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For this assignment you will be writing a paper describing the sounds you hear. You should pick a safe

For this assignment you will be writing a paper describing the sounds you hear. You should pick a safe place that is filled with interesting sounds. After the location is chosen, go there and sit for an extended period of time. Listen and write down all the sounds you hear. Every single one of them as they happen. Use whatever notation and format you want. This will be the sound equivalent of plein air painting or life drawing. The final product will be a paper similar to a score or some sort of scriipt for environmental sounds. We will share our experiences in critique.


Ways of Hearing Episode 3

Interview with Pauline Oliveros

Thulani Davis on Roscoe Mitchell

9 University by <Lecturer’s Name and Course




Executive Summary 1.this section need occupy a page , not only these few words , add content . Just like this one: the structure , the direction, do it more perfectly.

2. finish the executive summary is the table of contents, then the introduction.

.The purpose of this report is to examine how process improvement and lean thinking can be beneficial to the manufacturing industry and to specifically illustrate the real-life benefits gained in the application of the Just-In-Time methodology through a case study of the PC manufacturer Dell.

Section A provides a literary review of process improvement and lean thinking ideas. It summaries the major points of each philosophy from a variety of sources, briefly outlines the history of lean thinking, and looks specifically at the popular Just-In-Time methodology, its limitations and risks, followed by the benefits of adopting these concepts. Additionally, the common determinants of successful implementation are listed and explained.

Section B is purely focused on the implementation of JIT in the personal computer manufacturer Dell. It starts with a brief background to the company that provides the reasoning for the adoption of JIT, and then looks at how Dell went about implementing JIT into its operations. Next, in order to evaluate the success of its implementation, the benefits and potential risks that Dell reported post-JIT are listed and explained.

The report concludes with the opinion that based on the research, and case study implications, process improvement and lean thinking practises such as Just-In-Time provide substantial benefits that outweigh the risks and limitations of operating as a lean manufacturer.

This paper basis its contents on the case study of EE mobile operators. The paper views the following factors from the multi-million customer corporation; the customer experience, value proposition, reap factors, customer value and social media usage in the company.

Introduction too long ,the Executive summary should longer than introduction, and the content nearly similar with Tutor’s case study introduction, modify according to yourself research and your words.

As a part of the BT Group, EE is currently the largest and most advanced digital communications company in Britain, the company delivers mobile and fixed communications services to is users. The digital communications corporation has approximately 553 retail stores, more also it services more than 31 million connections across its mobile and wholesale networks.

The company has a high coverage both geographical and population wise. EE has 97% population coverage and a 67% geographical coverage. The company aims at improving its geographical coverage by 2020 so as to hit its target of 95%. (EE, 2017)

EE was formed as a result of joining T-Mobile UK and Orange UK brands; therefore EE was able to retain most of the users who used the two old mobile service providers previously. EE has a lot of coverage nationally although it has some few black spots. The phone contract prices for EE can be said to be abit expensive, but due to its large coverage customers will have confidence in the company hence making it a very good choice for the customers.

EE has been able to bring 4G network in most of its geographical and population coverage. On call completion rate the company aims to have the rate greater than 99.6% within its network that carries more than 150 million calls per day.

Value proposition

Value proposition is always aimed at ensuring the company retains its current customers and is able to gain new customers. EE being the first Mobile network company to come up with 4G network can be said to be able having a good customer proposition. (SONG H., Cadeaux J., Yu K, 2015)

The current value proposition for EE is Bigger, Better Faster. This value proposition suits the company since it was a new entrance in the market of digital communication with companies such as 02 and Vodafone being there before it. Again EE is a brand of T- Mobile and Orange UK hence saying it’s bigger, better and faster fitted in well as for that time.

Current EE has improved on the services offered; the company is investing on more aspects of the large sector of digital communications. Currently EE customers can be able to access BT Sports through a working payment plan. The customers also can access additional benefits such as apple Music. Therefore going on this the Value proposition Bigger, better, Faster has to be reviewed to fit with current company profile.

