Get help from the best in academic writing.

HHS OIG Compliance Protocol In the Law of Health Care Administration, 9th Edition. Read: There are 4 questions answer

HHS OIG Compliance Protocol

In the Law of Health Care Administration, 9th Edition. Read:
There are 4 questions answer in a few sentences.
Ch. 15 Fraud Laws and Corporate Compliance (pages 567 – 601)
eBook UMGC Library Permalink: http://ezproxy.umgc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true

1 Simulacrum and the Theory of the forms Q1. What problems does

1

Simulacrum and the Theory of the forms

Q1. What problems does the simulacrum pose for the theory of the forms?

One of the problems that simulacrum poses for the theory of forms is that it makes the theory of forms irrelevant. This is because it offers a contradictory account on the presence of a type of an image which, though looks like the real, is not a presentation of the real thing. The theory of forms, as such, lacks authenticity because it had not earlier on accounted for this possibility. In its application to real life situations, things that are in a particular orientation can seem to look like something real, but on a close look it appears that it is just its reflection that looks like something real while itself does not. The theory of forms only talks about real things and their reflections, but it did not give a thought on the possibility of some things giving an image that looks like something else than what they are. As such, the simulacrum renders the theory of forms either incomplete or irrelevant.

That being the case, it is possible for people to create deceptive reflections or images of things – that is, people can fake resemblance. When a resemblance is faked, people might end up having something they did not bargain for or something they did not want. This applies to the case of justice whereby justice may seem to have done only to realize it was not real justice but a fake reflection of justice. There is a common principle in law whereby justice should not only be done, but also seem to be done. If that is the case, somebody seeking justice may be deceived to have gotten it while he or she may have gotten something other than justice. It becomes very hard, therefore, to tell if justice has been done or not. The general implication is that imperfect copies of various things can be used to attain sinister goals.

INFLUENCE OF AMERICAN ECONOMY ON THE SALE OF SAMSUNG Running head: INFLUENCE

HHS OIG Compliance Protocol In the Law of Health Care Administration, 9th Edition. Read: There are 4 questions answer Writing Assignment Help INFLUENCE OF AMERICAN ECONOMY ON THE SALE OF SAMSUNG

Running head: INFLUENCE OF THE AMERICAN ECONOMY ON SALES OF SAMSUNG

Influence of the American Economy on the Sales Samsung

Name

Institution
Sales of Samsung in America will be highly influenced by the state of economy

Introduction (Back-ground of the company and a brief overview of the problem)

Samsung Anycall is a company based in South Korea which had a very humble beginning as a small business company in 1938. Today the company has evolved to be a world-class modern corporation whose lines of products include mobile phones, cameras, network provision and digital TV broadcast services. It is the world largest technology company in terms of revenues, the biggest Smartphone maker and television maker. It is also the second largest semiconductor chip producer. Currently it occupies a very prominent place on the world market. The company continues to seek business opportunities and explore new markets for expansion of its empire.

Electronics from Samsung Anycall inspire the global population and shape the future with transformative ideas and technological innovations that allow people to discover new experiences. With a constant focus on innovation and discovery, the company keeps redefining the worlds of Smart phones, televisions, tablets, LED solutions and digital appliances. This is what has made the company to be a global giant in its industry.

In America, the company has a big chunk of the market with the only direct competitors being Apple Inc. The company operates as an oligopoly with the market fluctuations solely dependent on the state of the economy in the country. Thus the number of sales made by the company are determined by the country’s economic state. A favorable economy increases the level of disposable income to the Americans. Consequently, they can afford to buy the electronics and this translates to increased sales while a deep in the economy leads to reduced sales by the company as the little available income is used to cater for the basic needs. This paper seeks to look at how the state of the American economy will influence the sales of Samsung products in the country.

Correlation of the State of the American Economy to the Sales of Samsung Products

Samsung Company operates under foreign direct investment (FDI) in America and it has set up a base in South Carolina to facilitate production of home appliances. The sale of these appliances together with other gadgets shipped from its parent base in South Korea requires a good business environment brought about by an optimum economy. There are various sectors in the economy that combine to influence the level of sales of the Samsung electronics. The sectors that get into play to influence sales need to be carefully evaluated to provide direction and control in a bid to stabilize sales of the company. These sectors include: transport sector, production sector, currency exchange rate among others.

