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Each student should select an issue in corrections (from the list below). The minimum length of the paper should

Each student should select an issue in corrections (from the list below). The minimum length of the paper should be 3 full pages. It must be typed (word processed) in Microsoft Word with Times New Roman font, be double spaced throughout, and have 1 inch margins all around (both sides, top, and bottom) with 12 font size. Please do not deviate from this format or minimum page requirement; you will lose points.

Because this is a small paper, I only want you to use two references (only 2 – no more or no less). This means only two references should be listed on your Reference Page and only these two references should be cited in your paper. Both of these references must be “academic articles” (from academic journals) and both must be retrieved from the EKU online library (click on the “Library Resources” menu button on the left for guidance).

You MUST use APA formatting throughout this paper (as outlined in the “APA Style Writing Tips” document posted below). The reference page must be formatted EXACTLY as shown in the document; citing in the paper must be formatted EXACTLY as shown in the document (different examples are shown). If you use information from the text, you must cite these in your paper and include the textbook in your reference page (using correct APA format).

Include a title/cover page following the APA format (must include a header/running head with the paper title and page numbers). The reference page and cover page do not count in the 3 page minimum.

(last week of the course) and is worth 100 points, but do not wait until the last minute to get started. Be sure to carefully view the grading rubric below to see how the points are distributed.

The requirements for the paper are as follows (DO NOT include an abstract). Please include the following headings for each requirement below:

Introduction
Write an Introduction describing the issue (what is the issue, why is it important, etc.).
Existing Problems
Describe the problems that exist that make it less effective than possible (also, give some history, some background leading up to the problems that exist today, etc.)

Evidence of Ineffectiveness
Give evidence of its ineffectiveness (what’s going on that shows the system isn’t working; has it always been this way; was it ever better or worse, etc.?).

Suggestion for Improvement
Suggest one way it might be resolved or improved upon to enhance the operation of the corrections system (what do you think would work better?).

Implementation
How could your suggestion for improvement be implemented (what steps should be taken; what should be done first, second, etc.)?

Resolution
Describe how your suggestion might resolve or improve this issue (give examples or comparisons; in what ways could your plan “fix” what is broken?).
NOTE: The first page begins with the heading “Introduction”; only the running header should be above this. The headings should be in bold font with the same spacing throughout (double spaced – this includes after headings and paragraphs). ALL 6 headings must be included in the paper. Five points will be deducted for each heading that isn’t included (this could total up to 30 points so please include all of them!).

Culture and corporate strategy in a multicultural environment Introduction The process of

Culture and corporate strategy in

a multicultural environment

Introduction

The process of management is always characterized by various factors. In most cases, the management culture adopted in an organization dictates its success in a big way. Managerial culture always happens in an organization’s value systems, beliefs, management expectations, and the behaviors of all the team members and is always reflected in the management styles that are exhibited in an organization. Managerial cultures always vary from one country to the other because it is determined by the culture of the people working in a given organization. Some of the cultural issues in management include slowed decision making process, poor communication between the involved parties, and confusions amongst the decision makers because coming into consensus is always difficult. Additionally, other cross cultural issues that are linked to management inadequate trust amongst the members, differences in individual perceptions, false communication, and inaccurate biases. An individual or a society culture is always characterized by power distribution, environmental relationships, social relationships, work patterns, social control and uncertainty. Due to these characteristics, the type of managerial culture experienced in India is always very different to what is experienced in Switzerland. Due to the differences in the cultures experienced in the two countries, the management styles adopted by organizations in the two countries vary in a big way. It is therefore important to understand the differences that are experienced in organizational management between the two countries as organizations try to meet their goals. As such, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the managerial cultural difference between India and Switzerland, assess the intercultural cultural changes faced by Indian and Swiss IT consultants and its employee after the arrival of Indian collaborators in Switzerland. The paper will also discuss various cultural theories and framework in these analyses while making comparisons between the Indian and the Swiss cultures where applicable. Finally, the paper will give an appraisal of the relevant strategies that can help a Swiss related company to effectively manage the cultural differences between the two countries.

