women can be used as a benchmark for success within the accounting profession. In addition, firms that are strong in DE&I have greater financial success and experience high morale and engagement among employees. When accounting firms invest in DE&I, employees feel valued, understood, and their contributions to the firm matter. This feeling of acceptance significantly reduces stress levels and improves both mental and physical health which leads to emotional well-being and higher morale among employees. When employees feel such a sense of belonging, firms experience “greater team collaboration, higher revenue growth, and higher gross margin.” Case Requirement Part A: Descriptive analyses Download the Excel file provided by the instructor for this assignment. Perform the visualization analysis of the gender and ethnicity of various groups over the period of 2011-2018 (see below for the group information). Compare among different groups in different years and discuss your observations. A1. Overall accounting major enrollees (see tab Data 3 in Excel file) A2. New bachelor’s and master’s of accounting graduates (see tab Data 6 in Excel file) A3. New bachelor’s and master’s of accounting graduate hires hired into accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 9 in Excel file) A4. All professional staff in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 11 in Excel file) A5. CPAs in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 12 in Excel) A6. Partners in accounting/finance functions of U.S. CPA firms (see tab Data 13 in Excel) Deliverables: One chart/dashboard in Tableau for each item listed above. Report your analysis based on the results you got in Tableau (hint: compare across different groups). You may want to write one paragraph to discuss A1 to A3, and write another paragraph to discuss A4 to A6. Part B: Trend analysis B1. Use “Data 1” in the Excel file to create a graph about accounting enrollments in the below programs over 1993-2018: Bachelor in Accounting Master in Accounting Master in Taxation MBA Accounting Total Accounting Program Enrollment B2. Use “Data 2” in the Excel file to create a graph of 2018 ethnicity distribution in the supply and demand in the accounting profession B3. Use “Data 5” in the Excel file to create a graph showing trends in bachelor’s and master’s accounting enrollees by race / ethnicity 2006-2018 B4. Use “Data 14” in the Excel file to perform trend analysis in number of new CPA candidates by year | 2006-2018 B5. Use “Data 15” in the Excel file to perform Trends in number of CPA candidates who passed their 4th section of the CPA Exam by year | 2006-2018 Deliverables: For each of the 5 items, please submit one graph/dashboard demonstrating your analysis and one paragraph of write up regarding your analysis of B1 to B5 (five items). Part C: Age-Gender-Ethnicity Analysis of Accounting and Auditing Profession, relative to overall US workforce and other business professionals C1. Use “Data 16” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of age group distribution, and discuss how accounting and auditing professionals differ from “Business and financial operations occupations” and general workforce in the US, over the period of 2011-2020. C2. Use “Data 17” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of percentage represented by different ethnicity in accounting and auditing, discuss changes over Year 2011-2020, and how does accounting and auditing differ from “Business and financial operations occupations” and general workforce in the US C3. Use “Data 18” in the Excel file to perform visualization analysis of percentage represented by women in the below workforce over the period of 2011-2020. Women% in General workforce Women% in Accounting and Auditing Women% in Chief Executives Women% in Financial Analysts Women% in in tax preparers Deliverables: For each of the 3 items, please submit Graph(s) demonstrating your analysis and one paragraph of write up regarding your analysis of C1 to C3 (three items). Case Submission Requirements: Please consolidate all your answers (graphs and discussion) in one Word document using the below template. Please adjust the size of the table as needed. Question Graph (show variables in rows and column, filter, and legend) Discussion A1 Part A A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 B1 Part B B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 Part C C2 C3 In your final report, please use your Full Name, Section as the header of the Word file. Please submit your report to “[email protected]” Subject line of the submission email: DEI, Your Full Name , Section (8am/9:30am/11am) Due date: Nov 1 (11:59pm). (PST) ** If you have any questions regarding this DEI project, please email the GA at [email protected] (will reply within 36 hours if not sooner). 3 Alona Johnson Dialogue Theater Oct 15, 2021 Dialogue It is on a sunny day. Anderson is sited at the right corner of the restaurant; he keeps looking at his wristwatch. After, like twenty minutes, John walks in and goes directly to where Anderson is sited. John is a colleague of Anderson at work. John: Morning (Anderson does not respond), sorry for keeping you waiting (He pulls the set across the table and sets). Anderson: You were supposed to hear one hour a go! (He looks very upset). I have other things to do with my time, plus you are the reason this meeting is happening. If only you knew how to control your mouth. John: Come down. You are confusing me. How am I the reason for this meeting? Anderson: I am not here to play games with you. So now you do not know what you did/ John: I do not know what you mean. Just come down and explain what this is about. Anderson: John, I thought