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For this assignment, I’m going to have you read a short piece in Gawker by Jenny G. Zhang. Here’s

For this assignment, I’m going to have you read a short piece in Gawker by Jenny G. Zhang. Here’s the link: “Everyone Thinks They are the Underdog.” ItLinks to an external site.’s an essay about how we communicate online in a digital age, and about how difficult it is to form identities in new, online spaces. I want you to read it primarily to get a sense of how the writer, Zhang, develops her argument. Your response should clarify your own sense of Zhang’s argument and its purpose. It should be three paragraphs in length. Below I’ll give you some prompts for writing the essay:

Paragraph 1: In this paragraph, explain a little bit about where Zhang is coming from. Maybe lead with an introduction about your own experience of social media, or something that gets the reader into the topic by way of an anecdote (an anecdote is a short story that conveys information relevant to your topic, but that comes from some other source, either your own life, the news or something you’ve heard. When you write an essay, the purpose of an anecdote is kind of like an icebreaker–it lets the reader know about your topic in a way that doesn’t require you to get down to the argument quite yet, but it also lets you show the reader that the topic is relevant by linking it to current events, personal events, etc…). After the intro/anecdote, get into the argument a little more. What is Zhang trying to say and why? Be specific and get analytical with this part of the essay. It’s important that you don’t end up stating the argument as a truism, or something already held to be true by the reader. In order for an argument to be good, it’s got to be a little bit original. Bring out that originality in Zhang’s argument.

Paragraph 2: In this paragraph, assess Zhang’s writing according to Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle. Which of the three forms of rhetoric (ethos, pathos or logos) do you think she uses the most? Give an example or two from her writing and explain. Make sure you let the reader know something about the form of rhetoric, and then explain how Zhang uses it in her writing.

Paragraph 3: Finally, give your own sense of Zhang’s essay. What did you think of it? Which parts of it made the most sense to you, and why? Which parts of it did you struggle with? Which parts didn’t work for you? Give the reader a sense of your own appraisal of Zhang’s writing in the final paragraph. Was her essay effective? Whether you agreed with it or not, did it convey what she wanted it to convey?

Summary of Select Articles Bureaucracy is a characterization of complex institutions with

Summary of Select Articles

Bureaucracy is a characterization of complex institutions with designed multi-layered systems and processes aimed at enhancing operational control and uniformity across the establishment. There are two forms of bureaucracy- enabling and coercive (Adler & Borys, 1996). Enabling bureaucracy permits employees to master their roles and deliver on their functions whereas coercive bureaucracy constitutes processes and efforts applied by the management to enforce employees’ compliance performance delivery. These enabling or coercive bureaucracies can be referred to as workflow formalization.

Adler & Borys examined this workflow formalization from a negative assessment (coercive) and positive assessment (enabling) attitudinal point of view.The two assessment points were informed by existent literature between 1961-1988, with particular emphasis on the contingency theory. This theory highlights the correlation between negative attitudinal outcomes and workflow design misalignment. Empirical evidence was drawn from Xeror photocopiers, a fast-growing firm in the technology industry. Their research interrogated the organizational landscape in light of the type and degree of formalization . The finding favoured an enabling bureaucracy over its coercive counterpart, arguing that the former increases efficiency and reinforced commitment of employees in the discharhge of their functions.

On the other hand; Jordan & Messner sought to interrogate the transition from enabling key performance indicators to a coercive environment, with empirical data being drawn from the manufacturing sector. In concurrence with Adler & Borys; this research established that a perceived increasing degree of emphasis on KPIs transformed them from means to an end (firms’ objectives) to an end in themselves- and as such they are transitioned from enabling controls to coercive processes (Jordan & Messner, 2012).

References

Adler, P. S. & Borys, B., 1996. Two types of bureaucracy: Enabling and coercive. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), pp. 61-85.

Jordan, S. & Messner, M., 2012. Enabling control and the problem of incomplete performance indicators. ScienceDirect – Accounting, Organizations and Society , Volume 37, p. 544–563.

Running head: JADE CULTURE EXHIBITION 1 JADE CULTURE EXHIBITION 2 Jade Culture

For this assignment, I’m going to have you read a short piece in Gawker by Jenny G. Zhang. Here’s Writing Assignment Help Running head: JADE CULTURE EXHIBITION 1

JADE CULTURE EXHIBITION 2

Jade Culture Exhibition

Name

Institutional Affiliation

Date of Submission

Table of Contents

PART A 3

Introduction 3

Agile Project Management 5

Project Management Life Cycle 6

Initiation 6

Planning and Design 7

Executing 9

Monitoring and Controlling 11

Closing and Future Project 12

Work Breakdown Structure 13

Stakeholders 14

Risk Management 16

Expected Risks 17

Conclusion 18

PART B 19

Project Liber 19

References 21

PART A

This essay will apply the knowledge of project management theories and management models to review and analyze the exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference of jade culture, which was held by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University between May 24th and June 1st, 2014.

Introduction

Jade, perhaps the most critical materials in Chinese culture have a long history. Available in limited supply, Jade was one of the most expensive elements in China (Chang, 2006). Jade held a unique position in ancient Chinese culture; the material was believed to have the power to ward evil (Ruff, 1953, Roaf, 1974)). In other cultural rituals, it was supposed to connect heaven and earth (Matsumoto, 2001). The stone became synonymous with ideas of Confucian teaching and influenced moral qualities (Shin, 2017). An entire culture was formed around Jade. Ancient relics document the existence of jade culture in China, these materials have been exhibited in several art galleries (Wang, 2011).

Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, is the art exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference of the jade culture of the east and the west, which was held at Tongji University, Shanghai, China. The event was hosted by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University and co-organized by Laboratory of Gem and Material Research of Tongji University, Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. The exhibition time was from 24th May to 1st June in 2014. The place of exhibition venues is the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University and the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group) Co. Ltd.

The exhibition includes the Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Jade Carvings at the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group) Co. Ltd. and the Chinese Jade Culture Photo Exhibition at the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University. There are more than 40 exquisite jade carvings carved by at least a dozens of masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving, such as the Jade incense burner by Master Yang Guang, the ’Flowing Melody – Image of Lotus’ by Master Yang Xi and the ‘Land of Idyllic Beauty’ by Master Zhai Yiwei (Wang, 2011). Because of the extremely high value of the artworks on display, visitors are required to register and pass security checks before entering the exhibition hall. As for the Jade Culture Photo Exhibition, it aims to teach visitors about the knowledge of the origins, type, and characters of Jade and shows the classic works of Chinese jade carvings in pictures (Ruff, 1953).

During the exhibition, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, the main organizers of this event, also organized a variety of seminars and forums to provide jewelry fans with a chance to broaden their knowledge of history, creation, collection, and identification of gem and jade (Miller, 1988). Ms. Carol Michaelson, who is responsible for the study of oriental jade works at the British Museum, brought a special lecture on the jade collections of the British Museum. The vice president of Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association, the director of the Laboratory of Asian Institute of Gemological Science (AIGS), professors from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University lectured in this event as well.

There are three goals of this event. First, to promote academic exchanges between the western and eastern jade culture. The name of this activity is the Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, and several western experts had invited to give lectures during the event. Second, to publicize the jade culture to the masses by organizing exhibitions and lectures in a famous university. Third, to expand the influence of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University in Chinese jewelry industry. After the close ceremony of the event was finished, these goals had completed successfully. However, at the beginning of project planning, there were no clear solutions for this project. According to the theory of project management, it can be concluded that the event, Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, applied Agile Project Management. In the following paragraphs, the author will use the theory of PMLC to analyze the five stages of the activity from initial planning to closing.

Agile Project Management

Agile implies a state of being well, basically being in a proper condition to handle what is expected while agility is the actual responses to the dynamics of the working environment, for instance, in the case of a body, flexibly changing directions as required without losing balance and control (Boyde, 2014). In project development, agile management is an interactive and dynamic nature of managing activities in project design, business systems or service provision (Juricek, 2014). An example case is the application of agile management in Scrum. Agile is based on the principles of the agile manifesto that defines how a project should run; the manifesto shows the implementation of both terminologies in management (Highsmith, 2004). The priority is customer satisfaction, the team’s functional agile nature to meet client needs at any cost. The second in the manifesto is welcoming changes at any stage. The flexibility powered by the agility of the team (Collins, 2011). The success of the team is the primary grounds upon which success of a project is measured; an agile team must utilize both agile and agility features to produce a working product.

