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THEORY APPLICATION ON PAPER RUBRIC 1 Title Name Course Instructor Date of






Date of Submission

Jackie is an African-American from New Jersey with anxiety and depression problems. She is a mother of a 6-year-old kid, homeless and single. She succumbed to depression due to sexual abuse and domestic violence, which made her leave the relationship. As a result, Jackie abuses alcohol as a way of fighting depression. Previously, she used dangerous means of taking alcohol, such as using a cleaning bottle to take it. Recently, Jackie got a job as a UFC fighter, but after losing against a competitor, she developed severe depression problems caused by anger issues. However, Jackie is a responsible mother and assumes to protect her son from abuse. She does not believe in family relations as her mother neglected her and was absent most of her life. Jackie believes her mother was arrogant even when she needed her most, especially during her occurrences of sexual abuse. Jackie believes that fighting in UFC will give her more chances of winning the fight hence solving her economic situation instantly. She focuses on winning a major fight to ensure her stability and financial security in the future. Her problem with alcohol addiction hinders her progress forward, which relapses into anger and depression.

Jackie’s educational background is unknown; therefore, the UFC fighting is her main source of income, but she worked as a house help in the past. Due to a distant relationship with her family members, she had a traumatic childhood. She had an irresponsible mother whose boyfriends assaulted her when she was a little girl. She wanted to be a better mother to her son, so when she began fighting, she gave up her son for adoption so that he could not go through a traumatic childhood as she had experienced. Unfortunately, the child’s father was murdered, but she proclaimed parental rights so that she could take care of him. In her career as a UFC fighter, Jackie gained many victories. She developed a romantic relationship with Desi, her physical trainer; still, the man would envy Jackie whenever she fought with other competitors. As a result, he developed a substance over dependency. Whenever Jackie signed up for other training, he would be violent to both the child and the mother. He was also abusive to the boy and called him “little”, which made him mistreat the child even more as he regarded himself as “big”. Jackie would abuse alcohol every time she lost a fight as it caused her anger and depression; therefore, her community always bullied her. Jackie’s family has individuals who suffer from substance abuse, especially alcohol. As an African-American living in the US, most of her diet was American. Jackie’s previous training in martial fighting encouraged her to meditate to help her focus during her fighting career.

Cognitive therapy is an effective treatment for patients suffering from addiction or substance misuse, depression, anger and anxiety. Psychology therapy is one of the most effective forms of treatment for patients who have psychological disorders. Cognitive theory focuses on changing the individual’s negative thoughts by identifying them and replacing them with positive ones. People adapt negative thoughts leads to low self-esteem, hopelessness and change in behavioural moods. Jackie has a negative attitude towards family caused of her mother, her violent husband and boyfriend and the sexual assault she received as a child. She keeps herself busy as a fighter, and when she loses a fight, it triggers her anger and self-esteem, making her abuse alcohol. CBT enables the individual to identify all negative thoughts, leading to self-discovery, although it can be difficult sometimes. The trainers in UTC martial fights advise Jackie to focus, which is a way that helps her appreciate herself and therefore leads to victories in many fights.

The main goal of CBT is that it is problem-oriented and focuses on the problems that the patient experience. The therapist and patient focus on treatment and develop positive cognitive ways to prevent depression. CBT does not dwell on the causes of a patient’s distress, but its main objective is to look at the present behaviour. Therapists help patients achieve their goals by focusing on specific problems and giving solutions. The sessions involve setting up a plan with the patient and selecting particular items that lead to a productive therapy focus. The counsellor also gives homework assignments that force the patient to put more effort and reinforce the concepts practised. Her main goals include strengthening her relationship with her son and trainer in Jackie’s case. She is also optimistic about her fighting career and puts extra effort into her meditation skills. She also desires to fully recover by overcoming the substance use so that she can focus fully on her son and work (Carpenter and Hofmann,2018). Self-monitoring is an important aspect of CBT. It enables patients to track their behaviours over time and share them with their therapist. The patient records all observations, progress and assumptions to share with the therapist. The evidence ensures efficiency as the patient can support their arguments. For example, if Jackie assumes she is a useful member of society, she must prove to her therapist how she benefits society. She could focus on her fighting job so that she acquires money to take care of her son by providing education, who could become a great person in the society. Since she has issues with her family, she could focus on forgiving them to get rid of her anger which brings negative thoughts. Putting records also helps the patient distinguish different thoughts and the effect they bring on their moods. Records also help the patients accept facts, even if some could have bitter memories about the patient. In Jackie’s case, she should accept that people have different mothering capabilities, and not all women are capable of being great mothers to their kids. She should accept that her mother was arrogant and irresponsible, which led to her sexual abuse. It is a painful experience, but with the help of a counsellor, she could replace the negative thoughts with positive memories and choose to move forward and forgive her mother so that she could move forward and make family relations.

Behavioural techniques are also an important task in CBT as it aims to enhance functioning, which increases pleasurable experiences. The main objective of behavioural patterns is to overcome anxiety and depression. The counsellor and patient work to reduce the number of tasks that the patient can manage, leading to the decision-making process. The tasks managements should be graded and helps to overcome procrastination. The techniques obtained rate the activities as per schedule, whether daily or weekly and give changes to the patient, hence stimulating a greater sense of life. The techniques help patients establish pleasurable and useful activities that help patients deal with difficult issues. In Jackie’s case, she should engage fully in fighting competitions as they give her pleasure. She should also learn how to handle losses and accept challenges to make more room for improvement. Jackie should also put more practice with her trainer to not lose the organization’s scholarship. Her presence in the competitions will also strengthen her skills and give her more chances to win more competitions. She will also have money to cater to her needs since she is homeless and takes care of her son since she is the only parent left to raise her kids. Behavioural experiments help patients gather information on safety behaviours which help them avoid certain behaviours such as alcohol abuse. For example, Jackie should avoid stressful behaviours that make her take alcohol. Also, exercising and training help Jackie relax and reduce anxiety hence managing her levels of stress and depression. Behavioural therapy in CBT helps the client develop coping strategies such as engaging in physical activities, increased social involvement, avoiding much focus on internal thoughts, increasing assertiveness, and reducing feelings of anxiety, hence successful training sessions. CBT will help Jackie overcome her mental trauma from sexual abuse and violence.

