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Community Development and Environment history essay help: history essay help
Community Development and Environment
Environmental Evaluation and Economics
Lec. Steve Maende
Are renewable energy technologies really green?
Renewable energy is commonly referred to as clean energy. These are energy sources available through natural processes and are consistently replenished, such as wind energy, solar energy, geothermal, and tidal energy. Although renewable energy technologies are referred to as green energy, their impact on the environment is detrimental, raising whether they are really green. However, their impact on the environment is minimal compared to non-renewable sources such as oil, coal, and natural gas, which harms the environment in water and air pollution, loss of habitat and wildlife, global warming emissions, water use, and land use. The environmental impact caused by renewable technologies varies depending on the particular technology used, the geographic location, and several other factors.
Environmental Impacts of Hydroelectric Power
Hydroelectric power includes both vast hydroelectric dams and small run-offs of the river plants. Large-scale hydroelectric dams continue to be constructed in Kenya and many parts of the world. Hydroelectric dams impact the environment through land use. The size of the hydroelectric project’s reservoir varies widely, mostly depending on the size of the hydroelectric generators and the topography of the land (Gibson, Luke, Elspeth, & William 928). On flat topography, the hydroelectric plants tend to require much more land than those in hilly areas. Flooding land for a hydroelectric reservoir has an extreme impact on the environment as it destroys forests, wildlife habitat, agricultural land, and scenic lands. In many cases, the entire communities have to be relocated to pave the way for reservoirs. Additionally, the reservoir water is usually stagnant than normal river water. As a result, it attracts higher amounts of nutrients and sediments, which raise the growth of excess algae and other aquatic weeds, which negatively impacts the wildlife within the dammed reservoirs and downstream from the facility. Besides, the blocking of the river’s natural flow simultaneously blocks an important migration route for fish. Many fish species depend on inland rivers for production, and by blocking a river’s flow with dams, fish cannot reach their breeding grounds. Eventually, it reduces the fish population, negatively impacting the human food bank and the healthy river ecosystems.
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power
Despite having vast potential, wind power has a variety of environmental impacts associated with its generation. Wind power involves the installation of huge turbines which occupy more land, more so in flat grounds. The wind turbines are spaced approximately 5-10 rotor diameters apart. Part of the land occupied by the wind turbines is permanently disturbed, making it agriculturally unproductive. However, employing the best and suitable technologies helps minimize the potential land use impacts of offshore and land-based wind projects. Also, wind power generation has a huge impact on wildlife and habitat, most notably bats and birds. Peer-reviewed research proves evidence of bats and birds’ death from collisions with wind turbines and changes in air pressure caused by spinning turbines. However, these impacts are relatively low and do not pose a threat to species populations. Sound and visual impact are two primary public health and community concerns associated with wind power generations. Some people living close to the wind facilities have complained about sound and vibration issues. However, these issues do not adversely impact public health. Therefore, the turbine developers need to take these community concerns seriously by following good neighbor practices and using technological advances, such as minimizing blade surface imperfections and using sound-absorbent materials that reduce wind turbine noise.
Environmental Impacts of Solar Power
Solar energy technologies impact the environment in various ways, including quartz mining and the production of solar equipment. First, solar demand a significant amount of energy upfront to product manufacturing, mining, and transportation all require substantial amounts of energy. Quartz must be processed, cleaned, and then manufactured with other components which may come from different facilities (Zhang, et al. 12). Heating the quartz during the processing stage requires very high heat. Secondly, the production of solar-grade silicon, semi-conductor processing involves hazardous chemicals. Disposal of these chemicals might be improper, causing pollution on the soil. The third is the issue of disposal of the solar panels when they are out of use. The solar panels are recycled with other waste, which raises questions about their hazardous effect on the environment. Additionally, subject to their location, larger utility-scale solar facilities can raise concerns about land degradation and habitat loss. Unlike in wind power generation, the land occupied by solar panels is permanently disturbed. Land impacts can be minimized by putting the utility-scale solar systems in lower-quality, agriculturally less productive locations such as deserted mining land or prevailing transmission and transportation corridors.
Environmental Impacts of Geothermal Power
Geothermal energy generation has similar environmental impacts just like the other renewable energy sources, including alteration in land use linked with exploration and plant construction, noise and sight pollution, the discharge of water and gases, production of foul odors, and soil subsidence. However, a number of these effects can be mitigated with current technology so that geothermal has minimal impact on the environment. Geothermal power generations have impacts on both water quality and consumption. Hot water pumped from the underground reservoirs usually contains high salt, sulfur, and other minerals. When this water is discharged into the water streams, it causes significant impacts on the quality, which affects the health of the aquatic life, human beings, and animals that depend on the same water streams (Cook, Brynhildur, & Daði 130). Also, the amount of land needed by a geothermal power plant varies depending on the reservoir’s properties, the amount of power capacity, the type of energy conversion system, the type of cooling systems, and other factors. Geothermal plants can also cause an increase in the intensity of earthquake risks since they are located in areas with seismic lines.
Cook, David, Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir, and Daði Már Kristófersson. “An ecosystem services perspective for classifying and valuing the environmental impacts of geothermal power projects.” Energy for Sustainable Development 40 (2017): 126-138.