Agile has found many uses in the development of projects, for instance, following the traditional old Zen parable, granting too much room for variation makes software less accurate in results while creating a very limited space reduces the program’s ability to respond to the environment (Kennaley, 2010). The variables are required to be just those necessary yet allowing for sufficient flexibility, the capacity to operate effectively with the incorporated variables is agile, while agility is the flexibility the projects are capable of making.

Project Management Life Cycle

Initiation

The initiation stage marks the commencement of a project. This stage is critical for the success of the entire project; it maps activities in the correct order (Wysocki, 2013). At the initiation stage, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University developed an initial business case and identified the goals of this project: organizing an art exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference or lecture of jade culture. After establishing the goal, the members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University undertook a feasibility study to analyze whether this goal can be achieved. Based on their understanding and familiarity of the Chinese and western jewelry industry, they believed that the event could be held successfully.

Project cluster and timetable is key at this stage (Management, 2018). After the basic discussion about division, the core members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University developed the project charter and made a general timetable. They appointed the project team, whose members included in-service teachers and full-time students of School of Ocean and Earth Science of Tongji University (which Gemological Education Center at Tongji University belongs), and set up the project office in the north campus of Tongji University. They then began to refine the initial plan, perform a phase review, start planning and design.

Planning and Design

Planning concentrates the ideas mapped at the initiation stage into a concrete sequence of events leading to the achievement of the project goal. Planning is key to ensuring that the project milestones follow in the right order (Management, 2018). At the planning stage, the project team created a project plan and further clarified that the activity would be a combination of exhibitions and academic forums. The exhibition would mainly aim at people who have less understanding about jade and providing related jewelry knowledge and inspiration for them. The academic forum would provide a platform for the group of people from jewelry industry to follow the latest trends of jewelry market, get an in-depth look at new technology for gemstone identification, and have a free discussion about jewelry industry. Projects must have an elaborate resource plan (Management, 2018). After setting the project plan, the project team created a resource plan and analyzed the major resource advantages of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University:

First, sufficient supports from Tongji University. As an important research and educational center of Tongji University, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University has the rich school resources. It is feasible to apply for venues, facilities and limited budget support from Tongji University and its affiliated institutions. For example, the project team applied for the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group) Co. Ltd. and the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University successfully to make arrangement for exhibitions. They also applied for the lectures hall of the French-Chinese Educational Centre of Tongji University and the conference hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University to hold lectures and academic forum. In addition, the project team got enough help by recruiting the volunteers of exhibitions from all over the school.

Second: abundant business resources. Since the establishment of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, many graduates have achieved great success in the jewelry industry. Therefore, there are many gemology experts, jewelry merchants and jewelry designers in the Alumni Association of Jewellery at Tongji University, which established by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University in 2013. Also, as a famous gemstone testing center and educational center in Shanghai, the Gemological Education Center at Tongji University also conducts training courses about gemology every half a year, and has built good relationships with many jewelry companies and institutions. With the support of these companies and institutions, the project team successfully visited over a dozen masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving and got the agreement with a public exhibition of their jade carving works. In the same way, several scholars and professors of gemology from western countries were successfully invited to participate in the academic forum.

The planning stage is centered on the assessment of the financial feasibility of the undertaking (The Five Project Management Life Cycles, 2018). At this stage, the group must assess whether financial sources will be sufficient in supporting project activities. By school and business resource, the project team created a financial plan to analyze the main cost and the funding resources for this activity (The Five Project Management Life Cycles, 2018). There were four main parts of the whole expenses:

First, the cost of exhibition venues, which includes the costs of property, utilities, labor, etc. Project teams from any school or student group of Tongji University have more discounts on rental of the exhibition halls or the lecture halls in every campus of Tongji University.

Second, the costs of transportation and security. Jade carvings from this exhibition need to be handled with great care and be displayed with security measures because all of them are very precious. To prevent the accidental risks of pilferage or robbery, the cost of security was doubtlessly high.

Third, the costs of reception and accommodation. The project team should be responsible for reception and provide accommodation for experts and scholars who were invited to attend the academic forum.

Fourth, publicity costs. To promote the event, the project team specially designed the posters and printed brochures of exhibitions. They distributed brochures in campus and put promotional articles on the online public media platform such as WeChat.

In addition to these four aspects of the costs, there were some frivolous expenses such as the costs of tea and cakes for the reception. As for the sources of funds for the activities, it mainly came from the Gemological Education Center at Tongji University and other organizations co-organizing this event.

Executing

Project execution involves putting all the elements conceived in the earlier stages into practice (The Five Project Management Life Cycles, 2018). Once the plan was made, the project team began to carry it out. They made previous preparations for the event and adjusted the plan according to the situation of the implementation. Through visits and face-to-face meetings, the project team reached cooperation agreements with Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. Supported by these associations co-organizing the event, the project team began to prepare jade carvings for exhibitions and invite experts for the academic lectures. After visiting her in person, the project team managed to invite Carol Michaelson from the British Museum to China. Along with Carol Michaelson, experts from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University visited the studios of jade carving masters all around China. During the face-to-face academic exchanges between the East and the West, these masters were invited to exhibit their works at the exhibition. In the end, more than a dozen masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving were visited with more than 40 jade carving works offered for the exhibition.

After rounds of discussions and arrangements, the event was scheduled to be held from May 24th to June 1st. The main academic forum and lectures were to be held between May 24th and May 31st as follows:

On May 24th, the opening ceremony would start at 10:00 am on the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University. Mr. Zhou Zuyi, Party Committee Secretary of Tongji University, Carol Michaelson from the British Museum, directors of Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Laboratory of Gem and Material Research of Tongji University, would jointly unveil the exhibition with all the masters invited. Many honorable guests and school leaders would watch the introduction exhibition featuring descriptive words and pictures. Ordinary audiences would be allowed free visit after the opening ceremony as well.

At 1:30 pm, Carol Michaelson would give a lecture titled “Analysis of Jade Collections in the British Museum” in the lectures hall of the French-Chinese Educational Centre of Tongji University, in which ordinary audiences would be welcome to participate. At 3:30 pm, a colloquium would be held in the conference room on the second floor of French-Chinese Educational Centre for jade experts and scholars to communicate and discuss. Ordinary audiences would not be allowed to participate this time.

After the opening ceremony, corresponding forums would be held successively:

At 2:00 pm, on May 26th, jade carving masters who contributed their works for the exhibition would join hands to lecture on “China’s Jade Carvings in the Contemporary Era” in the lectures hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University.

At 2:00 pm on May 28th, professor Qian Zhenfeng would give a lecture titled “Hetian Jade Collection” in the lectures hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group) Co. Ltd.

At 2:00 pm on May 30th, Dr. Dietmar Schwarz would give a lecture titled “Identification of Beryllium-diffused Rubies and Sapphires” in the conference hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University.

At 1:00 pm on May 31, 2014, Annual Conference of Alumni Association of Jewellery at Tongji University would be held in the lectures hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co., Ltd., after which Dr. Dietmar Schwarz would lecture on “Resource and Market Analysis of Colored Gems.”

Monitoring and Controlling

Monitoring and controlling is an aspect of project management aimed at ensuring that everything goes according to plan (Kennaley, 2010). Considering the grand scale of the activities, the project team took the following measures for monitoring and controlling:

First, keep a watchful eye on and monitor the progress of work. As the sponsor, the project team communicated with the project staff involved in the work on a regular basis. For the proper operation of the event, the project team mainly monitored and communicated with the security companies responsible for transporting and keeping exhibits, representatives of media platforms responsible for the publicity, design companies responsible for the design, students, and teachers involved in the project work, etc. Communications were carried out mostly through telephone, email, and WeChat.

Second, stay updated on progress and make work report accordingly. As the sponsor, the project team stayed updated on the progress reported by project staff on a regular basis. Meanwhile, having had summed up the information received, it reported it to government agencies and other co-organizing associations at regular meetings. All reports were generally made at face-to-face meetings.