Solution-focused therapy focuses on finding solutions for clients who seek therapy. It incorporates positive principles and practices that help clients to focus more on solutions rather than relying on problems. The theory is friendly, motivating, future-oriented and sustains clients with desirable change. It develops solutions by looking at how the client’s life will change after solving the problem to the degree that satisfies the client. The client and therapist look through the client’s experiences and behavioural changes that caused depression and anxiety and look for practical solutions that the client can practice. The process also concentrates on the periods the client successfully addressed the issues without struggles. The main concept of the theory is that it is based on language, and the therapists decide on the form of conversation they will have with the client (De Shazer and Berg,2021). To fully understand the client’s problem, the therapist needs to engage the client in a conversation that mainly comprises questions and answers. The conversation clarifies the counsellor when the circumstances of the problems are most severe and the behaviour on their moods. For example, Jackline succumbs to alcohol misuse mostly when she gets a defeat in the fight. It is her main source of income, and she could even lose her scholarship if she lost frequently. Since she is unstable, her son is the only family, and her community isn’t friendly either, as older men raped her. After conversing with Jackie, the client advises her on practical ways to handle defeat, such as doing too much practice so that she can sustain her job and win more fights. The client also explains to Jackie that sometimes people lose in certain situations but keep trying and hoping for the best outcomes. The therapist also shows Jackie that her motivational factors while fighting should be her son as she needs to be strong for him and be a responsible parent.

Solution focus therapists apply the “presuppose change” technique to help clients focus on positivity even with a little progress. They may ask a client, “what change has occurred since I saw you last?”. If the client has a hard time answering or there is no chance, the therapist can still ask questions that encourage the client to think and cope with their problem, such as “how did you manage to cope in that difficult situation”. In the case of Jackie, the therapist would ask, “how did you manage after the sexual assault?” The question feels uncomfortable, but it also gives Jackie hope and recognizes her as a strong person. The therapist needs to ask exceptional questions as they give the client positivity. For example, “what is your greatest achievement?” “when do you feel happiest?”. Scaling questions are also important in this process as they allow the client to rate a certain experience and look for things that would change their circumstances. For example, the therapist would ask Jackie, “On a scale of 1-10, what are your experiences with domestic violence?” The question will allow Jackie to look at the circumstances that led to violence and what she would have changed. This kind of therapy also allows coping questions to help clients open up on resiliency as the therapists show patients what is likely to work in their case, giving them room for more growth. Providing Jackie with educational tools will enable her to rehabilitate on substance dependency.

Multiculturalism is popular in the US as it contains people from worldwide. It involves theoretical and philosophical ways that cultures vary in gender, identity, race, religion and class. CBT and SFT give patients of different cultures treatments and have strengths and weaknesses. CBT has grown and offers psychotherapy treatments to clients from various cultures. Mental health practitioners have ensured the need to ensure cultural competency when delivering psychological treatment. It ensures all patients get treated equally without discriminating against them due to their colour, race or gender. It has also established a great relationship with patients and enhanced collaboration in a multicultural setting that features a wide range of treatments. However, it also has some weaknesses as the multicultural lens lack a common structure and specific goals that the entire session should achieve. It results in limited data as the therapist may support one model over the other, which incorporates cultural differences and hence may fail to achieve the goal of treating the patient fully. Multicultural counselling on SFT connects with clients and influences the development of diverse approaches; hence operates with the assumption that the theory is universal and gives the client solutions. The disadvantage of a multicultural lens on SFT is that it imposes cultural diversity on groups. In contrast, therapists treat individual clients hence challenging the assumption of mental health benefits.

Psychotherapy theories focus on conceptualizing problematic behaviour by discovering the patient’s motivations. Cognitive therapy focuses on what people think rather than their actions. According to research, people with negative thinking lead to negative emotions and behaviour. Changing the thoughts of people also changes their emotions and attitude. Solution-focused therapy concerns their goals by giving clients solutions to their mental problems. Both CBT and SFT bring therapeutic change and psychopathology. The theory of change illustrates how and gives a particular reason why the change occurred in a particular context. It focuses on the activity that led to the achievement of goals and improvement of the client. The theory of psychopathology focuses on abnormal behaviour and experiences that differ from societal norms. For example, some societies believe mental illness could be influenced by religious superstitions attributed to demons or evil spirits. Psychopathology can be descriptive or explanatory (Sauer‐Zavala and Semcho, 2022). Descriptive psychopathology involves defining and categorizing symptoms of people through observing their behaviour and assessing them according to societal norms. Explanatory psychopathology explains certain symptoms in the patient according to psychotherapy theories by understanding how the theories were formed. Patients with psychopathology disorders are characterized by distress, danger, deviance and dysfunction. Distress is caused by negative thoughts and is associated with anxiety and depression. The danger is the violent behaviour that a patient could cause to people surrounding them or themselves. The person’s behaviours are usually harmful and could harm themselves or other people. Deviance involves thoughts and ideas that patients deviate from and are unacceptable to society. Psychologists should judge the deviant behaviour as per their culture and not as a group because minority groups may not have shared many norms with other cultures. Dysfunction is malicious behaviour that hinders the individual’s ability to perform normal duties. Both psychopathology and theory of change affect the client’s performance as psychopathology mostly involves the symptoms that the client perceives. In contrast, the theory of change explains why the client behaves in certain behaviour.