The transport sector greatly influences the number of sales of Samsung products in America. When the cost of transport increases, the products reach only a small group of target customers and this translates to reduced sales to the company. Some of the areas are also inaccessible and the company’s delivery personnel are unable to exhaust the potential market. Outsourcing the delivery services to companies specialized in this field, such as Amazon, is a strategy that will increase sales of the company. Some of the products the company produces are fragile and need specialized handling equipment if they are to be transported over long distances. Delivery companies are able to do this and the strategy adds to increased sales in the long-run.

Production sector is another part of the economy that impact on the sales from the Samsung Company. The production cost of the products is what determines the overall price of sale. In American economy where individuals specialize and sharpens a skill in one area, outsourcing of the production processes proves to be cheaper rather than investing capital and this is a strategy that would help in price reduction of the products and will lead to increased sales.

The dollar exchange rate impacts on the overall price of gadgets from the company. When the economy is stable and growing, the currency strengthens and increases in value. Since Samsung is a foreign company in America operating under FDI, some of it products and raw materials are shipped from South Korea. This mean that use of different currency comes into play. A weakening dollar contributes to the increase of Samsung imports. The increased prices contribute to diminished sales, and the result is diminished profits for the company in the long-run. In order to curb this influence of currency fluctuations, Samsung need to develop a stable pricing strategy for its product that is rigid and free of influence by the decline or incline in the value of the dollar. It can do this by harmonizing the prices in the different states and making the decision of using the dollar currency when setting up prices for company’s products.

As observed, there are good strategies that will counter the problems that arise due to change in the economy. The problems when not dealt with will lead to reduced sales in the company.

References

Bajaj, A. (2017). A Study on Market Segmentation of Samsung Electronics Ltd. With special References to Mobile Phones. International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, 3(5), 367-372.

Choi, P. P. (2016). Evolution of Samsung group and its central office: Imperfect market and capacity-building. Asian Business & Management, 15(5), 370-398.

Lebergott, S. (2015). The American Economy: Income, Wealth and Want (Vol. 1412). Princeton University Press.

FIRST ITERATION 6 Running head: FIRST ITERATION First Iteration Effectiveness of Veracode’s

FIRST ITERATION 6

Running head: FIRST ITERATION

First Iteration

Effectiveness of Veracode’s Web Application Security Testing and Scanning Solutions

Action Research

Course Code:

Name:

Table of contents

Plan 3

Act 4

Observe 5

Reflect 5

Iteration 1: Research focus

Plan. An iteration has three phases, the first one being the planning phase. It is prudent that a researcher, before conducting the actual research, plans for it in order to develop a clear path that the research will follow until the ultimate goals and objectives are achieved. It is the same case herein with each iteration being planned for before the various activities therein can be conducted in practice. Planning entails various activities that are all aimed at making clear what is to be done and how, when and by who. The first iteration of this action research has been defined as determining the research focus where the researcher identifies the problem to be analyzed. Various activities that were conducted during the planning phase were as follows:

Identifying topic of discussion. The topic under discussion herein has to be identified in order to give the action research some sense of direction. Without this, the rest of the phases in this iteration may not be possible to undertake, neither are the rest of the iterations in the action research.

Resources assessment. The researcher also needs to assess the resource requirements for the iteration to determine if there are adequate resources that include time, money, equipment and tools (where necessary) to complete the iteration. Each action requires specified resources whose availability has to be assured before conducting the iteration.

Resource allocation. This is the activity where the researcher allocates the necessary resources to the various activities and/ or processes for the iteration (normally the action phase).

Scheduling. This is the last activity where the researcher makes a schedule for the various activities to take place in the iteration.