Therefore the proposed Value proposition is “Cut your communication cost, Available Everywhere and Faster”. This proposition cares for the fact that EE covers a very large geography in UK and also it aims at attracting customers through a faster network base that will make communication cheap.

The image below shows the perfect aligned proposition model, the proposed value proposition can be said to perfectly aligned since it basis on the EE strengths which its geographical coverage and fasters speeds compared to its competitors.

You need to see the model whether suit and better combine with the content to analyze.

Customer Needs

OK if you fulfil but not important

Nice to fulfil

Must haves

Company strength area

Company quite strong

Company not strong

Company Offer


Source: ?

System thinking

System thinking approach involves the study of system behavior results and study of every component in a system. Placing EE on this context of system thinking we can define the telecommunication company as group of components which comprises of machines, customers and staff that work together for realization of certain set goals.

EE should adopt a system thinking approach in organizing their CRM operations so as to be able to gain new customers while also retaining the existing customers (RT RUST, C Moorman and G Bhalla, 2010). The mobile operator should use their existing CRM software to able to adopt system thinking approach. EE can successfully do that through integrating the services that were previously offered by T-Mobile and those that were previously offed by Orange together. For instance Orange had CRM software that mostly based on deals pushed out to customers. EE new software should be able to advance on that by targeting customers who walk to enquire about upgrades. By doing that the Digital communications company will be adopting a system approach thinking in their CRM operations hence retaining customers and getting new customers.

On variation, Need use model analyze ,you can see The Deming Chain Reaction

Maybe can use this model, and each model add sources

any successful mobile operator must be able to adopt with changing customer needs since technology grows o daily basis. The factor such of speed of network is something that caries of time from 4G next should be 5G EE must be ready and maybe the first mobile operator to take its customers there. Another issue on variation is Roaming, customers travelling from one place to another should not have problem when it comes to communication across EE network.

REAP Factors

Use model analysis and look at the new model power point

Pay attention these words in ppt :

Every business organization aims in retaining its customers, EE are no exceptional. For EE to have increased revenue it must first of all retain its current customers and then working on increasing revenue per customers.

EE being a mobile operator the company serves different customers at different levels, these customers range from individual mobile operators to business customers. All these customers whether individual or in business they all contribute differently to the company’s revenue. EE depend on on Pega Marketing for Communications to able to determine the optimal strategy for every customer. Some of the ways that EE should increase customer value is through;

Increasing the number of offers offered to its customer’s base- by doing this EE will be able to retain their customers easily, since they cannot lose them to their competitors.

Increasing the number of offers accepted- if the customers have accepted the offers offered to them then it is in order for the company to increase them, it is through these offers that the company will be able to increase on its revenue.

Through the above factors EE will not avoid the risk of losing customers in the higher segment value.

The BB data table;







SuspectsOne effective way of increasing customer value is by gaining new customers within a set time frame. According to the data on BB the highest segment has only gained 55 customers in two years. The reason behind this can be said to high the expense the customers incurs. Looking at the segment that has gained more customers for the last 2 years the medium low level leads on this. From this it is evident that EE must work on ensuring there is a tariff that favors the medium earners and those who use their phones less. Through this tariff EE will gain a significant number of customers in the next two years or so.

You can change tutors model in new ppt.

The figure above show the different levels of customers in any organization the, the aim of the organization should be to retain the customers at the top most levels. From BB data, the critical few which are the top customer segment lost only 50 customers in the last two years. For EE to increase its customer value it must ensure that customers at the top level area not lost. Ensure that the services provided from 4G to roaming are up to the consumer satisfaction standard.

Customer Experience I gorget this section also occupy 20%. Not 10%

Use Kano model or Servqual analysis.