Transference involves a situation where an individual’s feelings and desires about a person are directed to and applied to another individual. In therapy, the patient applies their feelings based on the other person to the therapist when receiving treatment and behaves as if the therapist were the other individual. It is important during counselling as the therapist can understand the patient’s mental state. On the other hand, countertransference occurs when the therapists redirect their feelings to the patients. A code of ethics guides therapists, and they should maintain a professional distance from their patients. Therapists need to address the issue early and work through those feelings as they could affect their accountability during treatment. For example, a therapist with family problems could allow his feelings to affect the patient throughout the counselling session and could probably affect the client negatively. Transference in therapy could be intentional or unintentional. Unaddressed transference could lead to misunderstanding from the patient, which could develop into a problem and hinder the patient from returning for more treatment (Parth and Löffler-Stastka2017). Transference focused on psychotherapy could be used as a way of treatment by the psychologist as the patient is open about their feelings; hence the therapist acquires better treatment for the patient. Transference involves a mixture of positive and negative emotions such as anger, frustration, love, affection and fear. There are ways in which the therapist and patient could manage their transference and countertransference throughout the counselling sessions. The parties could ask for advice from their colleagues or peers when they feel emotions trigger their workability. They should set clear boundaries hence avoid emotional misunderstandings that could affect the doctor-patient relationship.

To sum it up, cognitive behavioural therapy and solution focus therapy is among the most efficient and reliable psychotherapy approaches that help patients with mental conditions. Depression, anxiety, anger and substance misuse are among the most common mental disorders patients experience. Cultural norms differ among patients; therefore, treatment may differ from one patient to another. Therapy sessions could lead to transference and countertransference; hence the therapist should notice early to ensure therapy sessions do not affect either party.


Parth, K., Datz, F., Seidman, C., & Löffler-Stastka, H. (2017). Transference and countertransference: A review. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 81(2), 167-211.

Sauer‐Zavala, S., Southward, M. W., & Semcho, S. A. (2022). Integrating and differentiating personality and psychopathology in cognitive behavioural therapy. Journal of Personality, 90(1), 89-102.

Carpenter, J. K., Andrews, L. A., Witcraft, S. M., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta‐analysis of randomized placebo‐controlled trials. Depression and anxiety, 35(6), 502-514.

De Shazer, S., Dolan, Y., Korman, H., Trepper, T., McCollum, E., & Berg, I. K. (2021). More than miracles: The state of the art of solution-focused brief therapy. Routledge.

5 The Relationship between Arab Nationalism and Cinema Student’s Name Institution Affiliation

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The Relationship between Arab Nationalism and Cinema

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course Name

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The Relationship between Arab Nationalism and Cinema


It is commonly said that cinema is a reflection of society. This statement is particularly true when examining the relationship between Arab nationalism and cinema. Arab nationalism is a political movement that rose to prominence in the early 20th century in response to European colonialism. The goal of Arab nationalists was to unify the Arab people and create an independent Arab state. The movement has had a significant impact on Arab cinema, which has used film as a tool to promote and celebrate Arab culture and identity. Cinema was used as a tool to promote Arab nationalism and its ideals (Parrott, 2016). To understand the relationship between Arab nationalism and cinema, it is necessary to first understand the history of both, as well as the political and social climate of the region during the early 20th century. It is also essential to focus on specific films that were used to promote Arab nationalism and how Arab nationalism and cinema are interconnected

The History of Arab Nationalism

The origins of Arab nationalism can be traced back to the 19th century. At this time, the Ottoman Empire was in decline and many Arabs began to feel that they were being oppressed by the ruling Ottoman Turks. This sense of oppression led to a desire for independence from Ottoman rule. In the late 19th century, Arab intellectuals began to call for an end to Ottoman rule and the creation of an independent Arab state (Gani, 2019). These intellectuals also promoted the idea of Arab unity, which was based on the shared history, culture, and language of the Arab people.

The rise of Arab nationalism was further spurred by European colonialism. In the late 19th century, European powers began to carve up the Arab world, with France and Britain taking control of much of the region. This led to a feeling of betrayal among Arabs, who felt that the Europeans were exploiting their homeland. The sense of betrayal and oppression led to a desire for independence and unity among Arabs.

The Arab nationalist movement reached its peak in the early 20th century. In 1916, the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule began. The revolt was led by the Hashemite ruler of Mecca, Sharif Hussein. Hussein’s goal was to create an independent Arab state that would be free from Ottoman rule. The revolt was successful in driving the Ottomans out of the Arab world, but it was unsuccessful in creating an independent Arab state.

After the First World War, the Arab world came under the control of Britain and France. The Arabs were promised independence, but this promise was not kept. In response to this betrayal, a number of Arab nationalists began to call for an end to European colonialism. They also promoted the idea of Arab unity and independence. The most prominent Arab nationalist of this time period was Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Nasser came to power in Egypt in 1954. He immediately began to promote the idea of Arab unity. In 1958, he formed the United Arab Republic, which was a short-lived union between Egypt and Syria (Gani, 2019). Nasser’s goal was to create a pan-Arab state that would be free from European colonialism. However, his dream of Arab unity was never realized.

The History of Arab Cinema

The history of Arab cinema is closely linked to the history of Arab nationalism. In the early 20th century, a number of Arabs began to call for independence from Ottoman and European rule. They also promoted the idea of Arab unity. At this time, the Arab world was going through a period of great change. New technologies, such as cinema, were being introduced and the traditional way of life was beginning to change. New technologies, such as cinema, were seen as a way to promote Arab culture and identity. Most people at this time did not know how to read or write, so cinema was seen as a way to educate the masses about Arab culture and history.

