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Euthanasia And The Role Of Physicians In Assisting Patience As History Essay Help

Critical Analysis of “Physicians Should Not Play a Role in Assisted Suicide” by Chethan Sathya

Introduction

Euthanasia or else assisted suicide is a word that originates from the Greek language that means ‘a good death.’ This is, therefore, a term or act that encompasses different definitions such as active euthanasia, which is when a substance is introduced to the body to cause death and passive euthanasia, which is withholding treatment or any other practice that could save a life and hence causing death as a result. It can also be voluntary where consent of the person is given or involuntary where a guardian has given consent. Euthanasia can also be a physician-assisted exercise in a circumstance where a medical expert has prescribed a drug for the same and has either directly or indirectly helped in administering it and in the event causing death. The debate on assisted suicide has been an ongoing debate for a while now in the health care sector. It is a controversial topic that has drawn both support and opposition in equal measure. The debate spans and cuts across several aspects of life, including religious, legal, ethical, human rights, spiritual, socio-cultural, and economic circles.  The role of a physician in the event of an assisted suicide is, therefore, a critical one and should be handled with the seriousness that it deserves.

Analysis of the Chethan Sathya’s Article

Chethan Sathya, the author of this particular article, is a medical doctor whose expertise on the topic matter is beyond reproach. He has written several acclaimed research papers on the topic of euthanasia and the role of physicians on the same. In this particular article, he discusses in detail a doctor’s relation with the decision whether to help end a patient’s life or to keep it. It is an ironic twist as physicians are tasked with saving lives at all costs. The author is, however, open-minded enough to ensure that he touches on all aspects leading to the decision and why he believes that physicians should not play a role in it. From the onset, the author is keen to ensure that he acknowledges all other resources and sources that have already discussed this topic by mentioning them where applicable. In mentioning the names of his fellow doctors and research studies, the author gives a clear show of understanding on the topic and why he is best suited to present his suggestions on the same.

The author goes ahead to discuss precedence on the topic and states and countries that have already had a discussion about the controversial topic or else have passed legislation to its effect (Bergman et al., 9). By acknowledging other sources, Dr. Sathya gets credibility to discuss the topic of euthanasia. The opinions of other experts, both supporting the use of assisted suicide with a physician’s help and also those opposing have been mentioned in the article in a clear reference to their work. He mentions, among others, Cottle, Downar, and Dr. Lisa Lehmann, among other medical professionals. By using their direct quotes and opinions on the same, the author gives the audience a perspective that is diverse drawn from different expert minds and hence making it comfortable to follow his line of argument. It also justifies his understanding of the subject through research and studying the work of his contemporaries and fellow physicians.

The author’s intended audience can vary owing to the general targeting of the message in it. It is, however, notable that the medical professionals and specifically physicians are the main audience as the main topic concerns their actions in the matter of assisted suicide. The article addresses the role that doctors should play in the event of a case that involved the possibility of assisted death. It is also a useful resource for students and especially those in health care who would like to understand and research more on the topic of euthanasia. For those who are interested in the issue of ethics in the medical field, it is also an important resource. The author is quite comfortable in his use of the right and appropriate language and diction all through the article. This shows and indicates a clear mastery of the subject as he uses the right terms of definition all through the article. Being a medical practitioner and an accomplished writer on medical research papers, Chethan Sathya outlines an understandable and clear explanation of his arguments using clear and concise statements that are not too complex even for those not in the medical sector or else in health care. In this case, the article is easy to comprehend and shows consideration of the author for all audiences. The arguments presented by the writer are very logical as he ensures that he provides evidence and reasoning for every claim that he makes. He does this by giving factual statistics and numbers involved in case studies on the subject in order to validate what he is presenting to the target audience. He mentions states such as Vermont and Washington State and other countries such as Belgium and Netherlands have passed legislation that allows for legal assisted suicide (Emmanuel 339). In these states and nations, there is already a figure of people who have been assisted to die by their physicians, and the author provides these statistics to validate the same.

