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For your Final Project in this class, you will be picking a fictional character from T.V. or the movies

For your Final Project in this class, you will be picking a fictional character from T.V. or the movies and try to best apply what was learned in class by diagnosing them. The main purpose will be to make a case for the diagnosis you choose. You will be handing in a presentation (PowerPoint/Google Slides) with links to YouTube to back up your proposed diagnosis along with a written paper.

For this assignment, you will be doing the groundwork that will allow you to later write your paper and create your presentation You should choose your character and then do a YouTube search to ensure you will be able to back up your diagnosis with video clips. You do not need to have an actual diagnosis at this time, but you should at least have something in mind. As you go through our class, you might change your mind about the diagnosis and you can include this in your paper.

Submission Guidelines
Please submit this assignment with the following questions answered:

What is the name of your character and in what movie/show where they were featured?
What do you think the diagnosis will be? Why?
Is there anything you think might come into play in this character’s diagnosis, such as cultural background or setting?
Did you find enough clips on YouTube to make the case for your character?
This submission should be at least 150 words and citations are not necessary unless you are drawing information from outside of our class or you are directly quoting. It is important that you do not select a character who is already diagnosed on the show unless you are planning to present a different diagnosis than what is already known.
example Sibeth Kane from SEE

EFFECTS OF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR

EFFECTS OF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR RETAILERS IN KITUI COUNTY

A RESEARCH PROJECT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF SOUTH EASTERN KENYA UNIVERSITY

2022

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this project is our original work and that it has not being submitted in any other university for the awarding of a Degree Program to the best of my knowledge.

NAME REG NO SIGNATURE DATE

MOKAMBA TECLA KERUBO D118/0265/2018 ……………

CLINTON ANDREW OGEGA D118/0281/2018 ……………

CYNTHIA AKINYI OJUNG’A D118/0270/2018 ……………

JOSEPH ONTIERI D118/0953/2018 ……………

This project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the University supervisor, Department of Management Science

Dr. Peter Kamoni,

Signature…………………… Date…………………….

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First, we would like to express our gratitude to God for his direction. And the wisdom he bestowed upon us throughout the whole process. We particularly appreciate Dr. Peter Kamoni, our supervisor, for his assistance, supervision, support and for approving my topic. We thank our parents, brother and sisters, friends and course mates for their financial and moral support during my days at school. We pass my deepest gratitude to SEKU, Department of Management science for planning to have student research projects and seminars as part of the curriculum

ABSTRACT

Supply chain and logistics management has gained notoriety as a result of its efforts to ensure the efficient and effective flow and storage of goods, both semi-finished and finished. As a result of the intense competition and pressure arising from customer demand on delivery and provision of quality products on time, then there’s need to determine the influence of logistics management practices on supply chain performance in Kenya’s retail industries. The research project aims at exploring the key objectives as to investigate the effects of logistics management practices on supply chain performance of retail industries in Kenya and to assess the influence of green and reverse logistics on supply chain performance.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.5 30

ABBREVATIONS AND ACRONYMS

3PLs Third party logistics

ABC Activity Based Costing

EVA Economic Value Analysis

SCOR Supply chain Operations Reference Model

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Logistics-component of supply chain management that plans, executes, and tracks the movement of products, from point of origin to point of use, to successfully forward and reverse the distribution and storage of goods and services to fulfill the demands of clients

Logistics management practices- a set of operations carried out by a company in order to create a more effective and efficient logistics and supply chain system

Supply chain performance- the extended supply chain activities in meeting the end-customers’ requirements, including product availability, on-time delivery, and all the necessary inventory and capacity in the supply chain to deliver that performance in a responsive manner.

Reverse logistics- the process of planning, implementing, and regulating an efficient, cost-effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished items, and related information from point of consumption to point of origin in order to meet client needs.

Green logistics- the measures and activities aimed at reducing the effects to the environment

Logistics outsourcing- use of a third party to handle some or all of the supply chain function activities

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

DECLARATION 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3

ABSTRACT 4

LIST OF FIGURES 5

ACRONYMS 6

DEFINITION OF TERMS 7

LIST OF TABLES 11

CHAPTER ONE 12

INTRODUCTION 12

1.1 Background of study 12

1.2 Statement of the problem 15

1.3 Objective of the study 16

1.4 Research question 16

1.5 Significance of the study 16

1.6 Scope of study 17

1.7 Limitations of the study 17

CHAPTER TWO 18

2.1 literature review 18

2.2 Empirical review 18

2.3 Review Summary 25

2.4 Research gap 27

2.5 Conceptual framework 28

CHAPTER 3 30

3.1 Research Methodology 30

3.2 Research design 30

1.8 population sampling 30

1.9 Data collection instrument 31

3.5 Pilot study 31

3.6 Data analysis 32

3.7 ethical considerations 33

CHAPTER 4 34

DATA ANALYSIS PRESENTATION AND INTEPRETATION 34

4.1 Introduction 34

4.2 Response rate 34

4.3 Demographic information of the respondents 34

4.4 Descriptive analysis of the study variables 37

4.5 supply chain performance 40

4.6 The relationship between logistics management practices and supply chain performance 43

CHAPTER 5 48

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48

5.1 Introduction 48

5.2 Summary of the findings 48

5.3 Conclusion 49

5.4 Recommendations 49

5.5 Limitations of the study 50

5.6 Area of further study 50

REFERENCES 52

APPENDIX 1 54

APPENDIX II 56

APPENDIX III 63

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 4. 1 : response rate 34

TABLE 4. 2: positions held 35

TABLE 4. 3: work experience 35

TABLE 4. 4: education level 36

TABLE 4. 5: adoption of logistics management practices 36

TABLE 4. 6: driving forces for the adoption of logistics management practices 37

TABLE 4. 7. responses on reverse logistics 38

TABLE 4. 8: responses on green logistics 39

TABLE 4. 9. responses on outsourcing logistics 40

TABLE 4. 10: supply chain cost 41

TABLE 4. 11: lead time/cycle time 42

TABLE 4. 12: profitability 43

TABLE 4. 13: model summary 44

TABLE 4. 14. ANOVA 45

TABLE 4. 15: Regression coefficients 46

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

1.1.1 Logistics Management

In today’s dynamic business environment, logistics has been seen as one of the major engines propelling economic expansion (Chu, 2010) and supply chain as well as logistics managers are facing intense competition in order to survive in the market. The only option for businesses to survive in such a volatile market is to consistently improve their supply chain output, such as quality, quantity, and product features that improve customer happiness. As a result, businesses are under tremendous pressure to restructure their logistical operations, redesign and rethink where and how items are manufactured, sourced, and delivered in order to meet customer demand and by their larger coefficients. achieve organizational goals at the lowest feasible cost.

The logistics management component of supply chain management plans, executes, and tracks the movement of products, from point of origin to point of use, to successfully forward and reverse the distribution and storage of goods and services to fulfill the demands of clients. The management of the logistics industry plays an important role in a company’s supply chain performance and has a direct impact on the outcome. Organizational practices are more significant than cheap cost of goods in achieving customer satisfaction. Every day, logistics experts should think of themselves as a client of the organization and aim to provide value to them. The growth of local and global business flows has boosted demand for logistics services, which are critical to a company’s success (Mckinnon ,2010). As a result, logistics managers are responsible with developing and implementing plans that, if done well, can provide a long-term competitive edge.

Retailers have recently had to use a variety of approaches in order to improve supply chain and organizational performance. Barua (2010) notes that the majority of businesses have reaped the benefits of encouraging supply chain activities to provide value to their consumers by using an effective logistics management system in supply chain operations that promotes cheaper pricing, improved quality, and customer happiness. According to Fungate (2010), the mix of efficiency, effectiveness, and distinction determines the success of logistics management.

1.1.2 Logistics management practices

According to Adebayo (2012), logistics management techniques are a set of operations carried out by a company in order to create a more effective and efficient supply chain system. Bosire (2011) noted that logistic management practices provide an avenue for integrating activities in the supply chain aiming at realizing a sustained competitive advantage. The process entails formulation of ways and means through which products and service reach the firm as well as the consumer. Some of these logistics management practices include reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing of logistics to third party providers

The Council of Logistics Management defined Reverse Logistics where they defined logistics as the process of planning, implementing, and regulating an efficient, cost-effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished items, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption in order to meet client needs and recapture value. According to Jendiski (2014), green logistics involves all the activities related to logistics that are aimed at primarily reducing their negative effects on the environment. Thiell at al., (2011) gives the examples of these green logistics activities and they include green transport, green packaging, green storage and waste management. When they’re properly incorporated into the organization such that the expectations match organizational goals and objectives, these practices can lead to realization of greater advantages that include creation and preservation of value for their products improved customer satisfaction and retention, increased revenue and profitability of the organization through increased product availability, improved efficiency and effectiveness of the organization, which leads to significant improvements in the efficiency of the organization as stated by Kannan and Kumar(2010)

1.1.3 Supply Chain Performance

According to Warren H. Hausman (2004), defined supply chain performance as the extended supply chain activities in meeting the end-customers’ requirements, including product availability, on-time delivery, and all the necessary inventory and capacity in the supply chain to deliver that performance in a responsive manner. Neely, Gregory and Platts define supply chain performance as the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of action. Taghipour et al. (2015) improved supply chain effectiveness can lead to improved overall company performance. Lapide and Larry (2011) stated that the balanced scorecard, SCOR Model, EVA (Economic Value Analysis), the logistics scoreboard, and ABC (Activity Based Costing) are all supply chain performance measurement methodologies. Balanced Scorecard leads to keen insight on the core operations. It highly recommends using EIS, an Executive Information System to monitor supply chain performance. The SCOR Model measures cost, assess assets used to gain customer satisfaction, create agility to achieve companies’ growth and reliability to gain brand loyalty. EVA was developed by Stern and Stewart to measure the return on capital or economic value addition of an organization. This method is used to assess the long-term share-holder values of the company and also used as part of a logistics scoreboard approach in measuring supply chain performance.

Supply chain performance is related to efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain to ensure end user satisfaction, in terms of right quality, quantity, price, and lead time. Ibrahim and Ahmed (2015) define efficiency as the degree to which a process makes the optimum use of resources in order to ensure that the system runs quickly and smoothly. Effectiveness, on the other hand, refers to how well a procedure generates the desired outcomes. According to Sarode and Khodke (2009) supply chain performance ensures improved efficiency and effectiveness of not only product transfer but also information sharing between the complex hierarchies of all the tier. Many companies have majored their focus on improvement of supply chain performance as a way to improve their core competitive advantage in logistics management practices. According to Lee and Billington (2012) when isolated sites in a supply chain pursue goals on their own, they fail to boost efficiency and effectiveness.

1.1.4 Major retail industries in Kitui

The retail industry is undergoing a fundamental structural shift driven by technology, changing customer tastes, economic pressure, competition, environmental concerns and governmental regulations(kumar,2021). Therefore, for any retail industry to survive the changing environment, then there’s the need to exploit the unique advantages of the organization. Some of the retail industries that managed to survive took the initiative of delivering customer benefits at an affordable and reasonable cost that’s better than the rivals and better management of internal processes. For instance, in an environment where competition is intense, and there’s a growing need for operational efficiencies as well customer orientation, retailers are looking beyond organizational boundaries to develop and leverage the resources and capabilities of their supply chain partners to create superior value and competitive advantage in the market (Ganesan et al.,2011). Through multichannel routes to market and relation-based innovation, retail landscape has had variety of performance improvements with regard to brand image/ reputation, sales, profits, innovation and relationships (Weitz et al., 2009)

According to Atkinson (2009), retailers are obligated to come up with a framework that identifies the key metrics that an organization should focus on in order to get a clear picture of the insights on how to continue growing in future while maximizing customer satisfaction at the lowest possible cots and minimum damages. The retailers in Kitui are not exceptional at any point since competition is one of the challenges that they have to face daily in order to survive in the business environment

1.2 Statement of the problem

Since logistics has been seen as one of the important forces driving economic growth (Chu, 2010), then it’s without doubt that currently this concept is becoming very popular in supply chain management (Joto,2018) and therefore, there’s need for effective management of the activities involved in order to sustain the intense competition as well as the volatility of the business environment. There should be an efficient logistics management system that coordinates transportation, warehousing, inventory control/ material handling and delivery of products to customers and together with an operational internal management it would have tremendous effects on how the organization responds to customers’ needs at an affordable price within the shortest feasible time as possible while improving the quality and quantity supplied.

