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Supply and Demand of Adderall Term Paper do my history assignment: do my history assignment

Adderall presence on the U.S. market

With between 3% and 5% of individuals in the U.S. having been diagnosed with ADHD, there is high demand for drugs that can make it possible for these respective individuals to cope with their condition. While there is much controversy regarding such drugs, some are considered especially effective and there is a strong consumer base for these products. During the last two decades Adderall experienced significant progress in the health care industry as people acknowledged the benefits that the drug had on ADHD patients.

During the late 1990s and early 2000s the masses started to express more support with regard to stimulants, with individuals from a wide range of backgrounds being able to improve their lives as a result of using them. To a certain degree, it would be safe to say that ADHD becoming more popular played an important role in helping a great deal of pharmaceutical companies experience progress.

Adderall was created in 1996 as a consequence of Shire acquiring Rexar Pharmaceuticals and rebranding one of its diet drugs, Obetrol. The company immediately got the product onto the market as a consequence of having it FDA-approved. “Overnight, Adderall catapulted Shire from a small-time drug company into a major pharmaceutical giant.” (Mayes, Bagwell, & Erkulwater 154) Adderall is currently one of the most popular drugs prescribed in cases involving individuals with ADHD and a series of other related disorders. From its emergence in 1996 and until 2006, doctors wrote around 50 million prescriptions for children and adults (Mayes, Bagwell, & Erkulwater 154).

In order to have a more complex understanding of Adderall, Shire, and the company’s relationship with the market, one would have to consider recent shortages of the drug. The company has claimed that the Drug Enforcement Administration has implemented strategies meant to limit the drug’s production. As a consequence, individuals who are accustomed to taking it in order to be able to live somewhat normal lives are embarking on scavenger hunts in an attempt to get it. Many visit numerous pharmacies only to find that the drug is either unavailable or that it sold as soon as it got to the drug store. Adderall is a controlled substance and the DEA is apparently concerned with the fact that in some cases it can become widely available. As a consequence, the institution has installed tougher legislations meant to limit its presence in drug stores and to discourage individuals who might be inclined to take it in spite of the fact that they do not actually need the substance (Edwards).

While ADHD sufferers experience significant issues as a consequence of having trouble getting their hands on Adderall, Shire profits significantly from the exploit. This is especially surprising considering the fact that there are a series of generic drugs using the same recipe as Adderall. “Usually, branded sales collapse almost immediately as insurers and pharmacists switch all their patients to the cheap, identical version of the drug.” (Edwards)

The fact that amphetamine is the main ingredient in Adderall means that the DEA goes through great efforts in order to limit access to the substance. The fact that there are a great deal of individuals who are likely to express interest in it purely as a recreational drug led to a great deal of controversies, with the authorities being inclined to believe that pharmacies and Shire have installed strategies that are ineffective. With Adderall stocks being limited, patients risk a great deal in their struggle to get the drug, as the condition of the market influences some to take advantage of people who actually need the substance. Adderall can either be stolen, counterfeited, or sold in a condition where it can be especially harmful for the customer. Many pharmacies can decide to sell the drug as a consequence of the profits they make from the exploit even if their managers are uncertain with regard to authenticity or to the expiry date of the drug. As some become experts in producing substances similar to Adderall, numerous users have been reported to find it difficult and almost impossible to tell the difference between actual Adderall and copies. Unlike conventional products being counterfeited, fake pharmaceuticals can be especially harmful for users. The internet proves to be a flourishing environment for individuals counterfeiting drugs: “Fake medicines have drastically increased over the last few year, and some research shows that 90% of fake drugs are sold over the internet at some point in time.” (Kardes, Cronley & Cline, 498) The legitimate supply chain of Adderall can thus be affected as a consequence of counterfeiters stepping in and taking advantage of vulnerable individuals in search of a normal life.

With both children and adults significantly improving their lives as a consequence of taking Adderall, one can understand how these individuals are exposed. Many are unable to continue their daily lives and attend schools or go to work if they do not have access to the substance. As a result, numerous parties step in and take advantage of them to the degree where they are basically exploited. These people are in need of the drug and are unable to carry on with their lives without it — Shire, a series of other pharmaceutical companies, and even counterfeiters provide them with drugs and impose several conditions at the same time. The fact that Shire’s shares increased in value even in times when the DEA implemented legislations meant to control distribution demonstrates the degree to which the company profits as a consequence of selling Adderall.

Adderall has come to be one of the most sought-after medicines in the U.S., with ADHD patients needing it on a daily basis in order to be able to function properly. The fact that the disorder also seems to be more prevalent during recent years only exacerbates conditions, making the market critical. With patients being vulnerable, companies like Shire and a series of other bodies interfere and take advantage of their problems.