In handling the views of those with a contrary opinion, the article is both modest and understanding. The author respects the opinion of those doctors that support the legalization of assisted suicide specifically by physicians. The author is keen to mention that the number of those that support the same is larger than those on his side (Dierickx 67). He claims that in Canada alone, physicians pushing for assisted suicide outnumber those that hold his argument. The author also draws from the reasoning of other physicians to justify his stand and, to an extent, even uses emotional appeal through statements that are sentimental to the patient to try to help them change their mind whenever they ask for assisted suicide or else death. In respecting the argument of those who prefer assisted suicide by physicians to be legalized, the author tries to seek common ground and reasoning that will be of importance to the patient.

Conclusion

The subject of assisted suicide and, in this case, through the help of a physician, is a controversial topic all over the world, but it cannot be assumed for a long time. A physician’s role and responsibility in the sustaining of life are tested in this particular instance as euthanasia goes against the ‘do no harm’ principle that all physicians are called upon to uphold.

Works Cited

Bergman, Tessa D., H. Roeline W. Pasman, and Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen. “Complexities in consultations in case of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide: a survey among SCEN physicians.” BMC Family Practice 21.1 (2020): 1-11.

Dierickx, Sigrid, et al. “Commonalities and differences in legal euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in three countries: a population-level comparison.” International Journal of Public Health 65.1 (2020): 65-73.

Emanuel, Ezekiel. “Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: focus on the data.” Med J Aust 206.8 (2017): 339-340.

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Environmental health and safety to avoid infectious diseases from the patients in the hospital ap american history essay help: ap american history essay help

Environmental health and safety

Health and safety measures are essential in all professions; hence nursing is of no exemption. Employers need to work in an environment that is safe and assures no health risk. The nursing profession encounters various dangers which require attention to avoid hazards during working hours. The surrounding where the nurse attends should always be clean. Hygiene reduces the chances of infection to not only the patient but also the nurses attending to the patient. The working area should be safe; for example, sharp needles and breakages should have a specific area of disposal to avoid accidents.

Environmental health and safety have standards known as ‘SHE standards.’ The abbreviation refers to Safety, Health, and Environment. The rules explain detrimental policies essential in the nursing profession for the safety of their workers. Knowledge of these policies will protect me as an advanced nurse. Protection for my colleagues is guaranteed because, in my leading role, I will implement strategies that have the best interest of safety for my juniours. Personal protective equipment is essential in promoting safety for nurses to avoid transmission of infectious diseases from the patients in the hospital.

The legal implications of SHE suggest that necessary safety measures should be present in any health institution. Every practicing nurse should be knowledgeable of the SHE standards for protection to all. Accidents due to negligence may warrant revoking of one’s practicing license. Negligence may be poor disposal of sharp objects, causing a risk of harm to everyone in the facility.

Environmental health and safety measures are essential in my career as an advanced practice nurse because I will protect the members of my surrounding. In addition to protection, I can engage in training programs that promote SHE standards. The measures described are henceforth essential in nursing practice as part of professionalism.

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Student Weaknesses in tandem with MLA formatting guidelines do my history assignment

Student Two’s Weaknesses

First of all, the whole text has fulfilled the required length for the assignment. However, the entire structure of the student’s work is marred with various errors that are not in tandem with MLA formatting guidelines. This work lacks page numbers and surname of the student who is typically inscribed on the upper-right corner of the paper. According to MLA’s writing and formatting guidelines, a standard double-spacing is required of the text.

Contrarily, this paper uses a spacing of 1.15 instead of 2.0, making it short of the recommended spacing specifications. In addition, the student lacks important in-text citations while obscuring readability with its arduously long paragraphs. Grammatical errors coupled with a wrong format of works cited make the work unclear and lacking both fluency and relatability.

Student Three’s Weaknesses

To begin with, the structure of this work is tantamount to an unfinished and unedited draft that does not follow any conventional formatting styles. The amorphous text is void of sectional headings that make the draft uninterestingly long. This student’s work is full of direct quotations from the source articles that make it lack originality, plus the work cited section is not on its own page.

Notably, the websites and works cited are not in italics as per the tenets of MLA formatting. At the same time, the title page is incomplete without the professor’s and student’s names, headers and footers, page numbers, section headings, surname, and a plethora of grammatical errors.