Managerial cultural difference between India and Switzerland

India and Switzerland are two countries which have different diverse culture and this culture is translated in the way managers in both countries do their business. Until the 90’s, India was a closed economy and there was the perception that, when the economy eventually opened up there would be a rush for takeovers by large multinationals. When the economy was opened, the opposite happened and Indian businesses reacted positively to the economy opening (Albers-Miller, and Gelb, 1996). With the new opened economy, the businesses were able to restructure, improving the way their capital was structured, raked in management skills which were good and with time they were able to become professionals and go global. Unlike many other countries the business organizations in India are family run and unlike in Switzerland where the managers get to retire after a given duration of time, in India the entrepreneur tend to stay with the business till they die or are until old age makes them incapable to perform their duties (Aneesh, 2006). The issue of legacy in India is a big thing with the children taking over after the parents which is less common with other countries. The managerial culture in India is a based on legacy and the issue is very strong in the country compared to other nations (Hofstede Insights, 2019).

The business environment in India is characterized by mixed organizational capabilities, management trends, and company culture which involves a boundless engagement of employees, the ability to deliver to clients via improvement and creativity in value and tasks that go beyond the delivery of shareholder value (Barthelemy, 2003). The Indian managers are accustomed to finding their ways around hurdles which include lack of resources and this is a mindset that is termed as “jugaad” in Hindi and is used to refer to the inclination to obstinately create creative solutions. Though the Indian style of management is yet to be fully explored, the managers involve the use of pragmatism, suppleness and the ability to function in tough operating environment, awareness of English and democratic values and the ability to work in diverse environments with the directors.

In Switzerland the management culture is pragmatic and unpretentious in nature. These two virtues are the traits that are expected from the managers. The culture of the Swiss managers involves them to be fairly low-key in their approach to most issues and they do not exhibit the theatricals associated with western managers. The directors are not full time and are replaced compared to India where the business is family run (Baitahazard, and Cooke, 2003). The country boosts of being one of the most politically and economically stable country in the world and it is characterized by a highly educated and multi-lingual population. Due to the fact that the country has four languages being used, it brings about the issue of being culturally complex. The culture dictates on that the managers be aloof, impartial and level headed so as to be able to deal with the diversity. Authority and veneration are earned by being perceived to demonstrate the know-how on different and relevant areas. The decisions in Switzerland, unlike in India where it may fall solely on the hands of the proprietor, they evolve among peers over a given timeframe rather than coming from one, self-motivated, compelling mover and shaker (Thayer, Evans, McBride, Queen, and Spyridakis, 2007). This process can perceptibly lead to a slow decision making process which is protracted, but with the lack of the required gradation of peer level agreement, the implementation of policies maybe hard. The non-confrontational approach which is collective is mirrored in the need to seek consensus and buy-in down the chain of command and it is important for the Swiss people to feel fully involved in the process.

Intercultural cultural challenges faced by Indian IT consultants and Cultural challenges faced by a Swiss organization and its employee after the arrival of Indian collaborators in Switzerland

The growth of the software and information technology (IT) enabled services industry in India has provided a big room for the current growth of the global capitalism where services and “knowledge” work are being moved from the post-industrial economies to low-cost locations in the developing world. The expansion of territories of high-tech offshore production and services in countries that are industrializing, like India, brings about afresh questions about globalization, employment and cultural identity (Baitahazard, and Cooke, 2003). There has been the emergence of the Indian software engineers and IT consultants in the global cultural economy which has been as a result a few procedures that are both conversational and concrete (CONNER et al., 2015). These involve concepts and procedures of ‘cross-cultural’ or worldwide management that has been brought up to deal with the managing of multinational employees, precise conditions and representations of organization that oversee transitional work experience between the Indian IT consultants and their western counterparts. With the start of the post-industrial economy with free flow of information, the processes of economic and globalization of culture are evolving to being more interdependent (Focus, 2019). With capital looking for new investments and markets, it transforms the already existing cultural tropes and images coming up with new faces of cultural differences and social identities (Albers-Miller, and Gelb, 1996).

With the issue of outsourcing of workers, the Indian It consultants tend to face numerous cultural challenges in delivery of their services in other western countries like the Swiss (Barthelemy, 2003). There are cultural differences that exist between the two nations and these tend bring out problems to the professionals working in unfamiliar culture settings. Some of the challenges faced by the IT consultants include the management style. With different management styles existing between the two nations the Swiss managers would generally not demand for progress report which is frequent while in India not making clos follow upon project paints it as less important task (Hofstede Insights, 2019). The Swiss managers tend to look at the final outcome rather than the input while the Indians tend to focus on controlling the whole process and with such big difference in culture may affect performance (Zones, Prentice Hall, USA.Castells, 2009).