The first Arab film was made in Cairo in 1896. It was titled The Battle of El-Mahdiya and depicted the Battle of El-Mahdiya, which was fought between the Mamluks and the Ottomans (Alkassim, & Andary, 2018). The film was a great success and sparked an interest in film-making among Arabs. In the following years, a number of Arab films were made. These films typically focused on historical events or traditional Arab culture.

In the 1930s, a new type of Arab film began to emerge. These films were more realistic and often dealt with social issues. They were also more political than earlier films. A number of these films were critical of European colonialism and the ruling elite. This type of film reached its peak in the 1950s with the release of a number of ground-breaking films, such as The Night of Counting the Years (1969) and Cairo Station (1958) (Alkassim, & Andary, 2018).

After the 1950s, Arab cinema went through a period of decline. This was due to a number of factors, including censorship and government control. In the 1980s and 1990s, a number of Arab directors began to make films that were critical of their societies. These films helped to revive interest in Arab cinema (Labidi, 2019). Today, there is a growing interest in Arab cinema both inside and outside the Arab world.

Specific films that were used to promote Arab nationalism.

In the early 20th century, a number of Arabs began to use cinema as a tool to promote Arab nationalism. One of the first Arabs to use cinema for this purpose was Egyptian director Mohamed Bayoumi. In 1916, Bayoumi directed the film The Unity of the Arab Nation. The film promoted the idea of Arab unity and independence. It also featured footage of the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule.

Another Egyptian director, Youssef Chahine, also used cinema to promote Arab nationalism. In his film The Destiny (1957), Chahine critiqued European colonialism in the Arab world. He also called for an end to divisions among Arabs.

In the 1960s and 1970s, a number of other Arab directors began to use cinema as a tool for promoting Arab nationalism. These directors included Haille Selassie, Ahmed Zaki, and Tewfik Saleh. They made a number of films that critiqued European colonialism and called for Arab unity.

The 1980s and 1990s were a period of decline for Arab cinema. This was due to a number of factors, including the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and the outbreak of the Gulf War. However, in the 21st century, Arab cinema has begun to rebound (Hanssen, 2019). A new generation of Arab directors is using film to promote Arab nationalism. These directors include Mai Masri, Annemarie Jacir, and Cherien Dabis.

How Arab Nationalism and Cinema are connected

Arab nationalism and cinema are connected in a number of ways. First, a number of Arabs have used cinema as a tool to promote Arab nationalism. As earlier noted the Egyptian director Mohamed Bayoumi was one of the first Arabs to use cinema for this purpose. He did so in 1916 when he directed the film The Unity of the Arab Nation. The film promoted the idea of Arab unity and independence. It also featured footage of the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule. This is an indication that from its earliest days, cinema has been used as a tool to promote Arab nationalism. This has not changed in the 21st century as a new generation of Arab directors is using film to promote Arab nationalism in some ways (Labidi, 2019).

Second, Arab nationalism has been a source of inspiration for many Arab filmmakers. A number of Arab films have been inspired by the idea of Arab nationalism. These films typically focus on historical events or traditional Arab culture. When filmmakers are making a film they are mainly inspired by the ideas that ongoing in during their time. Therefore, the fact that many Arab films have been inspired by Arab nationalism is an indication that the idea has been popular among Arabs at different points in history. Some films are a reflection of what is going on in the world at that specific time. Cairo Station (1958) is an example of a film that was inspired by Arab nationalism. The film tells the story of a young Egyptian man who works at a train station in Cairo (Emre, 2019). He becomes involved with a group of political activists who are fighting for independence from British rule. The film was made during the time of the Egyptian revolution, which was a time when many Arabs were fighting for independence from European colonial rule.

Third, cinema has played a role in the development of Arab nationalism. The early 20th century was a period of political and economic change in the Arab world. At this time, a number of Arabs began to call for independence from European colonial rule. During the colonial period most countries were striving to make efforts to liberate themselves. This was also the case in the Arab world where films were used to promote the idea of Arab nationalism and independence. The focus and the themes of the cinema started to change as the world was changing and new technologies were being developed (Hanssen, 2019). This new type of cinema that developed during this time is known as popular or social cinema. It typically deals with issues of concern to Arab societies, such as poverty, unemployment, and social injustice.


To sum up what has been discussed so far, Arab nationalism and cinema are connected in a number of ways. Arabs have used cinema as a tool to promote Arab nationalism. A number of Arab films have been inspired by the idea of Arab nationalism. And finally, cinema has played a role in the development of Arab nationalism. It can be said that cinema has been an important tool for promoting Arab nationalism throughout history. Arab cinema has played an important role in the development of Arab nationalism. The early 20th century was a period of political and economic change in the Arab world, and during this time, a number of Arabs began to call for independence from European colonial rule. Cinema was used as a tool to promote the idea of Arab nationalism and independence, and the focus and themes of Arab cinema started to change as the world was changing and new technologies were being developed.


Alkassim, S., & Andary, N. (2018). The Cinema of Muhammad Malas: Visions of a Syrian Auteur. Springer.

Emre, S. (2019). Arab Patriotism: The Ideology and Culture of Power in Late Ottoman Egypt.

Gani, J. K. (2019). Arab nationalism in Anglophone Discourse: A conceptual and historical reassessment. The Routledge handbook to the Middle East and North African state and states system.


Labidi, I. B. (2019). Undoing Stereotypical Representations in Arab and Muslim Cinemas: Challenges, Interruptions, and Possibilities.