Works cited:

Edwards, J. “How a “Shortage” of Adderall Actually Increased Sales of the ADHD Drug.” Retrieved August 17, 2015, from

Mayes, R., Bagwell, C., & Erkulwater, J.L. “Medicating Children: ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health.” (Harvard University Press, 1 Jan 2009)

Female Circumcision and Ethics Research Paper ap us history essay help

Female Circumcision and Ethics

The female circumcision practices are found to be followed by a number of regions and tribes in the world where this practice is considered to purify and provide health benefits to the females of that particular society. However, this practice is considered to be immoral and unethical by the ethical feminist and clinical experts who imply that female circumcision practices violate the autonomy of an individual and, cause mental and physical trauma in the early childhood and generates negative health related concerns in females.

Advantages of Female Circumcision

Disadvantages of Female Circumcision

Perspective of Society That Follows the Circumcision

Perspective of Ethical Feminists

Application of Ethical Theories



Practical Implications and Recommendations



The feminist ethical concerns arise when the female members of the society are abused with the mutual consent of their families and members of the society (Vaughn, 2013). Female circumcision, as a matter of fact prevails in the society in which traditional surgical procedures are followed with or without the supervision of surgeon in which the genital parts of the female body are circumcised and this procedure is considered to be a part of ritual, followed by a large number of communities (Lane & Rubinstein, 1996). The traces of female circumcision have been found in the ancient Egyptian Kingdom and Roman Kingdom starting from 500 BCE and since then, this practice has been found to be prominent in the various sectors of the world in order to ensure women’s chastity. The tradition was followed till the 18th century where the clinical surgeries were operated in order to perform the surgical procedure where it was believed that the excessive genital parts of female body are responsible to cause fits, mania, mental dissatisfaction and these antecedents cause death. In 1920’s, the issue was addressed by the Doctor’s Society in Egypt but it failed to attract the attention of concerned authorities in order to refrain the practices related to female circumcision (Wasuna, 2000). However, this practice is still found to be followed in certain regions of the world, mainly comprising of India, Egypt, Sudan and Africa. The female circumcision practices are exalted with the strong belief of aesthetic, sociological and religious reasons where the circumcision procedure takes place in secrecy and with the mutual consent of females and their families. According to WHO (2014), there exists 125 million young girls from 29 countries who have undergone with the procedure of circumcision since infancy and till the age of 15 and this surgical procedure has implied health hazards on the lives of these girls. The procedure of circumcision takes places in the girls before their puberty and the procedure is operated without the proper medical equipment and clinical practices which causes mental and physical trauma on the young girls who face the surgery.Moreover, the long-term health effects of female circumcision are also not foreseen by the clinical experts and are needed to be addressed with respect to the feminist ethics.

Thesis Statement

The concept of utilitarianism holds the fact that such steps should be taken which attempts to provide benefits to people and the society (Vaughn, 2013) and the issue of female circumcision which consists of either partial or complete removal of genital parts is not found to be approved by the concept of utilitarianism. The ethical concept of utilitarianism favors the ability of one’s being autonomous in deciding whether the proposed behavior or act is preferred by himself or not and the concept refuses to accept any notion that violates the autonomy of an individual but, the same concept also speaks for the society and its benefits. The practice of female circumcision may provide justification in the religious aspects of the society by means of chastity, purity and forbids pre-marital intercourse but this practice also violates the autonomy of individuals because the practice in which surgical procedure is involved takes place during the period when the girls are in their infancy age. The concept of utilitarianism may provide the satisfaction to society in terms of following their traditions but the practice of circumcision generates the adverse effects on the health of girls and these negative effects prevail throughout the life of these women, who have to follow the consequences of the circumcision that happened during their infancy period. Therefore, the discussed notion extremely violates the autonomy of females and does not provide any health benefits and hence, the practice fails to follow the basic concept of utilitarianism and thus, the ethical concept does not defend the act of female circumcision.


Advantages of Female Circumcision

The societies where the female circumcision practices are followed are practiced due to the following perspectives:

The female circumcision is practiced in the societies where the religious belief with respect to the safeguard of women’s virginity is focused and due to this belief, the act of female’spartial circumcision takes place in which the circumcision procedures makes it difficult for virgin women to get involved in pre-marital intimate relationship.

The partial circumcision in female takes place because in some societies the female genital parts are considered to be impure and thus removal of these parts ensures the purity and it is also believed that the circumcision of certain skin parts related to the genitals result in the less growth of harmful bacteria and yeast.