In recent years retail industries have been increasing in numbers, each of them adopting logistics management practices that will give them an opportunity to enhance operational efficiency and maintain a competitive edge. Among the practices adopted include outsourcing, reverse and green logistics all affecting the supply chain performance of these retail industries in terms of customer satisfaction, lead times and quality of products. For instance, according to research conducted by Bosire (2011) among supermarkets in Nairobi regarding to the impact of logistics outsourcing on lead time and customer service, he discovered that outsourcing of logistics services directly affects the lead times of product delivery and that among the supermarkets that outsourced procurement of products from the suppliers, time taken to deliver those products to the warehouses was immensely reduced. It’s from this premise that the current research was carried out to access the effects of logistics management practices on supply chain performance of major retail firms in Kitui, Kenya.

1.3 Objective of the study

1.3.1 General Objective

The general objective of the study will be to examine the effects of logistics management practices affect the supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui.

1.3.2 Specific Objective

To establish the effect of green logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui.

To determine the effect of reverse logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui.

To examine the effect of outsourcing logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui.

1.4 Research question

What is the effect of green logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui?

What is the effect of reverse logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui?

What is the effect of outsourcing logistics on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui?

1.5 Significance of the study

The findings and recommendations of this study will serve as a blueprint to guide retailers who would want to fully adopt logistics management practices, to improve efficiency and effectiveness of their supply chains. Other than that, the research will contribute to the literature of students of logistics – they’ll be able to gain more knowledge related to logistics management practices

The research can also be used by other researchers of logistics management practices since it can provide additional knowledge as well as suggest areas that needed further research

1.6 Scope of study

With increase in the number of logistics management practices adopted in the day to day activities at organization level, there has been a corresponding increase in its incorporation towards analyzing the supply chain performance of major retailers in a county like Kitui .Therefore, the research was conducted to find out how and why these logistics management practices will be useful to retail industries and it’ll be restricted to primary data based on the registered retailers in Kitui town as per 2020. The estimated period for research conduction was months, that is between August and December 2021 with an approximated budget of Ksh5,100 where the target population are the major retailers in Kitui county that are operational

Limitations of the study

Lack of cooperation from managers of the retail industries that were interviewed. Most of these managers have busy schedules making it hard to find them occasionally while others do not ant to disclose some of the information. Booking early appointments with the secretaries to the senior managers in order to fit in their busy schedules will solve the problem. As for failure of disclosure of some information, an explanation on how the information shared by the managers will be used and guarantee them utmost confidentiality by not sharing it with competitors

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 literature review

This chapter highlights the empirical review, summary and research gaps to be filled by the study and the conceptual framework. It includes a review of various studies carried out previously regarding logistical functions and cost effects to performance of organizations majorly in automobile industry. Specifically, the chapter discusses the, resource-based theory, the theory of constraints and the transaction theory. It also presents in detail the cost factors in logistics influencing organizational performance inclusive of transport, clearance and storage costs.

2.2 Empirical review

Logistical management practices have several effects on the supply chain performance of retail industries in Kenya. This section will explain some of these effects and will also show what other researchers have done so far in the field of logistics management practices and supply chain performance

2.2.1 Reverse Logistics and supply chain performance

In the paper “Going Backwards: Reverse Logistics Trends and Practices, Rogers and Tibben-Lemke(1998) used the definition for Logistics given by The Council of Logistics Management to define Reverse Logistics where they defined logistics as the process of planning, implementing, and regulating an efficient, cost-effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished items, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption in order to meet client needs and recapture value.

Research aimed at determining the link between reverse logistics and operational performance by Muthemba (2012), recommends that reverse logistics be adopted in a more formal manner with clearly defined guidelines, as it has been shown that reverse logistics adoption has a positive relationship with the improvement of retail store operational performance measures. Furthermore, stakeholder awareness of reverse logistics models should be improved, as many respondents did not seem to value other cost-effective reverse logistics models such as joint ventures and third-party logistics. Mogaka (2015) conducted a study to establish the influence of returned new products on performance of pharmaceutical firms in Nairobi City County found that to increase logistics performance, the firms should increase in reuse reverse logistics would increase market performance. Firms should invest in proper reverse logistics technologies to boost efficiency and production, according to the report.

In another study, to investigate the relationship between reverse logistics and organizational at Betelhem (2016), established that reuse and recycle reverse logistics practices were found strongly correlated with organizational, financial and market performance. It therefore recommends that managers should look at reverse logistics as a strategic method that can be used to measure organizational performance and Ramirez (2012). The objective of this study was to examine whether reverse logistics improves firms’ performance by the creation of knowledge. A study to examine how reverse logistics influences firm logistics performance with competitive advantage playing an intervening role Zhuno (2019) showed that reverse logistics positively and significantly influences competitive advantage and firms’ logistics performance. The study findings serve as an insight for managers to holistically consider and integrate reverse logistics into their supply chain so as to enjoy competitive advantage and improve their performance.

Narasimman(2005) writes about the history of reverse logistics since its discovery in 1861 after the end of the American Civil war, through the years to 2020 during Covid 19 pandemic outbreak. He clearly described how reverse logistics has been growing over the past years and concludes that, today reverse logistics has become an inevitable need for businesses to attract customers. Customers male their decisions based on delivery experience a company provides. Delivery businesses are building reverse logistics strategies where cost only decisions have a lesser role to play. These strategies help them improve brand loyalty and drive sales.

From the above review the primary goal of reverse logistics is to recover value. Similarly, it may be used to improve an organization’s customer service capabilities by communicating and persuading the market about the ability of the organization to create and preserve value for their products (Kariuki and Waiganjo,2014) Improved customer satisfaction and retention, increased revenue and profitability of the organization through increased product availability, improved efficiency and effectiveness of the organization, which leads to significant improvements in the efficiency of the organization are just a few of the widely recognized benefits of reverse logistics (Kannan and Kumar,2010). Other advantages include anticipating the customer’s requirements and wishes well ahead of time, before they are even aware of them. It also leads to the formation of intellectual and emotional bonds with customers, resulting in the belief that they made the right decision in choosing the organization (Pinna and Carrus,2012). In addition, instead of a proactive or reactive relationship with the consumer, reverse logistics allows the company to build an interactive relationship with them.

2.2.2 Green logistics and supply chain performance

Khan et al., (2020) conducted research to identify the green logistics techniques that have been used in the logistics function, such as warehousing, distribution, purchasing, manufacturing, and packaging, and their impact on supply chain performance. The study deducted green packaging, green transportation and green storage as some of the green logistics practices and that they impact customer satisfaction and financial performance in such a way that it advances competitive advantage. This study can be backed up by another research conducted by Schmidt et al., (2017) which found a positive relationship between these practices the market and financial performance of any supply chain.

In another study conducted by Dekker et al (2012), whose purpose was to determine the impacts of green logistics on firms’ performance concluded that, not only costs are the only factor when planning logistics activities but also green logistics which helps businesses to think about the environmental impact of their sourcing and distribution operations. This in return affects supply chain performance in terms of environmental, operational and economic performances (Gong, Ogasawara and Suzuki, (2011), Emmett and Sood (2010) expounds on the benefaction of these green logistics practices to protection of the environment by reducing emission of gasses, at the same time providing health benefits to the society through better air quality and frequently reduced cost by better utilization of vehicles and warehouses. Min and Kim (2012) also identified decreasing waste, increasing product quality and protecting natural resources for sustainability as the advantages.

Danish (2021) in his article on the impact of green logistics practices on a firm’s performance, whose purpose was to conceptualize and explore the impact of green management practices. According to his study, green transportation, logistics emissions, information sharing regarding to loading, unloading and packaging (green packaging) do show significant impacts on a firm’s performance. For instance, it clearly outlines how green packaging and green warehousing positively affects an organization and thus emphasizes on the need that these parameters ought to be taken seriously, resulting to the conclusion of the fact that firms have to focus on green practices in order to improve on their operational, financial and environmental performances. Rokka and Uusitalo(2011) in their article on preference for green packaging in consumer product choices, conducted whose objective was to investigate whether green packaging would have an impact on supply chain performance, it was discovered that in deed product packaging in deed is critical in customer preference, that makes a 34 percent contribution to the overall usefulness of qualities. According to the findings customers have varying preferences for packaging, brand price, and convenience of use of everyday products. For instance, these customers tend to consider the color, packaging materials used as well as the design and brand of the wrapper when selecting an item to purchase. William (2010) in his study advised that while selecting packages to use, then it’s also important to select packages that enhance security of items i.e., the security of the product is what determines the packaging material. Other characteristics of green packaging include use of simplified packaging materials, biodegradability, elimination of excessive packaging and paper wrappings that do not compose as well as reduced quantity of polystyrene (kung et al., 2012). The conclusions were that choosing the right packaging materials will save on cost (due to reusing and recycling resources) attract more customers, hence directly impacts supply chain performance of that organization

Other than that, Afum et al (2020) in the article exploring green logistics management practices and financial performance of supply chain performance examines the direct linkage between the two variables while considering the triple baseline i.e., environmental, social and economic performances. According to the findings, green logistics practices have little impact on society’s social welfare and health while improving a supply chain’s financial performance through environmental and economic/market performance.In another research conducted by Dekker et at., (2012) that led to the development of the article on operations research for green logistics, presents a sketch of the present and possible development of green operations in the transport sector and its related impact to supply chain performance. According to the EEA (2011), CO2 emissions from transportation account for roughly 14% of total emissions at both the global and EU levels. The study’s findings were that the type fuel consumed by a vehicle, frequency of operations, distance covered and the engine type are determinants of the that the amount of CO2, NO2, and SO2 emitted. They discovered that clean vehicles, pallet reuse, containerization, cargo integration and optimization, truck size standardization, CO2 emissions reduction, and good engines save energy, conserve the environment, and reduce costs, resulting in faster delivery of products to consumers and raw materials to manufacturers, reducing delays.

Furthermore, Napaiv (2018) conducted research on how green operations in storage facilities affect the performance of an organization; where, green storage procedures include energy conservation in storage rooms, management equipment efficiency, and pallet management practices. He agreed that acceptable storage techniques include those that maintain temperature and humidity within the depot within the desired ranges, as well as energy-saving lighting, initiatives to increase warehouse equipment’s energy efficiency, and effective procedures for the handling of rejected pallets as explained by Xenidou (2011). The study emphasized on the fact that through green storage, a lot of energy, costs and space is saved while quantity and quality of products increased at the shortest lead time as possible. The conclusion was that green storage, as a green logistics practice has a positive impact on supply chain performance of a firm

2.2.3Outsourcing and supply chain performance

In the article, international colloquium of logistics and supply chain management, Arif and Jawab (2018) examined the effects of logistics outsourcing on performance. According to this study, outsourcing is linked to lower operational costs, more customer satisfaction, on-time service delivery, shorter lead times, and faster responses to client requests. Giri and Sarker(2017) in a study to discover how performance can be enhanced by coordinating supply chain with 3PLs stressed the fact that business organizations use the 3PL service to outsource part or all of their supply chain operations in order to lessen the strain of logistics activities The profitability of the entire supply chain is defined by the strategic decisions made by the participating businesses, hence there is a need for cooperation and coordination among the entities involved for better results (better supply chain performance). In research conducted by Owuor and Zaman (2019) examined the impacts of logistics outsourcing on the performance of major retail enterprises in Nairobi, researchers discovered that transportation outsourcing and financial services have a beneficial impact on large industries’ customer happiness and financial performance. The study concluded that retail executives should concentrate on improving transportation outsourcing methods since they have a favorable and significant impact on a company’s supply chain performance. Transportation outsourcing practices that transfer risks to the logistics provider and transportation management software technology that provides customized data, increasing operational control and ensuring that transportation operations are never harmed by the constantly changing supply chain environment can help management achieve this.

Bosire (2011) in a study of Nairobi supermarkets on the impact of logistics outsourcing on lead time and customer service, he discovered that outsourcing logistics services has a direct impact on product delivery lead times, with supermarkets that outsource product procurement from suppliers reducing the time it takes to deliver such products to warehouses and customers dramatically .In another research conducted by Chen et al., (2010) cited that enabling third-party logistics users to leverage external logistics resources that may be costly to manage in-house, reduction of non-core business investments, improved logistical performance, and support supply chain integration as some of the benefits of logistics outsourcing to 3PL users. The researchers came to the conclusion that non-core operations should be outsourced partially or entirely to improve the performance of a company’s supply chain. Wang et al., (2021) conducted research on outsourcing reverse logistics for e-commerce retailers. According to their research, most businesses are experiencing a rise in product returns, particularly as a result of the covid 19 epidemic, and as a result, relevant organizations must create robust reverse logistics plans to reflect the rising relevance of the capability. Outsourcing to a third-party reverse logistics provider (3PRLPs), for example, has been acknowledged as one of the most essential tactics, driven by lead time, cost, customer voice, and provided quality. The study found that outsourcing reverse logistics has a major impact on a retailer’s supply chain performance. They recommended that businesses pick the 3PRPLs that will help them reach their goals and objectives intelligently.