Another challenge which face these individuals is the Yes and No answer to questions posed by clients. (Gislen, 2006) identifies that Indian works tend to reply as ‘yes’ where other western country employees would say not sure to questions. Due to the big cultural gap between the two nations, it proves difficult for the Indian IT consultants to comprehend the full need of the clients and would hesitate in asking for clarification from the customers (Baitahazard, and Cooke, 2003). Another cultural challenge would be taking risks and meeting deadlines. The Swiss managers tend to put much emphasize on the meeting of deadlines (Carmel, 1999). They usually take more risks and make well thought assumptions in lieu of taking on a task and believe in meeting a deadline with some mistakes rather than not to meet it at all. On the other hand, the Indian culture dictates that an individual has to ensure that everything is in order with no errors at all before handing in the task (Zones, Prentice Hall, USA.Castells, 2009). Late delivery is not a big issue and is acceptable as there is no problem with not meeting deadlines.

Other challenges include organizational and educational differences. Organizations differ in terms of culture, politics and structural points of view (Hall and Hall, 2014). Indian workers, due to the nature of which their organizations are run, tend to lack the easy access to the higher authority compared to the Swiss. In this case, the workers are not able to relay their ideas to the higher authority even if it would affected how they carry on their duties or the overall performance of the organization (Barthelemy, 2003). In terms of education, there is a big difference between the education systems in the two countries. The Indian education system emphasize on learning by heart with no questions asked and the focus on the application of the knowledge is minimal while for the Swiss, it focuses on the application of the knowledge and add creativity. Due to this fact, the Indian consultants may shy from questioning the authenticity of apparent flawed requirements (Hall and Hall, 2014).

With the arrival of Indian collaborators in Switzerland, there was the rise of cultural challenges that faced the hosts both in the management and in the relationship with the employees. With the arrival of new workers with a very diverse cultural difference brought about differences some of which were expected and others unexpected. There is the presence of two different corporate cultures but most of the issues tend to rise from the national culture differences. The Swiss employees were supposed to communicate with individuals from different culture and this require the change in the communication channels they had been using (Blackstone, 2009). They had also to comprehend some of the gestures used by the Indians. For the instance, the tilting of heads by Indians side to side meant yes of which the Swiss would interpret to mean no before comprehending it. There was also the issue of the lavatories where the Swiss complained of the mess made by the Indians in the toilets by using water (Browaeys, and Price, 2015). The Indians are prudent people and would never express their feelings publicly and this affected their relationship with the Indians (Conner, Nowlin, Rabovsky, and Ripberger, 2015). The Swiss people also feared for the loss of their jobs with the coming of the Indians and this affected the working relationship.

Proposed solutions to the problems

The differences identified above can deter the progress and performance of the organization and need to be addressed. This can be done through various steps like a strategic choice of projects. The inter-cultural issues can be minimized by choosing projects which the IT consultants are familiar with which will do away with the issue of underperforming and not meeting deadlines (Blackstone, 2009). There is also the need to manage and develop relationships through the use of common procedures there is the need to employ procedure like coordination and control mechanisms. Inter-cultural problems can be curbed the employment of systems that bring about harmony between the parties (Laungani, 2009). There is also the need to comprehend the dissimilarities arising in customs and value like hierarchy, power and business practices.

Conclusion

With the increased rate of globalization, outsourcing between countries is on the rise and this brings about the need to deal with the cultural differences. As discussed above there is a number of challenges that arise from the differences in culture among different individuals especially from different countries. There is the need to identify these issues and address them so as for them not to affect the overall performance of the organization.

References

Albers-Miller, N.D and Gelb, B.D. (1996). Business advertising appeals as a mirror of Cultural dimensions: a study of eleven countries,

Aneesh, A. 2006. Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalisation. Durham: Duke University Press

Baitahazard, P. A. and Cooke, R. A. (2003). Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management Success: Assessing the Behavior- Performance Continuum, Working Paper, Arizona State University West, Phoenix, 2003.

Barthelemy, J. (2003). The Hard and Soft Sides of IT outsourcing Management. European Management Journal, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp. 539 – 548

Benefit from New Work Practices. New York: Cornell University Pres

Blackstone, W. (2009). Commentaries on the Laws of England. Adelaide: The University of Adelaide Library.

Browaeys, M. and Price, R. (2015). Understanding cross-cultural management. Harlow: Pearson.