Third, adjust the plan according to changes. Since unexpected issues abounded during the preparation of the event, many temporary adjustments were made to the plan. For example, the project team originally planned to exhibit jade carving works in the School Museum of Tongji University. Unfortunately, the facilities therein fell short of ensuring the security of the exhibits, so these exhibits were transferred to the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design (Group) Co., Ltd. Besides, since foreign experts invited arrived in Shanghai one week later due to schedule issues, the project team temporarily adjusted the accommodation and reception arrangements. A project team has to monitor and manage the event with high efficiency, owing to the reasonable distribution of workforce and the around-the-clock attention paid to work progress (Kennaley, 2010). And, due to timely adjustments to the plan, as well as sufficient preparation time spared in advance, it was capable of solving many emergency problems.

Closing and Future Project

After the completion of activities, the closing stage is a means to reassess the events and learn from the project. The closing stage is a means of ensuring future continuity on a future date or next phase (Collins, 2011). The academic forum and the exhibition of jade carvings ended with the closing ceremony held on June 1st, and the Chinese Jade Culture Photo Exhibition would continue for one month. After the closing ceremony, the articles which were written to report and review this event aroused the widespread concern of Chinese jewelry industry. The success of this event also laid the ground for a follow-up event. For example, the project team agreed with Carol Michaelson, the expert of oriental jade works from the British Museum, to offer some of the jade carving works which exhibit in this event to be shown at the British Museum. There was no doubt that the next project of the project team from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University would be the cooperation project with the British Museum.

Work Breakdown Structure

Durations

Durations

Identify Tasks

Identify Tasks

1ST Budget

1ST Budget

Stakeholder

Stakeholder

Resources

Resources

Constraints

Constraints

Risks

Risks

Invitation

Invitation

Planning

Planning

Chronology

Chronology

Dependency

Dependency

Goals

Goals

According to plan

According to plan

Effective

Effective

Control

Control

Execution

Execution

Timely

Timely

Adapt

Adapt

Consistency

Consistency

Within budget

Within budget

To plan

To plan

Closing

Closing

Continuous

Continuous

Evaluate

Evaluate

Recognition

Recognition

Finish up

Finish up

Stakeholders

A project must strive to satisfy its stakeholders. Research shows that a single project may involve stakeholder with diverse needs and expectations (Missonier & Loufrani-Fedida, 2014). According to the degree of interest requirement, the major stakeholders of this project were:

Tongji University (include the main organizer, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, and other schools of Tongji University which provide venues and facilities). The stakeholder is concerned with the cultural exchange aspect of the project. It funds and provides material capacity that makes the project a reality.

Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, and Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. The stakeholder is the custodian of the most the material used in the project. It is interesting in the project as a means of promoting Chinese Jade culture, curating, as well as the security of the artifacts exhibited

Shanghai government- the government have a mandate to trade its culture and share its history with the rest of the world. Shanghai government is the de facto custodian of the material exhibited; it is also interested in the revenue potential of the project

Experts and masters invited to participate in the event- The ancient jade artifacts were designed by ancient master; they skill is preserved in the art pieces presented. Experts and master are interested in learning from the exhibition as well as sharing their knowledge of the practice

Professional companies hired for this event, such as transportation companies, design companies, and security companies- these companies are part of the logistical players, most of the companies are in for the revenues earned through service delivery

Media platforms which promote this event- the media serve as a mean of communication, to the organizers, media will be key to publicizing the exhibition and attracting attention. To the media platforms, the project will be a source of revenues.

Staff and Volunteers of this event- the staff is responsible for bringing the exhibition to fruition. The success of the project hinges on their participation; they are the ball bearings that coordinates all activities.

The professional audience, such as the visitor from jewelry companies and associations- the exhibition is a learning experience, and a means to appreciate ancient arts

Ordinary audience- the audience is in for the amusement. Many of the audience intend to have a preview of the past and skill through the exhibition. The project will also be a history class for the general audience.

After making clear the major stakeholder’s and client expectations, a project team must formulate a means of meeting the diverse objectives (Missonier & Loufrani-Fedida, 2014). First, it fully understood major stakeholders’ needs for communication via email or face-to-face meetings, which include three aspects: what information they needed, when they needed it, and which form they preferred in obtaining it. Communication is vital in reaching out to all stakeholders (Boesso & Kumar, 2016). According to various communication needs, it adopted appropriate communication forms, mainly face-to-face meetings (one-to-one or multi-person talks) and written communications (e-mails, Wechat messages, etc.). The project team also determined the communication frequencies, mostly once a week for face-to-face communication among the project team members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, and every half a month to one month. The specific frequency dependent on work progress – for a summing-up meeting with co-organizers such as Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. Plus, the responsible person and the information receiver in the process of communication were nailed down as well.

To ensure the success of the event, a project team created a risk plan to avoid potential risks (Gladden, 2012). Judging from the consequences and losses to be caused by such risks, what deserved the most attention was the security in transporting and exhibiting jade carving exhibits. For security purposes, the project team hired professional transportation companies and security companies, rented professional exhibition facilities, and trained exhibitors and volunteers. Also, to ensure the academic lectures and the opening and closing ceremonies were held as scheduled, the project team got the risk response measures prepared in advance.

Risk Management

The success of every project depends on the balance between the costs and profits, thus, to succeed in a project, it is essential to inform the stakeholder of the potential benefits and gains that come with the project (Pinto, 1998). The first step in securing funding for a project is listing the gains and the profits, for projects that have a high rate return of returns, it possible to gain the shareholders’ interest and subsequent financial contribution towards the successful completion of the project. A critical element of the valuation process is an estimation of risks associated with the project, while project may seem quite promising, it is possible that the project might come at additional risks, these relate to market forces that affect the demand of services delivered by the business activity (Raftery, 2003). A good business has the potential to deliver in time and balance the costs incurred in delivery of services, besides the internal business mechanisms, it is possible that a business may suffer from external force, Thus, business organization should take in to consideration the external factors associated with the profit margins (Zhang, 2011). Most of this external elements associated with the rule of law, permit to operate and the CSR activities linked to business organizations.

NPV, the net present value of a project is a critical determinant of whether a project will be feasible or not, determination of the NPV encompasses a variety of subjects within the feasibility of a project, it determines whether a project will add value to the organization or it will be a reducing factor to the organization’s worth (Zhang, 2011). The calculation of the NPV takes into account the cash flow, time value of the money earned, the terminal value, value of the money, salvage value and the terminal value of the project.

Expected Risks

The success of a project depends on how the project management takes into consideration the potential risks; this entails elements such as scope risks. Changes in the scope of the project may relate to issues such as the project grew to be more complex than anticipated; the developer may be forced to invoke the use of additional procedure or materials not generally included in the development of the project (Simister, 2004). Additional issues associated with the project may relate to integration, defects arising from the hardware or software installation or changes in dependencies of one procedure on the other (Simister, 2004). Other risks that might be involved in the implementation of a project may relate to scheduling difficulties. There are many reasons why a project might not proceed in the manner scheduled. This may have issues to deal with issue of timing, an external factor that affects the success of the project, errors in the estimation of time requirements, nature or delays in the acquisition of components that are essential in the completion of the project. Another risk that may affect the successful completion of a project relates to the availability or the accessibility of resources. For project parts that do not directly rely on the resources that are already in place, additional factors may pose risks since the success of such resources depends on the external environment (Gladden, 2012). For a project that depends on certain level of technological innovation, some of the glitches to the success of the project may relate to the software or hardware development stages. For instance, halfway through the project, there might be cases of incompatibility that may force the team to rethink their approach to project goals.

Conclusion

Overall, the project team reached the expected goals of this project successfully. This event promoted academic exchanges between the western and eastern jade culture, publicized the jade culture of ordinary people, and raised the reputation of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University. Besides, everything progressed well at the stage of planning, executing and controlling. It provided a good model of project management for another project team of similar events.

PART B

Project Liber

Project Libre is stand-alone software for project management. This software could create graphics of project management, include Gantt chart, Network Analysis chart, histogram chart, resource chart, and WBS, by entering the name of the event with a start and end time of execution (Hibbets, 2018). The project team could understand the work arrangement clearly and distribute the work better with the help of Project Libre. Besides, the logical sequence and the time arrangement of every step of this project could be clearly defined in the Gantt chart and Network Analysis chart (Kelly, 2018).

