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For this paper you will be writing a reflection paper based on the film, The World’s Toilet Crisis. The

For this paper you will be writing a reflection paper based on the film, The World’s Toilet Crisis. The paper consists of two parts: 1) a brief discussion of the points in the film and how they apply to public health and 2) a brief discussion of your reaction to the film. Do not summarize the film – I watched it with you! You should use information presented in the lectures, readings, the film, and class discussions. You do not need to use outside sources for information. If you choose to use outside sources, you will need to cite them. If you quote from the class readings, you will need to cite them. I have attached some of the articles that we read in class below that can be referenced. I have also provided the link to watch the documentary

What’s a Commodity? A commodity is simply any valuable item for commercial

What’s a Commodity?

A commodity is simply any valuable item for commercial purposes in a market or economy. It is also defined as the grouping of a product that depicts minimal differentiation and is generic in nature. By generic, it means that there is a similarity in value that applies to the entire group of that commodity. A commodity is characterized by minimal price changes but is basically purchased at the same price regardless of the variance in purchase location. For instance, when purchasing a commodity like natural gas, the bill that reflects is based on how much of the gas the consumer used and not based on where it came from.

Another characteristic is that a commodity has little differentiation where a commodity in a particular area is the same as a commodity in a different area. This is a trait known as fungibility, which means that the commodities are not differentiated or distinguished from each other based on factors like the benefits derived from them or the brand. This makes it easy for commodities to be sold and traded easily across the globe. The primary purpose of commodities is for use in the production process. They act as inputs that aid in the production of other market products.

Commodity Meaning

The word commodity is traced from Latin language in the word commoditas, which means adaptation, advantage, and convenience. Commoditas also came from Commodus, which means proper, convenient, and fit. From the word commoditas in the Latin language, it was translated into French as commodite and later translated into English and used in the 15th century as a commodity. In the economics world, the term is used to describe economic goods. A commodity, in this sense, is explained as an item that bears market value and can thus be sold or traded at a price. Due to the market value of commodities, countries can engage in trade for them. This is because some commodities are only produced or grown in particular countries. Therefore, it is necessary to establish good relationships with countries worldwide because some commodities are only grown in particular countries. When a country has a good trade relationship with another that produces a certain commodity, it is easy to access it, hence improving international trade.

Types of Commodities

There are three major types of commodities; agriculture, energy, and metals. These three are differentiated in the means of accessing them. The means of accessing them is based on whether they are hard or soft. Hard commodities are obtained from mining using either the open pit or the underground shaft method. The energy and metal commodities can be obtained through these means and classified under the hard commodities. Conversely, agricultural commodities are obtained by tilling the land and planting crops for harvest and rearing or feeding livestock and are classified as soft commodities.


Agricultural commodities are categorized into cattle and crops. Cattle are the animals that individuals rear and feed to obtain food products from them. Crops are the products obtained from tilling land and planting to harvest after a given period. Below is a list of some commodities from both categories.

1. Wheat

2. Soybeans

3. Maize

4. Beans

5. Sugar

6. Hogs

7. Wheat

8. Milk

9. Cotton

10. Coffee

11. Cocoa

12. Mangoes

Agricultural commodities are perishable, meaning that they have a minimal shelf life after being produced or harvested. To last longer, they have to be frozen in ice in a refrigerator. The commodities affected by this characteristic are fruits and vegetables. Agricultural commodities are also influenced greatly by nature. For instance, if there are no rains, there cannot be sufficient harvest because of the insufficiency of water to water farm products. These commodities are also characterized by bulk. When harvested or produced, they come in large amounts for supply in the market. For example, when a maize seed is planted, it produces a maize cob with so many of them. Agricultural products are highly essential as they are a source of food for many people. For instance, corn is a staple food in some countries.