you had my back all this time. We have been friends for a while. (They are interrupted by the waiter, Anderson orders tea for both of them). Anderson: we had a deal that you would cover for; yesterday, when I went for that date with Ann. How come my proposal document was not forwarded to the director? Then, everybody knows I did not report to work? (An awkward silence for a while) John: Okay brother I can explain. Anderson: explain what? Just say this has been your plan all this while. I have always known you are not happy that my pay cheque is higher than yours. John: Please do not jump to conclusions. I even do not believe that has just come from you. Of all the things the least you can accuse me of is being jealous. What happened is I got held up with the job, so by the time I was finishing the director was out of the office. I was to deliver the proposal document this morning, but you called me here. Anderson: That won’t be necessary, I have been suspended for two weeks. The document was due yesterday. John: what? I never thought it would go to that extent. I am sorry brother. Anderson: sorry is not helpful at the moment. I hope you are happy. Why didn’t you tell me about the proposal, I would have called the director before all this? Next time do not betray your friend. John: I did not talk to anybody about the date. How the information got out I do not know. But we can try and solve things between us. Mine was an honest mistake, my intention was not to put you in trouble. I will talk to the director about your behavior and take the blame for not submitting the proposal document. Anderson: I do not think that will help. The discussion has been made. John: Just let me try to make things right. I feel I need to let them know you gave me the proposal document and it is my fault it was not delivered on time. Just believe me, nothing was done intentionally. Anderson: Let me give you the benefit of doubt, but I still feel betrayed. But I still feel you should have told me you never delivered the proposal document. It is an opportunity I have been waiting for, for a long time. John: Just believe me, brother, I value you as a friend and it has never been my wish to see you in this kind of trouble. I will try my best to convince the boss to reduce your suspension, to at least one week. Anderson: Okay if you say so, I just hope he listens to you. I do not know what I will be doing for the next two weeks. John: Do not worry brother, everything will be okay. I think I have to go now. (John moves his set and walks away). Charles Dicken Biography Questions Charles Dicken had many experiences in his life that later helped shape works such as A Christmas Carol. As you research the author, please answer the questions below. We will use this information to drive our discussions of the novel. If you run out of space, use the back to write your answers. Where was Charles Dickens born? How did his childhood home and experiences influence the novel? What surprising detail did you discover about Dickens? Name one way A Christmas Carol influenced holiday traditions. What were Dickens views on treatment of the poor? Why was it so significant that Dickens often highlighted the plight of the poor in his works? How was A Christmas Carol initially published? What was Dickens’ first job? How old was he when he started? How many hours did he work, and what was his pay? At what age did Dickens leave formal education? How many children did Dicken have? In what way could this have influenced a work like A Christmas Carol? How did Dickens wish to be buried? Were his wishes adhered to? What is a “stave,” and what is the significance of the novel being sectioned into four different staves? Why does the narrator make such a point of Marley’s being dead? Why doesn’t the weather affect Scrooge? How is Scrooge’s nephew different from Scrooge? What do the “portly gentlemen” who come in after Scrooge’s nephew leave want? How does the knocker change? Why does Scrooge like the darkness? (just after the incident with the knocker) What has Marley’s ghost been doing since his death? What is the warning that Marley gives Scrooge? Why are the phantoms (three paragraphs from the end of the stave) upset? What was the strangest thing about the way the spirit looked? (sentence beginning “but the strangest thing…) What is Scrooge’s initial attitude toward the spirit? What is different about Scrooge when he says “Remember it? I could walk it with a blindfold?” Who is Scrooge talking about when he says “Poor boy!” What does it tell us about Scrooge when Dickens observes “a rapidity of transition very foreign to his usual character.”? When Fan comes to pick Scrooge up, we learn a reason why Scrooge may have turned out the way he did. What is this reason? What kind of people are the Fezziwigs? Who is Belle and why was she important to Scrooge? Why does Scrooge say “Remove me.” (five paragraphs from the end of the stave) How does Scrooge try to “extinguish the light”? Does he succeed? What is the light a symbol of? Please answer the following questions for the second half of the novel: What does the Ghost of Christmas Present look like? What is this ghost’s personality like? How has Scrooge’s attitude toward his being escorted by a ghost changed? What are three significant things we learn about the Cratchits? How is Scrooge affected by seeing the family? What would Fred think would be a positive outcome of his Christmas invitation to Scrooge (the sentence beginning, “if it only…”)? What happens to Scrooge’s mood as the party goes on? Why do you think this happens? What does it mean to say the boy and the girl (Ignorance and Want – the last paragraphs of Stave 3) are “Man’s children”? What