Act. Every iteration will have a second phase as the action phase. When undertaking research projects, the researcher gets ready for the research (planning) before actually conducting the research. The second phase is where the researcher puts the plan into action in order to materialize the plans and in order to achieve the objectives of the iteration. This is the phase that makes things real – that is, actions within the iteration done practically. The various activities conducted within the second phase of the iteration are as discussed below:

Topic adopted. The topic of research was adopted. This topic is the web application security testing and scanning. In action research, a topic is chosen and then the problem(s) identified for purpose of inquiring about it. The problem identified in this topic is the ineffectiveness of the various web application security and scanning tools or solutions offered by the various vendors. Despite by various vendors to help solve this problem, the web applications have always been at risk of attacks.

Defining scope of the action research. This action research is to be narrowed down because it is too general. The action researcher defines the scope of the action research as focusing on the solutions offered by a company called Veracode Inc., where the researcher will focus on how effective these solutions are in enhancing the security of the web applications.

Defining metrics. After the scope of the research has been defined, metrics are then defined. Effectiveness can be assessed using various metrics that the researcher needs to define before applying them. The metrics herein would include the number of vulnerabilities detected and sealed by the company’s solutions, as well as the strength of these solutions against the deadliest threats.

Observe. The essence of conducting a research exercise is to obtain insight into the various issues under study. In other words, the researcher needs to take note of the things happening and their corresponding outcomes. This is the work of the third phase of the iterations: observation phase. In this phase, the action researcher keeps record of all activities and outcomes before seeking explanations in the phase that follows the observation phase. Various observations recorded by the action researcher are as follows:

All web application security solutions vendors claim to offer the best solutions in the industry, but the fact remains there are always vulnerabilities. Data present indicates web applications remain among the key target for attacks. The research focus was based on this knowledge.

Veracode is among the vendors offering solutions that could be amongst the best in the industry, and this makes it a good choice for the action research. The effectiveness of these solutions will be representative of all others in the industry, and the researcher needs to ascertain claims that all vulnerabilities are taken care of by the company’s products.

The iteration was a success, as the information was available. Defining the problem was supported by facts presented by various experts who claimed the web application to remain vulnerable despite the efforts of the developers to improve their security. This was against the claims by vendors who claimed to offer ultimate solution, and the conflict has become a topic of discussion by various groups of people. Key parties include the users and the vendors, as well as the experts/developers.

Reflect. After taking note of the actions undertaken and their corresponding outcomes, the researcher needs to clarify various issues surrounding the research. In this case, the action researcher intends to explain various issues relating to the happenings in the iteration. This is the last phase of the iteration, and it is called the reflection phase. In this phase, the focus is to derive lessons and also explain why things went on as they dis. This includes also explaining success and failures, as well as the challenges and restraints experienced while undertaking the iteration.

There are a good number of things that went on well. Among these include defining the focus of the action research. The researcher gave the action research a sense of direction, just as the planning phase gives direction to the iteration. The success of this iterations meant success of the rest. Secondly, the resources were all made available successfully, and this was perhaps because there were not many resources required, just some insight into the problem at hand. Information was the key resource needed for the success of the iteration. There is nothing significant that was seen to go wrong. However, a process that could be improved was the assessment of the problem and extending the focus to one or two more vendors.

The main challenge herein was the time, whereby some more time would have been more helpful in offering a clearer scope of the problem. Gaps are more likely to appear, and the main one here is focusing on a single companyexpecting it to be representative of the entire industry. This causes the risk of biasness of the ultimate outcome of this action research.

WASTE MANAGEMENT 2 Running Head: WASTE MANAGEMENT Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course

WASTE MANAGEMENT 2

Running Head: WASTE MANAGEMENT

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course Title

Date

Introduction

Guerrero, Maas and Hogland ( 2013, p.220) defines waste management as the process by which waste products from different sections such as domestic, industrial and commercial, is usually managed from the point of inception to the final disposal. The trio also adds that waste management is a major challenge mostly for the developing countries due to three main reasons. First, due to continued increase in generation of waste in different sectors, second, the budgetary constraints experienced due to high costs of managing the waste and third, the lack of proper understanding of the various existing factors that usually affect the management of waste at different stages. Also, there is lack of understanding in the authorities and citizens of the proper linkages which are used to enhance the functionality of the waste management process. This paper will focus on the activities in waste management undertaken by the Southampton City Council in a period from 2010 to 2017. It will compare these activities with those of other English authorities in different cities as well as with the national targets in waste management as stipulated in Waste Management Plan for England 2013. It will then delve into devising a hypothetical outline and implementation plan for the city for the period 2020-2025. This will involve matters relating to collection of waste, its sustainability, the practical implementation process, infrastructure and service provision as well as public consultation.

