In many of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short stories, he creates characters
with either a malicious or evil feature to relay to the reader a more
allegorical meaning. Many would say he targets woman without justification.
Therefore a reader may interpret him to be a misogynist. In the story ”
Rapaccinni’s Daughter” he uses Beatrice as a carrier of a deadly poison. In ”
Young Goodman Brown” he targets Faith as the character who is lost to the Devil.
In the stories “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” and “The Birthmark,” Hawthorne also uses
men as transmitters of evil illicitly. The men involved in the stories have
their own flaws which contribute to the flaws of the women in their lives.
Ultimately, Hawthorne in the cases above can be seen as a misogynist who directs
his maliciousness on only women, yet he also uses male characters as vile
transmitters of evil, therefore he is not a misogynist and targets both sexes
In Young Goodman Brown, Faith, the wife of Young Goodman Brown is a
character who loses her faith and submits to the Devil. Hawthorne, in this case
directly uses faith as the carrier of a flaw. That is, she does not contain
enough self-control, or faith to refuse the calling of the Devil. Even with the
emotional plea from her husband, “Look up to heaven, and resist the wicked one,”
(1590) Faith cannot resist the Devil’s temptation and has “uncertain sorrow,”
(1587) after submitting to him. The character of Faith which Hawthorne
portrays is one of uncertainty and one which has a lack of self control. Faith
is a good example of how Hawthorne uses a woman to symbolize a deeper
significance, in this case, it is to evoke the hypocrisy of the Puritan people,
that is, Puritans are really not as pure as we all think, they also contain evil
characteristics, in this case, exploited at night. We cannot justify Hawthorne’s
usage of Faith as misogyny, in that woman were not considered equal in status
to men in the early 16th and later centuries. Also, with the history of
witchcraft during the puritan era, it can be seen appropriate that Hawthorne
The Success of Title IX
Sports is a powerful force in society today. People of all ages and both sexes watch and participate in different sports in increasing numbers. Equal opportunity to participate in sports seems like a right that is natural and would be a common sense issue, but unfortunately this has not always been the case. In 1972 Congress enacted the Education Amendments of 1972, this contains Title IX which was intended to ensure that discrimination based on sex was eliminated. The area that this has had the most contentious impact is sports. Has Title IX increased women’s opportunities to participate in sports during college equitably and fairly? Title IX has increased opportunities for women to participate in college sports programs with minimal impact on men’s sports programs.
Title IX was meant to eliminate discrimination against women at any institution that receives funds from the federal government. One portion states “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” (Title 20 U.S.C.). This is the basis for the entire debate concerning Title IX. Under this law all activities that colleges and universities offer must be offered without regard to gender. This has not been a problem except for sports. Sports has long been dominated by men. Historically men have had a higher interest in sports and this was perpetuated by the notion that athletic women were not attractive. Add to this the money that men’s sports generates and we have a very entrenched tradition. This is the establishment that Title IX was meant to combat.
… middle of paper …
….” The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington; Dec. 4, 1998.
Naughton, Jim. “Clarification of Title IX may leave many colleges in violation over to athletes.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington; July 31, 1998.
Sabo, Don. “Women’s athletics and the elimination of men’s sports.” Journal of Sport