does the spirit of Christmas Future look like? What is the significance of this spirit’s appearance? What is this spirit’s personality like? How does Scrooge feel about this spirit? What is the point of the long discussion between Joe and Mrs. Dilber? Hint: they relate to Scrooge’s property. What are some of the words Dickens uses to create the mood of the paragraphs that follow? What is this mood? When Scrooge asks the phantom to let him “see some tenderness connected with a death,” what does the ghost show him? What is the lesson Scrooge learns after his encounter with the final spirit that he had not learned before? Why is this stave needed when Scrooge’s attitude had already changed so much Assignment 7.1A: Identifying Letters, Phonemes, and Graphemes in Words Template for 7.1A.docx Task 1) Indicate the number of letters in each word. Task 2) Indicate the number of phonemes (sounds) in each word. Task 3) Write the phonemes (sounds) for each word. the Consonant Phoneme Chart and Vowel Phoneme Chart Task 4) Indicate the number of graphemes (sounds) in each word. Task 5) Write the graphemes (letters) that represent the phonemes in each word. Assignment 13.3A: Scripting a Mini-lesson & Making an Anchor Chart Task 1) Choose one of the ELAR TEKS listed below. Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding. Retell in ways that maintain meaning and logical order. Summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order. Task 2) Use the template in Canvas to script a minilesson for that TEK you selected. (Uploaded) Task 3) Create an anchor chart to accompany the minilesson you scripted. Performance Assessment 13.7: Assessing Foundational and Comprehension Skills Instructions Tips for responding to an STR Constructed Response Question: Read the question carefully before you begin to write your response. Use bullets to organize your response. Each bullet should address the tasks in the order they appear in the question. There is a suggested word count, but you are not limited to that word count. Your response should directly address each component in depth. The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of standard English. Your written response should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work. You may use citations when appropriate. Performance Assessment 2.5A: Assessing Oral Language Development The Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines can be helpful in assessing a student’s competencies with oral language. The Language and Communication domain consists of five areas: https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/PKG_Final_2015_navigation.pdf Listening Comprehension Skills Speaking (Conversation) Skills Speech Production Skills Vocabulary Skills Sentences and Structure Skills Task 1) Review the Texas Pre-Kindergarten Guidelines (Links to an external site.) descriptions for each area within the language and communication domain. Task 2) Review Exhibit A: Chyna’s Oral Language Assessment Checklist and Exhibit B: Chyna’s Oral Language Assessment Data – Telling a Story Using a Picture Exhibit A: Chyna’s Oral Language Assessment Checklist Exhibit B: Chyna’s Oral Language Assessment Data – Telling a Story Using a Picture Task 3) Based on both of Chyna’s assessment documents (Exhibit A and Exhibit B), use the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines (p. 45-62) to identify three (3) areas of oral language development she is struggling most with. You should identify the general areas of weakness from the Language and Communication Domain as well as the specific outcomes found in the document. For example, if ‘listening’ is a general area of weakness, a specific outcome might be II.A.1- Child shows understanding by responding appropriately.) Task 4) Be sure to cite at least two (2) specific pieces of evidence from Chyna’s assessment data; indicate which assessment document the evidence came from. Each area of struggle should be supported with evidence from both exhibits. Use the Performance Assessment 2.5A: Assessing Oral Language Development template in Canvas® to record your response. Performance Assessment 2.5 Template-2.docx Task 5) The Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines also provides information to assist teachers with planning instructional strategies to address students’ needs. Use the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines to identify two (2) instructional strategies for each identified area of need (6 strategies in all) that will promote Chyna’s growth in oral language development. 5.1A: Analyzing Spelling Errors Ms. Davidson gave a spelling test to her first-grade class. Afterward, she identified the words that were most confusing for her students. Read the directions below to help Ms. Davidson complete an analysis of the spelling errors. Directions: Task 1) Download the Assignment 5.1 A: Analyzing Spelling Errors Template Task 2) Compare each assigned spelling word to the student response. Task 3) In Column 3, identify the phoneme confusion; which incorrect phoneme did the student choose? Task 4) In Column 4, identify the type of error the student made (place of articulation, manner of articulation, or both). Task 5) In Column 5, explain why that error probably occurred.  ***The first word in the spelling assessment has been completed for you as an example. Dasia is a Kindergarten student at Orchard Elementary. Her teacher, Ms. Lennon, is reviewing Dasia’s Nonsense Word Fluency assessment and a current writing sample from Dasia’s journal to track Dasia’s progress with the alphabetic principle. Review and analyze Dasia’s assessment results and writing sample to determine her strengths and weaknesses with the alphabetic principle. Performance Assessment 5.5A: Analysis of a Phonological Screening Assessment Juan is a first grader at Mesa Ridge Elementary. His teacher, Mr Walker, just completed a phonological screening assessment with the class. Review and analyze Juan’s assessment results to determine his strengths and weaknesses with phonological and phonemic awareness skills. In the answer box provided in Canvas, write a response of approximately 200–300 words.  ***Be sure to use the course content when responding to the following: Task 1) Identify the stage of phonological awareness Juan is currently in. Task 2) Identify one significant need that Juan demonstrates related to phonological or phonemic awareness. Cite specific evidence from the phonological screening assessment to support your analysis. Task 3) Select and describe one appropriate, effective instructional strategy or activity that would address the need you identified related to phonological or phonemic awareness. Task 4) Explain why the instructional strategy or activity you described would be effective in addressing the needs you identified and in helping Juan achieve grade-level reading standards. Performance Assessment 6.3A: Analysis of Data on Alphabetic Principle Dasia’s Assessment Data 1.docx In the answer box provided, write a response of approximately 300-500 words. ***Be sure to use the course content when responding to the following: Task 1) Define and explain the differences between the following terms: phonological and phonemic awareness, alphabet knowledge, the alphabetic principle, and decoding. How does mastering the alphabetic principle support reading fluency? Task 2) ​List and explain the skills that must be in place before Dasia is able to decode words. Task 3) Review Dasia’s Nonsense Word Fluency assessment and writing sample. Task 4) Identify one significant need that Dasia demonstrates related to the alphabetic principle. Cite specific evidence from the assessment to support your analysis. Task 5) Select and describe one appropriate, effective instructional strategy or activity that would address the need you identified related to the alphabetic principle. Task 6) Explain why the instructional strategy or activity you described would be effective in addressing the needs you identified and in helping Dasia achieve grade-level reading standards. You going to take this and put into power point slide and make a proposal for a business (you chose I have chosen Every plate to talk about. : You are coming up with a action plan for your business. How would you format it with the information given below: please attached pictures to get the audience attention: The difficulty our associates were complaining about is navigation through the production floor and not seeing their lead and lack of visibility from the rest of the team. Because they are not standing out affecting our associate acquisition. A uniform gives employee the impression that they are part of one big team, where there is no room for discrimination or distinction a team with a shared purpose, who wears the same apparel and shares the same values. One of the justifications is to foster a culture that encourages individuals to join hands and collaborate in a welcoming atmosphere. One of the first steps toward doing this is to have branded uniform vests in our company. If we continue to work toward creating a strong culture that may motivate not only our employees but also our associates, it is worthwhile to thoroughly examine and adopt a distinctive uniform code at our business. I’m proposing reasons why we should go ahead and implement a uniform for our company. We believe that having a recognized vest will assist us and our staff know precisely who their point of contact is by making the interface more eye-catching. We want to increase productivity: This will improve associate’s experience: Here at EP we have many daily associates and visitors that come into our warehouse, with a unique dress code that will ensure our associates/visitors don’t face any trouble or confusion when looking for help. Not getting the support they need can be a huge barrier, and if an individual can’t easily ask their query, they’ll likely walk around looking for their lead; this can cause frustration. As a uniform vest gives our staff a unique identity one that should be easy to spot across our warehouse and our associates will feel confident reaching out to them. This will not only ensure core competence, but it will also have a positive impact. It clearly distinguishes work and play One of the biggest difficulties with having a wardrobe that individuals use for both work and home life is that it may be rather restrictive. Employees may believe they are unable to relax because their brains are engaged with work, or they may find it difficult to enter the warehouse in “work mode.” Wearing a uniform vest signals to the brain that it is time to go to work. Clearly, our perception of what we wear has the potential to impact our behavior in either a positive or negative way. Implementing a uniform vest will not only assist employees maintain a good work/life balance, but it may also increase our workforce’s productivity. It creates a sense of unity Employees wearing the same uniform at EP will develop a sense of belonging and solidarity, which is crucial to the success of our business. A collaborative work environment with a team lead ethos can improve morale, productivity, and overall job satisfaction, ultimately contributing to improved performance and, therefore, a bigger bottom line. It gives employees more time With a uniform vest, all employees, regardless of job function, History of the Electoral College, or