For any business to remain successful and sustainable in the modern world then the customer must be a very important factor that is taken care of every time. Research shows that EE was listed as one the worst mobile operator in UK, the reason for its listing was as a result of customer feedback. For any business to thrive the customer experience must always be positive. The customers should be satisfied with the services offered. (EE, 2017)

EE being a multi-million company has a big duty to improve its customer experience. Then how will they achieve this? First is through engaging its customers this can be done through customers ‘communities or in any other platform that best suits the two. Another way of improving the customer experience is through having a staff base that is well aware of the company proposition and the customer needs. EE should work on having a very strong customer service team to ensure that the customer’s calls for queries and other enquiries are well served. The CRM software also should work for the benefit of the customer provide the necessary information to the customers when they need it among other functions.

The customer pyramid also is considered EE should have mechanism of speaking to customers at the different segments so as to see on necessary service improvement and changes.

Social media , Use Sandy model analyze and combine content , not too long ,10%.

According to social Sandy model use of social media whether by government, public or private sector has several benefits in it, these benefits being; social media is fast and easy to use, there is a broad reach through social media and one can target a particular group through social media.

Through use of social media EE will able to communicate with its customers and find out what are the customer perceptions to their businesses. 0

EE will able to attract new customers through use of social media to market its services and products. Strength of social media is that the company will be able to build strong customer relations that are very health for the organizations.

The social media platforms in use currently are Facebook, twitter and Instagram among many do it more perfectly.others.

Conclusion Too short , give more perfect and whole conclusion , 5 or 6 row

For EE to thrive in the mobile operator business it must put into consideration, the use of social media, have a very positive customer experience, have a up to date value proposition and also work on improving the customer value through REAP factors.

Bibliography 1.The standards minimum 15 references, and 5 model picture. Complete reference details , focus on the format, and use it from official website , website , book , news, journal, and other sources .


EE. 2017. My EE. [online]. [Accessed 09 Mar 2017]. Available from World Wide Web:

ROGER, Martin. 2010. The Age of Consumer Capitalism. Harvard Business Review.

RT RUST, C Moorman and G Bhalla. 2010. Rethinking Marketing. Harvard Business Review.

SONG H., Cadeaux J., Yu K. 2015. The effects of service supply on perceived value proposition under different levels of customer involvement. Industrial Marketing Managemnet.

WRAY, Richard. 2010. Orange and T-Mobile settle for Everything Everywhere. London: Guardian.

National Health Service 6 CHANGES IN THE NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE Author Class

For this assignment you will be writing a paper describing the sounds you hear. You should pick a safe Music Assignment Help National Health Service 6






City, State


Changes in the National Health Service

The National Health Service was launched in 1948 and has grown to become one of the largest health services that is funded by the public. It was started to provide good healthcare to all, whether rich or poor. The organization brings together hospitals, nurses, doctors, opticians, pharmacists and dentists under one body to provide and deliver free services for all. The core principals of the body is to finance health from taxes and make it available to all. The people were only to pay only what they could afford.

The main function of NHS is providing healthcare in England. It provides in-patient care, primary care, dentistry, ophthalmology and long-term health care. It is funded by taxation and immigration fees and insurance payments. It also employs most of the nurses and doctors in England. It also employs consultants who provide expert advice and treat specialties (NHS, 2017). On addition to these, NHS also contracts the services of General Practitioners, opticians, and dentists. At present, NHS is undergoing several major changes in its core structure. The major changes affect the decision makers, the services provided by NHS, spending money and commissioning of services.

The current decade has had a major breakthrough in the medical field and innovations in the health sector. NHS is facing its most difficult period since its creation. Most of the reforms have focused on England, but other factors make the future crucial. The demands and costs are increasing, yet finances are not readily available. Life expectancy has increased since NHS started operating. However, the increase in the number of old people has also brought with it various challenges (Press Association, 2017). Elderly people are at a high risk of contracting multiple conditions such as dementia, which are difficult to provide care and support for (NHS England). One solution to the many old people in hospitals could be providing more care in the communities, as it is less expensive than the hospitals. The consultants could also run clinics in other area and GPs could take up roles in areas such as diabetes clinics and minor surgeries.

