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RACISM, IMMIGRATION AND GENDER african history assignment help: african history assignment help
Racism, immigration, and gender are the most controversial and heavily debated issues in the U.S. Psychopathologists have led the debates and discussions surrounding the issue of gender over the course of many years. Why is gender such a controversial issue? The controversies surrounding gender are attributed to our social construct of gender and the biology behind gender. Socially and biologically, society recognizes only two genders, the male and female gender. Besides the binary genders recognized socially and biologically, some individuals identify themselves as transgender. Furthermore, based on sexual preferences, some consider themselves gay and others lesbians, thus causing more debates and controversies.
According to the American Psychological Association (2012), sexual orientation and sexual preference refer to the sex that individuals are into both sexually and romantically (American Psychological Association). The terms “lesbian” and “gay” refer to individuals whose sexual orientation is towards members of the same sex. Gender identity, coined in the 1960s, refers to the “persistent inner sense of belonging to either the male and female gender category (Frontiers in Psychology).” However, the concept has evolved to include “controversially” persons who do not identify as either male or female. For many years, the term transgender was used to refer to individuals who underwent medical procedures to reassign their genitals to their preferred sex identity. Today, however, transgender is used for gender non-conforming individuals who work hard to live as members of the sex other than the one assigned at birth. In other words, transgender individuals’ external expressions of their gender do not conform to their birth gender. External expressions include visible attributes that a society uniquely identifies a particular gender with, such as dressing, behavior, communication, and general body behavior.
A 2011 research by the William Institute based at the University of California in Los Angeles found out that approximately 700,000 adults consider themselves transgender in the U.S (Bradford). There are also individuals who do not identify themselves as males or females rather, they fall outside the two defined genders. This category is referred to as genderqueer. During the 2008 presidential elections, Obama’s campaigns rode on the promises of ending all forms of discrimination against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) community. A majority of the LGBTQ group and their sympathizers did, in fact, vote for Obama. They also presented legislation as part of the deal to support the president. The federal legislation called the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) proposed the means to end all forms of discrimination against individuals based on their sexual preference and identity. President Obama went ahead to mandate that all schools allow transgender students to have access to bathrooms and locker rooms that conformed to their genders. Since then, calls by the LGBTQ community have intensified to be recognized as another gender.
Today, acceptance of the LGBTQ community is considered a measure of how progressive a society is. In a quest to be seen as being progressive, the society has incorporated falsely taught moral values that have instead set the society on a path to distraction. Society has made so much “progress” that every phenomenon with a social backing, whether by a smaller or larger group, is considered accepted and the followers praised for their bravery. Society’s set of morals and perception of right and wrong has been broken. The false idea that everyone’s belief and wishes must be supported is nothing short of anarchy. It is, in fact, a huge step backward for us all. The cause of gender controversies is to a large extent because of the acceptance of the transgender group. By no longer accepting transgenderism, and instead of dealing with the underlying issue that is gender dysphoria, we can begin to fix our broken morals and pull society forward.
Dealing with Gender Controversies
The issue of transgenderism has become highly polarized and, therefore, cannot be dealt with overnight. Scientists, legislators, and all other stakeholders must come on board and treat this issue with the concern and the urgency it needs. To help fix society’s broken morals, this research paper has compiled a series of steps that will enable society to tackle the issue of transgenderism. The first step in dealing with transgenderism is to stop the support and legalization of gender-switch related surgeries. Secondly, society needs to accept the real science behind transgenderism and stop assuming that gender is malleable. Lastly, gender dysphoria-the core of transgenderism must be dealt with by giving the necessary guidance and medications instead of being accepted in the community and getting praised for being brave enough to “come out.”
Society Should Stop Support and Legalization of Gender-Switching Procedures
An op-ed in the New York Times titled “My New Vagina Won’t Make Me Happy” narrates the “painful truths” that disapprove the truths associated with transgenderism (Anderson). Andrea Long Chu is scheduled to undergo vaginoplasty surgery. The procedure lasts around six hours, and recovery lasts at least three months. Chu notes that while undergoing surgery may not yield happiness, he wants to undergo surgery anyway. Transgender persons undergo sex-reassignment surgery to have the sex of their choice. This, however, as Chu notes, does not guarantee true happiness but should only be “a simple demonstration of that (Anderson).” Sex is assigned at birth, and surgery cannot change it. Chu further notes that the reassigned sex is left as a wound that seems to be in antagonism with the reality of how an organism is wired with respect to sexual production.