 

Recommendations

In conclusion, these works need thorough polishing in terms of the structure, content, formatting, citation, common grammatical mistakes. Strict adherence to the conventional MLA formatting and writing guidelines, in conjunction with a review of documented works, would improve both works. The benefits of following the tenets of academic writing are crucial in future assignments and exams while making the work more presentable, articulate to flow of ideas, grammatically correct and, in sync with the provided guidelines. The students should make use of important sources of academic writing tools such as Grammarly, Turnitin, Google Scholar, Course Hero, among others, to make their work intellectually appreciated.

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issues that cause conflict in society displays in Black Panther history assignment help writing services: history assignment help writing services

Ethical Dilemmas in Black Panther

            The movie Black Panther displays a range of issues that cause conflict in society. Ethical concerns in society affect numerous aspects of people’s lives. The movie shows decisions made by social actors in a bid to resolve ethical concerns. The film shows how social actors use poor judgment as well as emotions to address ethical dilemmas, thus causing a perpetual state of conflict. Furthermore, the main characters in the movie are forced to choose between two or more choices in resolving ethical concerns. Each of the available options has a solution to an issue, but also comes with negative ramifications. Overall, the film shows the viewer that social actors are forced to choose options that benefit the majority while attempting to resolve their ethical concerns.

Plot Summary

            Black Panther is a movie about a country called Wakanda that is hidden from the rest of the world. While nations associate the name Wakanda with poverty and underdevelopment, the country is, however, the most technologically developed due to its rich endowment of the vibranium mineral. Wakanda is headed by a king who is killed while on a conference in Korea. The king’s son, T’Challa, is appointed as the new head of the country. The initiation process presents a social issue of the succession of leadership, which is settled through a fight between the prince and a leader of an opponent tribe. T’Challa wins the challenge and is crowned king of Wakanda (‎Feige, 2018). T’Challa, however, discovers a hidden truth by his late father that threatens the stability of the kingdom. The new king learns that his father killed his own brother, who had betrayed the kingdom and left his son behind. This creates tension in Wakanda as T’Challa’s cousin comes to claim the throne. While T’Challa is divided on what to do since he believes that his father made the wrong decision, he still feels that the outsider cannot rule the people. As such, T’Challa and his cousin fight each other, and T’Challa is defeated. The movie shows the use of violence to settle disputes is the norm in the Wakanda kingdom. Another social issue displayed in the movie is security. The leaders of Wakanda protected the citizens by ensuring that the kingdom remained hidden from the rest of the world. However, the new king wishes to provide weapons to Wakanda citizens in various parts of the world to enable them to fight oppression and become the oppressors (Cunningham, 2019). While all do not share this opinion, T’Challa’s family goes to a rival tribe to seek help in eliminating the new king, but likely they find that T’Challa is still alive. Violence is again used to stop the new reign, and T’Challa reclaims his throne by defeating his cousin and stopping the deployment of weapons (‎Feige, 2018).

Ethical Dilemma

            The kingdom of Wakanda faces a dilemma in deciding what to do regarding helping its citizens in other parts of the globe. Wakanda has effective technologies that could empower its citizens in other nations to improve their standards of living. However, T’Challa is reluctant to disclose the country’s technology to the rest of the world as it could cause significant damage when it gets into the wrong hands. As such, the country’s leaders have to decide between empowering its citizens as well as vulnerable communities across the globe and keeping their technology a secret to prevent it from being used to wage war. The ethical stances involved in the film include addressing the plight of the vulnerable citizens and communities and preventing the country’s technology from being used to create chaos. The two stances are central to the story being told in the film as the previous kings ignored the suffering of others to prevent the discovery of the country’s technology. Also, Wakanda’s technology had been used to create a bomb that killed hundreds. As such, there were varying opinions on what the king should do. Revealing the technology could help millions of lives across the globe, but it could also cause malicious actors to use it to create violence. As such, the story in the film revolves around what to do with the technology.

Utilitarianism

            Utilitarianism is the best philosophical theory that explains the stance taken by the characters in the film. The theory argues that a moral action is one that benefits the majority (Hollander, 2019). T’Challa’s father decided not to provide aid to citizens of Wakanda outside the country since he feared that exposing his kingdom would put his people at risk, and that vibranium would be used to create weapons of mass destruction. As such, he acted to benefit the majority as he protected his people from foreign invasion, while at the same time protecting the rest of the world from the potential adverse effects of his kingdom’s technology. T’Challa also adopted the utilitarianism ideology as he follows in his father’s footsteps. T’Challa further conforms to the theory when he decides to help people outside Wakanda. Moreover, even T’Challa’s cousin conformed to Utilitarianism as he wanted to liberate blacks living in oppression (Cunningham, 2019).