In terms of training, NHS has improved in the last decade through a three year vision for compassion in practice as a strategy for midwifery, nursing and care staff. The vision was drawn up by England’s Chief Nursing Officer, Jane Cummings and encourages the health staff in the three fields to treat patients as their own kin. The strategy would ensure that patients have a better experience in the hands of their staff, which would contribute to them healing faster and with less pain. The better experience at the hands of the staff would ensure that the patients live a more quality life and would not fear to go back to the hospitals in case they experienced problems. The last decade has also seen the mandate of the NHS published. The mandate was drawn up after consultations with health professionals, the public, and key organizations in the health service. It defines the objectives of NHS and outlines the areas that need improvement. These areas are preventing premature deaths, enhancing life quality for patients having long-term conditions, ensuring care for patients is quality, ensuring the safety of environment during treatment and treating ill health after injury. The mandate is likely to make NHS be accountable and improve its services. The NHS has experienced flat growth due to lack of budget increase by the parliament. Contrary to past decades, the budget allocated to NHS has not been increasing proportionately.

Medical advancements have revolutionized health care in the last half of the century as they have enabled more to be done though at a cost. The advancements in medicines have enabled people to survive strokes, heart attacks and cancers in large numbers. However, the survivors remain with disabilities that call for careful support and care. Intro Vitro fertilization, IVF, is also helping couples get children every year. Transplantation of organs has also been made possible and helped save a lot of lives. In terms of medical expansion, the NHS has also been able to have the first patient of heart failure get a new implant for stimulating nerves in 2012. The researchers at Glenfield Hospital were able to successfully fit a new implant that heart’s nerve supply to a UK patient for the first time (BMA, 2017). The implant is able to reduce blood pressure by slowing down the rate of the heart. The researchers say the operation is likely to lower the stress on the heart and reduce cases of heart failure. Another recent advancement in the area of medicine is the possibility of DNA mapping for cancer patients (Crowne, 2017). The announcement was made in 2012 that cancer treatment could be transformed in England through DNA mapping, which enables doctors to know condition of a patient, genetic make-up and the treatment requirements (Youssef, Nel, and Bovaird, 2017). It could also be used for scientific breakthroughs in the development of new drugs that could save lives.

However, NHS has been unable to combat the sources of lifestyle diseases such as drinking, smoking and obesity, which and be avoided but lead to costly health complications. The rates of smoking have fallen due to the campaigns against it, but alcohol taking and obesity have increased. Obesity leads to diseases such as cancer, diabetes and heart diseases while alcoholism is the leading cause of liver diseases (Triggle, 2017). The measurements that could be put in place to ensure that people lead healthy lives are reducing the levels of sugar, salt and trans-fat in processed foods and proper labelling of the same. Public health programs should also be put in place in schools and other such institutions to educate communities on the importance of healthy living (NHS Choices). Leisure amenities should also be set up and green places planned to encourage people live healthier.

NHS has also grown technologically to offer better services. In the last decade, NHS has increased its online services through a website that provides health and care. The website, NHS Choices, gives trusted and comprehensive advice on services and conditions (PSNC Mainsite, 2017). The number of people visiting the website has increased in recent years, and patients can now access their GP records online. The GPs enable booking of appointments online, access of records of care and offer prescriptions (Malcolmson, 2015). NHS is also planning to open up apps for devices with categories such as diabetes and mental health. The apps will enable people to manage and improve their health. They should also be tested and connected to NHS systems, to allow users download information. NHS has also used emergency telephones that offer clinical decisions support systems, which have supported urgent care and ambulance services (Shaw, 2014). The hospitals should also become digitized in using information technology for primary care. NHS is still behind in adopting information technology in mental health, acute and community sectors (GOV, 2017). The leaders of the National Health Service organization should broaden their understanding of the digital terrain and the various possibilities available to meet the huge productivity gap and also get practical insights that could assist in avoiding costly blunders.