One impressive advantage of Project Libre is its flexibility to create and edit the Network Analysis chart. In many other free software of project management, although the user could make a list of to-do items and a timetable with these tools, it is generally difficult to figure out the logical sequences of every item ((Hibbets, 2018). In many complex projects, even when one step is delayed, it is very likely that the following steps could be tipped into chaos. However, in Project Libre, the logical sequences could be clearly defined in the Network Analysis chart (Hibbets, 2018). The user can easily change the length of any task and the logical sequence of steps by dragging or moving the icon of each item in Network Analysis chart (Hibbets, 2018). If one step were moved forward, the following steps would move as well. And the timeline and the logical sequences of the following steps would not change. It is much easier for me to use.

Project Libre could also help users to calculate the total work hours of the whole project, human resources, labor costs and so on. I found that the human resources can be arranged well by entering the name of every worker in Project Libre (Kelly, 2018). When formulating a work plan of the project, the manager may make mistakes in making a schedule of the estimated time and person resources. For example, the manager assigned employee A to perform task 1, but he also assigned employee A to perform task 2 that conflicts with task 1 because of negligence. This kind of problem could be avoided by switching to different chart interfaces to check whether there is any problem of the current arrangement of human resources in Project Libre. Also, labor costs could be calculated in Project Libre by entering the salary of every employee.

Compared to other paid software for project management such as Microsoft Project, students would be more willing to download and use the free software such as Project Libre. Project Libre is a small practical software with a variety of functions (Kelly, 2018). It has a Chinese interface and has many different output formats. In my opinion, it is a useful tool for project management of the most project. However, it also has some disadvantages of marking some special project. I found that it is unable to make the logical sequences between two discrete steps. It’s really hard for me to create the Network Analysis chart of this project of jade carvings exhibition. Because most members of this project team are teachers of Tongji University, and they need time to concentrate on other main jobs such as teaching students between two steps.

References

Boesso, G., & Kumar, K. (2016). Examining the association between stakeholder culture, stakeholder salience and stakeholder engagement activities. Management Decision, 54(4), 815-831. doi: 10.1108/md-06-2015-0245

Boyde, J., 2014. Guide to SDLC Project Management: Getting your system/sofware development life cycle project successfully across the line using PMBOK adaptively. London: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Chang, W. (2006). The Trading Culture of Jade Stones Among the Yunnanese in Burma and Thailand, 1962–88. Journal Of Chinese Overseas, 2(2), 269-293. doi: 10.1163/179325406788639589

Collins, R. (2011). Project management. New York: Nova Science Publishers

Gladden, R. (2012). Book Review: The Project Risk Maturity Model: Measuring and Improving Risk Management by HopkinsonMartin. Project Management Journal, 43(5), 101-101. doi: 10.1002/pmj.21296

Hibbets, J. (2018). ProjectLibre edges in on Microsoft Project dominance. Retrieved from https://opensource.com/business/13/5/projectlibre-microsoft-project

Highsmith, J. (2004). Agile project management. Boston: Addison-Wesley

Huang, T. (1992). The role of jade in the late neolithic culture of ancient ChinaFont, V., 2012. The ultimate guide to SDLC. Jersey City: A Front Life Publication.

Juricek, J. (2014). Agile Project Management Principles. Lecture Notes On Software Engineering, 172-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/lnse.2014.v2.117

Kennaley, M., (2010). SDLC 3.0: Beyond a Tacit Understanding of Agile. Canada: Fourth Medium Press.

Kelly, W. (2018). Take your project management application open source with ProjectLibre. Retrieved from https://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-consultant/take-your-project-management-application-open-source-with-projectlibre/

Management, P. (2018). Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC). Retrieved from: https://planningengineer.net/project-management-life-cycle-pmlc/

Matsumoto, D. (2001). The handbook of culture & psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Miller, A. (1988). Gems and Jewelry Appraising. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Missonier, S., & Loufrani-Fedida, S. (2014). Stakeholder analysis and engagement in projects: From stakeholder relational perspective to stakeholder relational ontology. International Journal Of Project Management, 32(7), 1108-1122. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.02.010

Pinto, J. (1998). The Project Management Institute. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Raftery, J. (2003). Risk analysis in project management. London: E & FN Spon.

Roaf, M. (1974). Two Rock Carvings at Naqsh-i Rustam. Iran, 12, 199. doi: 10.2307/4300514

Ruff, E. (1953). Jade in the Mexican Art Exhibition. The Journal Of Gemmology, 4(3), 120-125. doi: 10.15506/jog.1953.4.3.120

Shin, K. (2017). A review of Jade Seal and Jade Investiture Book of Queen Hyohyeon. Korean Cultural Studies, null(77), 519-535. doi: 10.17948/kcs.2017..77.519

Simister, S. (2004). Managing Project Risk and Uncertainty. International Journal Of Project Management, 22(3), 269-270. doi: 10.1016/s0263-7863(03)00007-3

The Five Project Management Life Cycles (2018). Retrieved from: https://projectmanagementforum.wordpress.com/2010/07/06/the-five-project-management-life-cycles/

Wang, R. (2011). Progress Review Of The Scientific Study Of Chinese Ancient Jade. Archaeometry, 53(4), 674-692. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2010.00564.x

Wysocki, R. (2013). Effective project management. 7th Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley

Zhang, H. (2011). Two Schools of Risk Analysis: A Review of past Research on Project Risk. Project Management Journal, 42(4), 5-18. doi: 10.1002/pmj.20250

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Assessment Coversheet and Feedback Form Faculty of Strategy, Marketing and Management School

Assessment Coversheet and Feedback Form

Faculty of Strategy, Marketing and Management

School of Business

Complete the details marked in the coloured text and leave everything else blank. Where appropriate, copy and paste your submission after the first pages as indicated. You are reminded of the University regulations on cheating. Except where the assessment is group-based, the final piece of work which is submitted must be your own work. Close similarity between submissions is likely to lead to an investigation for cheating. You must submit a file in an MSWord or equivalent format as tutors will use MSWord to provide feedback including, where appropriate, annotations in the text.

Student Name

Jingling Zhao

Reasonable Adjustments

Student Number

17134893

Check this box [x] if the Faculty has notified you that you are eligible for a Reasonable Adjustment (including additional time) in relation to the marking of this assessment. Please note that action may be taken under the University’s Student Disciplinary Procedure against any student making a false claim for Reasonable Adjustments.

Course and Year

POST-GRADUATE

Module Code

MAN 7084

Module Title

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Module Tutor

DR STEHHEN (SUNNY) AKPABOT

Personal Tutor

First Marker Name:

Stephen Akpabot

First Marker Signature:

SA

Date:

11/06/2018

Feedback: General comments on the quality of the work, its successes and where it could be improved

Shown knowledge on your chosen project management and good to an extent, made some introduction/discussions; you also discussed your project execution, monitoring and closing of your chosen project but this area lacks relevant supporting literature/theory

Moreover, some discussions on project Libre seen, but yet again no supporting literature; other elements are missing, like type of project you have chosen, PMLC, WBS, Stakeholders expectation, risks and management. Other attachments can be seen which should have been in one document with your report

You fail to provide table of contents and structure your work correctly

Provisional Uncapped Mark Marks will be capped if this was a late submission or resit assessment and may be moderated up or down by the examination board.

41%

Feed Forward: How to apply the feedback to future submissions

For future assignment, always provide sources of information and structure your work correctly – see Moodle for guide

Quality and use of Standard English and Academic Conventions

Spelling Errors

Style is Colloquial

Standard is a Cause for Concern

Grammatical Errors

x

Inappropriate Structure

If the box above has been ticked you should arrange a consultation with a member of staff from the Centre for Academic Success via [email protected]

Punctuation Errors

Inadequate Referencing

Moderation Comments (Please note that moderation is carried out through ‘sampling’. If this section is left blank, your work is not part of the sample.)

Moderation is done via sampling. Your work was not part of the sample.

Moderator Name:

Moderator Signature:

Date:

Marking Criteria (See structure of the Assessment on Moodle)

Criterion 1, Mark: (25%)

Identify and evaluate a range of theories, concepts and approaches to project management

An insufficient range of theories discussed or not explicitly referenced. References are poor and drawn from non-academic sources only.

9

Criterion 2, Mark: (25%)

Critically evaluate project management knowledge areas and critique project management software tools.

Process groups mentioned although no explicit discuss or critique. Project management software used and applied although limited visual application and minor errors in the application e.g. not levelling resources.