Carmel, E. (1999). Global Software Teams: Collaborating Across Border and Time

Chordas, L. (2003). Global Outsourcing: Eyes on India. BEST’s review.

Conner, T., Nowlin, M., Rabovsky, T. And Ripberger, J. (2015). Cultural Theory And Managerial Values: Examining Trust As A Motivation For Collaboration. Public Administration, 94(4),

Focus, E. (2019). Switzerland – Business and Workplace Culture | ExpatFocus.com. [online] Expatfocus.com. Available at: http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-switzerland-business-culture [Accessed 11 Jan. 2019].

Gautam Sonti in collaboration with Carol Upadhya. Bangalore.

Gislen, M. and Venugopal, V. (2006). Managing the Cultural Challenges for

Hall, E. and Hall, M. (2014). Understanding cultural differences. Boston, Mass.: Intercultural Press.

Hofstede Insights. (2019). Country Comparison – Hofstede Insights. [online] Available at: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2019].

Laungani, P. (2009). Understanding cross-cultural psychology. Los Angeles, Calif. [u.a.]: SAGE Publ.

National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS). 2006. Fun @ Sun: Making of a Global

Perlow, Leslie. (1997). Finding Time: How Corporations, Individuals and Families Can

Successful Software Outsourcing. Gislen Software Pvt. Ltd. India.

Thayer, A., Evans, M., McBride, A., Queen, M. and Spyridakis, J. (2007). Content Analysis as a Best Practice in Technical Communication Research. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 37(3), pp.267-279.

Workplace. In film series, Coding Culture: Bangalore’s Software Industryby

Zones, Prentice Hall, NJ, USA.Castells, M. (2009). The Rise of the Network Society, With a New Preface. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

MANAGEMENT SCHOOL ACC3011 ADVANCED MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING 2018-2019 Group Assessment (15% of total

Each student should select an issue in corrections (from the list below). The minimum length of the paper should Writing Assignment Help MANAGEMENT SCHOOL

ACC3011 ADVANCED MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING 2018-2019

Group Assessment (15% of total module mark).

This assessment is based on groups allocated. The assessment consists of two parts:

A group presentation of maximum 20 mins, plus 5 mins for questions by module leader – worth 10% of overall marks

A written summary of the work presented, in Word format, maximum 1,000 words – worth 5% of overall marks.

Requirement:

In class and workshops, you have have been introduced to academic research by Adler and Borys (1996), and to two published papers drawing on their work -Ahrens & Chapman (2004) and Jordan & Messner (2012). Your are required to find two additional published articles in the accounting literature which similarly utilise the concepts of enabling and coercive control to underpin a research study. Search in journals such as Accounting, Organizations and Society and Journal of Management Accounting Research, and Management Accounting Research to find relevant articles. Your are required to present a summary of the four articles, highlighting how each study was done, what are the main findings of each and compare and contrast all four. Your presentation should include a brief introduction to enabling and coercive bureauracy/control.

Your should submit your groups presntation slides by email to [email protected] in advance of your presentation, not later than 24 hours before your alloted session (see below). You should submit the written summary by 17:00 on the Friday after your session via the module TurnItIn page. All submissions should include student names and the allocated group number on the first page. It is assumed all group members contributed equally unless stated otherwise within the submission.

ANTI-PLAGIARISM DECLARATION

DECLARATION AGAINST PLAGIARISM & COPYING

MODULE NAME: Advanced Management Accounting

MODULE CODE: ACC3011

LECTURER: Dr. Martin Quin

I / We (delete as appropriate),

……………………….. (BLOCK CAPITALS)

……………………….. (BLOCK CAPITALS)

……………………….. (BLOCK CAPITALS)

……………………….. (BLOCK CAPITALS)

the undersigned, understand that the attached assignment is intended to be an individual piece of work in terms of it having being undertaken by only those individuals listed above. Furthermore, in the course of completing the attached assignment, the undersigned hereby declare that no plagiarising nor copying of any sort has been engaged in, and that the work is entirely that of those individuals listed above. Where the work of others has been used, this work has been clearly referenced or otherwise noted.

Signed:………………………. Student Number:………………..Dated:………….

……………………….. Student Number:……………….. Dated:………….

……………………….. Student Number:……………….. Dated:………….

……………………….. Student Number:……………….. Dated:………….

Students should note that this declaration MUST be submitted along with their assignment and learning log. An assignment which does not have a declaration attached to it WILL NOT BE MARKED.