A lot of positives have also taken place in the last decade. NHS got recognized in the 2012 Olympic Games in London and celebrated 65 years of operation on 5th July 2013. In May 2010, a campaign by NHS to save the lives of stroke patients, Stroke ACT F.A.S.T won an award. The aim of the campaign was to spread information on what to do when someone has a stroke, which would save a lot of lives. In the same year, NHS was also reported by Commonwealth Fund as the second best healthcare system in comparison to other international ones. It also launched the white paper in July 12, 2010, which had plans on making it more efficient and create a brighter future. The contents of the NHS were to have patients as the core business, to focus on the service of patients and empower clinicians to innovate and improve the health care services. In 2011, the Health and Social Care Bill was passed to advance the white paper launched in July 2010 and modernize the National Health Service so that it could deliver healthcare outcomes that were world class (NHS Choices). The same year also saw an artificial pancreas being successfully tried and the possible implantation of a plastic heart for the first in the United Kingdom.

Despite the advancements in training, technology and medical research, the NHS is still faced by a lot of problems that have derailed it and made its achievements dull in relation to past decades. One of the biggest challenges it has faced is lack of adequate financial backing. The demand for quality services is increasing at a faster rate than the resources being supplied (The King’s Fund, 2017). The other challenge faced by the NHS is that after Brexit, medical personnel from outside the country are not sure of their future anymore. It could be possible that the NHS might find itself in shortage of medical staff in the near future. The costs of providing healthcare have risen, and so are energy and supplies. The rising costs could cause the NHS to become unsustainable due to the high financial pressure and incurred debts. The medical advancements have come at a great cost too as they have enabled people to live longer, but are now faced by complicated old age diseases such as diabetes. The problem of the changing lifestyles that has increased preventable diseases has also become hard to tackle. It has become difficult to convince people of the dangers of smoking, alcoholism and eating unhealthy foods till they find themselves on hospital beds with cancers, liver cirrhosis and diabetes.

The services provided by the National Health Commission have improved but not as good as they should be. The NHS is not operating at the optimum level due to lack of funding in recent years. Even though several important medical advances have been made, the rate is still low considering that health style diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart attacks are still on the rise. The training in health and care is important but the NHS could have done more by investing in disease prevention measures such as education programs on the importance of healthy living.

Reference List

BMA, (2017). BMA – The new NHS structure. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Crowne, E. 2015. Effect of cancer treatment on hypothalamic-pituitary function. [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

GOV, (2017). NHS public health functions agreements 2015-2016. [online] GOV. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Malcolmson, C. (2015). INTEGRATED DIGITAL CARE RECORD. 1st ed. [ebook] Northampton General Hospital. Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2017]

NHS Choices. Risks of alcohol misuse. [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

NHS Choices. The history of the NHS in England. [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

NHS Choices. Why is fibre important? [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

NHS England. Harnessing technology and innovation. [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

NHS, (2017). About the National Health Service (NHS) in England – NHS Choices. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Press Association, (2017). NHS problems only going to get worse, says Patients Association. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

PSNC Main site. (2017). New Medicine Service (NMS). [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2017].

Shaw, S. (2014). The elephant tied up with string: A clinical case study showing the importance of NHS provision of intensive, time-limited psychoanalytic psychotherapy treatments. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 28(4), 379-396.

The King’s Fund. 2017. Priorities for the NHS and social care in 2017. [Accessed 2 April. 2017].

Triggle, N. (2017). Financial problems ‘endemic’ in NHS – BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Triggle, N. (2017). Stafford Hospital: Hiding mistakes ‘should be criminal offence’ – BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Youssef, F., Nel, D. and Bovaird, T. (2017). Service quality in NHS hospitals: Journal of Management in Medicine: Vol 9, No 1. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Academic English Skills Coursework 1: Source Evaluation: (25% of total reading mark

Academic English Skills Coursework 1: Source Evaluation: (25% of total reading mark for the module)

List of references: (Harvard style)

NHS, (2017). About the National Health Service (NHS) in England – NHS Choices. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

GOV, (2017). NHS public health functions agreements 2015-2016. [online] GOV. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

BMA, (2017). BMA – The new NHS structure. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Triggle, N. (2017). Financial problems ‘endemic’ in NHS – BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Youssef, F., Nel, D. and Bovaird, T. (2017). Service quality in NHS hospitals: Journal of Management in Medicine: Vol 9, No 1. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Press Association, (2017). NHS problems only going to get worse, says Patients Association. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Triggle, N. (2017). Stafford Hospital: Hiding mistakes ‘should be criminal offence’ – BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Wikipedia, (2017). Criticism of the National Health Service (England). [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017].