Solakivi et al., (2013) conducted research to establish the reasons for outsourcing logistics. They emphasize the importance of improving operational efficiency as backed up by research conducted by Min (2013) as a driver for ensuring competitiveness and avoiding global recession. According to their research, shippers’ increased demand for operational efficiency and flexibility prompted them to consider logistics outsourcing as a way to deal with fluctuating demand and service levels. In another research conducted by Huo et al., (2015) to examine the relationship between integrative mechanisms (information sharing and process coordination) of logistics outsourcing and performance of an organization, Integrative processes, they discovered, are beneficial for logistics outsourcing because they can boost partners’ ability to absorb gains from each other. For example, for 3PL users adopting logistics outsourcing, information sharing, backed by expanding global technologies, is vital, and process coordination is required to efficiently transfer specialized processes and network-related logistics services from 3PL providers to users. Communication about the type of product, quantities required, delivery location, and delivery date, for example, would improve customer satisfaction and lower the possibilities of products being delivered to the wrong location or at the wrong time.

Sassi et al., (2018) examined the types of logistics outsourcing and the factors to be considered before outsourcing to a 3PL. The findings piqued lot of interest because they aid in determining which type of outsourcing is best for achieving targeted competitive advantages and evaluating the essential elements to consider when dealing with various types of outsourcing. The study emphasizes that whether outsourcing to a 3PL is done tactically or strategically, the services offered, technology used, reputation of the firm, prior relationship with that firm, and trust should all be considered because these factors will determine logistics performance and, by extension, supply chain performance.

Feng et al., (2020) conducted research to determine a retailer-led supply chain’s logistics service outsourcing options where the services are outsourced to a third-party logistics provider or offered by the retailer. The findings revealed that supplying logistics services by a retail shop isn’t always as cost-effective as outsourcing to a third party because the retailer is responsible for all of the burdens and risks. For example, the percentage of successful enterprises that outsourced their logistical activities was higher than the percentage of successful firms that did not outsource but were nonetheless able to compete in the dynamic market, particularly in terms of profit. They concluded that to obtain competitive advantages, logistics managers should outsource some or all of their duties, according to the proposals. Miah et al., (2014) discussed the competitive advantages of outsourcing, including investment and resource flexibility, risk sharing, the development of unique skills and competencies, revenue sharing, and the establishment of a long-term strategic relationship. His findings were that outsourcing promotes competitive advantage, and that it is via this uniqueness that profitability is realized, and supply chain performance is influenced monetarily and economically.

2.3 Review Summary

2.3.1 Reverse logistics and supply chain performance

Most of the studies have focused on reverse logistics and organizational performance (Muthemba,2012, Mogaka, 2015, Betelhem,2016, Zhuno,2019). Other studies of Kannan and Kumar (2010), (Pinna and Carrus,2012) and (Kariuki and Waiganjo,2014) focused on the advantages /benefits of reverse logistics while Rogers and Tibben- Lemke (1998) focused on definition of logistics

2.3.2 Green logistics and supply chain performance

Some of the studies focused on green logistics and firms’ performances (Dekker et al ,2012, Gong, Ogasawara and Suzuki, 2011, Danish ,2021, Napaiv ,2018) while others focused on the benefits/advantages of green logistics (Emmett and Sood ,2010, Min and Kim ,2012). Others such as Rokka and Uusitalo (2011) explained green packaging and supply chain performance, (Kung et al., 2012) focused on the characteristics of green packaging, Afum et al (2020) focused on green logistics management practices and financial performance of supply chain while Dekker et at., (2012) focused on green operations in the transport sector and its related impact to supply chain performance. Xenidou (2011) explained the green storage techniques

2.3.3 outsourcing and supply chain performance.

Some of the researches have focused on logistics outsourcing and organizational performance (Arif and Jawab ,2018, Owuor and Zaman ,2019, Chen et al., 2010, Giri and Sarker2017, Huo et al., 2015). Bosire (2011) and Wang et al., (2021) focused on logistics outsourcing and supply chain performance, Solakivi et al., (2013) and Min (2013) explained the reasons/importance for outsourcing logistics. Others such as Sassi et al., (2018) expounded on the types of logistics outsourcing, Feng et al., (2020) supply chain’s logistics service outsourcing options while Miah et al., (2014) focused on the competitive advantages of outsourcing.

2.4 Research gap

The subject of the relationship between logistics management practices and supply chain performance has become frequently posed and debated . For instance,various studies have been conducted to explain the relationship between green logistics,reverse logistics ,reverse logistics on supply chain performance yet most of them have focused mostly on organizational performance and the benefits. They fail to explain the relationship between reverse logistics and supply chain performance,green logistics and supply chain performance as well as logistics outsourcing and supply chain performance. Its from this limited literature evidence relating to logistics management practices and supply chain performance that this project was based ,in order to address the effects of logistics magament practices on supply chain performance of major retailers in kitui .

2.5 Conceptual framework

According to (Rallis and Rossman 2012) conceptual framework is a synopsis of various findings from literature sources that have been reviewed about the research, setting out the research agenda from increased understanding of the research intentions. In terms of the study variables, it symbolizes the researcher’s ideological perspective. Certain elements related to logistics

management methods are expected to influence logistics performance in this study. This study’s conceptual framework serves as a guiding notion.

Figure 2.5

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Reverse logistics

Returned products

Remanufacturing

waste disposal

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Outsourcing

3PLs

4PLs

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Green logistics

Green transportation

Green packaging

green storage

Green manufacturing

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Supply chain performance

Supply chain costs

Lead time

profitability

Reverse logistics

Returned products

Remanufacturing

waste disposal

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Outsourcing

3PLs

4PLs

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Green logistics

Green transportation

Green packaging

green storage

Green manufacturing

Type of investment.

Cost of investment.

Supply chain performance

Supply chain costs

Lead time

profitability

CHAPTER 3

3.1 Research Methodology

Research methodology is the path by which researchers must perform their research is. It depicts the process through which researchers create their problem, set their objectives, and deliver their findings based on the data gathered during the research period (Kassu, 2019) The chapter provides a description of various techniques including research design, population and sampling, data collection, pilot study and data analysis. Research methodology is the specific procedures used to identify, select, process and analyze information about a topic of study (Wilkinson)

3.2 Research design

Research design is the overall method adopted to combine the many components of the study in a coherent and logical manner, ensuring that the research challenge is adequately addressed (Kirumbi 2018). According to Creswell (2014). It is the overarching strategy used to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical manner, ensuring that the research issue is appropriately handled. This study adopted a descriptive research design; which aims at accurately and systematically describing a population., situation or phenomenon and can answer what, where, when and how questions (McCombes 2019).

population sampling

3.3.1 Target population

Population refers to the total group of people or things of interest that the researcher desire to study, (Sekaran, 2010). it consists of all objects or events of a certain type about which researchers seek knowledge or information (Allen 2017). The study’s goal is to look at the effects of logistics management practices on supply chain performance of major retailers in Kitui. In this case, the target population will be 40 retail stores in Kitui. These retailers include;

3.3.2 sample

The study will entail a survey of all retailers in Kitui Town and the unit of analysis will be the 40 major retailers in Kitui Town. However, a unit of observation will be a senior officer of the retailers. Therefore, the sample size will be 40

Data collection instrument

Data is the information obtained in a particular course of study, (Polit & Hungler 1999). there are different methods of data collection they include; observation, interview, schedule, questionnaire, projective techniques and case study methods. This study will use questionnaires which we may include online questioner due to restriction imposed by the government to curb spread of covid-19 pandemic. We are using questionnaires so that we can reach as many respondents as possible within the shortest time possible, as well all the respondents are literate and capable to fill in the questionnaires at ease. The study will use drop and pick method of questionnaire administration or online depending on the distance.

3.5 Pilot study

(Doody & Doody, 2015) contends that pilot study is a small-scale version of a planned study conducted with a small group of participants, 10% of the sample size. It aids in the identification and mitigation of future study design, sample size, sample selection, data collecting, and data analysis hazards (Moore, 2011) Questionnaires will be sent to the 5 respondents before the intended study is conducted. This will assist in checking the validity and reliability of the questionnaires. The data collected during the pilot study won’t be considered in the study

3.5.1 validity of the study

validity refers to a test’s ability to accurately assess what it promises to measure, that is, whether it accurately measures what it claims to measure without mistakenly incorporating additional elements. (Lakshmi and Mohadeen, 2013). To establish validity of the research instrument, the researcher will seek opinions of experts especially the supervisor as to whether or not the instrument met the criterion.

3.5.2 Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which measures are error-free and so produce consistent results (Lakshmi and Mohadeen, 2013). The goal of reliability analysis is to determine the extent to which a measuring procedure will give the same results when repeated under the same conditions (Toke & Gupta, 2012). Internal consistency of at least 0.7 should be achieved (Cooper & Schindler, 2008). If piloting errors are discovered, they will be removed and questions will be made clearer with understandable language

3.6 Data analysis

Data analysis is the process of extracting information from acquired data and presenting it. Questionnaires will be used to ensure completeness and consistency and that the data collected is valid and reliable. In our study, we are going to use both qualitative and quantitative techniques and apply regression analysis; a statistical technique for determining the degree and nature of a connection between a single dependent variable and a set of independent variables. (Beers, 2020)

The model used is as below;

Y= β0 + β1 χ1 + β2 χ2 + β3 χ3 + є

Where; Y= supply chain performance

X1 = reverse logistics

X2 = green logistics

X3 = outsourcing

β1, β2, β3 = co-efficient of determination

£= error term (Assumed to be zero)

3.7 ethical considerations

Ethics are accepted code or norms for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong. The researchers seek to follow the due procedure pertaining to research. Prior to any data collection, we will seek permission from SEKU and the top directorate managers of the targeted retail stores. No data will be recorded without respondent’s approval and confidentiality of information will be maintained

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS PRESENTATION AND INTEPRETATION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the interpretation and presentation found on the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate procurement risk management practices on performance of public universities in Kenya. The findings were intended to answer the study research questions. Data was collected and reports were produced in tables and qualitative analysis was presented in prose.

4.2 Response rate

TABLE 4. 1 : response rate

Frequency

Percentage

Respondents

32

80

Non respondents

8

20

Total

40

100

Source: Research Data (2022)

From the data above, a response of 80% was obtained from 32 completed questionnaires. This indicates that the information acquired is enough to conduct an analysis

4.3 Demographic information of the respondents

The study found it important to ascertain demographic information of the respondents. The analysis relied on this information of the respondents so as to categorize the different results according to their responses.

4.3.1 Positions held

This study sought to establish the different positions held by staff in the institutions. The findings are shown below in table 4.3

TABLE 4. 2: positions held

Position held

Frequency

Percentage

C.E. O

3

9.375

Manager

25

78.125

Accountant

4

12.5

Total

32

100

Source: Research Data (2022)

From the above data, most respondents were managers of organizations (78.125) while 12.5% were accountants and 9.375 were C.E.Os. this implies that the respondents are knowledgeable on logisti8cs management issues and thus competent to give valid response to the questions in the study

4.3.3 Work experience

The study sought to ascertain from the respondent on the duration of service with the institutions.

TABLE 4. 3.3: work experience

Years

Frequency

Percentage

5 years and below

5

15.625

6-10

11

34.375

11-15

10

31.25

Above 16

6

18.75

Total

32

100

Source: Research Data (2022)

From the data above, the majority of respondents had a work experience of 6- 10 years (34.375%) and 11- 15 years (31.25%). This is an indication that they have enough experience, expertise and knowledge required to respond to the questionnaires

4.3.4: Education level

From the questionnaires majority of the respondents were degree holders followed by master’s holders, others were diploma holders while a few were PhD holders and no certificate holders from the respondents. This shows the high education level of most of university staff.

TABLE 4. 44: education level

Frequency

Percentage

Ph.D.

1

3.125

Masters

2

6.25

Degree

15

46.875

Diploma

6

18.75

Certificate

8

25

Total

32

100

Source: Research Data (2022)

From the data above, most respondents had attained degrees (46.875%). Others had attained Ph.D (3.1125), diploma and certificate( 18.75%, 25.0% respectively). This indicates that most of them can reason logically and with the knowledge attained, they can sufficiently respond to the questionnaires and provide meaningful data to enable analysis.