Gender identity is established at a child’s birth. The sex of a child can be determined early during the early stages of human development with improved technology. Bottom line, undergoing cosmetic surgery and cross-sexing of hormones does not change the sex of an individual. By undergoing sex reassignment, transgender persons do not become the sex of their want. Instead, they merely masculine or feminize outwardly.
Society Should Accept the Real Science behind Transgenderism and Accepts that Sex is not malleable.
Gender identity is socially constructed in such a way that it dictates our manner of conversation, dressing, and relationships. Infants are assigned names based on their sex, which is determined by their external genitalia. Transgender persons are individuals that identify with a gender that is different from that assigned at birth (American Psychological Association). The typically assigned sexes are “male” and “female,” also known as cisgender. Persons identifying as transgender disapproves biology of there being the existence of only two genders. According to the Intellectual Dark Web (IDW), the transgender civil rights demands are antiscientific sentiments (Sun). The organization goes ahead to note that transgender persons and their advocates as causing chaos and seeking to destabilize the natural order that exists in society with regards to gender identity. Their “antiscientific sentiments” infect a society’s politics and culture.
For as long as humans have existed, there have been only two genders. The transgender community hinges their arguments on the idea that gender is a decision when it is, in fact, science. The X and Y chromosomes determine the gender assigned at birth. By pushing the idea that sex is malleable, the trans- persons demonstrate how broken our moral system is.
Gender dysphoria refers to the psychological distress that results from internal conflicts as the trans- person fight the sex assigned at birth with their preferred sex. In other words, it is the psychological distress resulting from “incongruence between one’s sex assigned at birth and one’s gender identity. As Ben Shapiro notes, it is impossible to magically change one’s sex or gender in the same way, it is not possible to magically change one’s age. The logic is that while you can legally alter age or gender, it is not biologically possible to reverse either. Ben Shapiro notes that many things in the U.S. are considered legal but not biologically right. For instance, the mentally-ill sterilization was deemed to be legal for a long time, but it did not make it okay.
The idea behind transgenderism is that the society “closes their eyes” and pretends that all their problems do not exist or that their problems-gender dysphoria can be ended by a society that accepts the trans-persons (Shapiro). Society should maintain an open mind that will accept that transgender persons have issues that need to be addressed instead of closing their eyes and accepting transgenderism. Shapiro emphasizes that sacrificing the truth-that there exist only two genders- because people are going to suffer because of that truth is not okay. Society accepting and supporting the transgender movement does not solve anything. Proper medical help is the only form of help needed.
Some may say that it is wrong not to support the transgender movement, and it is mandatory to encourage them. Doing those things would be very wrong. At first glance, it may seem not to support a person who has innocent motives, but if the person’s motives are hurting them, it would be wrong to support them. Offering proper help is what must be done to help. Supporting switching genders solves nothing. Right medical help is the only way for people with gender dysphoria to be adequately helped.
Our society has “progressed” to a point where it is no longer okay to do the right things because they are not socially acceptable and seem morally wrong. The first step is to end this false acceptance and support of every political movement is to stop supporting transgenderism. False support and strength is not the way. Honesty science and medicine is the right way to solve things.
American Psychological Association. “Answers to Your Questions About Transgender People, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression.” Https://www.apa.org, 2014, www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/transgender.
Anderson, Ryan. “New York Times Reveals Painful Truths About “Sex Change” Surgery.” The Heritage Foundation, 26 Nov. 2018, www.heritage.org/gender/commentary/new-york-times-reveals-painful-truths-about-sex-change-surgery.
Bradford, Alina. “What Does ‘Transgender’ Mean?” Livescience.com, 17 June, 2018, www.livescience.com/54949-transgender-definition.html.
Frontiers in Psychology. “Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Review of Concepts, Controversies and Their Relation to Psychopathology Classification Systems.” PubMed Central (PMC), 15 Oct. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589638/.
Shapiro, Ben. YouTube, 9 Feb. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=QtuqmThPE5c.
Sun, Simón(e) D. “Stop Using Phony Science to Justify Transphobia.” Scientific American Blog Network, 13 June 2019, blogs.scientificamerican.com/voices/stop-using-phony-science-to-justify-transphobia/.
About Genocides in the 1990s View. history homework
Genocides in the 1990s
Genocides in the 1990s
The films “|Sometime in April” and “In the Land of Blood and Honey” are very captivating and poignant footages. Sometimes back in April, in particular, is dominated by the narrations of what occurred in Rwanda concerning the 1994 genocide. The film captures the bundle killings of the Tutsi community by their majority counterparts, the Hutus. Additionally, the film brings to light the fundamental responsibility of the press in the massacre. The filmmakers used a few characters, such as Augustine and Honoré, with a good flow of the storyline to reflect what ensued in Rwanda.