Energy commodities are described as the items that heat and cool structures and fuel moving machines for operational purposes. Examples of these are natural gas, fuel products like propane, diesel, electricity, and methane. Energy commodities have a significant influence on human beings’ daily lives. They are essential in the provision of electricity and fuel products. If the prices of these commodities change, they affect the prices of all other commodities because they affect their supply and demand hence affecting their prices. Therefore, energy commodities are deemed to be a primary driver of the economy’s progress because they technically fuel it. When the prices of fuel products or generally energy commodities, other goods in the economy also experience an upswing in prices and vice versa.


Metals are commodities that are extracted or obtained by mining. They are valuable metals that have not been created into products yet but exist in their basic and raw form. Metal commodities are a reliable investment, and they have a conveyable value. They are deemed reliable because they are predicted to have good returns when invested. The conveyable value in metal commodities means that their ownership can be transferred from one individual or corporation to another. Examples of these commodities are gold, copper, silver, steel, zinc, and aluminum. Metal commodities are essential since they are very valuable. These metals are used to make electronics, make coins, conduct investments, make jewelry, and art.

Commodity Examples

Below are multiple examples of commodities in the three types of commodities.

Agricultural commodities; these are grouped into other subdivisions like farm produce that is harvested. They include wheat, rice, beans, maize, oats, sugar, cotton, vegetables, tree nuts, hay, honey, etc. They are also sub-divided into drinking products like cocoa, milk, and fruit juices like orange juice, mango juice, cocktail, apple juice, pineapple juice, and passion juice. Another sub-category is livestock as edibles. Examples of these are beef, chicken meat, pork, fish, ducks, etc.

Metal commodities; Examples of metal commodities are platinum, gold, nickel, zinc, silver, steel, copper, aluminum, platinum, and palladium.

Energy commodities; Examples of energy commodities are natural gas, green power, heating oil, crude oil, coal, diesel, unleaded, bio-diesel, propane, and methane.

Lesson Summary

A commodity is defined as a group of a particular good that depicts minimal differentiation and is naturally generic. A commodity has marketable value in itself, which is the same for all items that belong to the group. Commodities are characterized by the indistinguishable trait and similarities in prices. Basically, the similar products have a common selling price and depict minimal or no price fluctuations. Commodities relate to other countries because some commodities are produced or grown in some countries from where they can be accessed. Therefore, it is prudent to have and maintain good trade relationships, to make it easy to trade with them as imports and exports hence heightening international trade.

Commodities are classified into three categories: metal, energy, and agricultural commodities. Metal commodities are obtained through mining. They have value and are usually in their raw and basic form before being created into a product. Examples of them are gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Agricultural commodities are obtained from farm produce and feeding or rearing animals. Examples are corn, wheat, cotton, beef from livestock, rice, etc. Energy products are fuel products, diesel, natural gas, electricity, heating oil, and coal.

Who was Theodosia? Who is Theodosia Burr Alston? Theodosia was the only

For this paper you will be writing a reflection paper based on the film, The World’s Toilet Crisis. The Writing Assignment Help Who was Theodosia?

Who is Theodosia Burr Alston? Theodosia was the only surviving daughter of Vice President Aaron Burr. She had an unusually good education compared to most women at the time. She also had an unfortunately short life, disappearing when a ship she was traveling on was lost at sea. Theodosia was born in 1783 in Albany, New York. Her parents were Aaron Burr and Theodosia Bartow Prevost. Theodosia Bartow was still married to her first husband, James Marcus Prevost when she fell in love with Aaron Burr; they married after Prevost’s death in 1781. Theodosia Bartow was ten years older than Aaron Burr and already had five children at the time of their marriage. Theodosia Burr, named after her mother, was the couple’s only surviving child together.

Theodosia Burr Alston was the daughter of Vice President Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr’s spouse died in 1794 when Theodosia was still a child. For Aaron Burr, Theodosia became profoundly important, and he put a great deal of energy into her care and education. She learned to read and write in English, French, Latin, and Greek. She was extremely intelligent. Although her academic education was comprehensive, she did not learn many of the housekeeping skills typically associated with women at the time. She assisted her father in his political goals as he attempted to become President. In the election of 1800, Burr lost to Thomas Jefferson, who became America’s third President. Burr became Jefferson’s Vice President.