The circumcision procedure results in the removal of clitoris i.e. genital part and due to which female exhibit less intimate desires which results in the decreased amount of adultery in the society.

Disadvantages of Female Circumcision

The disadvantages with respect to the female circumcision are discussed as follows:

The female circumcision can cause in many females infertility and increases the risk of cyst and infections in the internal organs of the body, mainly comprising of uterus, kidney and bladder infections.

The surgical procedure results in the creation of complexities during when these females give child birth and risks the lives of both, newborn and mother.

The practice of circumcision either partial or complete results in the decreased or no sense of arousal in females.

The practice of female circumcision as a part of slavery in order to refute women from child birth and prove their chastity is not considered as a moral activity and is forbidden by the court of law.

Perspective of Society That Follows the Circumcision

The practice of female circumcision is considered to be followed by many centuries in various regions of the world. According to Ruderman (2013), the practice of circumcision is followed continuously in society because of the fact that the women are considered to be pure after the surgical procedures and it is the only procedure that makes the women eligible to get married in the society. Therefore, the parents tend to follow this tradition in order to secure the future of their daughters. Moreover, the followers of the society believe that circumcision should take place before the puberty takes place in the girls so that the girl can be considered as purified in the society and can earn respect. The girls who have undergone this procedure consider this surgery as a gift and become grateful for being purified.

Perspective of Ethical Feminists

According to Slade and Prinsloo (2013), ethical concerns arise when the circumcision procedure takes place in the society because it violates the autonomy of an individual in which girls are either forced to go through the painful surgery or the surgery takes place when girls are immature, usually under the age of 7, which makes them to follow the commands of their adults and deprives them to take any preventive stand against this tradition. Moreover, the lack of proper equipment and unhygienic procedure makes the procedure crucial to follow and the negligence in the procedure can cause harmful effects on the afterlife of girls. As well as the successful surgery also does not provide any benefits to the health of girls because the surgical process causes the bladder and uterus infections and causes complexities for women while giving to birth.

Application of Ethical Theories

According to Galeotti (2007), the act of utilitarianism emphasizes on the consequences of effects that happen when someone is encountered with certain act or activities that effects that individual’s life. The female circumcision effects the women life adversely because it causes the severe pain and trauma during the surgery in early childhood because the surgical procedure takes place without proper medical equipment and anesthetics and the procedure follows the negative effects on the women’s medical life in short-term and as well as long-term. Moreover, this surgical practice does not provide any health benefits to the women rather than the fact that they earn respect in the society in which they belong however, the fact is not considered to be strong enough to value this notion due to the life threatening effects of circumcision on the life. Moreover, the act of utilitarianism also defies the circumcision practice because it violates the autonomy of female in which the surgical procedure takes place without the consent of girls or the girls are pressurized by their parents to go through the surgery and the results of the surgery exhibits more pain rather than pleasure.

However the cultural relativism as implied by Galeotti (2007), also debates the female circumcision in which the circumcision practice is favored due to the fact that they are highly acceptable in the society in which the females belong and in order to secure their future and in order to provide them with respect and dignity it is important to indulge in the society and accept the traditions that prevail.



The tradition of female circumcision has followed the human heritage since the early 5th century in which women followed the procedure of circumcision in order to maintain their chastity and purity. The notion was similar for midwives and slaves who were forbidden to give birth to children and were supposed to remain pure in the eyes of the master. The same practice is still followed in the 21st century where the practice of female circumcision takes place in order to follow the ritual, religious, tradition and aesthetic rites. The societies where these rites are followed ensure that the women in their society are pure and does not involve in the adultery and pre-marital intercourse. Moreover, the same notion prevails with respect to the cleanliness perspective in which women are considered to possess the excessive genital parts that suppresses their feminism. These practices are followed even by those who do not believe in this practice in order to provide respect and dignity to themselves and say part of the society in which they belong. Moreover, the female circumcision secures the future perspective of the females in which they become eligible to get married by becoming pure.

The female circumcision is not considered to be ethical because it violates the children right in which children i.e. young girls are exposed to mental and physical trauma while they are under the surgery without even having the proper medical equipment and medicine and the procedure is operated by non-professionals who do not hold any clinical experience. The circumcision procedure also violates the autonomy of the person in which young girls are cut from their genital parts without their consent and are pressurized by their parents to go into the procedure. Moreover, the hygiene related perspective of female circumcision should be eradicated from the societies where these practices are followed by providing the members of these societies with the knowledge of hygienic measures that can be adopted without having the circumcision procedure.