Activities undertaken by the Southampton City Council during 2010-2017

Policy formulation and change

The Southampton City Council reviewed and changed its waste management policy as from 5th June 2017. The major change in the policy was established in the policy that existed before this time was the reduction of the frequency of garbage collection from households. The council settled on a fortnight collection frequency a significant change from the previous weekly collection. Other policy changes on matters regarding waste collection involved the implementation of policies that support side wastes, the increase in bin capacity for each household and the introduction of closed lids for the heavy bins newly introduced.(Smith and Aber, 2018, p. ) Also, the city council initiated an education and awareness program to sensitize the citizens of the need for proper waste management in their households as well as in their environment. This awareness was extended to the sensitization of the formal fixed penalties that were passed and that would be passed in the future as well as the procedure of effecting these penalties.

Creation of special management teams and groups

During the same period, the city county established a project team that was supported by the Project Management Office of the council. Two teams were then formed; the Steering Group and the Internal Implementation Board. These two would be in charge of any project and its governance in the city. According to the council, these teams were implemented in order to cover a large ground scale in the city with coming up with new projects that would help in waste management and any other related activities. Under these two teams, the Streetscene Enforcement Officers group was formulated which consisted of three officers. Their task was to enforce the policies stipulated in the new policy layout. Another team that was formulated under the two groups was the specialist customer service team whose tasks were to ensure that the implementation of the policies as stated above were proceeding swiftly and smoothly according to plan. It would also serve to collect any information, suggestions and complaints from the customers for the review of implementation.

The Streetscene Enforcement Team

During this period, the city council resolved to increase team members to the already existing team. Their main tasks involved dissemination of information to the customers and citizens of the city regarding their responsibilities in managing waste in their environment, education of the customers of the waste management requirements, processes as well as the legal implications that follow. They would also act as enforcers to the new policies.

Recycling strategy

In the year 2016/17 Southampton City Council implemented some additional and meaningful changes to the waste management structure in order to reduce disposal costs and improve the savings. These changes included the “production of solid recovered fuel from HWRC and waste” which led to saving the landfill costs incurred previously, making use of the Alton mixed paper in order to improve its quality in the market, the recycling of street sweepings as well as the purchase of spare waste incineration capacity to cater for the increase waste amount collected. This shows that the city council had implemented a drive towards recycling of waste as a waste management strategy in the city.

Comparison of these activities with those of other English authorities

1.1.1 Portsmouth City Council

Recycling Strategy

The Portsmouth City Council located in Hampshire County Council alongside Southampton City Council has formulated a major project; Project Integra, whose main focus and vision is to effectively manage sustainable resources and material systems in the city as a move to maximize re-use. This is a move directed to reduce the amount of waste disposed. Additionally, in this project the city council also wishes to increase the amount of recycled materials in the same wave of reducing waste disposal. Project Integra is a partnership between various waste management authorities in the county. This includes the eleven Waste Disposal Authorities (WDA), the Hampshire County Council as one of the Waste Disposal Authorities in the region, the unitary authorities which include itself and Southampton City Council as well as Veolla Environmental Services (VES), which is an integrated waste management and disposal contractor. (Smith and Aber, 2018, p. 196) The project was bound to incorporate five main behaviors in the waste management spectrum. These include avoidance of waste disposal by reintroduction of unprocessed materials into the manufacturing processes, reduction in the wastage by designing products which last longer , are upgradable and use less material per unit area, re-use of materials, remanufacturing of product after re-use and repair and replacement of parts of a components in an item.

1.1.2 Birmingham City Council

Birminghan City being one of the most populous cities in England, is an important focus of analysis on how it handles its waste management.

