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Eliminating Health Care Disparities Summary Ap American History Essay Help

Eliminating Health Care Disparities

The Population

In the United States, by the 1990s, there were four major groups that were considered to be the minority: the African Americans, the American Indians, the Asians, the Hispanics and the Pacific Islanders. Also, the differences in population among the races cut across the states, and significantly, the minority groups constitute at least half of the population residing in San Antonio, Los Angeles, Miami and Honolulu. In other states, however, the minority community does not make even 5% of the population in the states (“America’s Racial and Ethnic Minorities – Population Reference Bureau,” n.d.). However, the current definition of the minority group has been expanded to include other populations who are at a disadvantage because of their beliefs, convictions, practices or inability to access resources. This essay will particularly consider gay men, considering the rate of infections with HIV/AIDs and therefore reviewing how social workers would work with them to help address the problem.

The most affected by HIV/AIDs in the United States history assignment help online: history assignment help online

According to the CDC, homosexuals are considered the most affected by HIV/AIDs in the United States. In 2018, it was reported that the population was shown to have about 69% of all the new HIV/AIDs diagnosis made (“HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men | HIV by Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC,” n.d.). On a global scale, the men who have sex with men are 27 times more likely to be infected with HIV/AIDs compared to the general population, and the rates of infection seems to be increasing, specifically 8% in the USA. In 2017, 57% of the new infections in men who have sex with men were in Europe and North America.

In the USA, statistics indicate that about a 1.2million American men who have sex with other men are infected with HIV/AIDs. In the infected population, 14% of them are not aware of the status, meaning 1 in 7 MSM does not know. The infections rates continue to be a great challenge to some races, especially the minority races and ethnic groups. Interestingly, the US rates do not occur proportionately since it is estimated that most of the infections occur in the Southern Part (“U.S. Statistics | HIV.gov,” n.d.). Recent projections have indicated that the preventive strategies meant to contain the disease are currently not reaching everyone, especially the MSM.

Determinants of Health Issue Assignment summary gcse history essay help

Determinants of Health Issue

There are several factors that have been shown to put the men having sex with men at the risk of contracting the virus and therefore suffering. First, unprotected anal sex has been shown to contain a higher risk of transmission of infections than vaginal sex. This is because the walls of the anus are relatively thinner and more likely to tear up, which creates room for entry of the virus. STIs among the MSMs are high and have been rising in the past 20 years, which further increases the risk of HIV infections (“Men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV and AIDS | Avert,” n.d.). In another view, the biological testing and sexual education on the prevention measures among the MSMs is lower compared to the other population putting them at further risk (lower than 55%).

Some behavioral factors have been shown to contribute to the increase in infections. The multiplicity of sexual partners is particularly the behavior of concern when handling the MSMs. This behavior is usually difficult to contain, and those who do so have been found to practice unprotected sex mostly. There is even growing evidence that some of the men who have sex with other men are continuously engaging in group sex, making the situation worse. Also, others engage in the act while under the influence of psychoactive substances. Some of the commonly abused drugs include methamphetamine, methadone and GHB. There is also concern that those who realize they have contracted infection fail to initiate ART as soon as possible, increasing the risk.

There are also some legal factors at play towards the increase in infections. Despite legal provisions for the legalization of sexual orientations for every person, this kind of behavior remains unacceptable among some people. The government continues to advocate for the need to respect the rights of everybody, but this is not enough. As such, there is a need for more resources to be allocated towards raising awareness on the likelihood of high infection rates among this population. In some cultures, the practice of same-sex marriage remains taboo and therefore, passing information on safe sex would be foolhardy.

Social Work Intervention sampled summary history essay help: history essay help

Social Work Intervention

The social worker’s role would first be to work with the population to understand their cultures, needs, beliefs, and challenges. Later on, the social worker can then work with the community to determine the solutions for them. In that view, it would be required that the social worker determine the most suitable solutions for the particular setting and not necessarily ones that have been designed elsewhere. Once that is done, the social worker would work to create awareness to the general public on the existence of such people in the community. Through such interventions, it would be possible for the general public to accept them, and when the responsible sex interventions are provided, they would easily be taken up.

Public health education would be one of the suitable interventions to offer this group to cut down on the new infections (Gehlert, & Browne (Eds.), 2011). In the programs, it would be useful to educate them on using condoms while engaging in sex. Also, it would be useful to encourage them on the need to be aware of the HIV/AIDs status and that of their partners at all times. More importantly, peer-led group sessions have been shown to produce significant positive outcomes since they are likely to result in more acceptability and uptake of the prevention measures. The use of peers also creates a comfortable environment around the MSM, thus providing social support.

Another area of intervention for the social workers is by using motivational interviewing to enforce behavior changes. This is an intervention that is meant to invoke the individuals’ intrinsic motivation and therefore enforce the appropriate behavior changes. The use of MI in the field outreach programs by the social workers is an effective approach to encourage the young African Americans engaging in gay tendencies on the need to learn about their HIV status (Outlaw et al., 2010). The intervention would focus not only on the outreach but also on motivating them to engage in sex without placing themselves at high risk of infection. Usually, the effectiveness of the HIV testing is dependent on how persons receive the tests; therefore, counselling sessions would be important to enforce the need for one to be tested. The ability of these individuals to come out and be tested would reduce the prevalence of infection in the population.

The intervention for the social workers summary ib history essay help

Another area of intervention for the social workers is by using motivational interviewing to enforce behavior changes. This is an intervention that is meant to invoke the individuals’ intrinsic motivation and therefore enforce the appropriate behavior changes. The use of MI in the field outreach programs by the social workers is an effective approach to encourage the young African Americans engaging in gay tendencies on the need to learn about their HIV status (Outlaw et al., 2010). The intervention would focus not only on the outreach but also on motivating them to engage in sex without placing themselves at high risk of infection. Usually, the effectiveness of the HIV testing is dependent on how persons receive the tests; therefore, counselling sessions would be important to enforce the need for one to be tested. The ability of these individuals to come out and be tested would reduce the prevalence of infection in the population.

Besides testing, the medical social worker has a responsibility to ensure there are adequate number of testing centers in the community, which are friendly to these kinds of people. Once the centers are available, they also ought to be well equipped and have medications whenever needed by the MSMs. Medical social workers are also supposed to enforce preventive mechanisms like the use of condoms by engaging in sex. In so doing, the social worker should make the population knowledgeable of the impending risks.

The social worker can also engage with the population and convince them on the need to take up medications as a way of preventing spread of infection/ reducing the viral load and therefore reducing the risk of spread. In the end, the medical social workers should also ensure they follow up on the population, probably using mobile phones to ensure they are engaging in safe sex without necessarily putting themselves at risk.