The procedure of female circumcision, either partial or complete, deprives the females’ ability to feel or sense the arousal and causes them to face hazardous health related problems in which they can get reoccurring infections related to uterus and kidney and can also face complexities in the birth of their child. These long-term complexities and diseases are reoccurring in nature which imposes negative long-term effects on the health of females. These health related risks are concerns that need to be addressed in order to eradicate such hazardous practices from the society.

Practical Implications and Recommendations

The concerned authorities should consider the issue of female circumcision and take necessary steps to create awareness among the societies where these practices are followed and the members of the societies should be provided with the adequate knowledge about the harmful effects that are imposed on the lives of females and newborns due to the circumcision procedure. The concerned authorities should be made locally in order to better interact and understand the local societies and should be backed by the governmental support in order to make contact with the leaders of these societies where the practice of female circumcision prevails. Therefore, with the help of the respective societal leaders it can be made possible that the followers of that particular sect or tribe can better understand the importance of eradicating the circumcision practices and can ensure the better childhood and womanhood to their daughters. Lawsuits should be made to refrain this procedure from the societies while practicing these activities and the legal actions should be taken against the people who carry out these practices and the practice of female circumcision should be prohibited with the help of localized government and the leaders of the society.


Galeotti, A.E. (2007). Relativism, universalism, and applied ethics: the case of female circumcision. Constellations, 14(1), 91-111.

Lane, S.D., & Rubinstein, R.A. (1996).Judging the other: responding to traditional female genital surgeries.Hastings Center Report, 26(3), 31-40.

Slade, S., & Prinsloo, P. (2013).Learning analytics ethical issues and dilemmas. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1510-1529

Ruderman, R. (2013). Female Circumcision: The Ethics of Harm Reduction Policies. Michigan Journal of Public Affairs, 95(10), 95-107.

Vaughn, L. (2013). Bioethics: principles, issues, and cases (2nded.). Oxford University Press.

Wasuna, A. (2000). Towards redirecting the female circumcision debate: Legal, ethical and cultural considerations. McGill Journal of Medicine, 5(2), 104-110.

WHO.(2014). Female Genital mutilation.World Health Organization.

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania history assignment example: history assignment example

legislation on PA SB 1299

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania

Senate Bill No. 1299

Session of 2014

Introduced by: Ward, Pileggi, Erickson, Schwank, Washington, White and Baker.

The significance of PA SB 1299 Bill


The deaths from overdose on opioids have been a common occurrence across the nation with many of the people falling victims to either ignorance or intentional negligence by the people around then when they suffer the overdose symptoms to death. Initially, there were rampant incidences of the arrest and prosecution of the volunteers who called the law enforcement and the first responders to the scene since they too were often found to have used the drugs. The first responders were also not allowed to administer opioid antagonist at the scene to the person suffering obvious signs of overdose on the opioids hence the death rates from the overdose kept increasing even amidst the knowledge that such deaths could be eradicated in a constructive manner that does not promote the drug use.

Social problem

The high levels of opiate abuse and the subsequent death of the abusers from overdose from these opioids forms the central focus of this paper. The magnitude of the problem of overdose on the opioids can be seen from the exponential increase in the number of people under these prescribed drugs. According to Heightman A.J., (2014), the number of Americans under the prescribed opioids tripled from 1991 at 76 million to approximately 210 million Americans in 2010. This significant increase has consequently contributed to the increase in the number of people addicted to opioids as well as the number of people who die from overdose on the same. This menace has been a nationwide catastrophe that has prompted various measures including the community access programs and can no longer be ignored but must be handled through all possible avenues including the availing of the antagonist to the opioids as is proposed by the Bill PA SB 1299 as will be discussed further herein.

These obstacles seem to be catching the attention of the legislators who are now getting the solutions that the Americans deserve. The first instance, which is indicative of the intention to solve the deaths from opioids overdose, is the handling of the reporters of the overdose incidences. The initial times saw anyone found with the victim and had used the opioids being arrested and arraigned in court, however, this stopped with the passing of the “good Samaritan” law that saw the protection of the person who summons help for the victim of overdose as long as they gave their names to the authorities and cooperated as well as remained with the victim until the time that help came their way (Wenner D., 2014). This law was passed in Pennsylvania with the full knowledge that many overdose victims died due to the fear that other drug users had of eventual arrest when they were present at the scene, this law in particular has helped many people who could have been victims to heroin addiction and to opioid painkillers such as OcyContin, Vicodin and Percocet.