On the other hand, in the Land of Blood and Honey, the movie narrates the love tale, particularly between Danijel and Ajla, set against the Background of the Yugoslavia war between 1992 and 1995. Furthermore, the script revolves around barbaric acts, such as rape imposed on Muslim women by soldiers. Similarly, this film reflects the war that escalated in Yugoslavia, leaving thousands dead and others injured. This paper intends to address the issue of genocide in the 1990s precisely in Rwanda and Yugoslavia based on “|Sometime in April” and “In the Land of Blood and Honey” films.
In both films, identity plays a significant role since it reflects how societies consider themselves. According to the “Sometime in April” film, identity is a concern between Tutsi and the Hutu since it provides a platform where individuals are known. Typically people always feel secure when identified with specific communities because it creates a sense of belongingness. However, these ethnic identities can significantly be activated during genocides and vast killings. In the footage, Sometimes in April, the two communities took specific direction concerning the type of governance. Government soldiers were so determined to eliminate the Tutsi community who was believed to be opposing the regime, which was mainly dominated by the Hutu community. Due to ethnic identity, Habyarimana, who was so focused on striking a balance on how the two communities will coexist, was killed, and the Tutsi blamed the Hutus killing. The concept of ethnic identity resulted in students’ indiscriminate massacre, particularly after Martine, a teacher who failed to separate Tutsi students from the Hutus. Among the causalities was Augustine’s daughter, Anne-Marie, who was shot dead by the government soldiers. This resulted in the escalation of the world’s deadliest war in history.
Nevertheless, the footage concerning the Yugoslavia genocide exhibits an excellent connection between identity and genocide. The films expose identity-based on religion, which negatively impacted the Muslim civilian group since the Bosnian forces engage in an ethnic cleansing focused on wiping the Muslim population. Additionally, many Muslim civilians and particularly women were sexually assaulted, imprisoned, and even killed due to their identity as Muslims. Generally, genocides are always are perpetrated by people or communities collaborating on behalf of what they believe to be their group against what they perceive to be a different group. However, this does beg the question that, whys should the community follow? , again why should they pay the ultimate price to achieve the elite authority interests?
These films portrayed how the two societies handle the issue of betrayal and the consequences associated with it. In the Rwandan genocide documentary, Austin was on the run for fear of his and the family’s life. Augustine was a Hutu Rwandan military who married Jeanne, a Tutsi, which portrayed him as a Tutsi sympathizer, thus endangering the lives of his life and the family. Furthermore, After Austin and Xavier, a fellow Hutu colleague, realized that the military was targeting to wipe out the Tutsi, he instead pushed for moderation, which appeared as a sense of betrayal. All these motives, which were seen as a sense of betrayal, were followed with severe repercussions. Firstly, the effort to slip the passengers alongside Augustine’s family by Honoré was countered at the military checkpoint resulting in detainment and the battle. This resulted in the separation of Augustine’s family since Jeanne woke in a church without the siblings. Secondly, Felicie, a Tutsi and the fiancée to Xavier, was executed at the church premises. Also, Augustine and Xavier were held at a checkpoint, and Xavier, who was acknowledged as the radio traitor, was killed.
Furthermore, Honoré’s acts of hiding and preventing Jeanne’s death from the soldiers who had just murdered her sons due to their Tutsi bloodline made him a traitor. They significantly deteriorated his safety forcing him into exile. This indicates that betrayal in this society was punished by death and separation from loved ones and society.
Significant betrayal instances that had severe consequences were also witnessed in the film “In the Land of Blood and Honey.” Danijel offers to protect Ajla despite being a Muslim, which was hunted down by the Bosnian forces. This act of sparing Ajla’s life and even having an affair with her is viewed as a betrayal, particularly with his father, who considered Muslims, the enemy. This ruined the relationship between Danijel and Nebojša that propagated fear specifically on the relationship between Danijel and Ajla. Nonetheless, Danijel’s effort to protect Ajla, especially with her consistent recaptures, was met with great betrayal when Ajla turned her title from prisoner to undercover personnel who secretly informed the Muslim soldiers about their enemy. On realizing this distressful act, Danijel was forced to kill Ajla. Like the Hutu’s, betrayal in Yugoslavia’s society was also associated with adverse repercussions.