Overall, the film shows a range of social issues that leaders face every day and are forced to address. The central dilemma presented in the film is how to use Wakanda’s technology to do good. While the kingdom’s tradition has been to hide from the rest of the world, T’Challa decides that the technology could do more good than harm. As such, the film shows that leaders act in the interest of the majority while addressing ethical issues. T’Challa stopped the deployment of weapons to protect other nations from destruction. Additionally, T’Challa decided to provide aid to citizens of Wakanda living in other states as well as to vulnerable communities. In the end, a resource that was feared to have adverse consequences when exposed to the world was used to help others across the world.

References

‎Feige ‎. (2018). Black Panther [Film]. Marvel Studios.

Hollander, S. (2019). A History of Utilitarian Ethics: Studies in Private Motivation and Distributive Justice, 1700-1875. Routledge.

Cunningham, P. L. (2019). Applying Critical Race Theory to Black Panther: World of Wakanda. More Critical Approaches to Comics: Theories and Methods.

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an investigation into the relationship between family and marriage history assignment example

Introduction

Marriage and family are vital structures in most societies. These two institutions are present in a significant number of human cultures. However, the relationship between the two social institutions is continuously evolving. For sociologists, an investigation into the relationship between family and marriage proves to be interesting as it sheds light on human relationships and how they evolve.

The concept of marriage, owing to constantly changing social dynamics, has failed to retain a consistent definition. Various disciplines have evolved their particular definition of marriage. However, sociologists have never agreed on a single meaning of the term. However, most do agree a marriage relationship emerges when two people form a social contract, recognized by the law, to be exclusively bound together on a relationship traditionally based on a sexual relationship and reproduction. However, the above definition falls short in recognizing current social trends of same-sex marriages and the increasing number of polygamous relationships. These intricacies present in the social interpretation of a marriage, have commanded the attention of sociologists. Scholars have focused on how society interprets the concept of marriage and to what degree social interpretations of the concept affect other social institutions. For purposes of this paper, marriage is defined as a socially and legally accepted union of two people stemming from a sexual relationship.

The above definition of marriage is important because families are built on top of marriages. Traditionally, the union between two people arising from a sexual relationship often resulted in children and that has come to be accepted as a family. Like marriage, the concept of a family has been evolving owing to various social trends. Families were traditionally thought to be comprised of a husband, a wife, and their children. In the traditional definition of a family, same-sex marriages could not form the basis of a family as they are incapable of having biological children. However, since same-sex marriages are legally seen as families, the social construction of the family is currently under flux. The problem with the traditional definition of a family lies in that it focuses on the structure of a family where each member has a specific obligation and role. There is an increasing need to then incorporate how people relate with each other in the definition of a family to ensure inclusivity. According to sociologists, a family is a socially accepted group – related through blood, marriage, or adoption – with an emotional connection and fulfills the role of a basic economic unit of the society. The above definition of a family allows for the inclusion of new family units formed by the union of same-sex couples and single-parent households. The above definition of a family allowed sociologists to identify two kinds of families. The first, a family of orientation, is one where a person comes into by being born. The second type of family is a family of procreation, referring to a family formed through marriage. The two broad categories of families have made it possible for sociologists to label previously excluded units as families.

Defining Marriage and the Family

As mentioned earlier, scholars are yet to come to a consensus on a universal definition of marriage and the family. Separate disciplines have adopted a definition of marriage and the family to suit their needs. Consequently, the legal and rational definition of marriage in the U.S. is vastly different than that adopted by sociologists. In developing its definition of a marriage, the U.S. legal system declares that a union shall be considered as a marriage when it demonstrates five basic elements. These are the parties to the union who have legal ability to marry each other, mutually agree to the union, and the union does not violate the law. Sociologists, on the other hand, define marriage as a socially accepted and supported union between two or more people with an enduring commitment stemming from a sexual bond.