Parrott, J. (2016). Jurji Zaidan and the Foundations of Arab Nationalism: A Study.

Archaeology What are some of the ways that humans damage or destroy


What are some of the ways that humans damage or destroy archaeological sites?

Natural disasters and human actions can compromise archaeological sites’ integrity. Important knowledge about historical life ways is lost when places are harmed since the people of the past will never be able to live their lives as they did before. The evidence they left at archaeological sites is finite, and once disrupted, it cannot be replaced. Artifacts may be broken, chipped, crushed, or moved as a result of activities that disrupt the earth. Ancient campfires and hearths, for example, may be destroyed. People venturing off trail by bike, horse, or foot, as well as automobiles moving off road, can do irreparable damage to places without even realizing it. Sites can be harmed by flooding and erosion in similar ways (Van Dyke, 2019). Vandalism is a type of purposeful loss and destruction of archaeological sites. Defacing rock art or bedrock milling features, drilling holes to hunt for relics, and retrieving objects from the surface are all examples of vandalism. Vandalism denies us and future generations the chance to learn about our diverse history in these unique locations. People venturing off trail by bike, horse, or foot, as well as automobiles moving off road, can do irreparable damage to places without even realizing it. Sites can be harmed by flooding and erosion in similar ways.

In the United States, what are the key pieces of legislation that relate to archaeological protection, conservation, and mitigation?

Damage, destruction, or excavation of historic or prehistoric ruins or monuments on federal land without approval would be forbidden; the president would have the authority to establish national landmarks and affiliated deposits on federal land; and permits for the excavation or collection of archaeological materials on federal land could be given to eligible organizations that sought such excavations for the aim of enhancing knowledge about the past.

What is Cultural Resource Management (CRM)? What percentage of archaeologicalwork in the USA can be considered CRM?

The management of historic buildings and sites, cultural landscapes, and other cultural and historic locations is governed by a complex of laws, rules, and professional practice. Rather than merely maintaining and presenting ancient forms of culture, cultural resource management incorporates contemporary culture, including progressive and inventive culture, such as urban culture (Enseñat-Soberanis et al.,2019). The management of historic buildings and sites, cultural landscapes, and other cultural and historic locations is governed by a complex of laws, rules, and professional practice. CRM accounts for 90 percent of field archaeology.

Why is the publication of archaeological information so important?

Archaeological excavation reports are a good example of a data-rich humanities publication, and they may be used to think about how the digital format might provide humanities scholarship that is more aware of complicated data in whatever form it takes. The goal of archaeology is to understand more about ancient cultures and the human race’s evolution. Over 99 percent of humanity’s evolution took place in prehistoric societies that did not utilize writing, thus there are no written documents to analyze (Enseñat-Soberanis et al.,2019). They must report what they discover. Due to the destructive nature of excavation, published material is sometimes the only record of what was discovered at a site.

How archaeology is relevant to today’s world?

Through the study of artifacts, animal bones, and even human bones, archaeology allows us to understand about ancient societies. Studying these artifacts can provide us some insight into what life was like for those who did not leave a written record.

This chapter notes that tourism can be destructive to the material of the past. Consider the destruction caused by archaeological tourism. Why and how does tourism threaten the past? In contrast, how can tourism help to preserve the past? Why is archaeological tourism important? Do you think the public has the right to visit archaeological sites? Why or why not?

Excessive or poorly managed tourism and tourist-related development might jeopardize the natural beauty, integrity, and unique qualities of these places. Over tourism is currently posing a hazard to the planet in terms of carbon emissions, water resource depletion, and other problems. Tourists are unwittingly destroying the exact places that they come to see. In contrast, Community empowerment is one of the most effective approaches for tourism to safeguard cultural heritage. This occurs when tourists are informed about the local community’s history and customs, and the community as a result feels a deeper feeling of togetherness and pride in its cultural heritage. Archaeological tourism straddles the line between promoting archaeological sites and an area’s cultural legacy while also inflicting additional damage to them, resulting in intrusive tourism (Enseñat-Soberanis et al.,2019). The major goal of archaeological tourism is to pique people’s interest in archaeology and history, historical and ancient sites, cultural heritage development, and to fulfill their curiosity and perfection senses among those who want to ponder and comprehend things. Everyone should have the chance to see a pristine archaeological site. In reality, without a permit, taking antiquities from public or tribal lands, including arrowheads is a federal felony.

It is impossible to preserve the entirety of the material record. The understanding that parts of the past must be destroyed was integral to the development of CRM, and the focus today on mitigating destruction is based on this. The central question is, what should be preserved? How do archaeologists and other heritage professionals determine which sites are important enough to be preserved? What should archaeologists look for? Which sites do you think should be considered the most significant?

Archaeologists identify sites in a variety of ways, including studying the ground, utilizing satellites, and sometimes by accident! The prehistoric graves at Low Hauxley on the English coast were uncovered by an alert beach walker. After a storm, a stone box protruded from a sand dune. During construction in New York City, workers unearthed a burial place with the bones of about 400 17th and 18th-century Africans. Because of its historical value, the African Burial Ground has been designated as a National Monument.

An archaeological prediction model is a tool that predicts the likelihood of finding an archaeological site in a given location. It aids archaeologists in determining where they should seek for sites based on criteria like as proximity to water, ground steepness, soil type, and other elements that impact where people settle or conduct specific jobs. The methods utilized to locate sites will be determined by the type of research issues the archaeologist is attempting to address. Archaeologists may need to know about any archaeological sites on the property if highway or house building is planned (Van Dyke, 2019). They will start by seeing if there have been any past surveys in the region, and if so, what the results have been. If no earlier sites have been discovered, the archaeologist will perform an archaeological survey. Archaeologists search for signs of past human activity such as buildings or foundations, artifacts, or color changes in the soil that might suggest features.