9

Criterion 3, Mark: (25%)

Apply project management concepts and understand different types of projects e.g. traditional, agile, emertxe, and extreme projects.

Case study not discussed or incorrectly applied.

No consideration of the wider business environment.

No project management concepts effectively applied to the case study. Brief discussion of project management types.

10

Criterion 4, Mark: (25%)

Evaluate project closure and how to facilitate knowledge retention in future projects

Project closure not satisfactorily discussed or explained in sufficient detail.

Inadequate exploration of the learning cycle.

No specific closing steps mentioned or explained with no linkage to future projects.

13

Student ID: 17134893

Student Name: Jinglingzhao

Part A

This essay will apply the knowledge of project management theories and management models to review and analyze the exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference of jade culture, which was held by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University between May 24th and June 1st 2014.

Introducion

Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, is the art exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference of jade culture of the east and the west, which was held at Tongji University, Shanghai, China. The event was hosted by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University and co-organized by Laboratory of Gem and Material Research of Tongji University, Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. The exhibition time is from 24th May to 1st June in 2014. The place of exhibition venues are the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University and the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co.,Ltd.

The exhibition includes the Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Jade Carvings at the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co.,Ltd. and the Chinese Jade Culture Photo Exhibition at the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University. There are more than 40 exquisite jade carvings carved by at least a dozen of masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving, such as the Jade incense burner by Master Yang Guang, the ’Flowing Melody – Image of Lotus’ by Master Yang Xi and the ‘Land of Idyllic Beauty’ by Master Zhai Yiwei. Because of the extremely high value of the art works on display, visitors are required to register and pass security checks before entering the exhibition hall. As for the Jade Culture Photo Exhibition, it aims to teach visitors about the knowledge of the origins, type and characters of jade and shows the classic works of Chinese jade carvings in pictures.

During the exhibition, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, the main organizers of this event, also organized a variety of seminars and forums in order to provide jewellery fans with a chance to broaden their knowledge of history, creation, collection and identification of gem and jade. Ms. Carol Michaelson, who is responsible for the study of oriental jade works at the British Museum, brought a special lecture on the jade collections of the British Museum. The vice president of Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association, the director of the Laboratory of Asian Institute of Gemological Science (AIGS), professors from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University lectured in this event as well.

There are three goals of this event. First, to promote academic exchanges between the western and eastern jade culture. The name of this activity is Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, and there were several western experts who had invited to give lectures during the event. Second, to publicize the jade culture to the masses by organizing exhibitions and lectures in a famous university. Third, to expand the influence of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University in Chinese jewelry industry. After the close ceremony of event was finished, these goals had completed successfully. However, at the beginning of project planning, there were no clear solutions of this project. According to the theory of project management, it can be concluded that the event, Contemporary Jade Canon of East and West, applied Agile Project Management.

In the following paragraphs, the author will use the theory of PMLC to analyze the five stages of the activity from initial planning to closing.

Initiation

At the initiation stage, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University developed a initial business case and identified the goals of this project: organizing an art exhibition of Chinese contemporary jade carvings and academic conference or lecture of jade culture. After establishing the goal, the members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University undertook a feasibility study to analyze whether this goal can be achieved. Based on their understanding and familiarity of Chinese and western jewellery industy, they believed that the event can be held successfully.

After the basic discussion about division, the core members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University developed the project charter and made a general timetable. They appointed the project team, whose members included in-service teachers and full-time students of School of Ocean and Earth Science of Tongji University (which Gemological Education Center at Tongji University belongs), and set up the project office in the north campus of Tongji University. They then began to refine the initial plan, perform phase review, start planning and design.

Planning and Design

At the planning stage, the project team created a project plan and further clarified that the activity would be a combination of exhibitions and academic forums. The exhibition would mainly aim at people who have less understanding about jade and providing related jewellery knowledge and inspiration for them. The academic forum would provide a platform for the group of people from jewellery industry to follow the latest trends of jewellery market, get an in-depth look at new technology for gemstone identification, and have a free discussion about jewellery industry.

After setting the project plan, the project team created a resource plan and analyzed the major resource advantages of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University:

First, sufficient supports from Tongji University. As an important research and educational center of Tongji University, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University has the rich school resources. It is feasible to apply for venues, facilities and limited budget support from Tongji University and its affiliated institutions. For example, the project team applied for the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co.,Ltd. and the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University successfully to make arrangement for exhibitions. They also applied for the lectures hall of the French-Chinese Educational Centre of Tongji University and the conference hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University to hold lectures and academic forum. In addition, the project team got enough help by recruiting the volunteers of exhibitions from all over the school.

Second: abundant business resources. Since the establishment of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, many graduates have achieved great success in jewellery industry. Therefore there are many gemology experts, jewellery merchants and jewellery designers in the Alumni Association of Jewellery at Tongji University, which established by Gemological Education Center at Tongji University in 2013. In addition, as a famous gemstone testing center and educational center in Shanghai, the Gemological Education Center at Tongji University also conducts training courses about gemology every half a year, and has built good relationships with many jewellery companies and institutions. With the support of these companies and institutions, the project team successfully visited over a dozen masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving and got the agreement with public exhibition of their jade carving works. In the same way, several scholars and professors of gemology from western countries were successfully invited to participate in academic forum.

On the basis of school and business resource, the project team created a financial plan to analyze the main cost and the funding resources of this activity. There were four main parts of the whole expenses:

First, the cost of exhibition venues, which includes the costs of property, utilities, labor, etc. Project teams from any school or student group of Tongji University have more discounts on rental of the exhibition halls or the lecture halls in every campus of Tongji University.

Second, the costs of transportation and security. Jade carvings of this exhibition need to be handled with great care and be displayed with security measures because all of them are very precious. In order to prevent the accidental risks of pilferage or robbery, the cost of security was doubtlessly high.

Third, the costs of reception and accommodation. The project team should be responsible for reception and provide accommodation for experts and scholars who were invited to attend the academic forum.

Fourth, publicity costs. In order to promote the event, the project team specially designed the posters and printed brochures of exhibitions. They distributed brochures in campus and put promotional articles on the online public media platform such as WeChat.

In addition to these four aspects of the costs, there were some frivolous expenses such as the costs of tea and cakes for the reception. As for the sources of funds for the activities, it mainly came from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University and other organizations co-organizing this event.

Acorrding to the degree of interest requirement, the major stakeholders of this project were:

1.Tongji University (include the main organizer, Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, and other schools of Tongji University which provide venues and facilities)

2.Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, and Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association

3.Shanghai government

4.Experts and masters invited to participate this event

5.Professional companies hired for this event, such as transportation companies, design companies and security companies

6.Media platforms which promote this event

7.Staff and Volunteers of this event

8.Professional audience, such as the visitor from jewellery companies and associations

9.Ordinary audience

After making clear the major stakeholder’s and client expections,the project team formulated a communication plan as follows. First, it fully understood major stakeholders’ needs for communication via email or face-to-face meetings, which include three aspects: what information they needed, when they needed it, and which form they preferred in obtaining it. Then, according to various communication needs, it adopted appropriate communication forms, mainly face-to-face meetings (one-to-one or multi-person talks) and written communications (e-mails, Wechat messages, etc.).The projecy team also determined the communication frequencies, mostly once a week for face-to-face communication among the project team members of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University, and every half a month to one month – the specific frequency dependent on work progress – for a summing-up meeting with co-organizers such as Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. Plus, the responsible person and the information receiver in the process of communication were nailed down as well.

To ensure the success of the event, the project team created a risk plan to avoid potential risks. Judging from the consequences and losses to be caused by such risks, what deserved the most attention was the security in transporting and exhibiting jade carving exhibits. For security purposes, the project team hired professional transportation companies and security companies, rented professional exhibition facilities, and trained exhibitors and volunteers. In addition, to ensure the academic lectures and the opening and closing ceremonies be held as scheduled, the project team got the risk response measures prepared in advance.

Executing

Once the plan was made, the project team began to carry it out. They made previous preparations for the event and adjusted the plan according to the situation of the implementation.