Position on proposals of the Bill

I am in support of this PA SB 1299 Bill since it perpetuates the same concerns as expressed by the law mentioned hitherto. This Bill seeks to amend existing law to allow a first responder to administer an opioid antagonist to another person in order to save the life of that individual. This is one of the Bills that need to get all the support possible and be nurtured into a law since it is positive and constructive in ensuring the death rates out of overdose on opioids are significantly reduced.

Points on supporting the Bill

The passing and eventual implementation of this Bill into Law will be a step towards securing lives of the addicts, give the first responders a better leverage at their work and hence more significance and also giving chances to the drug users to reconsider their stand on the same once they are saved from the brink of death. There are families that lose their loved ones purely due to lack of quick intervention, say for instance the case of David Rose who died of an overdose from heroine in Virginia. After successfully serving in the military assignment, he walked home a decorated veteran but with injuries sustained from the service, which were actually the main cause of his medical discharge from the military. He sunk into drug abuse but just had changed his ways and was looking forth to an already planned marriage and settling in a new job, he succumbed to heroine overdose. The sustained injuries subjected him to large quantities of pain relieving medication which actually triggered the addiction to heroine. The life of such an important everyday member of the American society could have been saved if the antidote would be readily available (Umble A., 2015). Such stories are not unique to one state but are wide spread across the U.S. And there is need to have a solution that would see an absolute end to this trend.

When an individual overdoses on opiate-based painkillers, the death or the continued living of that individual is practically dependent on how fast the opiate antagonist is administered to the individual, time is of the essence, as the above case of a lost life indicates. The antagonists that are administered often help in combating the oxygen deprivation that the victim suffers occasioning slowed breathing as well as triggering an immediate withdrawal. This critical status of oxygen deprivation may not wait much longer before the individual dies and to give immediate help to the person, the first responders need to be empowered to act fast and administer the antagonist at the scene before carrying the individual to the hospital for further medication (Incorvaia M., 2015). As a matter of fact, these first responders will be acting under the standing order from a licensed physician hence there will be due diligence exercised and absolute care with well spelt out procedures used by the first responders and a report thereafter generated.

The first responders’ actions in line with the Bill will be after a conviction and in good faith that the individual is suffering an opioid related overdose. The amount of care that will be involved and the care is a show that the first responders will be at the scene to first save a life before they are involved in taking statements to facilitate the law enforcement on who supplied the drugs used in the overdose or not. The good faith and the mindful approach that the first responders often use is a good sign that they need to be facilitated to save more lives in better time by being allowed to administer the needed medication at the scene when they arrive.

From the daily experiences that the communities in different parts of America have, in most metropolitan U.S., the paramedics are known to respond to the scene and make contact with the patient literally within minutes from the time they are contacted. The response times are further reduced by the use of the contemporary IT which deliver accurate, online and detailed information of the nature and location of the emergency (EMS1, 2015).This is in stark difference with the longer duration that the paramedics will take to arrive at the scene. This shows that the first responders will have the advantage of time, long enough to asses whether the individual is suffering from opioid overdose and administer the required antagonist long before the paramedics make it to the scene, hence implementing this law that allows them to have naloxone for such emergencies is totally acceptable if the welfare of the victims is to be taken care of. The other access point for these antagonist would be the families that have lost their loved ones on the overdose on these opioids, they know how important it is to readily administer the antagonists to the victim with the aim of saving their lives. These can be some important contact points or sources of the antagonist within the community which can see a neighbor being saved before the medics arrive or before they are ultimately taken to the hospital.

It is a common feature that in most healthcare facilities, the drugs for handling such overdose cases do run out of stock or get to be in limited supply. Indeed many emergency care medications are on a low supply than ever seen before. The passing of this bill and subsequent implantation could be the much awaited trigger of demand for such drugs as naloxone hence the increase in the supply of the drugs from the increased manufacturing that will be aimed at meeting the demand created. The new supplies will not just meet the demands of the first responders but also the needs of the paramedic agencies and hospitals that are also in dire need of the same, in effect the bill shall solve bigger problems than it focuses on.

There is need to have a realistic and practical approach to the abuse of the opioids in the communities that make up U.S.. Blind condemnation of additional naloxone in the package of the first responder is misguided, out of touch with the society we live in and quite political. The passing of the Law that will allow the first responders to administer the antagonist to the victims who overdosed on opioids and are looking at death in the face is simply empowering the responder to save lives, which is the basic duty they set out each day to do. There is need to support safe proper medicine use among Americans just as much as there is need to face the abuse of same medicines in a realistic and practical way with each community having a unique requirement to make this a reality. Just like the ‘good Samaritan’ law, this too, if well applied and necessary measures put into consideration, it can be one more constructive law towards eliminating the deaths from opioid overdoses.