Van Dyke, R. M. (2019). Archaeology and social memory. Annual Review of Anthropology, 48, 207-225.

Enseñat-Soberanis, F., Frausto-Martínez, O., & Gándara-Vázquez, M. (2019). A visitor flow management process for touristified archaeological sites. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 14(4), 340-357.

1 Which one of the following are methods of art history? Subject.

1 Which one of the following are methods of art history?




2 Which of the following are examples of subject matter?




3. If you’re analyzing the compositional space, what method of art history are you applying?


4 What does the word medium refer to?

Medium refers to substances and materials used to form or come up with an artwork as a means to expressing what an artwork is made of. Examples of materials used include shell, clay, oil on canvas, acrylic, film and photography.

5 What term refers to a blending of light and dark to achieve the effect of three dimensionality?


6 What term refers to the appearance of a three dimension on a two dimension?

Linear perspective

7 In applying the method of context, generally, what are some of the things to consider?




8. What are the characteristics of Vincent Van Gogh oeuevre (personal style)

Impasto/thick paint

9. Briefly summarize in three paragraphs content from one of the following podcasts.

Shirin Neshat. Focus on the main argument of the podcast and refer to at least two points you found interesting in the Podcast.

Shirin Neshat was an astute Iranian artist and expatriate in the USA and is famously known for her work on photography, film and videos. Her artwork cut across the social web of the recurrent issues that are overly glaring at human beings with regard to how women are treated and valued, religious orientation, identity and cultural boundaries in her native home Iran. Shirin however eclipsed the notion of cultural boundaries and history to pinpoint these embarrassing but important themes to the general public.

In her artwork, Women of Allah , she illustrates the beauty of femininity by drawing women in the chador, veil which the political scene under the Islamic law had ordered women to put on. Besides that, she puts written texts on their faces with religious meanings. She endeavoured to denote the physical, emotional, and cultural significance of the veiled women in Iran to showcase the presence of women in the patriarchal society. In the artwork, the facial representation through the artwork triggered a lot of talk of the Islamic extremism and radicalism.

Interestingly, in her film, Women without men, which blatantly exposed the lives of women in Iran by using the illustration of the four women which clearly denoted need for political change and revolution. The four women, a prostitute, unhappy woman who commits suicide ,a traditionalist woman who just wants to get married and a rebel wife. In the film, the prostitute is seen to cleanse herself for she cannot remember how many customers she has serviced and rubs herself till she bleeds in a ritual believed to cleanse her of her filth. Another scene brings the married man to the army general wjp wants to bring a second wife home explaining how polygamy is prevalent. Moreover, a traditionalist gilr is presented who just wants to get married. An unhappy woman is also in the scene commits suicide for giving up bracing the tough life conditions but is later resuscitated subsequently to join in the protests against misogyny, radicalism and fundamentalism.

10 What modern artistic movement is Pablo Picasso mostly associated with?


11 Having watched Edward Said’s interview on Orientalism, write two paragraphs briefly describing what Orientalism is while including the definition of the Occident and the Orient and explain the binary power relationship. Examining how power relates within colonialism and its legacy in all aspects of culture is an example of the methodology; post colonialism.

Orientalism is a chassis in which a group of people use to understand and judge strangers, people basing their argument on their appearance, skin color and how different they look from us,and mostly it is biased notion of what kind of life they lead, their personality, where they live or come from and how they carry themselves notwithstanding the fact those people have never set foot in those places which is often perpetuated by the Occidents to the Orients. That said, Occident refers to the countries situated to the West giving reference to Europe and America while the Orient refers to countries of the East referencing the East Asiatic region. Oriental lands were stereotyped and the Middle East wars made them look fatal and threatening.

Power among the Occidents made them superpower countries due to their military endowment, economic stability and their political ideologies that were second to none. Britain and French nations had colonies and were far much the ruling countries since they enjoyed civilization, superiority and were incredibly awesome. American influence on the Orient was somewhat indirect as they built close relations with Jewish state of Israel which is in the midst of Oriental land. Oriental lands were rendered inferior, weird and overly uncivilized. They were considered cowards and it further escalated the growing disparity.

12 What was so avant-garde about the two women on the right of Picasso’s painting ‘Les Demoiselles d’Avignon ?”

They are shown wearing African masks

13 According to Nicholas Mirzoeff, what is visual culture? You may quote the passage from the reading but in doing so include in text citation

Visual culture refers to visionary events which contain information, its meaning or pleasure derived from sight by the viewer or the audience more often via the interfaces, medium, materials or visual paraphernalia for example oil painting on canvas, use of television or even the internet .(Routledge, 3) Visual culture is large interdisciplinary as it encompasses a wide berth of study that affect the society through pictorial or visual representation rather than textual delivery.

14 Give examples of Visual culture according to Nicholas

Nicholas talks of several examples of visual culture in his writing and denotes soap operas one of the example of visual culture. Another example is the Great Gulf war by the military which creates the visual urge of what it costs human life. The television show of the gsy character Elen after same sex marriage was banned formed part of the visual culture. Visual culture contemporarily has cataloged itself in use of video games, film studies, comics, animations, sculptures, painting,advertisements and even the Internet.

15 After watching the video Through the African Eyes, historically and contemporaneously, how is the reading of African art by the West problematic.

African art was a problem for the West to fully read and understand the context, subject and content of the artwork. Some of the artwork materials used had divine functions which some thought to be just a artwork. Most objects used in the art in the African setup completely different things from what the West perceived for instance the use of the masks which some of the people used as costumes, others as masquerade and some as secret charms. Some African arts were made from abstraction and were created without trsining, or academic qualification and were majorly primitive works of art. Subsequently it made it hard for the West to understand what they actually meant especially due to language barrier effects.