personal circumstances, are treated equally. We can prevent these difficulties fast and simply by having a uniform vest throughout the company, and we can guarantee our team stays focused on the work at hand to accomplish our organizational goals. As with any change, some employees may struggle to adjust to wearing a work uniform, but the long-term benefits to our business and our employees are well worth the adjustment process. Implementing a uniform vest may assist us in taking that first step toward developing a recognized corporate culture, which will result in improved brand recognition and a good perception of EP. It takes care of corporate branding at Every Plate When our employees wear a uniform with our brand logo (EP), we immediately set ourselves apart from our competitors and spread awareness about our business. Whenever our staff leave the workplace to go home, they become a walking advertisement for our business, which is much harder to achieve without a corporate uniform. However, the onus is on our business and our staff to convey a positive image of EP. Knowing our business and our values well and sharing and promoting them to our audience accordingly in addition to taking consumer-friendly action, will result in a healthy dose of brand awareness which is great news for our business. Cost I negotiated with a few vendors and found a fantastic deal on our team lead vest. We estimate a budget of $400 to $500 for a project of this level. If we can proceed, we can go through the plan in further depth and change the budget depending on our unique needs and our recommendations. 2 For this assignment, apply the language matrix developed by Jim Cummins,(1984) to analyze the complexity of language tasks– with additional research on this construct by Do Coyle (2002). There are two parts to this assignment. 1. Please read the attached document Classifying Language Activities with Cummin’s Matrix as a tool for planning instruction in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), and complete the task classification exercise on page 2. Please note that the organization of the quadrants is flipped in the design of these two models 2. Provide examples of instructional activities that fall into each of the quadrants identified on Cummin’s Matrix. Explain the learning scaffolds you would provide your ELL’s to increase their achievement in activities of high cognitive/ linguistic demand. Due by 11:59 pm ET, Sunday Rubric Submission includes specific examples for each of Cummin’s Matric quadrants. 40 points Submission includes explanations about the learning scaffolds provided to ELLs. 50 points Submission is submitted on time and adheres to current APA style 10 points Total Points = 100 Discussion Board 3.4A: Connecting the SVR, Four-Part Reading Process Model and the Reading Rope 88 unread replies.88 replies. In earlier modules, we learned about the Simple View of reading and the Four-Part Processing Model.  In our current module, you will be introduced to Scarborough’s Reading Rope. After reviewing the material, answer the following question: What is the connection between the Simple View of Reading, the Four-Part Processing Model, and Scarborough’s Word Recognition Strand? Remember that discussions need to include evidence of critical thought. Discussion Board 3.4B: The Reading Rope and Fluency 88 unread replies.88 replies. 1) Describe the subskills of word recognition and language comprehension in Scarborough’s Reading Rope. 2) Using the reading rope model, explain the process of becoming a fluent reader. Discussion Board 4.1A: The ELAR K-5 TEKS and Word Recognition 88 unread replies.88 replies. Task 1: Use the TEKS Statements to locate the student expectations related to word recognition (Grades K-2: 2B; Grades 3-5: 2A). Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading (Links to an external site.) Task 2: Identify two student expectations that support word recognition. Task 3: List and describe those two student expectations. Be sure to include the correct letter and numerical indicator for each including the grade level. Task 4: Explain how those expectations will influence student success. Be sure to include ideas from the course content in your explanation. To receive full credit for your original discussion post, answer the above question.  Please use complete sentences when answering.  Remember that discussions need to include evidence of critical thought. Discussion Board 4.2A: The ELAR K-5 TEKS and Spelling 88 unread replies.88 replies. Task 1: Use the TEKS Statements to locate the student expectations related to spelling (Grades K-2: 2C), Grades 3-5: 2B) Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading (Links to an external site.) Task 2: Identify two student expectations that support spelling. Task 3: List and describe those two student expectations. Be sure to include the correct letter and numerical indicator for each including the grade level. Task 4: Explain how those expectations will influence student success. Be sure to include ideas from the course content in your explanation. Discussion 10.1A: The ELAR K–5 TEKS and Reading Comprehension 99 unread replies.99 replies. Task 1: Use the TEKS Statements (Links to an external site.) to locate the student expectations related to reading comprehension: Grade K (5A-I), Grades 1 – 5 (6A-I). Task 2: Identify two student expectations that support reading comprehension. Task 3: List and describe those two student expectations. Be sure to include the correct letter and numerical indicator for each. Task 4: Explain how those expectations will influence student success. Be sure to include ideas from the course content in your explanation. Discussion 12.1A: The ELAR K-5 TEKS and Writing 99 unread replies.99 replies. Task 1: Use the TEKS Statements to locate the student expectations related to composition: Grade K (10,11), Grades 1 – 5 (11,12). Task 2: Identify two student expectations that support composition. Task 3: List and describe those two student expectations. Be sure to include the correct letter and numerical indicator for each. Task 4: Explain how those expectations will influence student success. Be sure to include ideas from the course content in your explanation. Discussion Forums Discussion forums are a way for you to engage with each other about the course content. Questions will be asked in the forum. Given the time constraints with this course, there are no lectures associated with this class.  