Recycling

Birmingham City Council has implemented the most effective recycling strategy. As one of the strategies, the city council has created the paper and card recycling plant in South Yardley Ward with partnership of Smurfit Kappa. (Edjabou, et.al. 2015, p. 12) This plant recycles paper, cards and cardboard and this reduces the wastage and disposal. Smurfit Kappa usually uses these recycled materials as raw materials for their paper mills and packaging plants. Additionally, paper form the households is usually collected and transported to Nechells paper mill where it is recycled into brown paper for packaging purposes. (Edjabou, et.al. 2015, p. 12) The company, Smurfit Kappa, has also partnered with Sutton Trinity in the recycling process. The residents of this ward also benefit from collection of the papers, cards and cardboard which are the used for the mills at the company. Birmingham City Council also offers garden waste services and refuses collection from the various households. This is usually doe at a small fee for the households who prefer collection of the garden waste. The city council also introduced are recycling wheelie bins which are dispatched to each household. (Robinson, et.al. 2014, p. 114)The importance of these bins is that they help in waste management through ease of collection of recyclable materials from the households. The provision of these materials increases the chance of increasing the amount of materials to be recycled consequently leading to reduction in waste disposal.

Comparison of these activities with the national waste management targets

The national waste management targets in the Waste Management Plan for England involves waste hierarchy of what the nation needs to achieve in matters pertaining waste management. These include prevention, preparing for re-use, recycling, other recovery and disposal. In prevention, the plan wishes to achieve potential savings in businesses through resource efficiency and preventing waste in the environment, instilling a culture of valuation of resources and helping business to design products that will reduce waste. The same case applies to re-use, recycling and disposal. With this hierarchy, it is evident that Southampton City Council is focused on attaining these principles. Though waste management is devolved in England, the city council has taken the initiative of incorporating these aspects in its waste management policies and plans. One major difference is that the plan for England as a whole seeks to adopt the “polluter pays principle” which focuses on waste management penalties on the waste producer and holder. Essentially, what happens is that the original waste producer incurs the cost of waste management as well as the current and previous waste holder. The distributor of the products which turn into waste, also share this cost. This is a huge policy that Southampton City Council has not implemented or focused on in its framework.

Additionally, the Waste Management plan for England covers other wastes such as Construction and Demolition Wastes (C&D), hazardous waste, as well as waste imports and exports. This may be the case since this is a general and conclusive plan for the whole of England as opposed to that of a city, which is a section of the country. (Farmer, Shaw and Williams, 2015, p. 272) However, the city council of Southampton should add these frameworks in its polices as additional to cover and regulate on. From this analysis it is true to say that through the Waste Management Plan for England may be of a wider scope than that of Southampton, the latter is more focused on attaining the future prospects as stipulated in the plan of the former. If this runs concurrent with the plan of other cities in the country, then the vision of this plan will be attained in less the prospected time.

2.0 Hypothetical outline and implementation plan for Southampton for the period 2020-2025

Collection of waste

In order to maximize the collection of waste, the Southampton City Council will proceed with the existing project where the collection was rescheduled from a week to a fortnight period. This will save the extra costs incurred in the weekly collection and also it will serve to provide a large amount of waste that will be cost effective for the recyclers and disposal.

Disposal of waste,

In the 2020-2025 action plan for Southampton, disposal of waste will be the last option for any waste in the waste management process. This will involve landfill and incineration without energy recovery for all the waste products that are not fit for the other waste management criteria. Some of the waste products to be included will be hazardous wastes such as asbestos, process residues with examples of pre-treated industrial waste and the waste which does not offer any alternative to landfill. (Allesch and Brunner, 2014, p. 465)The waste reaching this level will have passed through all other waste management practices and considered unfit.

Recovery

In order to properly the recovery of waste, the Southampton City Council will form a project plan that supports anaerobic Digestion (AD) in order to deal with the organic waste from the households, restaurants, and hotels and reduce landfill. This will involve the creation of an action plan to incorporate firms that produce energy from organic wastes as well as those that produce bio fertilizers. . (Allesch and Brunner, 2014, p. 465) These two will ensure that any organic waste collected will be recovered into advantageous forms of energy and bio-fertilizers.