Another issue is the different interpretation of artwork. There was need to see the African art with the naturalism it possesses which is different from the West interpretation of the culture, society and metaphysics . Most of the African cultures and societies lost their cultural practices, artwork and ornaments. Some of the artwork were broken and some pieces lost, losing the original and intended meaning of the artwork and the message they derived from the initial sight of the objects . Seeing the meaning of the artwork from the perspective of those who made them and what those people saw. To this effect, most artworks lost the authenticity and original archaeological meaning hence making it hard for the West to interpret.

2 Assignment Name: Professor: Institution Course: Date: Ideally, intellectual property (IP) covers








Ideally, intellectual property (IP) covers creations and inventions such as literary and artistic works, including designs and images. Often IP is protected by law and makes sure that people learn recognition and other relevant financial benefits from their inventions and creations. On the other side, counterfeiting involves the manufacture, import, export, and sale of consumer goods that are not genuine but are branded to appear similar to authentic products. Besides, counterfeiting is the act of producing and distributing counterfeit currency or other goods. It can have a serious impact on border security, as it can make it more difficult to identify and track counterfeit items. Additionally, it can fund other illegal activities. Law enforcement officials must be vigilant in identifying and stopping counterfeiting operations. Counterfeiting has been on the rise in recent years, as criminals have become more sophisticated in their methods. It is important for law enforcement agencies to work together to identify and stop counterfeiters before they can cause significant damage. By doing so, authorities can protect both the public and the economy. This literature assesses and examines intellectual property impacts the United States economy and the health concerns associated with counterfeit products, how intellectual property theft from China threatens national security, and discusses the actions taken to facilitate migrant inclusion as a way of enhancing border security.

The intellectual property includes intangible assets that may include the creation of inventions, images, and other designs of the mind. It is critical to comprehend that intellectual property protection is critical for fostering innovation. Furthermore, it is critical to comprehend that failing to protect ideas and business makes it impossible for individuals to reap the full benefits of their creations and innovations, and this may also have a negative impact on the economy. Furthermore, it is fundamental to note that the Intellectual property in the United States has a huge influence on the national and state economies. Indeed, this is because numerous industries in the United States rely on effective enforcement of their patents and copyrights (Global Innovation Policy Center, 2019). On the other hand, the consumers rely on intellectual property to make sure they are buying and purchasing safe products that meet all the required standards. Furthermore, it is also critical to note that intellectual property also creates and supports better-paying jobs that create employment for millions of people globally. Strong enforcement and protection of intellectual property are vital because it makes it easy for consumers to make informed decisions by buying. Besides, enforcing intellectual property rights enhances confidence among the consumers and ensures that only high-quality products are available in the market.

Counterfeiting and piracy are considered forms of theft, and they have increased both in the United States and across the world, reaching a value of approximately $917 billion annually. For example, by 2015, the value of digital piracy involving movies, music, and other components like the software was estimated at $213 billion (International Chamber of Commerce, 2017). In this regard, it is evident that counterfeit merchandise has negative implications for the United States economy. Some of the ways that counterfeiting impacts the economy include that it makes genuine economic activities fail; this is because customers who have acquired counterfeit merchandise are unlikely to buy the genuine products because the fake products are cheap. In this case, the legitimate businesses in the United States are more likely to record losses (International Chamber of Commerce, 2017). Besides, counterfeit merchandise may displace most legitimate businesses in the United States, and this can have knock-on impacts on consumers and economic growth. For instance, in 2013, it is approximated that nearly $470 and $597 billion of legitimate economic activities were displaced by counterfeiting (International Chamber of Commerce, 2017). Based on these insights, there is a need for the government to create measures effective in addressing counterfeiting threats.

In this regard, it is evident that counterfeit merchandise has undesirable impacts on the country’s economy. Counterfeit merchandise can impact the United States economy in a few different ways. The main way is that it can hurt the businesses that produce the real merchandise. If people are buying counterfeit versions of a product, then they are not buying the real product, which can hurt the business. This can also lead to lost jobs, as the businesses may have to lay people off if they are not making as much money. Additionally, counterfeit merchandise can also impact the government. For example, if someone is selling counterfeit merchandise, they may not be paying taxes on their profits (International Chamber of Commerce, 2017). This can lead to a loss in government revenue and could have a negative impact on the economy. Overall, counterfeit merchandise has numerous ways that it can impact the United States economy. Additionally, it is critical to comprehend that counterfeiting can also impact the country’s foreign direct investment; this is because it threatens the potential of the economy to attract valuable innovation hubs. On the other side, enforcing intellectual property rights tends to facilitate and promote foreign direct investment. In this regard, it is appropriate for the United States to implement laws and policies that protect intellectual property-sensitive areas, including pharmaceuticals and other manufacturing sectors (International Chamber of Commerce, 2017). Such strategic measures are fundamental because they can help the United States to attract more foreign investors; this is possible because there are no companies that would be willing to make investments where their intellectual property is at risk of being stolen, thus displacing the legitimate product.

Furthermore, it is critical to comprehend that intellectual property theft from China poses threats to national security in the United States. Indeed, it is estimated that approximately 80% and 60% of all cases in the United States concerning economic espionage and trade secrets, respectively, involve China (Laufman, Casino, & Kasdan, 2020). Furthermore, it has been determined that China focuses on stealing American intellectual property, replicating it, and replacing the United States companies that originate that intellectual property right in the Chinese market and replacing the United States in the global market. Moreover, it is vital to note that the in the recent past, the stealing of intellectual property rights by China has shifted from cyber operations and include other sensitive areas undertaken by the Ministry of State Security, including foreign intelligence and political security (Laufman, Casino, & Kasdan, 2020). China is mainly focused on establishing relationships with people working at the companies in the United States who have access to intellectual property rights, and this has become of the easiest ways that China obtains insider threats. Besides, China offers the “Thousand Talent” programs as an effective strategy for obtaining American intellectual property; those willing to participate are required to take the country’s intellectual property rights to China for pay.