Through visits and face-to-face meetings, the project team reached cooperation agreements with Shanghai Research Centre for Gem and Material Technology, Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Shanghai Arts & Crafts Association. Supported by these associations co-organizing the event, the project team began to prepare jade carvings for exhibitions and invite experts for the academic lectures. After visiting her in person, the project team managed to invite Carol Michaelson from the British Museum to China. Along with Carol Michaelson, experts from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University visited the studios of jade carving masters all around China. During the face-to-face academic exchanges between East and the West, these masters were invited to exhibit their works at the exhibition. In the end, more than a dozen masters of Chinese contemporary jade carving were visited with more than 40 jade carving works offered for the exhibition.

After rounds of discussions and arrangements, the event was scheduled to be held from May 24th to June 1st. The main academic forum and lectures were to be held between May 24th and May 31st as follows:

On May 24th, the opening ceremony would start at 10:00 am at the ground floor of Multifunctional Building of Tongji University. Mr.Zhou Zuyi, Party Committee Secretary of Tongji University, Carol Michaelson from the British Museum, directors of Shanghai Gem and Jade Trade Association and Laboratory of Gem and Material Research of Tongji University, would jointly unveil the exhibition with all the masters invited. Many honorable guests and school leaders would watch the introduction exhibition featuring descriptive words and pictures. Ordinary audiences would be allowed free visit after the opening ceremony as well.

At 1:30 pm, Carol Michaelson would give a lecture titled “Analysis of Jade Collections in the British Museum” in the lectures hall of the French-Chinese Educational Centre of Tongji University, in which ordinary audiences would be welcome to participate.

At 3:30 pm, a colloquium would be held in the conference room at the second floor of French-Chinese Educational Centre for jade experts and scholars to communicate and discuss. Ordinary audiences would not be allowed to participate this time.

After the opening ceremony, corresponding forums would be held successively:

At 2:00 pm, on May 26th, jade carving masters who contributed their works for the exhibition would join hands to lecture on “China’s Jade Carvings in the Contemporary Era” in the lectures hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University.

At 2:00 pm on May 28th, professor Qian Zhenfeng would give a lecture titled “Hetian Jade Collection” in the lectures hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co.,Ltd.

At 2:00 pm on May 30th, Dr. Dietmar Schwarz would give a lecture titled “Identification of Beryllium-diffused Rubies and Sapphires” in the conference hall of the School of Design and Innovation of Tongji University.

At 1:00 pm on May 31, 2014 Annual Conference of Alumni Association of Jewellery at Tongji University would be held in the lectures hall of Tongji Architectural Design(Group)Co.,Ltd., after which Dr. Dietmar Schwarz would lecture on “Resource and Market Analysis of Colored Gems”.

Monitoring and Controling

Considering the grand scale of the activities, the project team took the following measures for monitoring and controling:

First, keep a watchful eye on and monitor the progress of work. As the sponsor, the project team communicated with project staff involved in the work on a regular basis. For the proper operation of the event, the project team mainly monitored and communicated with the security companies responsible for transporting and keeping exhibits, representatives of media platforms responsible for the publicity, design companies responsible for the design, students and teachers involved in the project work, etc. Communications were carried out mostly through telephone, email, and WeChat.

Second, stay updated on progress and make work report accordingly. As the sponsor, the project team stayed updated on the progress reported by project staff on a regular basis. Meanwhile, having had summed up the information received, it reported it to government agencies and other co-organizing associations at regular meetings. All reports were generally made at face-to-face meetings.

Third, adjust the plan according to changes. Since unexpected issues abounded during the preparation of the event, many temporary adjustments were made to the plan. For example, the project team originally planned to exhibit jade carving works in the School Museum of Tongji University. Unfortunately, the facilities therein fell short of ensuring the security of the exhibits, so these exhibits were transferred to the exhibition hall of Tongji Architectural Design (Group) Co., Ltd. Besides, since foreign experts invited arrived in Shanghai one week later due to schedule issues, the project team temporarily adjusted the accommodation and reception arrangements.

Generally speaking, the project team monitored and managed the event with high efficiency, owing to the reasonable distribution of manpower and the around-the-clock attention paid to work progress. And, due to timely adjustments to the plan, as well as sufficient preparation time spared in advance, it was capable of solving many unexpected emergency problems.

Closing and Future Project

The academic forum and the exhibition of jade carvings ended with the closing ceremony held on June 1st, and the Chinese Jade Culture Photo Exhibition would continue for one month. After the closing ceremony, the articles which was wrote to report and review this event aroused widespread concern of Chinese jewellery industry. The success of this event also laid the ground for a follow-up event. For example, the project team made an agreement with Carol Michaelson, the expert of oriental jade works from the British Museum, to offer some of the jade carving works which exhibit in this event to be shown at the British Museum. There was no doubt that the next project of the project team from Gemological Education Center at Tongji University would be the cooperation project with the British Museum.

Conclusion

Overall, the project team reached expected goals of this project successfully. This event promoted academic exchanges between the western and eastern jade culture, publicized the jade culture to ordinary people, and raised the reputation of Gemological Education Center at Tongji University. Besides, everything progressed well at the stage of planning, executing and controlling. It provided a good model of project management for other project team of similar events.

Part B

Project Libre is a stand-alone software for project management. This software could creat graphic of project management, include Gantt chart, Network Analysis chart, histogram chart, resource chart and WBS, by entering the name of the event with start and end time of execution. The project team could understand the work arrangement clearly and distribute the work better with the help of Project Libre. Besides, the logical sequence and the time arrangement of every step of this project could be clearly defined in Gantt chart and Network Analysis chart.

One impressive advantage of Project Libre is its flexibility to create and edit the Network Analysis chart. In many other free softwares of project management, although the user could make a list of to-do items and a timetable with these tools, it is generally difficult to figure out the logical sequences of every items. In many complex project, even when one step is delayed, it is very likely that the following steps could be tipped into chaos. However, in Project Libre, the logical sequences could be clearly defined in Network Analysis chart. The user can easily change the length of any task and the logical sequence of steps by draging or moving the icon of each items in Network Analysis chart. If one step was moved forward, the following steps would move as well. And the timeline and the logical sequences of following steps would not change. It is much easier for me to use.

Project Libre could also help users to calculate the total work hours of the whole project, human resources, labor costs and so on. I found that the human resources can be arranged well by entering the name of every worker in Project Libre. When formulating a work plan of project, the manager may make mistakes in making a schedule of the estimated time and person resources. For example, the manager assigned employee A to perform task 1, but he also assigned employee A to perform task 2 that conflicts with task 1 because of negligence. This kind of problem could be avoid by switching to different chart interfaces to check whether there are any problem of current arrangment of human resources in Project Libre. In addition, labor costs could be calculated in Project Libre by entering the salary of every employee.

Compared to other paid softwares of project management such as Microsoft Project, students would be more willing to download and use the free software such as Project Libre. Project Libre is a small practical software with a variety of functions. It has Chinese interface and has many different output formats. In my opinion, it is a useful tool for project management of most project. However, it also has some disadvantages of making the arrangement of some special project. I found that it is unable to make the logical sequences between two discrete steps. It’s really hard for me to create the Network Analysis chart of this project of jade carvings exhibition. Because most members of this project team are teachers of Tongji University, and they need time to concentrate on other main jobs such as teaching students between two steps.

Reference

Collins, R. (2011) Project management. New York: Nova Science Publishers

Highsmith, J. (2004) Agile project management. Boston: Addison-Wesley

Management, P. and (PMLC), P. (2018) Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) [online]. Available from: https://planningengineer.net/project-management-life-cycle-pmlc/ [Accessed 24 May 2018]

The Five Project Management Life Cycles (2018). [online]. Available from: https://projectmanagementforum.wordpress.com/2010/07/06/the-five-project-management-life-cycles/ [Accessed 24 May 2018]

Wysocki, R. (2013) Effective project management – 7th Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley

ZHU, Y. (2018) Artists polish reputation of China’s iconic precious stone – SHINE [online]. Available from: https://www.shine.cn/feature/art-culture/1805124479/ [Accessed 24 May 2018]

Introduction to Learning Language Part A Clear explanation of points given. Target

Introduction to Learning Language

Part A

Clear explanation of points given.

Target language should not be used in teaching.

Citation is needed in every question.

The use of metal language, is not enough

PART B

Step 1: Identifying and Reformulating

Mr. and Mrs. Small took their children to the park to feed the pigeons. They carried along a basket which was full of bread crusts. As soon as the family threw the bread crusts onto the grass, the pigeons started to flock around. In a short time, thirty to forty pigeons were feeding on the bread crusts.