Incorvaia M., (2015). Lawmaker: Allow more first responders to give antidote to opiate overdoses. Retrieved February 20, 2014 from

Wenner D., (2014). Pa. expands use of heroin overdose antidote, provides ‘good Samaritan’ protection in overdose cases. Retrieved February 20, 2014 from

EMS1, (2015). 85,000 Emergency Responders Reduce Response Time with Retrieved February 20, 2014 from

Heightman A.J., (2014). Should Naloxone Be Available to All First Responders? Retrieved February 20, 2014 from

Umble A., (2015). Family members mourn victims of heroin overdoses at Fredericksburg meeting.

Addiction of Teenagers to Prescription Drugs ap history essay help

Addiction of Teenagers to Prescription Drugs

Addiction of teenage prescription drugs

The problem of addiction of teenagers to prescription drugs has been on rise in modern days. It is estimated that daily in the United States 2,500 youth abuse prescription drugs. This is not only a problem in the United States, but it also affects teenagers in Europe, South Asia, and Southern Africa. Over 15 million people have reported abusing prescription drugs globally. This is higher than those who reported abusing heroin, cocaine, and hallucinogens. A 2007 survey carried out in the United States in 2007 indicated that in one month 6% of 17 to 25-year-olds and 3.3% of 12 to 17-year-olds had abused prescription drugs. This might seem like a low number, but considering that this only happened in one month you can imagine how prevalent the rates would be in one year. A survey conducted in 2012 found that 24% of teens had taken a prescription drug without a prescription. Marijuana and alcohol are still the highly abused drugs, but prescription medications follows in third place.

The main reason why teenagers abuse prescription drugs is to get high, relieve pain, or belief that the drugs will assist in schoolwork. Prescription drugs are readily available, and this makes it easy for teenagers acquire and abuse. Prescriptions can become addictive if taken in undesired quantities, which might lead to drug over dose, or death. There is a common misconception amongst teenagers that prescription drugs are less addictive and safer than street drugs. The drugs mostly abused are opioids, depressants, and stimulants. Opioids are used for treating pain and relief diarrhea and coughs. Depressants are used for treating anxiety, panic attacks, sleep disorders, and tension. Stimulants increase brain alertness, which results in greater attention, alertness, and energy. These prescription drugs are highly effective in the treatment of their respective diseases, but when abused they could have devastating effects. Some of the side effects of prescription drugs are stomach pain, confusion, hallucinations, and numbness. Numbness and hallucinations allow the teenagers to escape their reality and pain.

Literature review

According to Drazdowski, Jaggi, Borre, and Kliewer (2014), the use of prescription drugs by teenagers has become a significant public health concern. The study the researchers conducted involved 1,349 adolescent offenders. The study established that there are some demographic factors related to the abuse of prescription drugs amongst teenagers. The exposure to violence, drug use, delinquency, and mental health were found to be contributors to the abuse of prescription drugs. However, there was no correlation between the abuses of prescription drugs with later usage of other drugs. The abuse of prescription drugs was not a vital contributor to future delinquency. The researchers concluded that prescription drug abuse might be a risk factor and was not the only predictor to future delinquency of a teenager. The study was conducted using a longitudinal survey, which enabled the researchers to make observations of the participants over a long period. This data collection method is effective in determining the use of prescription drugs and the teenager’s future behavior. Developmental trends of the participants ensured that the researchers were able to collect enough information to determine the effects of prescription drugs on teenagers. The future behavior of the abusers is vital to establish the consequences and contributors to other problems. Although the researchers have indicated that the use of prescription drugs does not contribute to future delinquency, they do not promote its usage, and they only disassociate it with other drug problems.

Cranford, McCabe, and Boyd (2013) posits that most studies have used a variable-centered approach to examine adolescent prescription drug abuse. By using a person-centered approach, the researchers were able to identify distinct categories and subgroups of individuals. The researchers opted to have a person-centered and variable-centered approach for their study. The study was conducted in Southeastern Michigan for students in grade seven and twelve. 2,744 respondents completed the survey. The results indicated that about 8% of the respondents reported having used prescription drugs, and 6% had used them excessively. The study established that there might be at least three high-risk groups, and two of these groups have high probabilities of using prescription medications. Parental monitoring played a huge role in predicting the usage of prescription medications. The researchers established that most adolescents obtain the medications from family and friends. Other researchers also demonstrated this. Having parent-focused interventions was found beneficial for all families. The study confirmed what other researchers had found that girls were more likely than boys to report nonmedical drug use. The researchers have proposed that the usage of these prescribed drugs are effective in the treatment of various conditions. Therefore, any prescription drug abuse messages should ensure that the teenagers who are prescribed the drugs do not feel like drug abusers. Parents and teachers should also be vigilant for abuse risks.