4.3.5 Adoption of logistics Management Practices

The study sought to es3tablish when logistics management practices were adopted

TABLE 4. 5: adoption of logistics management practices

Years

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 5 years

3

9.375

6- 10 years

17

53.125

Above 10 years

12

37.5

Total

32

100

Source: Research Data (2022).

4.3.6 Driving forces for practicing logistics management in the organizations

The study sought to establish the main driving force for practicing logistics management practices in the institutions

TABLE 4. 6: driving forces for the adoption of logistics management practices

Driving forces

Percentage

Profitability

54

Lead time

46

Source: Research Data (2022).

As shown by a percentage of 54%, most organizations adopted logistics management practices as a result of profitability while 46% were driven by the reduced lead times. This shows that the two are great influences to adoption of logistics management practices

4.4 Descriptive analysis of the study variables

A descriptive analysis is the discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of collection of information. The common methods that are used in describing a given data set includes measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. Hence, it was necessary to use this analysis in order to come up with the frequency distribution tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation.

4.4.1 reverse logistics

The study sought to establish the impact of reverse logistics as a logistic management practice on the performance of major retail stores in Kitui. Aspects of reverse logistics include returned goods, remanufacturing and waste disposal

TABLE 4. 7. responses on reverse logistics

Statements

Mean

Standard deviation

Returned products management has a big influence on supply chain performance

1.625

0.85

Remanufacturing has an influence on profitability, lead times as well as costs

1.75

0.96

Waste disposal e.g., recycling aims at reducing /minimizing supply chain costs

1.875

1.18

Overall mean

1.75

0.997

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data in the table above, the respondent’s content to an extent that, returned products management has a big influence on supply chain performance as shown by a mean of 1.625, other respondents reported that remanufacturing has an influence on profitability, lead times and costs as shown by a mean of 1.875

4.4.2 green logistics

The study sought to establish the impact of green logistics as a logistic management practice on the supply chain performance of major retail stores in Kitui. Green logistics is accompanied by green storage, green transportation, green manufacturing and green packaging

TABLE 4. 8: responses on green logistics

Mean

Standard deviation

Application of green packaging through the elimination of excessive packaging and paper wrappings that do not compose as well as reduced quantity of polystyrene reduces costs

1.78

0.91

Green transportation has ensured on time delivery of products, reducing lead times and delays thereby ensuring faster delivery of products to customers

2.09

1.10

Green storage contributes to cost reduction as it ensures a lot of energy, and space is saved while quantity and quality of products increased at the shortest lead time as possible

1.81

0.93

Green manufacturing has an influence on supply chain performance in terms of cots and profitability

1.66

0.97

Overall mean

1.84

1.303

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data in the table above, the respondents’ content to an extent that, application of green packaging through the use of recyclable packaging materials have led to the reduction of supply chain costs as shown by a mean of 1.78, other respondents reported that green transportation has ensured on time delivery of products, reducing lead times and delays as shown by a mean of 2.09. Also, the data collected showed that, green storage saves energy and cost thereby impacting supply chain performance of the organization (1.81), the respondents also noted that green manufacturing has an influence on supply chain performance in terms of cots and profitability (1.66)

4.4.3 outsourcing logistics

The study sought to establish the impact of outsourcing logistics as a logistic management practice on the supply chain performance of major retail stores in Kitui. Outsourcing logistics is associated with using third- party and fourth-party logistics providers

TABLE 4. 9. responses on outsourcing logistics

Mean

Standard

Deviation

Outsourcing to fourth party logistics has an impact on supply chain performance through reduction of costs and risks associated while increasing profitability

3.125

1.17

Outsourcing to third party logistics providers has improved supply chain performance of the organization

2.031

1.21

Overall mean

2.578

1.19

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data in the table above outsourcing to fourth party logistics has an impact on supply chain performance through reduction of costs and risks associated while increasing profitability as shown by a mean of 3.125 while outsourcing to third party logistics providers has improved supply chain performance of the organization as shown by a mean of 2.031

4.5 supply chain performance

The respondents were asked the extent at which to which the organizations have realized benefits as a result of logistics management practices. The organizations realized some benefits in terms of supply chain costs, profitability and cycle time

4.5.1 supply chain Cost

The study sought to establish how the application of reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing affects supply chain performance in terms of costs

TABLE 4. 10: supply chain cost

Statements

Mean

Standard

Deviation

Reverse logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through activities such as remanufacturing and return of products

29.41

23.89

Green logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through recycling, reusing and reselling and use of energy saving equipment and generally eliminating unnecessary operations within the process

67.69

22.79

Outsourcing logistics has led to reduction of inventory holding and storage costs as well as the risks associated with warehousing

64.56

24.95

Overall mean

53.887

23.877

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data above, application of reverse logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through activities such as remanufacturing and return of products (29.41) Green logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through recycling, reusing and reselling and use of energy saving equipment (67.69) and outsourcing logistics has led to reduction of inventory holding and storage costs as well as the risks associated with warehousing (64.56)

4.5.2 Cycle Time /lead time

The study sought to establish how the application reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing affects supply chain performance in terms of cycle time

TABLE 4. 11: lead time/cycle time

Statements

mean

Standard deviation

Reverse logistics reduces customer lead times in that customer’s requirements and wishes are anticipated well ahead of time

30.19

22.04

Green manufacturing, storage, packaging and transportation contribute to reduced lead times

41.91

22.62

The use of third-party and fourth party logistics providers reduces the lead times/ cycle times within the supply chain

66.125

24.00

Overall mean

46.075

22.887

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data above, returned goods policy and remanufacturing reduce customer as well as supplier lead times (30.19), green manufacturing, storage, packaging and transportation contribute to reduced lead times (41.91) and the use of third-party and fourth party logistics providers reduces the lead times/ cycle times within the supply chain (66.125)

4.5.3 profitability

The study sought to establish how the application reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing affects supply chain performance in terms of profitability

TABLE 4. 12: profitability

Statements

Mean

Standard

Deviation

Reverse logistics increases revenue and profitability as a result of improved product availability and improved efficiency and effectiveness of operations of the supply chain,

70.03

20.95

Green logistics increases the level of profitability by cutting down costs through saving energy while improving/ maintaining the product quality

66.90

22.63

Outsourcing logistics increases the level of profitability since it enhances flexibility and allows the organization to focus on its core activities

63.78

24.59

Overall mean

66.767

22.72

Source: Research Data (2022).

From the data above, remanufacturing, returned goods management and waste disposal activities are profitable to the organization (70.03), green logistics increases the level of profitability by cutting down costs through saving energy while improving the efficiency and effectiveness of operations (66.90) and outsourcing logistics increases the level of profitability since it enhances flexibility and allows the organization to focus on its core activities (63.78)

4.6 The relationship between logistics management practices and supply chain performance

The research aimed at establishing the relationship between logistics management methods and supply chain performance. To understand this relationship, a regression analysis was performed, and the scores to be regressed were obtained using factor analysis and then saved as variables. The findings of the analysis were discussed and presented as shown below.

4.6.1 Regression Analysis

Regression is the determination of a statistical relationship between two or more variables (Kothari, 2004). This study utilized multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship of the predictor variables with the dependent variable. Adjusted R2 which is known as the coefficient of determination was used to explain how supply chain performance varied with green logistics, reverse logistics and outsourcing. The model summary table shows that

55.8% of change in procurement performance can be explained by three predictors namely multiple sourcing, category management and insurance an implication that the remaining 44.2% of the variation in procurement performance could be accounted for by other factors not considered in this study

TABLE 4. 13: model summary

Model

R

R square

Adjusted R square

St error of the estimate

1

0.367a

0.13469

0.558

0.43

Predictors- Reverse logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through activities such as remanufacturing and return of products, green logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through recycling, reusing and reselling and use of energy saving equipment while outsourcing logistics has led to reduction of inventory holding and storage costs as well as the risks associated with warehousing

Dependent variable- supply chain performance

4.6.2 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to establish the fitness of the model used. The ANOVA table shows that the F-ratio (F=6.701, p=0.027) was statistically significant. This means that the model used was appropriate and the relationship of the variables shown could not have occurred by chance

TABLE 4. 14. ANOVA

Model

Sum of

Squares

Df

Mean square

F

Sig.

Regression

41.673

1

3.432

6.701

0.027b

Residual

10.06

58

0.891

Total

51.733

59

a. Dependent Variable: supply chain performance

b. Predictors: reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing

[

TABLE 4. 15: Regression coefficients

Model

Unstandardized coefficients

Standardized coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Std error

Beta

(constant)

2.871 0.464

6.195

0.000

Reverse logistics

0.394 0.081

0.672

4.866

0.047

Green logistics

0.350 0.123

0.453

2.840

0,036

Outsourcing

0.307 0.071

0.678

4.313

0.021

The equation for the regression model is expressed as:

Y= β0 + β1 χ1 + β2 χ2 + β3 χ3 + є Y= 2.871 + 0.394 χ1 + 0.350 χ2 + 0.307χ3 + є

Where; Y= supply chain Performance

X1 = reverse logistics

X2 = green logistics

X3 = outsourcing

β1, β2, β3 = co-efficient of determination

£= error term (Assumed to be zero)

According to the regression equation established, holding all independent variables a constant then supply chain performance will be 2.871 units. From the regression equation holding all other independent variables a constant, a unit increase in reverse logistics will lead to a 0.394 improvement in supply chain performance, a unit change in green logistics will lead to a 0.350 increase in supply chain performance and a unit increase in outsourcing will lead to a 0.307 increase in supply chain performance. However, at 5% level of significance and 95% level of confidence, reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing have a significance influence on the supply chain performance with p-values of 0.047, 0.036 and 0.027 respectively and therefore their coefficients should be retained in the final model. The results further infer that of all the predictors considered in this study reverse logistics contributes the most to supply chain performance followed by green logistics as implicated by their larger coefficients.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter will elaborate the summary of the findings based on the objectives of our study.

5.2 Summary of the findings

The study sought to examine applicability of logistics management practices and its influence on supply chain performance of major retail stores in Kitui

5.2.1 reverse logistics.

the study established that most respondents use reverse logistics to a great extent. Generally, returned products as well as remanufacturing products management have a big influence on supply chain performance. reverse logistics increases revenue and profitability as a result of improved product availability and improved efficiency and effectiveness of operations of the supply chain. With an overall mean of 1.75, reverse logistics has been adopted to a very great extent.

This finding concurs with that of Kariuki and Waiganjo (2014) who reported that the primary goal of reverse logistics is to recover value. Similarly, it may be used to improve an organization’s customer service capabilities by communicating and persuading the market about the ability of the organization to create and preserve value for their products. Also, Kannan and Kumar (2010) reported that improved customer satisfaction and retention, increased revenue and profitability of the organization through increased product availability, improved efficiency and effectiveness of the organization, which leads to significant improvements in the efficiency of the organization are just a few of the widely recognized benefits of reverse logistics, a report that’s in accord with the research findings

5.2.2 green logistics

From the findings, green logistics increases the level of profitability by cutting down costs through saving energy while improving the efficiency and effectiveness of operations and contributed to supply chain cost reduction through activities such as recycling, reusing, reselling and use of energy saving equipment. Other activities such as green transportation and green storage ensure a lot of energy, costs and space is saved while quantity and quality of products increased at the shortest lead time as possible. Green packaging aims at elimination of excessive packaging and paper wrappings that do not compose as well as reduced quantity of polystyrene while keeping customer preferences in mind in order to attract more. From the findings, green logistics have been adopted by a very great extent as shown by the overall mean of 1.84

The findings agree with that of Emmett et al., (2010), Min and Kim (2012) who concluded that green logistics practices ensure improved quality of products, reduced wastes and of emission of gasses, at the same time providing health benefits to the society through better air quality and frequently reduced cost by better utilization of vehicles and warehouses

5.2.3 outsourcing logistics

From the research findings, outsourcing logistics activities increases the level of profitability since it enhances flexibility and allows the organization to focus on its core activities as well as led to reduction of inventory holding and storage costs as well as the risks associated with warehousing since such costs and risks are passed to a third party or fourth party hired. Moreover, the use of these third-party and fourth party logistics providers reduces the lead times/ cycle times within the supply chain thereby improving the supply chain performance of any organization. From the finding’s mean of 2.5, outsourcing of logistics activities has been used to a great extent by organizations

5.3 Conclusion

The study concludes that adoption of logistics management practices influences the supply chain performance of major retail stores in Kitui directly resulting to improved organizational performance to a great extent. Logistics management is influenced by adoption green logistics practices, reverse logistics practices as well as outsourcing activities. From the findings the study concludes that there is a strong relationship between adoption of logistics management practices and supply chain performance of major retail stores in Kitui

5.4 Recommendations

The study recommends that major retail stores in Kitui should adopt the logistics management practices to ensure improvement in supply chain performance. The study recommends that the top management should undertake employee training to ensure every employee /manage understands how these services can be incorporated effectively and efficiently into the organization and yield maximum returns.

