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Freudian Literary Criticism Literature Essays Literary Criticism

Freudian Literary Criticism Like Marx, Freud’s theories have provided literary critics with an interpretive structure with a level of meaning and significance left unspoken or undeveloped by Freud himself. Freud used theoretical language for a quantifiable therapeutic end: a rational understanding of the mind. Art was merely a sublimated form of the childish desire to play. “Might we not say that every child at play behaves like a creative writer?” (Freud 651). Rather than founding its ideas upon the assumption that all art is escapist and unhealthy, and all artists being essentially neurotic, Freudian literary criticism dedicates itself to the examination of the theoretical vernacular he applies to the human mind. In defining the aspects of the unconscious mind, the pleasure principle, the repetition-compulsion, Freud implies that the mind is a metaphor making machine. “Freud discovered in the very organization of the mind those mechanisms by which art makes its effects…which makes poetry indigenous to the very constitution of the mind” (Trilling 17). By examining literature within these parameters, Freudian critics hope to better understand and explicate the fundamental connection between personal consciousness and art. Works Cited Freud, Sigmund. “Creative Writers and Daydreaming” The Critical Tradition. Ed., David H. Richter, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989. Trilling, Lionel. “Freud and Literature” The Liberal Imagination: Essays on Literature and Society. New York: Viking Press, 1968.

Internet – Ethics of Publicizing Security Vulnerabilities

The Ethics of Publicizing Security Vulnerabilities Abstract: In 1988, Robert T. Morris Jr. released the Internet Worm Virus, which essentially shut down the entire internet for a day. Morris wrote the virus using known vulnerabilities in the UNIX operating system. When these vulnerabilities are discovered, should they be publicized or kept secret to prevent further attacks? These issues relate closely to the concepts of open source versus proprietary software development. In 1988, Robert T. Morris Jr., a Cornell graduate student, released a computer virus. The goal of this virus was to propagate itself across the Internet and to infect as many machines as possible in as little time as possible. The Internet Worm, as it came to be known, was very successful; it infected millions upon millions of machines and essentially shut down the entire Internet for roughly twenty four hours. As a result of his creation and release of the Internet Worm, Robert Morris spent years in courts and paid significant amounts of money in lawyer and court fees, but never went to prison for his actions. The Internet Worm case brings up an extremely important issue that increases in importance each year as the world becomes increasingly networked via the internet and through other means; should people have access to information about vulnerabilities in computer systems, or should these vulnerabilities remain secret? At the time that Robert Morris wrote the Internet Worm, there were known vulnerabilities in the UNIX Operating System’s Finger command, and in the Sendmail Daemon, the program responsible for transmitting electronic mail from one machine to another. Anyone who had some amount of expertise in the UNIX Operating System knew of these weaknesses, yet no one had made an attempt to fix the problem. Robert Morris apparently viewed this situation as a matter that needed attention, which many people speculate as his reason for creating the Internet Worm. His ingenious virus used these vulnerabilities to attack systems and to propagate itself across the internet. One fact is definitely known. This is the fact that the Internet Worm gave many thousands of computer experts a strong reason to fix these vulnerabilities. It is necessary to realize one important fact about the internet worm virus; it was not totally malicious. That is, Morris did not write the virus so that it would try to do any damage to the hardware or software of the machines it infected.

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