Theodosia Burr Alston

Theodosia Burr had a number of suitors, but she married Joseph Alston in 1801. Alston was a slaveowner who had inherited a rice plantation. The marriage helped bolster the social status of the Burrs while also allowing Alston to downplay his wealth and appeal to voters. After getting married, Theodosia moved to South Carolina to live with her husband. Her wedding took place just over a month before Aaron Burr became the Vice President. According to historical sources, the marriage between Theodosia Burr and Joseph Alston was a happy one. In 1802, Theodosia gave birth to her only child, a boy named Aaron Burr Alston.

In 1804, Aaron Burr shot and killed fellow politician Alexander Hamilton in a duel. The two had long had a bitter rivalry that finally boiled over into outright violence. Burr’s political reputation crumbled immediately, though Theodosia continued to support her father. She remained loyal to him when he was put on trial for murder and was overjoyed when he was acquitted. However, Burr was later embroiled in a plot to organize several states in a secession effort and was also tried for treason. He was once again acquitted, and Theodosia once again supported him, but he ended up leaving the United States in a voluntary exile.

Theodosia’s Later Life

Giving birth to her son caused some health problems for Theodosia from which she never fully recovered. Her problems were compounded by the departure of her father, with whom she had maintained a close relationship throughout her life. After Aaron Burr’s exile, Theodosia Burr Alston tried hard to bring him home. She wrote to Dolley Madison, wife of President James Madison, about her father’s situation. Although Burr was not forbidden from entering the country, there was a great deal of ill will toward him that Theodosia hoped to reduce so that her father could come home safely. She said to Dolley Madison,

My anxiety on this subject has, however, become too painful to be alleviated by anticipations which no events have yet to justify; and in this state of intolerable suspense, I have determined to address myself to you, & request that you will, in my name, apply to the President for a removal of the prosecution against Aaron Burr, I still expect it from him as a man feeling and candor, as one acting for the world and posterity.

Aaron Burr was a politician whose career was extremely turbulent

Unfortunately, her letter was not effective, and Aaron Burr did not return home until 1812. Theodosia’s husband was frequently away from home on political business, as he was part of the House of Representatives for South Carolina. In the absence of both her husband and her father, Theodosia devoted much of her attention to her son, just as her father had devoted attention to her. Aaron Burr Alston was by all accounts a healthy and happy child, but unfortunately, he was not to live a long life. In 1812, Alston had to fight for his state’s militia with the outbreak of a new war. In the swampy, hot climate of South Carolina, malaria was a major danger. Aaron Burr Alston died of malaria after being bitten by a mosquito. He was just ten years old. Theodosia’s grief at the death of her son was intense. Her health, already fragile, declined further.

The Disappearance of Theodosia Burr

Aaron Burr was devastated by the loss of his grandson. Recently returned to the United States, Burr asked his daughter to travel to New York to visit him. She agreed and boarded a ship despite her husband’s concerns about her health. Alston could not accompany his wife because he was serving as governor of South Carolina and had to attend to his duties and the war. The ship that Theodosia sailed on was a privateering ship that happened to have a large stash of treasure and cargo from its previous voyages, making it potentially vulnerable to attack.

The trip from South Carolina to New York should have taken less than a week, but the days passed, and neither Aaron Burr nor Joseph Alston heard any word from Theodosia. Her ship disappeared sometime after leaving port on December 31st of 1812. Neither the ship nor the remains of any of the passengers were ever found, and Theodosia Burr Alston died at the age of just 29. Her husband was devastated by her loss. He contracted malaria soon after her disappearance and never fully recovered, dying in 1816. Aaron Burr also struggled enormously with his daughter’s death. Over the course of his life, Aaron Burr had lost his parents and immediate family and had now lost his grandson and beloved daughter in a few months. His career never recovered, though he did practice law for a few years. He died in 1836 after divorcing his second wife, Eliza Jumel.

What Happened to Theodosia Burr?