Gibson, Luke, Elspeth N. Wilman, and William F. Laurance. “How green is ‘green’energy?” Trends in ecology & evolution 32.12 (2017): 922-935.
Zhang, Jingyi, et al. “Comparison of life cycle environmental impacts of different perovskite solar cell systems.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 166 (2017): 9-17.
THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF AMNESIA history assignment example
Because of his amnesia caused by the herpes encephalitis infection to his brain, Clive cannot retain a memory for more than a few seconds. For him, every time he blinks, everything that he sees is new and strange, with no memory of anything preceding that moment. He has lost all his episodic memory, and even though his semantic memory still stays intact, they do not help much in helping him make sense of his environment. Every time he opens his eyes, it is like he has been dead for a very long time and is finally awake, and this is just after he has had the very same experience a few seconds before. He has no memory of his personal experiences, and he cannot even create new experiences because he cannot even retain them. The environment around him is always strange and new, even if he stays there for a whole day. There is no continuity in his thought process because of the absence of memories of what has happened to him before, which brings a lot of confusion. So, for his mind to at least grasp what is happening, he sticks to his semantic memories and talks about them all the time. Everything he does, from playing the piano and reading music to finding sugar and cups to make coffee, is purely out of muscle memory. Despite him doing them, he has no idea nor any recollection of what he is doing.
It has impacted his family greatly, now that he doesn’t even remember his children or even the fact that he has grandchildren. The only person who makes sense to him is his wife Deborah, whom, thanks to their deep emotional connection, he has never forgotten, even as his memories frequently disappear. It has not been easy for her to try to help her husband make sense of everything around him, but she has always been there for him. She is the only thing familiar to him when everything else in his environment suddenly becomes strange.
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, everything Clive experiences goes to the Short-Term Memory, which only lasts for about 30 seconds, and then it is lost. The brain can transfer information in this memory into the Long-Term Memory, whose duration and capacity are unlimited, through repetition and rehearsal. Still, because of Clive’s inability to rehearse these experiences, mainly because it is too much information received for the first time and a short duration, it all ends up being forgotten. And this happens over and over again. The only information in his Long-Term Memory is Semantic, and these memories don’t amount to much, especially without being accompanied by explicit episodic memory.
THE ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF ASSESSMENT history assignment help ireland: history assignment help ireland
Ethical responsibilities of assessment are supposed to be considered before any judgment is carried out to the students. First, obtaining parental consent, where the parent/guardian to a student should have agreed from the child to be tested and aware of the procedures, risks, and consequences of the assessment without being coerced into doing so. Second, Respect Children’s rights; for young kids in the education system, their rights should be respected and protected even though they are not able to make sound decisions. Third, Honesty for every profession should be honesty on the nature of assessment being carried out and what it entails to achieve upon being carried out to ensure it abides with the country’s rules and regulations. Fourth, Confidentiality; the assessment should be confidential and ensure that all the information and results gotten in the evaluation are kept private and used for the purpose intended for the assessment. Fifth, Objectivity, the assessment should have a credible purpose and goals set to be achieved. Sixth, integrity, the assessment results should not be changed and should portray the actual position assessment crowd. (American Counseling Association,1988) Some examples include informing the parent of an upcoming test for minors’ class and giving them a chance to decide if their kids can take part in the trial. Second, it is to keep each student’s results confidential and use them to improve their weak areas and identify their strengths. Third, ensuring the results get when the assessment is not biased and hence represents the accurate picture of what they described in the evaluation.
American Association for Counseling and Development (now American Counseling Association) (1988). Ethical standards of the American Counseling Association. Alexandria, VA: Author
THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN INDIVIDUAL history homework help
Being a religious person and a Christian, I would be against the act of inducing death to the suffering patients in the wards since it would be acting against God’s teachings. Christianity forbids taking people’s lives since God is the sole giver of life, and he alone can take it away. Ending patients’ lives is not the moral thing I would do as a nurse, and I would offer home-based care to the patients since thirty miles is not a far distance considering I want to save lives. Referring them to other hospitals that can accommodate them is a better option than ending their lives.
Utilitarianism is an ethical approach based on the consequences of actions done, and according to its approach, actions done should aim at maximizing happiness for society or humanity (LeBaron and Garn). Pleasure or pain are the two masters that govern human actions. According to this theory, patients in pain are considered not to be in pleasure; by inducing death, the pain would be eliminated and vacancies for other suffering patients. Since utilitarianism aims to maximize happiness in society, the other people who could not get a room in the hospital would get satisfaction by having a chance to be treated.
Thomas Hobbes came up with the ideology of Social Contract, suggested that human beings are considered rational, whose actions are guided by best interest at heart, which Hobbes referred to as coomodious living, and involves several life features as morality, society, and politics. According to this theory, human beings are expected to follow rules that people with self-interest would consider following to achieve personal benefits. Therefore it is often viewed as a negative version of the golden rule of do not do onto others what you would not like to be done onto you (Feinberg, 1978). It states that trust can be attained by giving up some rights as long as the others agree on the same, and hence the right to take away life can have to be given up to function in the society and hence considering euthanasia, not a right thing to do.
LeBaron Jr, Garn. “The Ethics of Euthanasia.” (1993).
Feinberg, J. (1978). Voluntary euthanasia and the inalienable right to life. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 93-123.