5.5 Limitations of the study

Most of the respondents were reluctant to share information related to their organizations. By explaining and assuring them that the data collected will only be used for academic purposes, they were willing to respond to the questionnaires. Other than that, the researcher did not have any control over the accuracy of the data collected and therefore, some of the information obtained might not be true. Moreover, most of the managers, who were the major respondents, were busy people. Booking appointments through their secretaries allowed the researchers to get an opportunity with the managers and explain the purpose of their research, drop and pick method was applied to give the respondent enough time to answer the questionnaire

5.6 Area of further study

This research focused on the effects of logistics management practices on the logistics performance of major retail stores in Kitui. The practices that were studied include reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing logistics. For more knowledge to be gained and comparisons to be drawn, more research should be done on different logistics management practices and different organizations such as manufacturing and humanitarian related organizations.

REFERENCES

Agyabeng-Mensah, Y., Afum, E., & Ahenkorah, E. (2020). Exploring financial performance and green logistics management practices: examining the mediating influences of market, environmental and social performances. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120613.

Arif, J., & Jawab, F. (2018, April). Outsourcing of logistics’ activities: Impact analysis on logistics service performance. In 2018 International Colloquium on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LOGISTIQUA) (pp. 88-92). IEEE

Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., & Machado, V. C. (2011). The influence of green practices on supply chain performance: A case study approach. Transportation research part E: logistics and transportation review, 47(6), 850-871.

Chu, Z., Feng, B., & Lai, F. (2018). Logistics service innovation by third party logistics providers in China: Aligning guanxi and organizational structure. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 118, 291-307

Dekker, R., Bloemhof, J., & Mallidis, I. (2012). Operations Research for green logistics–An

overview of aspects, issues, contributions and challenges. European journal of operational research, 219(3), 671-679.

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Giri, B. C., & Sarker, B. R. (2017). Improving performance by coordinating a supply chain with third party logistics outsourcing under production disruption. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 103, 168-177.

Huang, M.C., Yen, G.F. and Liu, T.C. (2014), “Reexamining supply chain integration and the supplier’s performance relationships under uncertainty”, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 64-78.

Kim, I., & Min, H. (2011). Measuring supply chain efficiency from a green perspective. Management Research Review.

Lou, Y., Feng, L., He, S., He, Z., & Zhao, X. (2020). Logistics service outsourcing choices in a retailer-led supply chain. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 141, 101944.

Marchet, G., Melacini, M., Perotti, S., & Sassi, C. (2018). Types of logistics outsourcing and related impact on the 3PL buying process: empirical evidence. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 30(2), 139-161

Paskannaya, T., & Shaban, G. (2019). Innovations in Green Logistics in Smart Cities: USA and EU Experience

Shouket, B., Zaman, K., Nassani, A. A., Aldakhil, A. M., & Abro, M. M. Q. (2019). Management of green transportation: an evidence-based approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(12), 12574-12589

Wang, Y., & Zhou, G. (2021). Interaction Mechanism Between the Logistics Industry and Manufacturing Industry–Based on the Perspective of Different Linkage Types. IEEE Access, 9, 48462-48473.

Zhu, W., Ng, S. C., Wang, Z., & Zhao, X. (2017). The role of outsourcing management process in improving the effectiveness of logistics outsourcing. International Journal of Production Economics, 188, 29-40.

.

APPENDIX 1

– LIST MAJOR RETAILERS IN KITUI TOWN

Naivas supermarket

Safaricom shop Kitui

Magunas supermarket

Kilomart supermarket

Kitui hardware store

Damapet ventures

Simba telecom

Suwina hardware

Jay-veer enterprise limited

Kitui garments

Kitui vyombo vyote

Dawoodbhai Yusufali &sons

Electrimart enterprises

Mbusyani hardware

Kwa Muse shop Kitui

Kitui Kyangunga Plumbering and hardware

Tinda G enterprises

Kenya credit traders limited- Kitui

Easy dry cleaners and laundry Kitui

Vista electronics kitui

Tnt

Kathumo supermarket

Adam’ general store

Timezone electronics

Katchy wardrobe

Samchi

Kitui village market

Ibex ventures kitui

Mambo communications

Grace hope

Kyalili supermarket kitui

Jadean enterprise kitui

Mahakali merchants and hardware

Fabric centre

Highway hardware

Matinyani hardware and sanitation supply

At Your Service

Musyoka’s shop

Co-op Kwa Jirani Ikanga and General store

Vanilla hardware

APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE

RESEARCH TOPIC: ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR RETAILERS IN KIYUI COUNTY

Dear Respondent,

We are students at south Eastern Kenya University pursuing Bachelors of procurement and supply chain management. This questionnaire is intended to help the researcher get information on the effects of logistics management practices of major retailers in Kitui county. The purpose of the study is purely academic, and information shared will be treated with the highest degree of confidentiality. You have been chosen as an important respondent for the study. Kindly complete the questionnaire to help the researcher to complete the study. We are looking forward for your cooperation. Thank you in advance. Yours faithfully,

NAME REG NUMBER

TECLA M. KERUBO D118/0265/2018

CLINTON OGEGA D118/0281/2018

CYNTHIA AKINYI D118/0270/2018

JOSEPH ONTIERI D118/0953/2018

. Kindly tick () your response in the given spaces.

Position held by respondent in the organization

Manager ( )

C.E.O ( )

Accountant ( )

How long have you worked in the organization?

Less than 5 years ( )

6-10 years ( )

11- 15 years ( )

Above 15 years ( )

3. which level of education have you attained

Ph. D ( )

Masters ( )

Degree ( )

Diploma ( )

Certificate ( )

which of the logistics management practices have been adopted by your organization?

Reverse logistics ( )

Green logistics ( )

Outsourcing ( )

5 How long have the logistics management practices been adopted?

0-5 Years ( )

6-10 years ( )

11-15years ( )

Above 15 years

6 What are the driving forces for adopting logistics management practices in the organization? _____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________

7 Are the practices adopted beneficial?

YES [ ]

NO [ ]

SECTION B-: STUDY VARIABLES

REVERSE LOGISTICS

What aspects of reverse logistics have been adopted/applied in your organization

_____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

On a scale of 1-5 indicate your level of agreement to the following statements on reverse logistics and supply chain performance where:1-To a very treat extent, 2- to a great extent, 3- to a moderate extent, 4- Small extent, 5- Not at all

1

2

3

4

5

Returned products management has a big influence on supply chain performance

Remanufacturing has an influence on profitability, lead times as well as costs

Waste disposal e.g., recycling has an impact on supply chain costs

Green logistics

What aspects of green logistics have been adopted/applied in your organization

_____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

On a scale of 1-5 indicate your level of agreement to the following statements on reverse logistics and supply chain performance where: 1-To a very treat extent, 2- to a great extent, 3- to a moderate extent, 4- Small extent, 5- Not at all

1

2

3

4

5

Application of green packaging has led to the reduction of supply chain costs through elimination of excessive packaging and paper wrappings that do not compose as well as reduced quantity of polystyrene

Green transportation has ensured on time delivery of products, reducing lead times and delays thereby ensuring faster delivery of products to customers

Green storage contributes to cost reduction as it ensures a lot of energy, and space is saved while quantity and quality of products increased at the shortest lead time as possible

Green manufacturing has an influence on supply chain performance

Outsourcing logistics

What aspects of outsourcing logistics have been adopted/applied in your organization

_____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

On a scale of 1-5 indicate your level of agreement to the following statements on outsourcing logistics and supply chain performance where: 1-To a very treat extent, 2- to a great extent, 3- to a moderate extent, 4- Small extent, 5- Not at all

Statements

1

2

3

4

5

Outsourcing to fourth party logistics has an impact on supply chain performance through reduction of costs and risks associated while increasing profitability

Outsourcing to third party logistics providers has improved supply chain performance of the organization

SECTION C: SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE

a) Supply chain costs

The following are the statements on the influence of reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing logistics supply chain performance. kindly indicate the level of influence of each on supply chain performance

Statements

0-10

11-20

20-30

31 -100

Reverse logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through activities such as remanufacturing and return of products

Green logistics has contributed to supply chain cost reduction through recycling, reusing and reselling and use of energy saving equipment and generally eliminating unnecessary operations within the process

Outsourcing logistics has led to reduction of inventory holding and storage costs as well as the risks associated with warehousing

b) lead time

The following are the statements on the influence of reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing logistics supply chain performance. kindly indicate the level of influence of each on supply chain performance

0-10

11-20

20-30

31-100

Returned goods policy and remanufacturing reduce customer as well as supplier lead times

Green manufacturing, storage, packaging and transportation contribute to reduced lead times

The use of third-party and fourth party logistics providers reduces the lead times/ cycle times within the supply chain

c)profitability

The following are the statements on the influence of reverse logistics, green logistics and outsourcing logistics supply chain performance. kindly indicate the level of influence of each on supply chain performance

0-10

11-20

21-30

31-100

Reverse logistics increases revenue and profitability as a result of improved product availability and improved efficiency and effectiveness of operations of the supply chain,

Green logistics increases the level of profitability by cutting down costs through saving energy while improving the efficiency and effectiveness of operations

Outsourcing logistics increases the level of profitability since it enhances flexibility and allows the organization to focus on its core activities.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR RESPONSE

APPENDIX III: BUDGET

ITEM

NO. NEEDED

DESCRIPTION

UNIT COST

TOTAL COST

Proposal

3 COPIES

Printing 3 copies, each 38 Pages

Sh.10

1140

Stationary

Exercise book – 1

Pen -4

Sh. 50

Sh. 10

50

40

Questionnaires

40 copies

Printing 40 copies, each 6 pages

Sh. 10 per page

2400

Transport

Cost for 4 people

3200

Bundles

3000

Project

Copies- 1

Spiral binding

Printing 60 pages

Sh. 10

Sh. 100

600

100

Total cost

Sh. 10,530

Proposal For a Research Paper Dear sir/madam I am pleased to present

For your Final Project in this class, you will be picking a fictional character from T.V. or the movies Psychology Assignment Help Proposal For a Research Paper

Dear sir/madam

I am pleased to present to you the proposal of my research paper entitled; Importance of Sporting and Recreational Activities for Children. I hope that this proposal will make you decide to allow me to focus on this research topic and also support it. I chose this topic because I love sports and generally any activity that involves exercising.

I believe that the Importance of Sporting and Recreational Activities for Children is an excellent topic for me, and I will be in a position to write a comprehensive paper based on the based knowledge I have regarding the essence of sports and also with the support of the various sources to be used in my paper.

I will be happy if you give me a go on to base my research on this topic; I am available to answer any questions regarding my proposal.

Regards.

11 Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis Student’s name Course Instructor’s name Institutional

11

Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis

Student’s name

Course

Instructor’s name

Institutional affiliation

Date

Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis

In the new plan, I plan on employing a Cost-Benefit Analysis to establish new policies which will lucratively influence the financial benefits and costs incurred by adopting appropriate labeling, packaging, and branding of prescribed, non-prescribed, pharmaceutical and biologic drugs in Canada. The new proposal for a Financial Analysis will be led by economic factors that have been left out in the drafting. The novel adjustments to the food and drug legislation that the new plan expects to achieve center around the establishment of well-known and reliable institutes which are to handle the labeling, packing and naming of drug items, as well as the retraining of skilled professionals. The goal is to lead the process by increasing public access to drug information and raising public awareness about the efficiency of drug products, as well as instituting more credentialed drug makers who will be compelled to adhere to new labeling, packaging, and branding standards.

Prescription medications are used by a large percentage of people in Canada. Similarly, a large section of the public pays prices or loses as a result of errors resulting from improper labeling, packaging, and branding of medical products, particularly drugs due to a variety of circumstances. The first suggestion I will make to the Canadian people is to create new establishments to manage the labeling, packaging, and branding of materials used by patients (Health Canada, 2013). With regards to economics, improper labeling, packaging, and branding cause patients to lose money as they struggle with the severe side effects of taking the wrong medication, following the wrong dosage, or purchasing the incorrect medication as a result of incorrect packing.

In the plan, I will invent a novel funding to support organizations that will name, package, and market pharmaceutical products. The Canadian government will subsidize the establishment of these institutes. Furthermore, I will argue that the development of new institutions in both nations will cut the costs of patients who are spending their money to cover charges incurred as a result of incorrect packaging, labeling, and branding (Office of the auditor general, 2011). Canada will have four significant medical facilities, with an estimated cost of $3.5 billion to establish up the four facilities. Across Canada, there are around 670,000 dispensing errors each year found in prescriptions written in the country (Health Canada, 2010). According to the survey, 250,000 Canadians seek medical attention as a result of side effects from over-the-counter medications. Some of these consequences are quite costly because they can result in patient issues, as seen in the death of over 16,000 people who died as a result of Nonprescription medicine side effects.