Historians have been asking what exactly happened to Theodosia Burr for many years. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that her fate will ever be conclusively understood. The most popular explanation, and certainly a plausible one, is that her ship was attacked by pirates who killed everyone on board and sank the vessel. Piracy was a danger in the region at the time, and the ship did have valuable cargo on board. It is also possible that the ship was simply wrecked in a storm, as December and January often brought bad weather at sea. It is unclear exactly when Theodosia died, but most historians assume that her death took place on January 2nd or 3rd of 1813.

Lesson Summary

Theodosia Burr Alston was the daughter of American Vice President Aaron Burr. She was named after her mother, Theodosia Bartow Prevost, and she remained close with her father throughout her life. He ensured that she had access to high-quality education, and as a young woman, she learned to read and write in English, French, Latin, and Greek. When Theodosia Burr married slaveholder Joseph Alston, she moved to his plantation in South Carolina. She continued to support her father’s political career even after he shot and killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel.

After his duel with Hamilton and another brush with the law when he got involved in a secession plot, Aaron Burr’s career disintegrated. He left the United States to escape the collective ill will that he encountered from many people around him. Theodosia wrote an anguished letter to Dolley Madison, wife of President James Madison, asking for help bringing her father home. Burr ultimately did come home in 1812, around the time that Theodosia’s only son died of malaria. A few months later, while trying to visit her father, Theodosia died when her ship was lost at sea. Though the circumstances of her death are unknown, one popular theory suggests that her ship was attacked by pirates who killed everyone on board and sank the ship.

One of the most impressive churches I’ve ever seen is La Sagrada

One of the most impressive churches I’ve ever seen is La Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, designed by the architect Antoni Gaudi, who is known for his eccentricity. Francisco de Paula del Villar’s original Neo-Gothic design for the church, located in Barcelona, Spain, was completed in 1882 after years of building. Gaudi took over the project in 1883 due to disagreements between Francisco de Paula del Villar and the Diocese over the cost of the building materials that were being used (Mollis, 2020). Its Neo-Gothic architecture, which includes elements such as flying buttresses, ogival windows, and a pointed bell tower, has been used for ages by the Catholic Diocese to construct basilicas. Gaudi infused his whimsical aesthetic into the design, and the project took on a life of its own, continuing to be built for more than 135 years without interruption. The Basilica of the Sagrada Familia is unlike any other structure on the planet, both in terms of scale and architecture. The conventional elements of basilicas created in the neo-gothic style are almost entirely lost in the process of construction. The concept evolved into something more than just a church for the Catholic Diocese of Barcelona; it became a monument dedicated to the people of Barcelona and their community as a whole (Mollis, 2020). The city enthusiastically received the project, even though it had faced numerous obstacles, including being substantially demolished during the Spanish Civil War and facing financial difficulties.

It serves as a place of worship for Catholics, a Christian denomination, and is open to the public (Friesen, 2012). The Catholic Diocese commissioned the Cathedral with a traditional design and purpose in mind.

The central nave of a Catholic basilica has a vaulted ceiling and is flanked by aisles divided by pillars. With its semi-circle at the end, it was termed an ape. The apes were usually found in the vicinity of the courts. Being designed as multi-purpose halls and auditoriums, these structures made great churches, which became their primary usage. The vaulted ceiling in the central hall was significantly higher than the smaller ceilings in the side aisles. Constantine established that Roman architecture had to have a purpose, a use, and a meaning for the people to congregate in. At one time, basilicas were intended to serve as a variety of functions, including those listed above. With the help of the church, they were embellished with religious objects and works of art (Friesen, 2012). Gaud found an aesthetic balance between new structures, forms, geometry, and Christian symbolism in his work, resulting in a bizarre architectural style infused with logic and the beauty of nature.


Friesen, A. B. (2012). Etiquette and the Early Roman Christian Basilica: Questions of Authority, Patronage, and Reception. Kolisch 1996, 49–56.

Mollis. (2020, July 29). A brief history of la Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. Discover Walks Blog.