Groups for assessment

Note: you are not permitted to change groups.

The groups below have been assigned according to your tutorial group on a random basis using a random number generator. Your presentation will take place during the normal tutorial times in (timetable) weeks 24, 25 and 26 – weeks beginning Mar 4, 11 and 18. The week of each group’s presentation can be seen in the third column. Each group has been allocated a number (second column), which you should include in any submissions and filenames.

TT05 – Monday – 13:00

Name

Tutorial

Group #

Week

McKearney, Peter

5

25

24

Zhang, Yudi

5

25

O’Neill, Ryan

5

25

Morgan, Peter

5

25

Allison, Gregg

5

26

24

Hu, Yinqi

5

26

Kennedy, Brian

5

26

Elias, Lithin

5

26

Malik, Haseeb Ahmad

5

27

25

Farrell, Ruairi

5

27

Hua, Shuchen

5

27

Faheem, Muhammad Haris

5

27

Khan, Muhammad Shahmir Naqi

5

28

25

Havern, Saorlaith

5

28

Tay, Tat Chun

5

28

Topping, James

5

28

Aleixo, Mario

5

29

26

Tan, Nicholas Kok Tong

5

29

Kukai, Levente

5

29

Yung, Wai Yin

5

30

26

Abdelrahman, Lojayn Hassan Mohamed

5

30

O’Boyle, Patrick

5

30

TT01 – Tues – 10:00

Name

Tutorial

Group #

Week

Parker, Meghan

1

1

24

Friel, Ruairi

1

1

McKay, Rachel

1

1

Casey, Tara

1

1

McAuley, Alannah

1

2

24

Garrett, Emma

1

2

Clements, Sophie

1

2

Carter, Laura

1

2

Sloan, Dearbhla

1

3

25

Loh, Ee Ling

1

3

McGrattan, Jordan

1

3

Pitt, Jennie

1

3

Millar, Jonathan

1

4

25

Wilson, Anna

1

4

Faltynowski, Adam

1

4

Li, Hao

1

4

Robeson, Emma

1

5

26

McMullan, Niamh

1

5

McKenna, Katherine

1

5

Warner, Christopher

1

5

McConnell Maguire, Conala

1

6

26

Ferrin, Niamh

1

6

Callaghan, Vincent

1

6

TT02 – Tues – 11:00

Name

Tutorial

Group #

Week

Zhou, Xueping

2

7

24

Gamble, Amy

2

7

Maguire, Niamh

2

7

McHugh, Nadene

2

7

Agnew, David

2

8

24

McKendry, Brendan

2

8

Macartney, Peter

2

8

Bassett, Alistair

2

8

Young, Connor

2

9

25

Morgan, Emily

2

9

Scott, Emily

2

9

Juozaityte, Gabriele

2

9

McNeice, Clare

2

10

25

Breen, Niall

2

10

Nethery, Nicole

2

10

Coghlan, David

2

10

Zhang, Yijun

2

11

26

Morrison, Paul

2

11

McMinn, Nicholas

2

11

Guo, Yuxi

2

11

McGowan, Megan

2

12

26

Nethercott, Matthew

2

12

Duffy, Seamus

2

12

TT03 – Tues – 15:00

Name

Tutorial

Group #

Week

Watson, Matthew

3

13

24

McGeeney, Louise

3

13

King, Deborah

3

13

Brolly, Niamh

3

13

Stuart, Bebhinn

3

14

24

Smyth, Stephen

3

14

McNally, Nathan

3

14

McGuigan, Katie

3

14

Maye, Chloe

3

15

25

Sheppard, Sarah

3

15

Donnelly, Christine

3

15

McGrady, Aoife

3

15

Kelly, Tony

3

16

25

Magee, Kieran

3

16

McDonnell, Laura

3

16

McNally, Michael

3

16

Goss, Christopher

3

17

26

McMorrow, James

3

17

Donnelly, Aimee

3

17

Fegan, Aislinn

3

17

Jennings, Killian

3

18

26

Devlin, Aoibhinn

3

18

Rush, Sarah

3

18

TT04 – Tues – 16:00

Name

Tutorial

Group #

Week

Gu, Xinyu

4

19

24

Gallagher, Brian

4

19

Jin, Wanshu

4

19

Mei, Dantong

4

19

Shaw, Ashleigh

4

20

24

Tumilty, Blaine

4

20

Kilgore, Harry

4

20

McCarron, Aoibhin

4

20

George, Emma

4

21

25

Zhu, Liujing

4

21

Hu, Dingwen

4

21

Girvan, Melissa

4

21

Zhou, Ying

4

22

25

King, Bronagh

4

22

Mackey, Hugh

4

22

Xu, Meiqi

4

22

Chye, Chia Run

4

23

26

Durkin, Niall

4

23

Tennyson, Eoin

4

23

Yang, Nan

4

24

26

Xie, Zizhou

4

24

Pang, Jau Waynn

4

24

2

Personality: dimensions are traits that are determined by genetic predisposition and one’s