Suddenly, the pigeons took to the air. Everyone was surprised. A shot from a gun had frightened the pigeons away. Then, a man carrying a gun, walked over to the family.

“They’re pests. I don’t like pigeons at all,” he said.

“You may not like them, but we do. Now, leave us to enjoy feeding the pigeons or I’ll call the police,” said Mr. Small.

The man muttered a few words to Mr. Small and then disappeared behind bushes. The family was very unhappy that the birds had been frightened away.

“Well, we’ll wait for a while until the pigeons return. If they don’t, we’ll make our way back home,” said Mr. Small.

They waited for many minutes. After sometime, a few pigeons flew in and came closer to the family. Within a few minutes, the pigeons flew in. Soon, most of the pigeons had returned to feed on them. The pigeons then appreciated by puffing out their chests and chirping.

“Oh look! All our bread crusts have been eaten. It has been great fun though, hasn’t’ it? We’ll come again next week, but this time, we must bring more bread. Let’s hope that nasty man will not come to the park again,” said Mrs. Small.

“I think I’ve frightened him away, just like he frightened the pigeons away,” said Mr. Small, laughing.

Step 2: Describing, explaining, exploring, and arguing.

Mr and Mrs Small took their children to the park feed the pigeons

Correction: Mr. and Mrs. Small took their children to the park to feed the pigeons

Issue: wrong conjugation of the adverbial clause of purpose.

Explanation: Here, the Adverb –Clause ‘to feed the pigeons’ is the reason Mr. and Mrs. Small took the children to the park. That implies, the verb ‘feed’ is addressing the purpose. Adverb clauses of purpose are identified with the subordinating conjunction in order to, to, that, and many more (Shigurov & Shigurova, 2015 p.58). So by avoiding, the conjunction ‘to’ in the sentence, it becomes wrong.

They took with them a basket was full of bread crusts

Correction: They took with them a basket which was full of bread crusts

Correction: They took with them a basket full of bread crusts

Issue: Lack of relative clause

Explanation: The sentence is incomplete without the relative clause ‘which’. This is a relative pronoun that helps to connect the noun basket to the past tense of the verb “be”. Either way, elimination of the word “was” would also render the sentence correct. The pronoun ‘which’ is a subordinate clause which contains an element whose interpretation is provided by the antecedent (in this case, we can say the basket) on which the subordinate clause is dependent.

As soon as the family threw the bread crusts onto the grass, the pigeons started flock around

Issue: wrong use of tense

Correction: As soon as the family threw the bread crusts onto the grass, the pigeons started to flock around

Explanation: Given that the adverb “started” is in the past tense, there is need to make the next verb an infinitive verb by adding “to” for the sentence to be grammatically correct (Hoye, 2014 p28). Also, some verbs are followed by ‘to-infinitive’ whereas are not. In this case, it is okay to right ‘to’ before flock.

Soon, thirty or forty pigeons feed on the bread crusts.

Issue: Wrong use of tense

Correction: In a short time, thirty to forty pigeons were feeding on the bread crusts.

Explanation: The adverb “soon” should not be used in this sentence as it bring an aspect of the future yet the story is being narrated in the past tense. The verb “feed” is converted to the past continuous tense which is ‘was feeding’. This is because, the action of ‘feeding’ was done in the past, and in this case, the narrator want to bring it out as a continuous action that happened in the past(Nelson & Greenbaum, 2015 p.8)”. Therefore, it is significant to transform the verb to the past participle tense.

Everyone was surprising

Issue: Wrong use of tense

Correction: Everyone was very surprised

Explanation: Given that the story was being narrated in the past tense, it is grammatically wrong to say everyone was surprising (Hummel & Valera, 2017 p.25). As much the past continuous tense is formed by combining the past tense of to be with a verb’s present participle, the rule does not work on all verbs. Addition of the adjective ‘very’ is meant to quantify or rather give an implication that what happened was really surprising.

A shot from a gun had frightened away them

Issue: Inappropriate arrangement of phrasal verbs

Correction: A shot from a gun had frightened them away.

Explanation: The third person pronoun “them” should come right after the main verb which describe what happened to be birds. Phrasal verb contain a combination of words that are classified under varying grammatical categories. In this case, the object, that is, “them” should come after the verb “frightened” so as to indicate who or what was frightened before showing the direction or place they went to. Therefore, correct order of words in a sentence matters a lot as it ensures a sentence does not lose meaning.

Then a man, carry a gun walked over to the family

Issue: Wrong use of tense

Correction: Then, a man carrying a gun walked over to the family

Explanation: For the sentence to be grammatically correct, the verb “carry” should be conjugated in the present participle tense hence the verb changes to “carrying” (Kratzer & Shimoyama, 2017 p.128). This is because the narrator was to trying to explain an active action that was taking place at that time. Moreover, the fact that there were two actions taking place at the same time by the same person, then there is need to conjugate one the present participle sentence so as the sentence can be grammatically correct.

“Their pests. I no like pigeons at all,” he said

Issue: Wrong use the pronoun ‘their’

Correction: “They’re pests and I do not like pigeons at all”

Explanation: The learner has used the pronoun ‘their’ instead of ‘they’re’. ‘Their’ is a possessive case of a pronoun ‘they’ whereas ‘they’re’ is a contraction of the words ‘they’ and ‘are’. Therefore interchanging the two can change the meaning of the sentence. When showing dislike for a thing, one should combine the verb ‘do’ with ‘not’ so as to successfully negate something.

The pigeons showed they were thankful by puff out their chests and make happy bird noises

Issue: Poor conjugation of the verb ‘puff’

Correction: The pigeons appreciated by puffing out their chests and chirping.

Explanation: For the sentence to be grammatically correct, the verb “puff” should be conjugated in the present participle tense hence the verb changes to ‘puffing’. This is because the narrator was to trying to explain an active action that was taking place at that time. Moreover, the verb ‘make’ should also be conjugated in the present participle tense so that the sentence can be grammatically correct.

Within a few minutes, more of the pigeons which the family had been feeding and which had been frightened by the man with the gun and had flown away flew in

Issue: Mixing of tenses and repetition.

Correction: Within a few minutes, the pigeons flew in

Explanation: In this sentence, tenses are mixed hence rendering the sentence grammatically incorrect In this case, the learner has used the present perfect, past participle, and past perfect tenses in the same sentence. Moreover, the narrator has repeated himself since he had stated earlier that the pigeons were frightened away, he does not need to repeat the same. This creates confusion and makes the sentence to lose meaning.

PART C Teaching

Vocabulary – limousine

The teacher shows the learners a limousine parked in front of some beautiful trees probably by the roadside. The teacher points at the vehicle in the image and says, “What you are seeing here is one of the most lavish vehicles whose size is longer than that of normal cars. It carries many passengers compared to normal cars and in some cases, parties are held in the car. The car is commonly owned by rich people. For one to drive a limousine, they should have attended the limo training school got complete mastery of driving skills. Then the teacher now brings in the noun by saying, “this is a limousine.” He repeats the word four times so that the class can get it clearly.

The teacher then evaluates the students to determine whether the students have comprehended the vocabulary by asking the concept checking question: CCQs

Is it a car? – YES

Must the driver attend the limo training school? – YES

Is it long? – YES

Is it costly? – YES

The teacher then asks the students to pronounce the word in chorus form then asks each student to try and pronounce it.

He then asks one of the students to help spell the vocabulary.

The teacher then inquires which type of word is it and one student answers as he indicates on the board:

Limousine (n)

Structures

Step 1. The last train leaves before the show ends.

The teacher shows the students a picture of a train. He tells them that most trains are long. He tells them that trains used to be considered the slowest means of transport until the invention of electric trains. He then asks the students to draw a timeline and put an “X” very close to “NOW” in the past. He asks them to indicate ‘departure’ above the “X”. This indicates the time the train will leave which is presumed to be before the show ends. The teacher asks the students what time the show is likely to end after showing them the schedule indicating when the show is likely to start and end. The students then give him an answer.

Concept Checking Questions (CCQs): Write at least three questions (and provide answers) to check students have understood:

Is the train long? YES

Will the train take long to arrive? NO

Is the train likely to arrive when the show ends? YES

Step 2 I will give you a call when I’ve landed.