The idea to establish new institutions to lead the labeling, packaging, and branding process in the United States is cost-effective and will yield greater long-term benefits. For example, the cost of drug-related death and morbidity was determined to be roughly $178 billion per year in the original plan. By creating the four suggested facilities at a cost of $3.5 billion and being fully responsible for their incurred costs, the cost of patients who suffer additional expenses owing to drug problems will be greatly reduced (Health Canada, 200). The plan will also aid in reducing the cases of readmitted patients due to remissions or complications arising from treatments and medications.

The government and other stakeholders also ought to ensure that information on drugs and other related matters is readily available and accessible to the public. The majority of drug-related difficulties are caused by a lack of reliable information on how to dispense the medications. Increasing complications in senior individuals, for instance, are caused by a lack of appropriate pharmacological knowledge. The plan to provide more drug information to patients could greatly reduce medical issues caused by a lack of knowledge about medicine labeling, branding, and packaging (Berman, 2004).

The proposal to increase the number of certified food and medicine manufacturers Canada will also assist to reduce the financial expenditures of patients who are hospitalized or die as a result of medical errors or drug problems. OTC problems claim the lives of about 25,000 individuals in the United States each year. Around 15,000 people die each year in Canada as a result of OTC problems (Goldstein, 2019). These people also spend a significant amount of money on hospital costs in order to avoid the negative effects of the drugs and other types of issues. By proposing recognized drug producers in the country, the expenditures of patients hospitalized for medical-related issues will be greatly reduced.

Because Canada currently has accredited health organizations that package, brand, and label pharmaceuticals, the plan to add more institutions will increase the capacity to provide efficient means of meeting the demands of patients. In terms of economics, expanding the number of medication makers and improving their capacity to label, brand, and package drugs will lower the costs that patients experience when they are admitted to hospitals or suffer difficulties as a result of improper drug use (Jackson, 2009).

Environmental pollution is another factor that adds to the costs incurred by a nation. Currently, most drug manufacturers use non-biodegradable packages for their drugs such as plastics. I would suggest using other materials such as green plastic and corn starch gelatin. The companies can also use refillable containers for medicines used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes. These steps would decrease both the government’s, the manufactures’ and the patients’ costs.

Employment insurance and public pension systems in Canada.

Employment insurance.

Employment insurance was introduced and made into a law in Canada in 1940 and has evolved in both negative and positive ways over the years. Despite the fact that it has been criticize for various limitations, the program managed to ensure financial protection for employees living in a capitalist nation. Canadian government has set social policies in the spheres of health, education and income among others. Employment insurance stems from said policies and it gives financial security to unemployed persons to either increase their skills to stand a better chance at employment or to protect them financially as they transition to another job. The eligible beneficiaries are persons who lose jobs due to reasons beyond their control or influence.

Despite the fact that the employment insurance (EI) program a has had numerous limitations over the decades, it has always been an integral element in the social protection in Canada. The rise of neo-liberal ideologies in the 1980s saw a tremendous change in the operations of Canada’s economy. While the aim of the welfare was to ensure equality, the capitalist mentality led to the wealthy having the power to influence national policies and wealth dissemination using the media and business ownership networks. These actions turned the social welfare into competing metaparadigms caused by the fact that they are intended to safeguard citizens from the detrimental implications of capitalism and the free market.

Currently, in addition to providing insurance for unemployed individuals, the EI program also insures people who have taken leave from their work for reasons such as sickness, pregnancy, breastfeeding and infant care, or being the caretaker for a seriously ill family member. Employees are only eligible for employment insurance if they have consistently paid premiums in the previous year and they attain the requirements. Individuals who are self-employed are allowed to participate in the program and be possibly awarded special benefits.

The program is run and regulated by the Canada Employment Insurance Commission. The commission oversees most matters surrounding awarding of the benefits and determining who is eligible for insurance. Other role that they oversee include deciding what the annual premium rate for that year is, answering asked questions, providing information on special benefits, assisting employers or former employers to be more skilled, authenticating clients, countering cases of fraud and receiving and solving claims and conflicts in the context of employment insurance.

In light of the recent Covid 19 pandemic, many workers lost their jobs and businesses collapsed. The employment insurance was not enough to cater for all affected household (Zhang, 20119). This mediates insurance policies to the labor markets as an increase in unemployment affects insurance policies. Tis happens when the government has to adjust its regulations to accommodate newly affected individuals.

Pension plan

The retirement income scheme (RIS) in Canada is widely regarded as a triumph. Elderly citizens have seen a huge increase in their respective salaries after 1971, and a large proportion of them have risen out of impoverishment. The scheme allows the majority low-to-middle-income senior Canadians to maintain their economic levels in retirement to a great extent. Simultaneously, considering public pension payments are still low, middle-to-high-income populations have a reason to save for retirement. The scheme is long-term feasible thanks to the modifications which have been enacted since the mid-1990s. They comprise progressive increases in contributions and the amount of income liable to premium payments, modifications in benefit administration and calculation, and the establishment of a finance committee to deploy capital less required for gains. One of the major evolutions or implementations in the program was the introduction of the pension plan by the Canadian government

The Canada Pension Plan was implemented in 1965. It is a pay as u go program that was enacted to give Canadian employees and their households supplementary income for when they retire. Employees across all provinces excluding Quebec participate in contribution to the CPP, which is a mandatory pension plan (Beland & Weaver, 2019). It offers a monthly retirement pension to seniors over 65 who have contributed to the scheme in addition to people with disabilities, survivors of disasters and those who have lost their bread winner. The CPP benefit is determined by the retiree’s earnings and the duration for which they have contributed to the system. This pension, on average, compensates around 25% of the wages on which persons have contributed significantly. The maximal CPP payout is around a fifth of the average production wage during the previous five years.

The CPP benefits are also affected by the age at which one retires. When a person retires before reaching the age of 65, the sum of their retirement pension drops by 0.5 percent for each month until they reach the age of 65. If someone retires later, their pension increases by 0.5 percent for every month they are above 65 until they attain 70 years. CPP benefits are completely taxable and are indexed to the Consumer Price Index and modified every January to stay current with increase in costs of living Furthermore, while computing the benefits, the CPP subtracts 15% of the contributor’s least earnings 5, guaranteeing that the eventual pension is not diminished due to a few low-earning seasons (Government of Canada, 2001).

The CPP gives payments to retirees as well as their dependents. Benefits are also paid to the surviving husband or legal spouse, as well as surviving children. The size of the death benefits is determined by how often and how long the deceased contributed to the Canada Pension Plan, as is the case with most CPP benefits. The Plan determines how much the participant’s retirement benefit is, or could have been, if they had died at the age of 65. The death payment is equal to six months of this “calculated” retirement annuity up to a maximum of C$2,500. (Government of Canada, 2004a).

On the contrary, awarding pensions to the elderly discourages them from saving up privately as they are assured of revenue even when they retire (Bairoliya, 2019). This can sometimes lead to irresponsible spending and financial illiteracy. The government can start workshops that train workers on the benefits of saving since pensions are usually not enough to facilitate the lifestyle one lived when they worked.

RAND health Insurance Experiment.

Throughout the mid-1970s, the public healthcare discussion centered on funding and the implications of cost sharing. The discussion at the time was around whether the advantages, universal coverage would outweigh the expenses. The HIE, one of the greatest and most thorough social science experiments ever done in the United States, was developed and conducted by multidisciplinary teams of RAND scholars to enlighten this discussion (Hodor, 2021).

The HIE was a large-scale, random experiment done between 1971 and 1982. RAND gathered 2,750 families, totaling to more than 7,700 people, all of whom were below the age of 65, for the research. To offer a metropolitan and regional mix, they were picked from six locations around the United States. subjects were assigned to one of five health insurance plans established exclusively for the study at random. Fee-for-service programs were divided into four categories: One option provided free care, while the other three required different amounts of cost sharing – 25 percent, fifty percent, or 95 percent comorbidity: the amount of healthcare costs that the patient should contribute. A voluntary HMO-style group was the fifth form of health insurance policy. Those who were allocated to the HMO enjoyed free medical care (Deveraux et al, 2019). The percentage of co – payments was earning-modified to one of three different levels for lower income families in cost-sharing plans: 5, 10, or 15 percent of income. Out-of-pocket expenditures were limited to either these percentages of income or $1,000 per year (approximately $3,000 if revised from 1977 to 2005 values), whichever was less. The study’s 95 percent coinsurance plan was very similar to the elevated catastrophic coverage which is currently being debated.

Families took part in the study for 3–5 years. At the time of participation, the top age limit for individuals was 61, ensuring that no subjects would have become eligible for Medicare before the trial finished. RAND acted as the families’ insurer and handled their bills to analyze participation service utilization, expenditures, and quality of healthcare. RAND conducted extensive medical examinations and gave assessments at the start and the end of the study to evaluate participants state of health.60% participants were chosen at random to have tests at the commencement of the experiment, and all of them had physical exams at the completion. The use of physical exams at random in the outset was designed to control for any potential health consequences that could be induced solely by the physical exam, regardless of subsequent participating in the research.

The study also looked at the validity of the products that were cut related to the cost sharing, as well as the practical standard of healthcare that respondents got. Did cost sharing inhibit respondents from getting adequate care more or less than inadequate care? Analysts divided specific ailments into seven groups to evaluate this issue, based on the extent to which outpatient treatment and treatments were recognized to be successful in treating each sickness. The problems varied from those for which treatment is remarkably efficient to those for which treatment is seldom beneficial.

Findings.

Cost sharing lowered the usage of practically all health care services, according to the findings. Respondents who cost shared had between one and less doctor appointments per year and 20 % less admissions than those who got free services, averagely throughout all degrees of coinsurance. Other sorts of treatments, such as dental procedures, medications, and psychiatric care, also saw drops. Furthermore, customers in the HMO-style cooperative had 39 % less hospitalizations than clients in the fee-for-service scheme who received care for free, but they used outpatient care similarly. The HMO plan’s savings were equivalent to the consequences of a greater coinsurance rates within fee-for-service model. Consumers in cost-sharing programs spent little money on health care because they used less services instead of looking for lower pricing. Persons with a 25 percentage co-pay expended 20 percent lower compared to those who received free treatment, and those with a 95 percentage coinsurance spent roughly 30 percent less. Respondents chose not to activate care, which led to lower utilization of services. Expense sharing had just a minor impact on the amplitude or price of an instance of care once patients were enrolled in the health-care scheme.

Challenges and criticisms

Despite its prominence as the sole genuine experimental analysis of the impacts of various levels of patient cost-sharing, it’s crucial to note that the HIE had a number of flaws that limited its utility to legislators in the 1990s. consequently, it became essentially a study of the average use of fee-for-service health care by non-elderly people who were either well-insured or extremely well-insured. The HIE was particularly poor at estimating the health consequences of cost-sharing on some demographic groups, even those enrolled in the experiment, due to sample size. Participants with significant health care needs, such as poor children and adults, grownups with chronic ailments like malignancy and osteoarthritis, and youngsters with chronic illnesses including asthma, congenital malformations, or fata conditions, were included in these categories. As a result, the health consequences of patient cost-sharing on many people with higher-than-average health-care demands are largely unclear (Newhouse, 2020).

Furthermore, the HIE was unable to investigate how clinicians would adapt to changes in consumer cost-sharing on a nationwide scale. If, for instance, broad rises in patient cost-sharing reduced numbers of patients, clinicians reacted by raising their rates or increasing the proportion of services they deliver to their customers. This relationship might have significant financial ramifications. In addition, some HIE practitioners were aware that their patients were taking part in a government-funded study. It’s unclear whether this information influenced provider conduct.

Finally, respondents in the HIE were required to fill a fortnightly diary on health care consumption, manifestations, and constrained activity; annual health surveys; and even recompense if their pre-experimental health insurance plan offered more income security than the insurance program to that they were allocated randomly. These elements are uncommon in most insurance contracts, so they might have influenced the study’s findings.