Personality: dimensions are traits that are determined by genetic predisposition and one’s long-term learning history.

How was the personality forged? Personality is shaped by one’s life history and genetic components.

Genetics and environment (culture, education, family, friends)

The place (reliable vs. unreliable) you grew up:

Reliable: often concentrate on the long term
Unreliable: usually focus on short term

Rigid set of characteristics that formed the individual’s personality that guides how he/she behaves.

Freud’s model of personality structure:

Ego (psychological component) reality principle, secondary process thinking (the way you interact with outside world)

Superego (social component) moral imperative (internal police)

ID (pleasure principle) primary process thinking (wish fulfillment) something you desire

In the model, genetics are given to act like a human being.

5-factor theory:

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Neuroticism

Openness to experience

January 18, 2018

What is perception? How do we perceive things anyway? We perceive things through our senses.

Perception: the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment.

People base their actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides, rather than on reality itself.

Components of perception:

A perceiver

A target that is being perceived

Some situational context in which the perception is occurring

Each component influences the perceiver’s impression or interpretation of the target.

Perceptual defense: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions.

The target:

Ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and the addition of meaning (thus, the targets would start making assumptions).

Perceivers have a need to resolve ambiguities.

The perceiver does not or cannot use all in the information provided by the target.

A reduction in ambiguity might not be accompanied by greater accuracy.

The situation:

Perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what is perceived.

The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target.

The perception of a target can change with the situation even when the perceiver and target remain the same.

Social identity theory:

Incorrect alternative: prototypes are mental images that one creates regarding his/her unique personal characteristics.

Our sense of self is composed a personal identity and a social identity.

We perceive ourselves and others as embodying the most typical attributes of a category—prototypes.

We also form perceptions of others based on their membership in social categories. Interestingly, people tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways.

Why facts don’t change our minds?

Constancy: target is perceived in the same way over time and across situations. The experience of “getting off on the wrong foot”.

Consistency: the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues so that the fit together to form a homogenous picture of the target.

Reliance on central traits: people tend to organize their perceptions around central traits.

January 25, 2018

Intelligence and Learning

Learning: occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential. It is the way which beings acquire new acknowledge, develop, competencies, and change their behaviour.

It is an integrated process which provokes a qualitative transformation on the learner’s mental structure. This alteration can be noticed in behavioural terms.

Humans are equipped to learn. Some learning is innate (walk, talk, eat). But the majority of learning takes place in the social world.

All biological acts are adaptation acts to the physical environment seeking balance.

Adaptation is the essence of the intellectual functioning just as it is the vital component

Schema: mental structures through which individuals intellectually adapt

Assimilation: cognitive process that integrates new perceptual, motor, or conceptual data to previous cognitive structure.

Accommodation: creation of new, or modification of a current cognitive structure (schema). Accommodation explains the development (qualitative modification), whereas the assimilation explains growth (quantitative modification).

Excessive assimilation: few cognitive schemas, excessively wide. Therefore, incapable of detecting differences.

Excessive accommodation: large quantity of cognitive schemas, excessively narrow. Therefore, incapable of generalizing.

Social cognitive theory: emphasizes the role of cognitive processes in regulating people’s behaviour. People learn by observing the behaviour of others and can regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting performance goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves for goal accomplishment.

Human behaviour can best be explained through a system of triadic reciprocal causation in which personal factors and environmental factors work together and interact to influence people’s behaviour.

Personal and environmental factors that positively contribute towards a better learning experience in organizations:

Personal: passion, open-minded, interest, memory (past experience, education), self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulation

Environmental: incentive, competition, accessible

The process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others:

Examining the behaviour of others

Seeing the consequences, they experience

Thinking about what might happen

2/1/2018

Amount of effort

Persistence of effort

Direction of effort

Human motivation

Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.