The study conducted by Viana et al. (2012) comprised of 6790 youth enrolled in Mississippi public schools in grades six to twelve. The researchers used questionnaires for data collection. The questionnaires were conducted as part of mental health screening within the public schools. The study aimed at establishing the predictors of non-medical use of prescription drugs. Incorporating a huge sample of participants enables the researchers to eliminate the restrictions that were faced by James A. Cranford. The questionnaires made it easy for the respondents to answer the questions and provided for quick data collection. The researchers found that pain medications had a 57% rate of usage, 44% benzodiazepines, 37% prescription stimulants, 29% SSRIs, and 24% for antipsychotics. The youth who abused these drugs represented a quarter of the sample, and they did this for over ten days. Eight percent reported they used the drugs daily. The main contributors to prescription drug abuse were grade level, race, mood, anxiety, and suicidal symptoms. The researchers concluded that NMPDU is a multi-determined phenomenon and clinically relevant phenomenon. Further research is vital to establish effective prevention programs. The researchers were able to identify the contributing factors for NMPDU

Majority of research has focused on the issue based on urban teenagers. The prevalence of the issue in rural adolescents is the focus of the study conducted by Havens, Young, and Havens (2011). The researchers interviewed 17842 adolescents in 2008, 51% were male. The study was conducted in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The researchers noted that there were different aspect that could contribute to abuse of prescription drugs among teenagers in rural and urban areas. The results of the study indicate that the prevalence of NMPDU is higher in rural adolescents than urban adolescents. The easy availability of other drugs like heroin and cocaine in the urban areas is deemed a contributor to the low rates. In rural areas, these drugs are not easily accessible, which results in the adolescents seeking other forms to maintain their high. It is possible that the results were higher in rural areas because most of the respondents were from poor families, and they had not enrolled in school. Other researchers as contributors to drug addiction amongst teenagers have established these factors. The researchers established that parental involvement and having a strong family bond resulted in lower rates of prescription drug abuse. The study demonstrates that any interventions should be aimed at promoting strong family structures.

Sussman et al. (2012) conducted a longitudinal study for one year to predict the use of pain killer drugs amongst teens. The study had 1186 participants in different high schools in California. The data was conducted by self-reporting 30-day pain killer usage for one year. The research relied on observations made and the reports submitted by the students. Collecting data for one year ensured that the students would be more comfortable, and they were least likely to lie afterwards. The normal predictors like behavior, demographic, environment, and the researchers analyzed psychosocial effects. The study results indicated that there were higher levels of pain killer usage amongst the respondents. Majority of those who took the drugs were of white ethnicity, and they did not have any depressive symptoms, and lived with both parents. Those who have an easy access to prescription medication were found to be most likely to use abuse prescription drugs in the coming year. Having a large population and focusing on different schools allowed the researchers to eliminate the restriction of one geographic location. Catering for different locations provided the researchers with valuable data that could be used to expound on the topic. The predictors established would assist in prevention and development of materials to discourage the use of prescription drugs.

McCabe, Boyd, and Young (2007) conducted a study to establish the prevalence of prescription drug abuse amongst secondary school students in Detroit metropolitan area. The study was racially diverse, which allowed for examination of the various races in the area. The drug categories studies were opioids, stimulant, sedative, and sleeping. These have been established by other researchers as the main prescription drugs abused by teenagers. The study’s main goal was determining the four categories, which was the mostly abused drug. The study was carried out using web-based surveys in 2005. The surveys were self-administered, and 1086 secondary school students participated. The participants were in grades seven to twelve. There were 54% female, 52% White, 5% African-American, and 3% were other racial groups. The results of the study demonstrated that 3.3% of the participants had used prescription drugs without a prescription, 17.5% had used the drugs for both medical and nonmedical, and 31.5% had used for medical reasons. The researchers resolved that it was most likely for medical drug users to abuse the drugs given due to their ease of availability. The contributors to prescription drug abuse amongst the secondary school students was established to be the difficulty in accessing other drugs.