13 Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis Student’s name Course Instructor’s name Institutional

13

Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis

Student’s name

Course

Instructor’s name

Institutional affiliation

Date

Proposal of a cost-benefit analysis

In the new plan, I plan on employing a Cost-Benefit Analysis to establish new policies which will lucratively influence the financial benefits and costs incurred by adopting appropriate labeling, packaging, and branding of prescribed, non-prescribed, pharmaceutical and biologic drugs in Canada. The new proposal for a Financial Analysis will be led by economic factors that have been left out in the drafting. The novel adjustments to the food and drug legislation that the new plan expects to achieve center around the establishment of well-known and reliable institutes which are to handle the labeling, packing and naming of drug items, as well as the retraining of skilled professionals. The goal is to lead the process by increasing public access to drug information and raising public awareness about the efficiency of drug products, as well as instituting more credentialed drug makers who will be compelled to adhere to new labeling, packaging, and branding standards.

Prescription medications are used by a large percentage of people in Canada. Similarly, a large section of the public pays prices or loses as a result of errors resulting from improper labeling, packaging, and branding of medical products, particularly drugs due to a variety of circumstances. The first suggestion I will make to the Canadian people is to create new establishments to manage the labeling, packaging, and branding of materials used by patients (Health Canada, 2013). With regards to economics, improper labeling, packaging, and branding cause patients to lose money as they struggle with the severe side effects of taking the wrong medication, following the wrong dosage, or purchasing the incorrect medication as a result of incorrect packing.

In the plan, I will invent a novel funding to support organizations that will name, package, and market pharmaceutical products. The Canadian government will subsidize the establishment of these institutes. Furthermore, I will argue that the development of new institutions in both nations will cut the costs of patients who are spending their money to cover charges incurred as a result of incorrect packaging, labeling, and branding (Office of the auditor general, 2011). Canada will have four significant medical facilities, with an estimated cost of $3.5 billion to establish up the four facilities. Across Canada, there are around 670,000 dispensing errors each year found in prescriptions written in the country (Health Canada, 2010). According to the survey, 250,000 Canadians seek medical attention as a result of side effects from over-the-counter medications. Some of these consequences are quite costly because they can result in patient issues, as seen in the death of over 16,000 people who died as a result of Nonprescription medicine side effects.

The idea to establish new institutions to lead the labeling, packaging, and branding process in the United States is cost-effective and will yield greater long-term benefits. For example, the cost of drug-related death and morbidity was determined to be roughly $178 billion per year in the original plan. By creating the four suggested facilities at a cost of $3.5 billion and being fully responsible for their incurred costs, the cost of patients who suffer additional expenses owing to drug problems will be greatly reduced (Health Canada, 200). The plan will also aid in reducing the cases of readmitted patients due to remissions or complications arising from treatments and medications.

The government and other stakeholders also ought to ensure that information on drugs and other related matters is readily available and accessible to the public. The majority of drug-related difficulties are caused by a lack of reliable information on how to dispense the medications. Increasing complications in senior individuals, for instance, are caused by a lack of appropriate pharmacological knowledge. The plan to provide more drug information to patients could greatly reduce medical issues caused by a lack of knowledge about medicine labeling, branding, and packaging (Berman, 2004).

The proposal to increase the number of certified food and medicine manufacturers Canada will also assist to reduce the financial expenditures of patients who are hospitalized or die as a result of medical errors or drug problems. OTC problems claim the lives of about 25,000 individuals in the United States each year. Around 15,000 people die each year in Canada as a result of OTC problems (Goldstein, 2019). These people also spend a significant amount of money on hospital costs in order to avoid the negative effects of the drugs and other types of issues. By proposing recognized drug producers in the country, the expenditures of patients hospitalized for medical-related issues will be greatly reduced.

Because Canada currently has accredited health organizations that package, brand, and label pharmaceuticals, the plan to add more institutions will increase the capacity to provide efficient means of meeting the demands of patients. In terms of economics, expanding the number of medication makers and improving their capacity to label, brand, and package drugs will lower the costs that patients experience when they are admitted to hospitals or suffer difficulties as a result of improper drug use (Jackson, 2009).

Environmental pollution is another factor that adds to the costs incurred by a nation. Currently, most drug manufacturers use non-biodegradable packages for their drugs such as plastics. I would suggest using other materials such as green plastic and corn starch gelatin. The companies can also use refillable containers for medicines used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes. These steps would decrease both the government’s, the manufactures’ and the patients’ costs.

Employment insurance and public pension systems in Canada.

Employment insurance.

Employment insurance was introduced and made into a law in Canada in 1940 and has evolved in both negative and positive ways over the years. Despite the fact that it has been criticize for various limitations, the program managed to ensure financial protection for employees living in a capitalist nation. Canadian government has set social policies in the spheres of health, education and income among others. Employment insurance stems from said policies and it gives financial security to unemployed persons to either increase their skills to stand a better chance at employment or to protect them financially as they transition to another job. The eligible beneficiaries are persons who lose jobs due to reasons beyond their control or influence.

Despite the fact that the employment insurance (EI) program a has had numerous limitations over the decades, it has always been an integral element in the social protection in Canada. The rise of neo-liberal ideologies in the 1980s saw a tremendous change in the operations of Canada’s economy. While the aim of the welfare was to ensure equality, the capitalist mentality led to the wealthy having the power to influence national policies and wealth dissemination using the media and business ownership networks. These actions turned the social welfare into competing metaparadigms caused by the fact that they are intended to safeguard citizens from the detrimental implications of capitalism and the free market.

Currently, in addition to providing insurance for unemployed individuals, the EI program also insures people who have taken leave from their work for reasons such as sickness, pregnancy, breastfeeding and infant care, or being the caretaker for a seriously ill family member. Employees are only eligible for employment insurance if they have consistently paid premiums in the previous year and they attain the requirements. Individuals who are self-employed are allowed to participate in the program and be possibly awarded special benefits.

The program is run and regulated by the Canada Employment Insurance Commission. The commission oversees most matters surrounding awarding of the benefits and determining who is eligible for insurance. Other role that they oversee include deciding what the annual premium rate for that year is, answering asked questions, providing information on special benefits, assisting employers or former employers to be more skilled, authenticating clients, countering cases of fraud and receiving and solving claims and conflicts in the context of employment insurance.

In light of the recent Covid 19 pandemic, many workers lost their jobs and businesses collapsed. The employment insurance was not enough to cater for all affected household (Zhang, 20119). This mediates insurance policies to the labor markets as an increase in unemployment affects insurance policies. Tis happens when the government has to adjust its regulations to accommodate newly affected individuals.

Pension plan

The retirement income scheme (RIS) in Canada is widely regarded as a triumph. Elderly citizens have seen a huge increase in their respective salaries after 1971, and a large proportion of them have risen out of impoverishment. The scheme allows the majority low-to-middle-income senior Canadians to maintain their economic levels in retirement to a great extent. Simultaneously, considering public pension payments are still low, middle-to-high-income populations have a reason to save for retirement. The scheme is long-term feasible thanks to the modifications which have been enacted since the mid-1990s. They comprise progressive increases in contributions and the amount of income liable to premium payments, modifications in benefit administration and calculation, and the establishment of a finance committee to deploy capital less required for gains. One of the major evolutions or implementations in the program was the introduction of the pension plan by the Canadian government

The Canada Pension Plan was implemented in 1965. It is a pay as u go program that was enacted to give Canadian employees and their households supplementary income for when they retire. Employees across all provinces excluding Quebec participate in contribution to the CPP, which is a mandatory pension plan (Beland & Weaver, 2019). It offers a monthly retirement pension to seniors over 65 who have contributed to the scheme in addition to people with disabilities, survivors of disasters and those who have lost their bread winner. The CPP benefit is determined by the retiree’s earnings and the duration for which they have contributed to the system. This pension, on average, compensates around 25% of the wages on which persons have contributed significantly. The maximal CPP payout is around a fifth of the average production wage during the previous five years.

The CPP benefits are also affected by the age at which one retires. When a person retires before reaching the age of 65, the sum of their retirement pension drops by 0.5 percent for each month until they reach the age of 65. If someone retires later, their pension increases by 0.5 percent for every month they are above 65 until they attain 70 years. CPP benefits are completely taxable and are indexed to the Consumer Price Index and modified every January to stay current with increase in costs of living Furthermore, while computing the benefits, the CPP subtracts 15% of the contributor’s least earnings 5, guaranteeing that the eventual pension is not diminished due to a few low-earning seasons (Government of Canada, 2001).

The CPP gives payments to retirees as well as their dependents. Benefits are also paid to the surviving husband or legal spouse, as well as surviving children. The size of the death benefits is determined by how often and how long the deceased contributed to the Canada Pension Plan, as is the case with most CPP benefits. The Plan determines how much the participant’s retirement benefit is, or could have been, if they had died at the age of 65. The death payment is equal to six months of this “calculated” retirement annuity up to a maximum of C$2,500. (Government of Canada, 2004a).

On the contrary, awarding pensions to the elderly discourages them from saving up privately as they are assured of revenue even when they retire (Bairoliya, 2019). This can sometimes lead to irresponsible spending and financial illiteracy. The government can start workshops that train workers on the benefits of saving since pensions are usually not enough to facilitate the lifestyle one lived when they worked.

RAND health Insurance Experiment.

Throughout the mid-1970s, the public healthcare discussion centered on funding and the implications of cost sharing. The discussion at the time was around whether the advantages, universal coverage would outweigh the expenses. The HIE, one of the greatest and most thorough social science experiments ever done in the United States, was developed and conducted by multidisciplinary teams of RAND scholars to enlighten this discussion (Hodor, 2021).

The HIE was a large-scale, random experiment done between 1971 and 1982. RAND gathered 2,750 families, totaling to more than 7,700 people, all of whom were below the age of 65, for the research. To offer a metropolitan and regional mix, they were picked from six locations around the United States. subjects were assigned to one of five health insurance plans established exclusively for the study at random. Fee-for-service programs were divided into four categories: One option provided free care, while the other three required different amounts of cost sharing – 25 percent, fifty percent, or 95 percent comorbidity: the amount of healthcare costs that the patient should contribute. A voluntary HMO-style group was the fifth form of health insurance policy. Those who were allocated to the HMO enjoyed free medical care (Deveraux et al, 2019). The percentage of co – payments was earning-modified to one of three different levels for lower income families in cost-sharing plans: 5, 10, or 15 percent of income. Out-of-pocket expenditures were limited to either these percentages of income or $1,000 per year (approximately $3,000 if revised from 1977 to 2005 values), whichever was less. The study’s 95 percent coinsurance plan was very similar to the elevated catastrophic coverage which is currently being debated.

Families took part in the study for 3–5 years. At the time of participation, the top age limit for individuals was 61, ensuring that no subjects would have become eligible for Medicare before the trial finished. RAND acted as the families’ insurer and handled their bills to analyze participation service utilization, expenditures, and quality of healthcare. RAND conducted extensive medical examinations and gave assessments at the start and the end of the study to evaluate participants state of health.60% participants were chosen at random to have tests at the commencement of the experiment, and all of them had physical exams at the completion. The use of physical exams at random in the outset was designed to control for any potential health consequences that could be induced solely by the physical exam, regardless of subsequent participating in the research.

The study also looked at the validity of the products that were cut related to the cost sharing, as well as the practical standard of healthcare that respondents got. Did cost sharing inhibit respondents from getting adequate care more or less than inadequate care? Analysts divided specific ailments into seven groups to evaluate this issue, based on the extent to which outpatient treatment and treatments were recognized to be successful in treating each sickness. The problems varied from those for which treatment is remarkably efficient to those for which treatment is seldom beneficial.

Findings.

Cost sharing lowered the usage of practically all health care services, according to the findings. Respondents who cost shared had between one and less doctor appointments per year and 20 % less admissions than those who got free services, averagely throughout all degrees of coinsurance. Other sorts of treatments, such as dental procedures, medications, and psychiatric care, also saw drops. Furthermore, customers in the HMO-style cooperative had 39 % less hospitalizations than clients in the fee-for-service scheme who received care for free, but they used outpatient care similarly. The HMO plan’s savings were equivalent to the consequences of a greater coinsurance rates within fee-for-service model. Consumers in cost-sharing programs spent little money on health care because they used less services instead of looking for lower pricing. Persons with a 25 percentage co-pay expended 20 percent lower compared to those who received free treatment, and those with a 95 percentage coinsurance spent roughly 30 percent less. Respondents chose not to activate care, which led to lower utilization of services. Expense sharing had just a minor impact on the amplitude or price of an instance of care once patients were enrolled in the health-care scheme.