The teacher shows an image of a girl at the airport who is on a mobile phone. The teacher says “This is Christine at Jomo Kenyatta Airport”. He again draws a timeline where he writes ‘now’ on the right side then indicates a plane landing on the left side in the future. Then the mother to Christine calls and asks her “where are you.”

The teachers asks the students, “What does Christine answer the mother?” The teacher then indicates on the whiteboard.

I ……. Jomo Kenyatta Airport.

One of the students answers the teacher and he stresses the point using his hands.

Concept Checking Questions (CCQs): Write at least three questions (and provide answers) to check students have understood

Is she still at the Airport? YES

Is this in the past? NO

Is the exact time known? NO

Step 3- My house’s been burgled three times this year

The teacher shows the students a picture of an apartment whose door and windows are broken. He then asks the students what they can see in the picture. Students are expected to answer the question but if they don’t, the teachers should tell him what he intends to teach them. The teacher will then indicate on the board

“The doors and windows of ……. apartment…… broken

One student will answer the question and the teacher will fill in the gaps.

Concept Checking Questions (CCQs): Write at least three questions (and provide answers) to check students have understood:

Do you understand the noun burgle?’ YES

Is the time when this destruction was done known? NO

Are the windows broken? YES

Step 4. Surely, you will pass the exam

The teacher will show the students an exam paper and ask them what it is. He then will ask the students to discuss amongst themselves for five minutes about their experiences when they last had an exam. After the discussion, he will ask one of the students to narrate her experience. He will then write on the board

I ……… pass my exams.

He will ask one of the students to answer the question and after it has been answered, he will repeat the sentence three times so as to assure the students and create confidence in them

Concept Checking Questions (CCQs): Write at least three questions (and provide answers) to check students have understood:

Do you need to fear examination? NO

Will you pass your exams? YES

Are you always ready for exams? YES

References

Hoye, L. (2014). Adverbs and modality in English. Routledge.pringer, Cham.

Hummel, M., & Valera, S. (Eds.). (2017). Adjective Adverb Interfaces in Romance (Vol. 242). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Kratzer, A., & Shimoyama, J. (2017). Indeterminate pronouns: The view from Japanese. In Contrastiveness in Information Structure, Alternatives and Scalar Implicatures (pp. 123-143). S

Nelson, G., & Greenbaum, S. (2015). An introduction to English grammar. Routledge.

Shigurov, V. V., & Shigurova, T. A. (2015). Modalation of verbal adverbs in the Russian language. European journal of natural history, (4), 57-59.

Running Head: PAYOUT POLICY 1 PAYOUT POLICY 6 Payout Policy Name Institution

Running Head: PAYOUT POLICY 1

PAYOUT POLICY 6

Payout Policy

Name

Institution

Payout Policy

The payout policy, “A Fairer Tax System: Ending Cash Refunds for Excess Imputation” may have some negative effects on companies with some particular dividend investors. In order to determine how true this is, an event study was carried out on the following companies; Insurance Australia Group Ltd (IAG), AMP Ltd (AMP), Telstra Ltd (TLS), National Australia Bank Ltd (NAB), Medibank Private Ltd (MPL), Commonwealth Bank of Australia Ltd (CBA) and Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd (ANZ). The event study of the companies shows that:

Graph of average abnormal returns

Graph of cumulative average abnormal returns

A table showing abnormal returns before and after the announcement

IAG

AMP

TLS

NAB

MPL

CBA

ANZ

A normal returns

Before %

-0.001

0.004

0.15

0.000

0.012

-0.004

-0.001

Abnormal returns

After %

0.003

0.16

0.004

0.003

0.010

-0.008

0.003

Abnormal rate of return = actual return – expected return

Actual return = price at the end of the window period

Expected return = risk free rate + (beta) * (market return – risk free rate)

The abnormal return for Insurance Australia group

Before the announcement 5th = 0.002

On the day of announcement 13th = 0.002

After the announcement 23rd = 0.008

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was 0.002%, it recorded negatives in the following days and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.008%.

AMP Ltd (AMP)

Before the announcement 5th = 0.004

On the day of announcement 13th = -0.004

After the announcement 23rd = 0.016

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was 0.002%, it recorded negatives in the following days and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.008%.

Telstra Ltd (TLS),

Before the announcement 5th = 0.15

On the day of announcement 13th =- 0.005

After the announcement 23rd = 0.004

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was 0.152%, it dropped drastically in the following days and by the end of the 8 days it was -0.005%.

National Australia Bank Ltd (NAB),

Before the announcement 5th = 0.000

On the day of announcement 13th = 0.002

After the announcement 23rd = 0.003

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was 0.000%, it rose to 0.002% on the day of the announcement and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.003%.

Medibank Private Ltd (MPL),

Before the announcement 5th = 0.012

On the day of announcement 13th = -0.003

After the announcement 23rd = 0.010

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was 0.012%, it dropped a little in the following days and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.010%.

Commonwealth Bank of Australia Ltd (CBA)

Before the announcement 5th = -0.004

On the day of announcement 13th = 0.000

After the announcement 23rd = -0.008

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was -0.004%, it rose to 0.000% and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.008%.

Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd (ANZ).

Before the announcement 5th =- 0.001

On the day of announcement 13th = 0.000

After the announcement 23rd = 0.003

The abnormal rate of return 6 days before announcement was – 0.001%, and by the end of the 8 days it was 0.003%.

Average abnormal returns for the companies were;

Before the announcement = 0.004

On the day of the announcement = -0.001

After the announcement = 0.005

Cumulative average abnormal returns

The cumulative average abnormal returns of the companies through the window period were;

0.004 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.008 0.003 0.002 -0.005 -0.013 -0.016 -0.022 -0.018 -0.019 -0.024 -0.019

This shows that the average abnormal returns for the companies were positive in the days before the announcement but fell drastically after the announcement. The companies were slightly affected by the policy. Cumulative average abnormal returns help to determine how whether the model used is accurate or not (Hagnas, 2014).

There were no important differences before and after the announcement across the companies. The announced policy brings a slightly positive impact to the market although not significant. There is a very close association between stock market investment and the rising and falling of prices in the stock market. In abnormal return, in end, the investor gets returns more than they expected. The average abnormal rate of return was lower before the announcement and it increased slightly after the announcement. The conclusion for this is that there was some positive effect that triggered the rise in the stock market return (Suryanto, 2015). The difference that is recorded during the window period is very small and insignificant. This could be as a result of the short window period used in the event study. If there was used a longer period of for instance hundred days, it will allow a longer period for the results to achieved. The reason behind this is because most investors do rush into making decisions when changes happen in the market. Instead, they watch the reaction in the market before deciding on what to do. With a bigger window period, the investors will have enough time to observe the market and therefore take a positive investment step.

The payout policy was expected to have a negative impact on the companies. This is because taxation and dividend policy are closely related. An imputation tax system is meant to impose a tax credit the investor. This is an advantage to the investors who receive dividends from companies. The investors are supposed to use these tax credits to pay off their tax liabilities. If the investor has a tax liability smaller than the tax credit granted or no credit at all, then the tax credit remains unused and it goes to the advantage of the company. However, in the new policy, investors who do not use their tax credits are allowed to claim the tax credit to refund as cash. The Companies which have high dividend payout will be likely to attract investors with high marginal tax rates while those with low dividends attract investors with low tax rates (Jun, Gallagher & Partington, 2006). Therefore, if the high marginal tax investors request for a refund, it is likely to only benefit the investors and have a negative effect on the company. If the company lowers dividends, it will attract low tax investors and it may mean low tax investors are low income earners. This will bring negative effects to the company as well.

References

Hagnas, T. (2014). Testing For Cumulative Abnormal Returns in Event Studies with The Rank Test. RELX Group.

Harvey, C. R. (2012). Cumulative abnormal return.

Jacobsen, R. (1988). The persistence of abnormal returns. Strategic management journal, 9(5), 415-430.

Jun, A., Gallagher, D. R. & Partington, G. H. (2006). Institutional Dividend Clienteles under an Imputation Tax. Wiley Online Library. Vol. 38, Pp. 1-2

Suryanto, (2015). Analysis of Abnormal Return before and After the Announcement of Investment Grade Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Management Review Vol.3,No.1,pp.11-23.