In conclusion, genocide in both films impacted negatively on the civilians and precisely the affected groups. The issue of identity is a significant concern since it can perpetuate genocides if not applied appropriately. Typically, identity shapes an individual’s values, beliefs, and practices, greatly influenced by culture and a person’s actions. However, people develop a distinct identity, which results in violence due to ideological differences. Therefore, recommended that individuals learn how to coexist with others despite their identity differences. Additionally, civilians should always remain vigilant and avoid being incited by the political class to engage in undemocratic activities.
UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE. do my history assignment: do my history assignment
Chapter 16 (Part I) Questions
List several examples of natural climate change. Do natural climate change mechanisms account for the recent climate changes that the Earth is experiencing? Explain
An example of a natural climate change is the aftermath of a volcanic eruption, such as infusions of a large amount of sulfur dioxide, which changes to sulphuric acid droplets and fine materials into the stratosphere.
Ocean currents play a significant role in controlling the weather and climate by keeping the planet warm.
Natural climate change mechanisms do not account for the recent climate changes experienced on Earth. The industrial revolution and human activities have caused a large number of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases to be emitted into the atmosphere, affecting the greenhouse effect (which protects the Earth from heat above 33 degrees), causing the temperatures to rise than usual.
Discuss the greenhouse gases in terms of their concentrations in the atmosphere and their relative contributions to global warming.
Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse contributing to recent climate change. Carbon accounts for 50% of the greenhouse effect. Currently, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 409.8 parts per million. These concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased by more than 40% in the atmosphere. In the past, carbon dioxide was emitted naturally through plants, animal respiration, and volcanic eruptions. Recently carbon dioxide is emitted through human activities such as burning charcoal. According to scientists, high concentrations of carbon dioxide causes the Earth to heat up. High temperatures can be caused when carbon dioxide’s ability to trap heat emitted from the Earth reduces.
Methane is another greenhouse gas. Methane emissions cause almost 25% of global warming. The atmospheric concentration of methane in the atmosphere is 1,875 parts per billion. Methane affects the climate when released into the atmosphere without being used. New methane absorbs the sun’s heat warming the atmosphere.
Nitrous oxide atmospheric concentration is 331.3 parts per billion. It damages the ozone layer, forming a blanket of protection from harmful rays resulting from releasing harmful rays on the planet.
Describe how atmospheric temperatures and other factors are likely to change as carbon dioxide levels continue to increase.
Carbon dioxide controls water vapor in the atmosphere. When carbon dioxide concentrations increase, the atmospheric temperatures rise, and more water vapor evaporates into the atmosphere. An increase in water vapor causes the atmosphere to cool down, causing the formation of clouds and precipitation.
Describe Several Changes that are already occurring in the oceans because of global warming
Global warming has led to an increase in ocean heat. The ocean absorbs excessive heat leading to a rise in ocean temperatures that affects seawater animals, causing deaths that lead to food insecurity.
The ocean has increased its acidity levels because of the carbon dioxide emitted into the sea.
Explain how the excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affects the PH of seawater. Why is increasing Ocean Acidity such a problem in the ocean?
When a large quantity of carbon dioxide is emitted through human activities, most of it is absorbed in the ocean, resulting in a carbonic acid formation, which raises the ocean’s acidity, which affects aquatic organisms. Acidity is a problem in the sea because seawater animals such as corals and shellfish find it challenging to build skeletons and shells, which are essential parts of biodiversity and the ecosystem.
Chapter 16(Part 2 )Questions
What are the two types of climate feedback loops? Give an example of each type.
Positive feedback loops an example of melting ice; this is because ice is light-colored and reflective; when sunlight hits it, the heat bounces back to space, restricting the amount of warmth it causes.
Negative feedback loops an example is black body radiation. Global warming can increase the emission of infrared radiation back to the surface, affecting the atmospheric temperatures.
Describe the fundamental differences between solar radiation absorbed at Earth’s surface and the radiation that is primarily responsible for heating the Earth’s atmosphere.
While solar radiation provides heat, energy, and light to all living organisms, infrared radiation supplies heat, energy, and light on surfaces through conduction and convection.
Why is the Arctic one of the locations where global warming effects are being most keenly felt? Why does global warming threaten polar bears?
Global warming is leading arctic ice to melt, which reflects sunlight. When arctic ice melts, the ocean around it absorbs more sunlight, increasing warmth in the atmosphere.
The increase in warmth and temperatures in the arctic is causing the ice that polar bears depend on to melt. When the ice melts away, it affects the polar bears and their prey, the seals, which rely on ice to foster their young ones.