The course will rely heavily on the discussions. Please make sure that you answer all the discussion board questions and that you periodically review your initial posting for potential questions posed by either me or your classmates. You will receive a weekly grade based on your participation. In order to earn full credit for each discussion, you will need to post a thoughtful, well-written response to the question and respond to your classmates’ responses. You are required to incorporate a minimum 3 intext citations in your initial post and in your subsequent responses. The discussion board replaces the face-to-face interactions and is meant to be a dialogue and a learning activity for the entire class. Responses should be at minimum a paragraph, which consists of 5 fully formed sentences. You are required to incorporate a minimum of 3 intext citations in your initial post and in your subsequent responses.  A minimum total of 9 intext citations is required for each discussion. Responses that are not thoughtful and do not answer the question thoroughly will not receive full credit. The content of your postings must demonstrate an understanding of the relevant text material and include citations (3-9 minimum) from either the course reading or supplemental material. Please be very cognizant of spelling, grammar, and punctuation, as you will lose points for errors. No cyber speak, please. Use correct grammar, English, and punctuation. Only respond to questions that are posted in the discussion forum. 2 Your assignment will be the creation and the evaluation of test items. Select a topic ( preferably a topic you teach in your own classroom) and identify the grade/age level. Prepare five multiple choice, five true-false and five matching items (Chapter 8), one extended-response essay item, one restricted-response essay item and two short-answer items around this topic. In addition, develop one rubric for the essay items and one rubric for the two short-answer items. One rubric should be an analytic rubric and one a holistic rubric. You do not have to develop more than one rubric for any one item. Only submit two rubrics in total (e.g. one for the two types of essay items and one for the short answer items). Remember to create items that address multiple levels of thinking, especially higher levels of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy. Only one item from multiple choice, one item from true/false and one item from matching should address the lower levels of knowledge or comprehension. All others should address higher levels. Include a short discussion and analysis of your preferred type of assessment questions with explanations/rationales grounded in the body of literature. Cite, write, and reference in APA 6th edition style. Submit the following: Five multiple choice, five true/false, five matching items, one extended-response essay item, one restricted-response essay item, and two short-answer items for a topic (list topic and grade or age level) Two rubrics (one analytic and one holistic) to go along with the essay items and short answer items A 1-2 page analysis of your assessment questions explaining your preferred types of questions. Weekly Discussion -Caste System 1) After reading the two articles and listening to the NPR podcast- use textual evidence (with in-text citations) of what the articles are saying that is similar and what different points they bring to the table. This should be 2 paragraph- one that talks about the similarities and one that talks about what is different in each- what new element that contribute. Both paragraphs should have example from each source (so 3 examples in each paragraph). 2) How did you see the idea of the caste system this in Hunger Games? Weekly Discussion: The Problem of Evil In Module 9, you learned about the Problem of Evil. You also learned about possible solutions to the Problem of Evil: defend God’s existence using a theodicy; modify your definition of God and believe in a different sort of God; not believe in God at all. In your own words, answer questions (1) and (2) about the Problem of Evil. (1) Explain the Problem of Evil. In your explanation, be sure you specify which specific type of God the Problem of Evil argues against. Why is the Problem of Evil only an argument against this specific type of God? (2) What do you think is the best solution to the Problem of Evil and why? (In other words, do you think any of the theodicies you learned about can successfully defend the existence of God? If so, explain that theodicy and why you think it succeeds. OR Can you think of a way to defend God here that you didn’t learn about in this class? If so, explain. OR Do you think the best solution is to modify your definition of God and believe in a different sort of God? If so why? OR Do you think the best solution is to not believe in God at all? If so, why?)

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