Additionally, Intellectual property theft in China threatens national security by giving an unfair advantage to Chinese companies and weakening the United States’ economy. It also allows China to gain access to sensitive information and technology that could be used for military purposes. Additionally, the Chinese government has been known to use intellectual property theft as a tool for espionage, which puts the United States’ national security at risk. Intellectual property theft in China poses a serious threat to the United States national security. For example, China has been accused of cyber undeclared cyber wars aimed at stealing entire industries; this constitutes illegal transfers of wealth (Halbert, 2016). By stealing trade secrets and confidential information, China gains an unfair advantage in the marketplace and can also gain access to sensitive technology that could be used for military purposes. Additionally, by using intellectual property theft as a tool for espionage, the Chinese government is putting the security of American citizens at risk. If left unchecked, this type of theft will continue to undermine the competitiveness of U.S. businesses and diminish America’s ability to compete in the global economy. Indeed, it is fundamental to note that China has been accused of using the United States’ academic openness to facilitate the theft of technology theft by using campus proxies. Specifically, China is focused on stealing specific technologies, including aircraft and electric vehicles.

Today, the United States has nearly 10.2 million undocumented immigrants who live and work across different communities in the United States(Peri & Zaiour, 2021). For nearly four decades, Congress has not reformed the United States immigration system, and this has left millions of immigrants and their families vulnerable. Some of the actions that may be undertaken by the governments globally to make sure that the undocumented immigrants in the country are treated with inclusion and respect across the world should include setting the necessary pathway to citizenship; this is useful because it would make the immigrants productive and contribute to the economy of their respective countries (Peri & Zaiour, 2021). Documentation of immigrants would ensure that people have the required documents that they would use in seeking employment and accessing other basic necessities such as healthcare and education. For example, in the United States, it would be appropriate to facilitate and enforce the American Dream and Promise Act; this would be appropriate for eligible and those who have met the set conditions, including having an advanced degree and technical training two and three years of military service and employment respectively (Peri & Zaiour, 2021). Furthermore, actions would also be necessitated in the local places to make sure that migrants are treated with respect just like the locals. For example, in order to ensure that migrants are included in the workplace, employers can take a number of steps. They can ensure that job description are clear and inclusive and that they are willing to consider candidates with a range of qualifications. They can also make sure that the recruitment process is open and fair and that everyone has an opportunity to apply. Employers can also provide training and development opportunities and ensure that there is a supportive environment where everyone is treated with respect. Besides, employers can keep an open mind about how to best integrate migrants into the workforce and be willing to experiment in order to find the best ways to accommodate them into society.

On the other side, from a security perspective, it is appropriate to take actions that would help in promoting safety. In this regard, it is recommended that the current administration should facilitate and encourage cooperation with the bordering countries; this would help in addressing and preventing the movement of undocumented persons. For example, cooperation would be effective on the United States-Mexican border, where agencies from both sides would cooperate in addressing unprecedented security and issues associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking. Therefore, there are numerous initiatives that may be adopted, and that would be critical in facilitating security across the borders (Felbab-Brown, 2019). For example, the current administration would be necessitated to enhance infrastructure and improve existing and acquire new contraband-detecting technologies; this is fundamental because it would reduce and prevent the smuggling of contraband into the country. Additionally, there is a need for the United States government to cooperate with the Government of Mexico in countering trafficking; this would be effectively executed through joint intelligence sharing and improved methods for countering drug trafficking. The development of infrastructure would be vital in introducing barriers such as checkpoints and access gates that would be used in promoting surveillance.

Indeed, it is critical to comprehend that unlike between the United States- Mexico border, where the security measures adopted are aimed at deterring migration, it is critical to note that the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Canada Border Service Agency (CBSA) have focused more on collaborating to address existing security issues. For example, CBP and CBSA are keen on exchanging biographical data, travel documents, and all other information required for border crossing (Homeland Security, 2019). In this regard, it is evident that both the United States and Canada have expanded situational border awareness where all border processes are undertaken seamlessly; this is vital because it helps in ensuring that migrants are treated with respect and helps in improving public safety. In this case, it is evident that the governments of both countries are committed to keeping their secure borders while protecting peoples’ rights and freedoms. On the other hand, countries in the European Union have the Schengen Borders Code that offers countries a single set of rules that control key activities, including checks on individuals, entry requirements, and short stays (European Union, 2022). Furthermore, it is appropriate to comprehend that the European countries undertake to join operations that include joint deployment of trained staff members and technical equipment. The European countries have provided police checks and other temporary border controls; these are vital in controlling immigrants and preventing the smuggling of counterfeit across the European countries.

The SMART Port Security Act was passed by the House Committee on Homeland Security with the goal of facilitating maritime security programs. The Act has helped in enhancing port security because it introduced the Port Security Grant Program, which has been effective in developing and sustaining the prevention, preparedness, and capabilities of the ports. The Act also helped in the installation of radiation detectors across the ports, and this increased the capacity of the authorities to detect the illegal movement of all radiological materials (Willis, 2016). Additionally, the SAFE Port Act also necessitated the screening for radiation of all cargo entering the United States; this Act has also helped facilitate the high levels of security across the ports, and this has been enabled through the cooperation of all key stakeholders.


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