Recycling

The city council should structure a recycling program which should involve up-cycling and down cycling ideas. Up-cycling involves recreation of items which would be rendered not useful into functional ides in the households. This project will involve encouraging households to use disposal items such as shoes in creative ways such as flower inlays, wood pallets can be used as stairs, creation of kitchen backboards, plant labels and also bathmats. Plastic bottled could be used to irrigate plants and flowers in the compound when one is away for a long time, among others. (Brunner and Rechberger, 2015, p.7) Down-cycling is another recycling idea that the Southampton City Council will focus on. This will involve the stripping of components from pieces of waste into useful parts for example, the unused clothes can be used as lining for pets and old CDs and DVDs into decorative items. Wine bottles can be fitted with LED lights to serve as attractive lighting schemes for the household compound.

The street sweepings should be turned into nutritional content for the soil and used in flowers and trees in various parts of the city.

Reuse

Some of the waste that is produced in the city of Southampton can be reused through various ways. For example, the waste tires can be used to provide fuel for the cement kilns. It can also be turned into various products such as shoes, flooring and decorations instead of being left bare in the environment. (Brunner and Rechberger, 2015, p.7) The Southampton City Council should partner with various humanitarian groups in the city as well as beyond in a donation to charity project that collect clothes from households which they don’t mean to wear and provide them to the less fortunate in the community. Such a project will involve creation of awareness and sensitization about the importance of reducing landfill from the clothes disposed. Though these clothes can decompose, reusing them in the helping of other people, children will reduce the landfill in the city. (Brunner and Rechberger, 2015, p.8)

Prevention and minimization

Prevention as a waste management strategy is at the top of the waste management hierarchy provided in the Waste Management Plan for England. In order for the Southampton City Council to align with this prospect and to extend its reach on the same, it will undertake various waste management options. First, it will advise and encourage the businesses in the city to consider waste reduction in the design of their products and services using appropriate business models to provide waste that is manageable. (Roberts, et.al. 2018, p. 350).Second, it will delve into extensive education and awareness creation to people and instill a culture of valuation of resources through using them longer, re-using and repairing them. Third, it will sensitize businesses on the valuation and cost reduction when waste is reduced as well as the possible opportunities for growth. It will also seek support from the central and local government in order to capitalize on these opportunities through financial allocation.

Sustainability

The 2020-2025 Southampton Waste Management Plan involves strategic thinking based on 10 important steps. These are:

Understanding the current and future waste streams

This plan will consider the different waste streams existing and which are likely to exist within the next two years. These include the household waste, commercial and industrial waste, Construction and Demolition waste (C&D) and hazardous wastes. Specific teams will be selected to handle each of the above streams. For example, there will be a team for handling household waste and another for commercial and industrial. All these teams will be under Waste Management Oversight Group which will direct the teams on how to handle the wastes from each stream.

Measuring the current waste generation

The waste management processes in Southampton are considered to be among the lowest compared to other neighboring disposal authorities; Dorset Waste Partnership, Surrey County Council, Isle of Wight Council among others. It has a recycling maximum performance of 27% compared to 59%, the highest, by Dorset Waste Partnership. This puts it in position 325 on the national ranking of the best disposal authorities in recycling. This means that in order to improve, major recycling interventions must be made through policing, regulation and devising of action through creation of recycling plants.

Building teams, leadership support and dedication of resources

As stated earlier, the Southampton City Council will create specific teams for the different waste streams. This will increase the efficiency in waste collection, disposal and other management practices. (Mukhtar, Williams and Shaw, 2017, p. 8; Smith and Aber, 2018, p. 194) In order to facilitate these interventions, the council is seeking leadership support from the Hampshire County City on the integration process. This will include both financial and legislative policing and procedures undertaken.

Setting targets and goals

The main goal of Southampton City Council is to increase the level of recycling by 10 % up from 27% between 2020 and 2025. This will involves creation of SMART Goals which involve complete accountability, commitment to the waste management process by all the people involved.