From the divergent definition of marriage evident above, a single similarity and difference emerge. The most immediate difference between how a sociologist defines marriage and what the law considers a valid marriage to exist in the union of two people. On the other hand, sociologists accept that marriage can exist between two or more people. In that difference, it is evident that the law tends to consider marriage from the traditional perspective. Due to its alignment to the traditional notion of a marriage, the legal definition of marriage further insinuates that a marriage can only occur between a man and a woman. Consequently, same-sex marriages and polygamous unions have not been viewed as valid marriages until recently. Same-sex unions have only recently started to enjoy legal recognition while polygamous and polyandry unions are yet to receive a legal acknowledgement.

On the other hand, sociologists acknowledge that marriage can exist between two or more individuals. They also acknowledge that marriage can exist between couples of the same sex. The sociologist’s definition of marriage, consequently accounts for unions that have traditionally been considered as divergent from the norm. As the discipline realizes that a socially supported accepted structure is indicative of a socially supported structure. Same-sex and polygamous unions have been socially accepted in human history. Consequently, they are gaining social support, and the definition of marriage should thus reflect as much. The most striking similarity between the legal and sociological definitions of marriage is that they both expect the union to be founded on a sexual bond. The law, which adopts a traditional interpretation of marriage, communicates that for a couple to be deemed as married, they must assume the role of husband and wife. Legally, a marriage must be consummated. Refusal by either spouse to consummate the marriage is often used as grounds of divorce. From that perspective, the law requires the union to be based on a sexual relationship, similar to the views of sociologists.

The law goes further than defining the social institution of marriage. The law also stipulates how unions recognized as marriages can be dissolved. The dissolution of a marriage, typically referred to as a divorce, under the law can be caused by the reasons accepted by the law. On the other hand, sociologists have investigated numerous causes of divorce, and some that were deemed pertinent are yet to be recognized by the law. The divorce rate, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (“FastStats”, 2018) reported a divorce rate of 2.9 per 1,000 population in 2017. The rate provided by the CDC, also known as the crude divorce rate, is however imprecise. It fails to account for all the states in – only 44 states and Washington D.C reported their divorce statistics. Data collection in states is not uniform with some states failing to report divorce instances in their reporting. As a result, the CDC divorce rate is not indicative of a reliable statistic. Moreover, the CDC, when calculating the divorce rate in the country, lumped single people with married people. That would have the effect of skewing the divorce rate. Furthermore, the figures also lump people from the same generation together. For instance, couples married in the 1980s are lumped together with couples married in the 2000s. Lumping up different age groups can have the effect of skewing the divorce rate. The resulting rate would fail to account for the changing social landscape. For instance, in the 1980s, the divorce rate was at its highest. Failing to account for the impact of the generation married in the 1980s would have on the divorce rate can lead to inaccuracy. The divorce rate needs to take into account the different demographics impacting on the ability of people to stay together.

 

 

Assignment Two

Socially Constructed Reality in Making a Murderer (2015)

The socially constructed reality, a collective view of the world generated from individual knowledge and symbolic knowledge, influences the behavior of individuals (Surette 2015, p. 32). The media has a considerable impact on socially constructed realities as it perpetuates a common belief in a large group of people. According to Surette (2015, p. 34), the socially constructed reality tends to define the conditions, trends, and factors accepted as causes of crime, leading to the criminal justice system enacting policies meant to curb the particular crime.

Socially constructed realities are enforced through different strategies, and Surette (2015, p. 36) discusses a few of them including the linkage strategy. By linking the crime to previously established socially constructed reality issues. The claim maker wishing to successfully make use of the linkage strategy must first establish a socially accepted claim. The media has assumed the role of claim-making, intending to use the linkage strategy to impact on the criminal justice system. The documentary, Making a Murderer, employs the linkage strategy in attempting to reform the criminal justice system.

The premise of the documentary is that the criminal justice system is vastly flawed to the point where the accused cannot be guaranteed a fair trial. While documenting the life of Steven Avery, the film reveals that police and prosecution misconduct existed in the case. The evidence on which Avery was convicted over had been tampered in police storage while the jury could not be partial as it comprised of relatives of some of the officers involved in the case. Making a Murderer claimed that the processes of the police investigation and the conviction of criminals needs a reevaluation. Essentially, the film claims that since the criminal justice system cannot assure the fairness and validity of a trial, then it needs to be reexamined to ensure the innocent are not unfairly prosecuted.