From the reviewed literature, it is clear there is huge problem especially of teenagers abusing prescription drugs. The teenagers acquire the drugs from their family members or friends without their knowledge, which does show they are aware what they are doing is wrong. There are many contributors to this vice, and many of them lean towards family bonds. Strong family bonds have been discovered to be effective in reducing and eliminating prescription drug abuse amongst teenagers. Having experienced violence would result in some of the teenagers opting ot partake in the drugs to avoid the pain. Stimulants are believed to increase mental alertness, which some teenagers use to improve their concentration in class. The side effects of these drugs is similar to that of hard drugs and some researchers have demonstrated that the potential of delinquency increases with increased drug usage. All the researchers have pointed out that there is need for preventive methodologies. There are different methods that the researchers have proposed. The use of messages and video simulations would be most effective in preventing the usage of prescription drugs. Education plays a significant role, as was established by Jennifer R. Havens. A majority of the teenagers who abused prescription drugs were not enrolled to school, but the teenagers in school indicated lower rates of drug abuse. The researchers used terms like non-medical use of prescription medications, excessive medical use of prescription medications, and non-medical prescription drug use.

The non-medical usage of prescription medications is the theoretical term for teenage prescription drug usage. The studies have indicated that most of the teenagers will use the prescription medications on a regular basis. Observational analysis and use of longitudinal studies have indicated that the teenagers will use the drugs continuously, which is an indication that they have become addicted. The effects of addiction have far-reaching consequences since the teenagers will opt for stronger drugs when they become young adults. The prevalence of non-medical prescription abuse is increasing with each passing day. The side effects of prescription drug abuse have been demonstrated in the literature, and it is clear that it could lead to devastating effects. There is a possibility of death or health problems if the problem is not controlled or prevented.

Using self-administering reporting, questionnaires, and longitudinal studies have been effective in monitoring the teenagers for over a year, and this has offered the researchers ample data. Longitudinal studies have allowed the researchers to analyze the effects of prescription drug use. The study would ensure that the researchers can monitor the participants over time and could easily identify changes. Self-administering provided the participant with confidence the information they provide would not identify them in any way. This boosts confidence of the participants, and they are most likely to offer accurate information. Web-surveys were also employed, and they were effective, as the respondents would fill the reports in their comfort zones.

To monitor the effects of prescription drug abuse, it is vital that the researcher interacts with the respondents over time. This monitoring and data collection ensures that the participant’s information can be mapped to establish if they are increasing or reducing their usage. Patterns could be discovered since all participant information is captured and analyzed. The analysis would allow the researchers to predict a person’s behavior or usages in the coming month or year. This data could be helpful to authorities since they could manage to create and focus messages to the target areas. Teenager addiction to prescription medication is mostly due to the belief that the medicines are not harmful as other street drugs, which should be changed completely.


Teenage addiction to prescription drugs is a growing concern for health professionals in the United States. Various studies have demonstrated that the teenagers are increasingly opting for prescription drugs with a belief they are least harmful. Studies conducted in urban and rural areas have found that the ease of availability of the drugs is making it easy for the teenagers’ access and use the drugs. There is need to strengthen the family setting and encourage parents to monitor the children usage of prescribed drugs. Over reliance to prescription medication, could result in seeking of other street drugs. The possibility of the teenager’s body becoming immune to the drug forces the teenagers to increase their dosages over time. There is need for interventions and public messages to discourage the abuse of prescription medications. The messages should not make the medical users of the drugs feel like they are addicts. Focusing the messages to non-medical users is vital, as this would discourage abuse.


Cranford, J.A., McCabe, S.E., & Boyd, C.J. (2013). Adolescents’ nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications and the identification of substance use subgroups. Addictive Behaviors, 38(11), 2768-2771.

Drazdowski, T.K., Jaggi, L., Borre, A., & Kliewer, W.L. (2014). Use of Prescription Drugs and Futur e Delinquency among Adolescent Offenders. Journal of substance abuse treatment.

Havens, J.R., Young, A.M., & Havens, C.E. (2011). Nonmedical prescription drug use in a nationally representative sample of adolescents: Evidence of greater use among rural adolescents. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 165(3), 250-255.

McCabe, S.E., Boyd, C.J., & Young, A. (2007). Medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs among secondary school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(1), 76-83.

Sussman, S., Rohrbach, L.A., Spruijt-Metz, D., Barnett, E., Lisha, N., & Sun, P. (2012). One-year prediction of pain killer use among at-risk older teens and emerging adults. Journal of drug education, 42(2), 195-210.

Viana, A.G., Trent, L., Tull, M.T., Heiden, L., Damon, J.D., Hight, T.L., & Young, J. (2012). Non-medical use of prescription drugs among Mississippi youth: Constitutional, psychological, and family factors. Addictive Behaviors, 37(12), 1382-1388.