Challenges and criticisms

Despite its prominence as the sole genuine experimental analysis of the impacts of various levels of patient cost-sharing, it’s crucial to note that the HIE had a number of flaws that limited its utility to legislators in the 1990s. consequently, it became essentially a study of the average use of fee-for-service health care by non-elderly people who were either well-insured or extremely well-insured. The HIE was particularly poor at estimating the health consequences of cost-sharing on some demographic groups, even those enrolled in the experiment, due to sample size. Participants with significant health care needs, such as poor children and adults, grownups with chronic ailments like malignancy and osteoarthritis, and youngsters with chronic illnesses including asthma, congenital malformations, or fata conditions, were included in these categories. As a result, the health consequences of patient cost-sharing on many people with higher-than-average health-care demands are largely unclear (Newhouse, 2020).

Furthermore, the HIE was unable to investigate how clinicians would adapt to changes in consumer cost-sharing on a nationwide scale. If, for instance, broad rises in patient cost-sharing reduced numbers of patients, clinicians reacted by raising their rates or increasing the proportion of services they deliver to their customers. This relationship might have significant financial ramifications. In addition, some HIE practitioners were aware that their patients were taking part in a government-funded study. It’s unclear whether this information influenced provider conduct.

Finally, respondents in the HIE were required to fill a fortnightly diary on health care consumption, manifestations, and constrained activity; annual health surveys; and even recompense if their pre-experimental health insurance plan offered more income security than the insurance program to that they were allocated randomly. These elements are uncommon in most insurance contracts, so they might have influenced the study’s findings.

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Abstract This paper attempts to overview various techniques sports psychologists adopt in

Abstract

This paper attempts to overview various techniques sports psychologists adopt in the psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospects on physical training on sports skills alone. Instead should integrate both the mental and physical aspects of performance. Athletes should enter the competition with the proper mindset to achieve optimum performance during sports competitions. In this respect, the importance of a sports psychologist to athletes or sports teams cannot be overemphasized. Therefore the sports psychologist can provide the needed therapy to athletes who have been psyched out by personal, motivational, and environmental factors. Thus, the paper recommended that athletes be advised to practice mental and psychological skill training, and faster rehabilitation of an injured athlete should be done to help achieve success in peak performance.

Peak performance for psychological preparation in sports competition

Introduction

psychology is the study of the nature, functions, and phenomena of behavior and mental experience. The etymology of the word “psychology” implies that it is simply the study of the mind. However, most modern psychology has little to do with the reason. Many authors define psychology simply as the study of behavior or the science of conduct, which improves the understanding of the concept that psychology is the science of the mind’s law. Psychology attempts to examine and understand the causal process which contributes to behavior change. It attempts to discover why organisms behave differently by understanding, analyzing, predicting, and controlling the behavior of organisms. Therefore, it is that branch of science concerned with the conduct of organisms. The establishment of psychology as an independent discipline separate from philosophy and biology. They published a book on the principle of physiological psychology in 1873, and the book became the first significant textbook of experimental psychology. Wilhelm is also known for establishing the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig in 1879. psychology as a formal branch of knowledge is usually considered to date from the 1880s, with the work of the pioneer of psychology Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and Herman Ebbinghaus. Before that period, it existed as a branch of philosophy. The three most influential philosophers who helped the growth and development of psychology include Descartes and Locke and the scientist Charles Darwin. Sports psychology is the application of psychological principles and ideas to sports situations. Sport and exercise psychology is a systematic scholarly study of people’s behaviors, feelings, and thoughts engaged in sports, exercise, and physical activity. Sports psychology is a branch of sports science and psychology applied to sportsmen/women in athletic situations. The discipline of sports psychology is associated with attempts to study individuals in sports situations, analyze and explain or describe to them modify, alter or predict behavior through various psychological means. Today, sports psychologists work with both male and female athletes to help them perform at their optimal level. They work with professional sports teams, national sports teams, some professional athletes, or athletes who compete at an elite level, such as figure skating. Sports coaches may engage the service of a sports psychologist to help them achieve their goals. Knowledge of sports psychology is essential to coaches at all levels. It can help coaches understand the psychological impact of their coaching behaviors and decisions on the athletes more fully. Coaches can incorporate information from sports psychology into their preparation of athletes for competition and use information during matches to help their teams perform at their highest possible level (peak performance in sports). Peak performance is when somebody is best and most successful in performing a task. Athletes and coaches always think they must only practice longer and harder to attain this peak performance. They are reluctant to include psychological tools in their training and performance in the quest for excellence as the Olympic motto of “Swifter, higher and stronger .”In other words, athletes are constantly experimenting with new ways to enhance their performance. Psychological factors which must be considered for peak performance in sports include; personal factors, motivational factors, and mental factors. To achieve excellence in sporting events, all of these factors must interact positively to enable actors to reach a harmonious state of readiness, physically, mentally, and emotionally. This could be done by developing the strategies which will prepare the athlete to enter the competition with the “proper mindset .”For instance, a long-distance athlete may never think to enter a long-distance race without spending time to physically prepare the body to meet the conditioning demands of a race. Yet, athletes want psychological skills. They would need to help themselves achieve the best physical performance to excel in the competition. As the science of sports performance evolves, it becomes increasingly important to integrate the mental and physical aspects of performance. Traditionally, no attention has been given to the cognitive aspects of performance. Coaches and athletes have devoted most of their attention to the physical component of performance.

DETERMINANTS OF SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY THERAPY

In many sports competitions, different problems present themselves and may affect the athlete’s performance output. This issue arises from personal factors, Motivational factors, and environmental factors. The unique element is otherwise referred to as the personality of the athlete. Researchers have long been interested in personality factors. They have investigated the effects of personality factors on performance (e.g.) extraversion-introversion, aggressiveness, independence, leadership and determination, e.t.c) in sport. Some researchers sought to address whether sport influences personality. Other researchers have investigated whether there were personality differences between athletes and nonathletes. Still, other researchers undertook the task of identifying the psychological differences between elite athletes and their less successful counterparts. One of the questions was whether it would be possible to predict athletes’ success based on their personality characteristics.

Personality is “the unique blend of the psychological characteristics and behavioral tendencies that make individuals different from and similar to each other .”Personality is a trait possessed by an individual that is enduring and stable. Because features are enduring and durable, they predispose an individual to act in specific ways in most consistently but not all situations; thus, there is a degree of predictability to an individual’s action of psychological dispositions, i.e., brand pervasive ways of relating to people and situations) maybe more helpful in studying athletes’ psychological characteristics and personality traits are linked to predispositions. The personality trait of dominance, trait anxiety, and Internal Locus of control are related to the Type A disposition. The early research focused on the relationship between personality traits and sports performance. Researchers addressed questions such as “Do athletes differ from nonathletes?” Can athletes in certain sports be distinguished from those in other marks based on their personality?” “Do highly skilled athletes have different personality profiles than less skilled athletes in the same sport?” Are there certain personality traits that can predict an athlete’s success in a sport?” research findings have revealed contradictory answers to each question. Therefore, personality factors relate to the individual athletes or pertain to his attitude, intelligence, emotional state, interest, and sociability. It involves his physical ability and level of skill attained. It also involves neuromuscular activities and the ability to cope with work and fatigue. Each of these factors could be manipulated to produce excellent results. On the other hand, if neglected, they are bound to create problems.

Motivational Factors. Anxiety and Arousal Many athletes have reported that their performance has been adversely affected by being too anxious or aroused for athletic competition. As a result, various strategies have been developed to help them cope with Journal of Education and Practice a high level of anxiety or arousal. The goal of coaches, teachers, and sports psychologists is to optimize an individual’s performance. To achieve this goal, they must consider the effects of anxiety as a subjective feeling of apprehension accompanied by a heightened level of physiological arousal. Physiological arousal is an autonomic response that results in the body. Examples of this phenomenon seen in athletes are sweaty hands, frequent urge to urinate, increased respiration rate, increased muscle tension, and elevated heart rate.

Anxiety is commonly classified in two ways. Trait anxiety is an integral part of an individual’s personality. It refers to an individual’s tendency to organize environmental events as either threatening or non-threatening. State anxiety is an emotional response to a specific situation that results in feelings of fear, tension, or apprehension (e.g., uncertainty about an upcoming competition). The effects of both state and trait anxiety on athletes’ motor performance have been studied by sports psychologists. Coaches and teachers continually attempt to find the optimal level of arousal that allows individuals to perform their best. An arousal level that is too low or too high can hurt performance. Low-level arousal in an individual is associated with such behaviors as low motivation, inattention, and inappropriate and slow movement choices. A high level of arousal in an individual is related to such behaviors as deterioration in coordination, hard narrowing of attention, distractibility, and a lack of flexibility in movement responses. Each individual needs to find their optimal level of arousal for a given activity.

However, no one knows precisely how to reach this ideal state consistently. A variety of approaches have been employed by physically educated exercise science and sports professionals to pursue this goal. These techniques include “Pep talks,” use of motivational slogans and billboards, relaxation training, imagery, and in some cases, the professional service of a sports psychologist. Motivational factors have both internal and external influences on the athlete and are broadly categorized under intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which can be both positive and negative. Basis constitutes a vital prepared psychological therapy in sports coaching. There are many additional strategies that coaches can use to help athletes manage their anxiety and arousal. But the critical fact is that coaches must be prepared to work with athletes as individuals and determine which approach is best for them. But regulating an athlete’s anxiety or arousal level throughout the competition is an essential skill for maintaining a high level of performance proficiency.

Attention. Their attention to the task dramatically influences an individual’s performance. The individuals must locate, select, and focus on relevant cues to successfully perform the task [skill or game]. The individual must discriminate between relevant and irrelevant signals, but they must also maintain the necessary attention focus, or the performance will be less than optimal. Therefore, an aroused athlete may pay attention to the crowd or be thinking about an opponent instead of concentrating on the game.

Similarly, an athlete under high stress may be thinking about their anxieties instead of concentrating on task-relevant cues like watching the ball. Attention is the ability to direct senses and thought processes to particular objects, thoughts, and feelings. To be successful, an individual must match their attentional focus with the task demands, which often change as the performance progresses. The individual must be able to switch rapidly back and front between the various attentional styles.

Goal-Setting is important in many different environments in which physical education and sports leaders work. Goal-setting can help students in schools physical, athletes, sports teams, clients rehabilitating an injury, or adults involved in a fitness program. Goal-setting is important as motivation and strategy to change behavior or enhance performance. It is also used in intervention strategies to rectify problems or redirect efforts. A goal is that which an individual is trying to accomplish. It is the object or aim of action. Goal-setting focuses on a specific level of proficiency to be attained within a certain period. Goals can be categorized as outcome goals, performance goals, and process goals. Outcome goals typically focus on interpersonal comparisons and the result of an event. An example of an outcome goal is to win first place at the senior games regional track meet at the end of the season. Whether an outcome goal is achieved or not is influenced in part by the ability and play of the opponent. Performance goals refer to the individual’s actual performance at a personal level about personal stories of achievement. Striving to increase ground balls won in lacrosse from 5 to 10, decreasing the time to walk a mile from 20 minutes to 15 minutes, increasing the amount of weight that can be lifted following a knee reconstruction, and improving one’s free-throw percentage from 35% to 50%. The goal process focuses on how a particular skill is performed. For example, increasing axial rotation in swimming the backstroke and following through on the tennis backhand are two examples of process goals that focus on improving technique. As the design improves, performance improvements are likely to follow.

Environmental Factors. The environmental factors are factors directly related to the competitive situation. They are external to the athletes, such as the availability of team sports, eligibility, geographic restrictions, sporting body organization structures, crowd, and teammates’ attitude toward the coach. Positive environmental situations produce high-quality performance, while negative factors create problems for the athletes.

Summary/Conclusion

The athletic situation usually encompasses all the happenings in skills learning, practice, and competition processes in the performance environment. Each athlete is unique because of his characteristics, which are different from others, and he is treated as such in sports psychology. Therefore, studying and assessing sports situations and the reaction, adaptation, tolerance, and coping of the athlete to changes in the athletic environment allows the sports psychologists to find solutions to the associated problems. It is also their responsibility to shape the attitude of the sportsmen and women towards positive orientation to support participants through counseling and guidance. What individuals say to themselves during performance can be positive or negative. These though, associated feelings can influence self-confidence, which impacts performance. The relevance of sports psychology and a sports psychologist to peak performance in sports competition is a prominent one. The sports psychologist usually adopts or employs various psychological strategies, techniques, and principles to enhance athletes’ output in competitions and help them achieve their peak in the competitions.

Recommendations

There should be interventions involving stress management techniques, coping strategies, and social support mobilization through education. There should be total or maximum concentration on the task and shifting out other distractions. The athletes should be advised to practice mental and psychological skill training. 4. Athletes must develop sufficient concentration to exclude external variables (e.g., crowd) that may negatively affect performance. Faster rehabilitation of an injured athlete is recommended as this would help achieve success in peak performance. The athlete must complete mastery of the basic skills, which will help reduce injury to the athlete.