The film provides a linkage between the incompetency of the criminal justice system and the prosecution of innocent people. In so doing, the media makes wrongful convictions a pertinent social issue that requires addressing. It perpetuates the idea that the criminal justice system in its current form is inadequate in preventing wrongful convictions. The above claim is founded on a previously existing socially constructed issue of prosecutorial and police misconduct. The correlation with an already existing social issue adds to the validity of wrongful convictions as a social issue. The media consequently uses the linkage strategy to create a socially constructed reality where the criminal justice system is deemed inadequate in the assurance of a fair trial. As a result, the public will demand the introduction of policies meant to guarantee a fair trial for the accused. In that way, the media managed to create a socially constructed reality that impacted the criminal justice system. Through Making of a Murderer, the audience learns of the various shortcomings of the criminal justice system, and how they can affect just about anyone. As a result, the audience gains a desire to see the system remedied.

Predatory Criminality Prisoners (2013)

Another concept developed by Surette (2015, p. 55) is the portrait of a criminal. The media typically portrays criminals as predatory. Their actions are irrational, driven by the criminal animalistic nature. According to Surette (2015, p.55), the predatory criminality image has persisted throughout the media’s history. However, that portrait of a criminal does not reference other kinds of criminals. Not all criminals are predatory. Some criminals are benign, lacking a criminal record, and rational. New media realized that the depiction of the typical criminal is skewed to the innately predatory criminals. As a result, more and more films are depicting a less predatory face of criminals.

The movie Prisoners (2013) is a fitting example of how the media is trying to move away from its stereotypical image of a criminal. In the movie, a man whose daughter was the victim of a kidnapping takes matters into his hand when the police appear to be taking too long in their search. The man accused of the kidnapping is an unassuming young adult without the characteristics of the typical criminal portrayed by the media. The young man does not present behavior that would be considered illogical nor does he appear to resemble the media-created image of a child predator. What’s more, the movie explores the actions of the father who tortures the accused man in an attempt at finding the location of his daughter. The father similarly fails to fit the media-constructed image of a person who can instill pain on another. The father does not have a criminal history nor has he demonstrated behavior that would suggest he is a danger to others. Consequently, the film invites the audience to rethink its perception of a criminal. It invites the public to rethink how criminality is imagined while demonstrating that criminals can be just about anyone in the society. The use of unassuming characters lacking the features people commonly associate with criminals in Prisoners is an attempt by the media to reimagine the social construct of criminality.

The CSI Effect in Chicago P.D.

Surette (2015, p. 95) describes the CSI effect as the unrealistic effect that the media portrayal of the police has on the public. More specifically, after the recent media portrayal of the police from a prosecutorial perspective, the public now believes the police institution has extensive capabilities in the fight against crime. Due to the CSI effect, the public believes that the police can get forensic results in unrealistic time frames and the institution has unlimited resources to fight crime.

The result of the CSI effect, perpetuated by the media’s preference for the crime scene investigator as the new crime-fighting hero (Surette, 2015, p. 95) is that jury pools are biased when it comes to the interpretation of prosecutorial evidence. The CSI effect led to the belief that police investigations and evidence are infallible. The CSI effect has thus poisoned jury pools who are bound to believe the evidence presented by the prosecution than that produced by the defense. Another outcome of the CSI effect is that offenders are now dumping additional materials in crime scenes in an attempt at concealing their identity. In an episode in Chicago P.D, a rapist used a condom to commit several rapes in an attempt to eliminate DNA evidence. The episode continued to demonstrate how the police solved the case through unrealistic CSI technologies. After watching the show, it becomes apparent that the media has been responsible for the generation of a police image crediting the institution with tasks it cannot realistically accomplish. As a result, the public has now come to accept that the police can solve all manner of crimes, and when the institution appears to be unable to solve a crime, the public interprets that as voluntary inaction from the police. The role of the media in the perpetuation of the CSI effect is perhaps the dominant image of law enforcement. The public expects the police to make use of technological advancements in the fight against crime, but due to limited resources, the police institution has been unable to live up to the public image.

References

FastStats. (2018). Retrieved 6 May 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/marriage-divorce.htm

Surette, R. (2015). Media, crime, and criminal justice. Nelson Education.

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