Shaw, S. (2014). The elephant tied up with string: A clinical case study showing the importance of NHS provision of intensive, time-limited psychoanalytic psychotherapy treatments. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 28(4), 379-396.

PSNC Main site. (2017). New Medicine Service (NMS). [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2017].

Malcolmson, C. (2015). INTEGRATED DIGITAL CARE RECORD. 1st ed. [ebook] Northampton General Hospital. Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2017].

Source Evaluation (25% of total reading mark for the module) IFY and IY1: Complete the table below for FOUR of the sources you have found. PM: Complete the table for SIX sources.


Bibliographic details of source

Brief evaluation of source

Relevant ideas from source for this essay section (in own words)

How do these ideas strengthen your argument?


This source does not write author name, however, it is a reliable source when its information get from NHS Home Page. The source is show information about what is NHS and its content will change over time.

Services cover the UK

Employed more than 1.5 million

The funds used for treatment are derived from national taxes

Introduce what is the national health service in the UK.


Wikipedia is not an appropriate source which it is unreliable. It could not use in the essay.

Various criticisms of the NHS such as medical scandals or financing plans. The applicability and independence of the NHS has also been questioned

It would not use in essay when it unreliable and does not meet the source requirements


This sources is reliable as it is research from government website. This report present the health function agreement of NHS in 2015-2016, the file was also released on last year.

The UK government try to achieve two of high-level outcome which is can improve NHS in a positive direction. To make more effective use of resources by the views of patients given

Discuss the NHS positioning in the UK and its functions.


Bibliographic details of sources used in this section

Brief evaluation of source

Relevant ideas from source for this essay section (in own words)

How do these ideas strengthen your argument?


This source is less reliable that is research at BBC website, however, the source was used some data from National Audit Office (NAO).

Health service have a deficit.

Increase the budget by 8.4 billion pounds

Need to reduce some of temporary staff to save costs when it is expensive.

Through specific examples to illustrate the NHS currently has the problem and the Government’s approach

Academic English Skills Coursework 1: Synthesised Summary Synthesised Summary Use a minimum

Academic English Skills Coursework 1: Synthesised Summary

Synthesised Summary Use a minimum of two sources (175 – 250 words) (25% of total writing mark for the module)

Main Body Paragraph Number: 1

Main Point: An introduction of NHS

National Health Service is a long-term health system to ensure the people’s demand for medical resources, and people living in the UK can also use the service free of charge. NHS (2016) introduce there are over 1.5 million people working in the NHS, and their funding has come from the national tax. NHS England has managed a part of the funding in 2015/16 which have £103.1 billion, it was clearly to see the NHS occupies a considerable part. On the other hand, it also has some changes in the past ten years which analyse from technology, medicine, and training. For example, NHS uses E-Observation System of Patient Vital Signs to strengthen the control of the patient’s condition to improve the quality of treatment (Malcolmson, 2015). However, Triggle (2015) present NHS’s treatment sites have three-quarters were in overruns in the half year, the fiscal deficit will rise with the demand of NHS. Medicine or training part has some of the situations when coming from the change of decade, those of changes also have a certain impact on health service system. According to research of medicine service, PSNC (2017) shows New Medicine Service (NMS) help community pharmacies provided treatment and improve the effectiveness of basic service.