What factors contribute to worldwide sea-level rise? Based on tide measurements. How much has Sea level rise occurred in the past 150 years?
The factors contributing to worldwide sea-level rise are increased melting of land-based ice such as glaciers and ice sheets. The other aspect is the thermal expansion, warming up the ocean.Sea level rise 3 meters per century, causing the sea levels to increase more than 3 meters in 150 years.
Of the changes occurring in the oceans as a result of global climate change, which ones are the most threats to the marine ecosystem.
Ocean heat is a significant threat to the marine ecosystem because high temperatures affect seawater animals’ breeding areas. Ocean heat can also result in the death of aquatic organisms.
The rise in acidity also affects seawater animals such as planktons and coral. The acidity makes it hard for these sea creatures to produce shells and skeletons, promoting biodiversity and the marine ecosystem.
Glengarry Glen Ross and the American Dream university history essay help
Glengarry Glen Ross and the American Dream
David Mamet’s film, “Glengarry Glen Ross,” deprives its characters of human traits like compassion and warmth, showing how the American dream may be a farfetched notion. The play utilizes its plot as a cautionary tale to develop moral lessons that the audience connects with and learns from. The film is set to capture salespeople’s lives; their struggle offers a dream of possibility. The play primarily showcases how the American dream could be just a façade for Darwinian survival for the fittest kind of context.
The play is set in the unsparing domain of real estate. The ultimate sales competition between four salespeople builds enough pressure set to destroy people who are unfit to handle themselves. In the first act, Roma finds a customer in the restaurant, where business rules are not entirely defined, and everything goes when conducting business. Lavene, another salesman, is heavily disappointed and expresses himself as such, saying, “…he talks a good game, look at the board, and it’s me John…” (Mamet 42). He struggles in achieving his niche in the business, and later, Lavene succumbs to the pressure and steals from everyone else. As with that of the salesmen, the American dream is depicted to be viable to only those who thrive on earning from dishonest ventures. For the Salesmen, as with many Americans, pursuing the American dream often ends up destructively even for the ambitious people in society, as seen in the play.
As seen in the characters created by Mamet, the struggle is a direct correlation to what happens in Americans’ pursuit of happiness. People are often doing what they have to do to survive, regardless of the consequences. Mamet’s intention with the play is to clearly show that pursuing the American Dream can only end in destruction and deconstruct the American Dream.
The Great Gatsby as a Cautionary Tale
The hypostatic union presented by Gatsby’s and Daisy’s relationship offers the audience a unique experience to relate to their story. The plot takes drastic turns to elucidate caution when it comes to matters of the heart. Fitzgerald, the author of “The Great Gatsby,” showcases Gatsby’s character as someone who follows his heart, paying no heed to any possible risks that may come with his actions. Fitzgerald is portrayed in the film as Gatsby’s outer subconscious, who considers Gatsby, a great friend. He cannot help but offer unsolicited advice on how to handle Daisy.
As the author describes his first encounter with Gatsby, the audience is brought aboard into the correlation between Gatsby’s dream and the American Dream. He says, “He stretched out his arms toward the dark water…when I looked once more for Gatsby he had vanished…” (Fitzgerald 23). Throughout the film and play, Fitzgerald is depicted as a bystander who sees everything that is going on in his cousin Daisy’s lives in her marriage and Gatsby’s pursuit of an almost unachievable dream of reconciling with his long lost love. The audience is taken through a myriad of events that lead to the untimely death of Gatsby.
The cautionary part of the play comes in at the very end when Fitzgerald describes a pitiful scene at Gatsby’s funeral. He laments that no one of all the multitudes that came into his house daily to attend the extravagant parties held would present themselves in honor of Gatsby’s life. In his efforts to lure and win over Daisy, Gatsby had thrown lavish parties that he thought would have given him and Daisy the kind of status they deserved or needed. In the end, Gatsby dies out of events that were out of a misunderstanding. What is intended to be a well-kept secret between two previous lovers erupts in a tragedy that leads to the loss of lives that no one is willing to admit. Gatsby’s story becomes a general caution to people who cannot let go of the past. The author tries to allude to the human trait of hoping and dreaming for the very best. In Gatsby’s case, he fails to achieve his dream of ultimately having Daisy all to himself. Fitzgerald attempts to show that the American dream is just as elusive.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The great gatsby. Broadview Press, 2007.
Mamet, David. Glengarry Glen Ross. Grove/Atlantic, Inc., 2014.