Track, measure and reporting strategy

In order to ensure that the waste management process is proceeding as intended, the Southampton City council will consistently track the waste management through collection of data of increased collection, disposal, recycling and prevention attained. Additionally, it will also track the costs incurred in the process and any savings made in order to ensure that the process in economical and at the same time increasing the level of waste management. (Hannan, et.al. 2015, p. 518) Measuring will include the continuous monitoring of motivation and commitment from the staff through the use of frequent surveys, involvement in decision making and creating a communication channel where they can relay their complains, opinions and suggestions. On reporting, the city council is implementing a reporting strategy which will involve the use of newsletters; monthly and quarterly in order to show the milestones attained in the process. This will also provide information on the commitment and progress that the council has made.

Education, training and celebrating

The city council will implement various education, training and celebration platforms for the community. Citizens will be continuously educated on the change in work practices, the available waste management processes and will receive feedback on their progress. Training will take place under compliance and policy related issues through the newsletters, media and posters. (Mukhtar, Williams and Shaw, 2017, p. 12) The city council is also working on a Waste Management Day specifically for Southampton in order to create more waste management impact in the people. Celebrations will be done on this day by recognition of the efforts that the city members have contributed to where various gifts will be issued to different categories.

Practical Implementation processes

One of the major practical implementation plans is the policy of polluter pays principle which is borrows from the Waste Management Plan for England. This policy will involve the waste producer, waste holder and waste distributor. It requires that both the producer and the holder should manage the waste in such a way that provided protection for the environment. It also stipulates that the cost of waste management will be borne by the current or the previous holder of the waste or the waste producer. The distributor of the waste will share the cost as well. This is to ensure that there is minimum waste in order to reduce its negative impact on the environment.

The city council is also undertaking an initiative under the Transformation program that will involve disposal contracting involving three main activities: contract extension of the disposing companies, landfill diversion and encouragement of innovation among the contracted companies on how to handle the waste disposal. .(Laurent, et.al.2014., p 596) Under the Household Waste and Related Services (HWRS), the city council is planning on retendering of the management contract, empowering the Household Waste and Related Services Impact Team that will be composed of six members and implementing charges for the non-household waste which will be provided at a later date.

It is also expected that by 2025, the households in Southampton will have increased by 8000. This means that there need to be a concise framework to cater for this increase in waste. Therefore, the city council resolves in creation of the facilities as stated, in huge capacity to cater for an expansion capacity of 50,000. This will ensure that after the 2020-2025 Plan has been attained, the authorities after that will not have to incur additional costs in expansion or construction of other facilities.(Laurent, et.al.2014., p 594) This is a long term solution and project that the city council hopes to implement by 2025.

Infrastructure and service provision

In order to improve the level of waste management in the city, the city council in partnership with the Hampshire County Council will implement various infrastructural changes which include one Energy Recovery Facility (ERF), 1 Material Recovery Facility (MRF), 6 Household Waste Recycling Centers, 1 Composting facility and 3 transfer stations. The Energy Recovery Facility will be used to produce energy from the naturally decomposing household waste. It will also be used in the manufacture of bio-fertilizers which will then be sold to consumers in order to provide costs for expansion of the facility, facilitation of the work and saving on extra waste management costs. (Soltani, et.al. 2015, p. 326) The Material Recovery Facility (MRF) will be used for extensive preparation and separation of materials to be recycled and distributed to the recycling plants. The Waste House Hold Recycling Centers will be used as locations for recycling household waste products. (Soltani, 2015, p. 326)

The financial provision for the city council in order to fund these activities will involve disposal contract an HWRC. Disposal contracting will involve three major activities: landfill diversion, contract extension and new contract entry and improved innovative ventures. HWRC will encompass re-tendering of the management contract, imposition of charges on the non-household wastes as well as maximizing performance in this section. (Laurent, et.al. 2014, p. 578) A transformation program will also be implemented that will involve devising various ways in which the costs of the waste management process will be reduced while increasing performance.

Since there is an existing contact with Veolla UK which was entered into by the city council in 2015 to extend to 2030, the city council will in several ways in which it wishes to work hand in hand with the company in modeling the costs. These include the maximization of economies of scale and design a wide range of products from the materials from the pots, tubs and trays as well as cartons. (Laurent, et.al. 2014, p. 578) This will increase the availability of recycled materials in the city.