Effects of Repetitive and Competitive News Framings 5 Running head: Effects of

Effects of Repetitive and Competitive News Framings 5

Running head: Effects of Repetitive and Competitive News Framings

Effects of Repetitive and Competitive News Framings



Effects of Repetitive and Competitive News Framings

A research study is described as an exhaustive and carefully conducted study that aims to investigate on specific problems, issues or concerns using scientific techniques (Lecheler and Vreese, 2013). A research study is practiced best when the issue to be studied is framed into a question. The aim of the research study is, therefore, to answer the question. This paper is a report of a research study carried out in Europe on the effects of contending and recurring news framings over the duration of time.


The research study aimed at showing whether there could be any effects caused by competitive and repetitive news presentations over a period of time. Opinion formation among individuals is not strengthened by repetitive news framing but by short intervals between the framings (Druckman and Leeper, 2012). Competitive news also has a strong impact on opinion form.


Online surveys were done using five-dimensional points among an illustrative specimen from Holland. To conduct the study, a topic subject relating to the enlargement and entry of Bulgaria and Romania states into the European Union was used. The topic subject was very relevant to the European Union members as it affects their economic welfare. The process started by establishing whether a newscast frame contained an important instant effect on the reliant variable idea. Then the population samples were split into subgroups and the effects of competitive and recurring framing were determined in the four described dimensional points. Finally, the impact of the political acquaintance on those effects for all subgroups and dimensional points was sampled.


On completion of the research, it was found that individuals recurrently exposed to similar news updates over a certain period of time, their news framings tend to become bolder. However, it was also noted that the cumulative impact of recurring news exposure, was not stable across time, but it was more likely to be recalled when the delay between two successive news exposures is small. From the results, an individual exposed to contending news frames over the period of time will have an opinion molded on the latest news exposure. Additionally, the latest impacts are expected to be bolder the longer it is from a specific news frame to another. Individuals with a low level of knowledge tend to have strong framings for repetitive news. It was observed that individuals, who had a high level of knowledge, were in support of Bulgaria and Romania when the positive news frames were used as opposed to their illiterate counterparts. Political knowledge was found to have to hold a short-term impact on the tendency for the latest effects. According to the research study, news framings can determine individuals’ way of interpreting issues, offering opinions and their behavior.

The formation of ideas is not affected by recurrent news framings. Repeated news framings showed no effects whereas competitive framing was characterized by bold recency effects. Recent news frames affected the idea formation. Political information holds a short-term impact on a reputed accumulation and latest impacts which were against the study’s expectations (Lecheler, Keer and Hänggli, 2015). With a higher degree of political information, it was detected that short intervals between two news frames resulted in weak recency impacts. Findings based on contending news framing demonstrate that long-term news exposure led to a substantial idea reversals. It was also observed that individuals previously exposed to other news frames are more susceptible to the latest news frame they come across (Chong &Druckman 2010). The research’s findings tend to contradict the theory of liberated media operators since it is not necessary that long time news framing is dictated by a continuous rear and forth.


The choice on political information as the topic subject was based on knowledge that political knowledge is closely related to the learning of political communication. And it can act as an arbitrator, dependent or independent variable. In both contending and repetitive news, it was found out that political information had a short term arbitrating influence over time. The short-term impacts are explained due to the propensity of high degree knowledge individuals having greater levels of accessibility, processing and recalling information rapidly. The research study was indeed successfully carried out. The findings from the research study should act as a single step in a long pattern of upcoming studies concentrating on latest and existing measurements of framing research.


Chong, D., &Druckman, J. N. (2010). Dynamic public opinion: Communication effects over time. American Political Science Review, 104(04), 663-680.

Druckman, J. N., &Leeper, T. J. (2012). Learning more from political communication experiments: Pretreatment and its effects. American Journal of Political Science, 56(4), 875-896.

Lecheler, S., & de Vreese, C. H. (2013). What a difference a day makes? The effects of repetitive and competitive news framing over time. Communication Research, 40(2), 147-175.

Lecheler, S., Keer, M., Schuck, A. R., &Hänggli, R. (2015). The effects of repetitive news framing on political opinions over time. Communication Monographs, 82(3), 339-358.