The case study:

Set performance goal

02/08/2018

Empathy: perspective-taking, without making judgement, feelings with others. Emotional contagion, mirroring, sympathy, simulation

Emotional contagion: 1st level of empathy, bodily synchronization, this contagion does not require the consciousness, despite its rudimentary aspect, it can be used for the implementation of more complex behaviour.

Sympathy: to be worried by the other, for some people, helping others is a form of pure self-interest. Depends on the first level of empathy.

Cognitive empathy: capacity to enter in the other, even if his own mental universe different of mine. Go out of our prospective on the world at the first person (what I see, what I wish, what I need) towards a perspective at the 3rd person (what the other person sees, what the other wishes, what the other person needs), and to behave accordingly.

Inner demonstrative

Group project:

Don’t let preconceptions get in your way.

Don’t judge, try your maximum to be a “neutral spectator”

Really listen to voices, tones, motives, and intentions.

Ask curious without being intrusive.

Appreciate people are sharing their stories, that’s a hard thing to do.

MGT262 Notes Chapter 1 Organization: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through

MGT262 Notes

Chapter 1

Organization: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Their essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people, not necessarily things. Organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals.

The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change. Certain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaptation. People have to

Be motivated to join and remain the organization;

Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality, and service;

Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills; and

Be flexible and innovative.

Organizational behaviour refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in the organizations. The discipline of organizational behaviour systematically studies these attitudes and behaviours and provides insight about effectively managing and changing them. Organizational behaviour is especially interested in determining why people are more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign.

Human resources management refers to programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop, motivate, and retain employees in organizations.

Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others.

Evidence-based management involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. By using evidence-based management, managers can make decisions based on the best available scientific evidence from social science and organizational research, rather than personal preference and unsystematic experience.

Classical viewpoint is an early prescription on management that advocated a high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making.

Scientific management – Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization (“functional foremanship”) and standardization of work tasks.

Bureaucracy – Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence.

Hawthorne studies is a research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s by Harvard University’s Elton Mayo, Fritz Roethlisberger, and Hawthorne’s William J. Dickson at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment.

Human relations movement is a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs.

The critique of bureaucracy addressed several specific problems:

Contingency approach is an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Thus, the effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the abilities of the followers, and the consequence of a pay increase is partly contingent on the need for money.

Managerial Roles

Information roles: these roles are concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information. Examples: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

Interpersonal roles: interpersonal roles are expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations. Examples: figurehead, leader, liaison

Decisional roles: these roles deal with decision-making. Examples: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

What does diversity have to do with organizational behaviour? The field has long been concerned with stereotypes, conflicts, cooperation, and teamwork. These are just some of the factors that managers must manage effectively for organizations to benefit from the considerable opportunities that a diverse workforce affords.

Workplace spirituality is found in workplaces that provide employees with meaning, purpose, a sense of community, and a connection to others. It is important to realize that workplace spirituality is not just about religion in the workplace, but rather providing employees with a meaningful work life that is aligned with their values.

Positive organizational behaviour is the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement.

Psychological capital (PsyCap) refers to an individual’s positive psychological state of development that is characterized by self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience.

Talent management refers to an organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs.

Work engagement is a positive work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigour, dedication, and absorption.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to an organization’s taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders. CSR involves a variety of issues that range from community involvement, environmental protection, product safety, ethical marketing, employee diversity, and local and global labour practices. CSR issues have to do with organizational behaviour, such as an organization’s treatment of employees, management practices such promoting diversity, work-family balance, and employment equity.

Chapter 2

Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves. Personality consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition and by one’s long-term learning history.

Dispositional approach: individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours.

Situational approach: characteristics of the organizational setting influence people’s attitudes and behaviour.

Interactionist approach: individuals’ attitudes and behaviour are a function of both dispositions and the situation.

Trait activation theory: traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for the trait salient.

The five-factor model of personality:

Extraversion: people score high on extraversion tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive.

Agreeableness: this is the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy.

Conscientiousness: this is the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented. More conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated. They are orderly, self-disciplined, hard working, and achievement striving.

Openness to experience: this is the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. More open people tend toward creativity and innovation.

The big five dimensions that best predict job performance depend on the occupation. For example, high extraversion is important for managers and salespeople. Nonetheless, high conscientiousness predicts performance in all jobs across occupations.