Public consultation

In order to gather relevant information from the public, the Southampton City Council will formulate various methods that it will use in public consultation. First, a citizen jury which will consist of 15 selected citizens to represent the community in policy issues and questions, a citizen panel which will include 12 citizens who will routinely discuss and deliberate on the issues of waste management and practices as well as cross-examine the existing the prospects, and a consensus conference which will involve citizens from all walks of life living in the city. They will meet to discuss issues related to waste management. The consensus conference will be headed by both the citizen jury and citizen panel. (Kirkman and Voulvoulis, 2017, p.645). After discussions, they will meet and discuss on the issues to present in another meeting with the officials from the city council. They will also be responsible for providing feedback to the citizens. Focus groups will also be another public consultation platform which will involve 10 individuals meeting to discuss a one-time waste management issue in a face-to-face meeting at a time which the city council will present the issue. The focus group will work together with the citizen jury and panel as well. (Kirkman and Voulvoulis, 2017. P. 643) A citizen advisory Committee will be elected by the Citizen Jury and Citizen Panel in the consensus conference meeting. This committee will be responsible for directly advising the public on the various waste management issues that will arise. Other consultation formulas that the city council will initiate after the review of the above structures will the surveys to solicit information, public hearings, open houses and community planning.

Conclusion

Waste management is a dynamic issue that involves various processes of collection, prevention, recycling, re-use and reduction. There are various factors involved in this matter such as governing and leadership, legislation , policing and procedures, finance, social empowerment among others. The Southampton City Council has made various great efforts in waste management practices but there still exists room for expansion of the same. It is working closely with the Hampshire county council in order to ensure that this dynamism is well regulated. This paper has shown the various activities that the council has been involved in and its future plans and prospects. It has also provided a hypothetical waste management implementation plan and process which can be applied by the institution. It provides issues regarding sustainability, education consultation, infrastructure and implementation.

References

Allesch, A and Brunner, P, H. 2014. “ Assessment Methods for solid waste management: A literature review,” Waste Management & Research, 32(6), pp. 461-473

Brunner, P, H and Rechberger, H.2015. “Waste to energy-key element for sustainable waste management,” Waste Management, 37, pp. 3-12

Edjabou, M, E., et.al. 2015. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses and case study evaluation,” Waste Management, 36, pp. 12-13

Farmer, T, D., Shaw, P, J and Williams, I, D (2015) “Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013, Waste Management, 39, pp. 266-276

Hannan, M, A.,et.al. 2015. A review on technologies and their usage in solid waste monitoring and management systems: Issues and challenges,” Waste Management, 43, pp. 509-523

Kirkman, R and Voulvoulis, N. 2017. “The role of public communication in decision making for waste management infrastructure,” Journal of Environmental Management, 203, pp. 640-647

Laurent, A. et.al. 2014. “Review of the LCA studies of solid waste management systems-Part 1: Lessons learned and perspectives,” Waste Management, 34(3), pp. 573-588

Laurent, A., et.al.2014. “ Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems-Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice,” Waste Management, 34(3), pp. 589-606

Mukhtar, E, M., Williams, I, D and Shaw, P, J. 2017. “ Visible and invisible factors of solid waste management in developing countries,” 16th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, pp. 1-9

Roberts, K, P., et.al. 2018. “SWIMS: A dynamic life cycle-based optimization and decision support tool for solid waste management,” Journal of Cleaner Production, 43, pp. 324-387

Robinson, H., et.al.2014 “ Recent state-of-the-art Leachate treatment plants in Eastern England, detritus, 114

Smith, M, M and Aber, J, D. 2018. “Energy recovery from commercial-scale composting as a novel state management strategy, Applied Energy, 211, pp. 194-199

Soltani, A., et.al. 2015. “Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision making in the context of municipal solid waste management: A review,” Waste Management, 35, pp. 318-328

Turner, D, A., Williams, I, D and Kemp, S. 2016. “ Combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment as a support tool for solid waste management decision making,” Journal of Cleaner Production, 129, pp. 234-248