Locus of control – a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces.

Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships.

High self-monitors tend to gravitate toward jobs that require, by their nature, a degree of role-playing and the exercise of their self-presentation skills. However, high self-monitors are also likely to experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization. They are unlikely to feel comfortable in ambiguous social settings in which it is hard to determine exactly what behaviours are socially appropriate.

Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation.

People with high self-esteem have favourable self-images. People with low self-esteem have unfavourable self-images. They also tend to be uncertain about the correctness of their opinions, attitudes, and behaviours.

Behavioural plasticity theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem.

Positive/negative affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive/negative light.

Proactive behaviour: taking imitative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones. It involves challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions.

Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment.

General self-efficacy (GSE): a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations. Individuals who are high on GSE are better able to adapt to novel, uncertain, and adverse situation. In addition, employees with higher GSE have higher job satisfaction and job performance.

Core self-evaluations: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth. People with more positive core self-evaluations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance.

Operant learning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences.

Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours.

Positive reinforcement: the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour.

Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour.

Performance feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways.

Social recognition: informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another.

Extinction: the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement.

Punishment: the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour.

Social cognitive theory (SCT): emphasizes the role of cognitive processes in learning and in the regulation of people’s behaviour. People learn by observing the behaviour of others. Individuals also manage their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions (forethought), setting performance goals, monitoring their performance and comparing it to their goals.

Observational learning is the process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others.

Self-efficacy beliefs: beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task.

Self-regulation: the use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour.

Self-regulation techniques:

Collect self-observation data

Observe models

Set goals

Rehearse

Reinforce oneself

Organizational behaviour modification (O. B. Mod): the systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour.

Employee recognition programs: formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours.

Peer recognition programs: formal programs in which employees can publicly acknowledge, recognize, and reward their co-workers for exceptional work and performance.

Training and development: training is planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill acquisition to change behaviour and improve performance on one’s current job; development focuses on future job responsibilities.

Behaviour modelling training (BMT): one of the most widely used and effective methods of training, involving five steps based on the observational learning component of social cognitive theory. It involves the follow steps:

Describe to trainees a set of well-defined behaviours (skills) to be learned.

Provide a model or models displaying the effective use of those behaviours.

Provide opportunities for trainees to practise using those behaviours.

Provide feedback and social reinforcement to trainees following practice.

Take steps to maximize the transfer of those behaviours to the job.

Chapter 3

Perception: the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment. Perception helps us sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. Perception has three components:

The perceiver: a target that is being perceived, and some situational context in which the perception is occurring. The perceiver’s experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target.

Perceptual defense: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions.

The target: perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition.

The situation: every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives. The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target.

Social identity theory: a theory that states that people form perception of themselves based on their personal characteristics and memberships in social categories.

Primacy effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions.

Recency effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions.

Central traits: personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. The centrality of traits depends on the perceiver’s interests and the situation. Central traits often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others.

Implicit personality theories: personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together.

Projection: the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. People with similar backgrounds or interests often do think and feel similarly.

Stereotyping: the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them. There are three specific aspects to stereotyping:

Attribution: the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour.

Dispositional attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect. If we explain a behaviour as function of intelligence, greed, friendliness, or laziness, we are making dispositional attributions.

Situational attributions: explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment. If we explain behaviour as a function of bad weather, good luck, proper tools, or poor advice, we are making situational attributions.

Consistency cues: attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time. For example, unless we clear evidence external constraints that force a behaviour to occur, we tend to perceive behaviour that a person performs regularly as indicative of his or her true motives. In other words, high consistency leads to dispositional attributions.

Consensus cues: attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others.

Distinctiveness cues: attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations.

Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations.

Actor-observer effect: the propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently.

Self-serving bias: the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures.

Workforce diversity: differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation.

Stereotype threat: members of a social group feel they might judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behaviour and/or performance will confirm the stereotype.

Trust: a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party.

Perceived organizational support (POS): employees’ general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. When employees have positive perceptions of organizational support, they believe their organization will provide assistance when they need it to perform their job effectively and to deal with stressful situations.

Organizational support theory: a theory that states that employees who have strong perception of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organization’s welfare and to help the organization achieve its objectives. They feel a greater sense of purpose and meaning, and a strong sense of belonging to the organization. As a result, employees incorporate their membership and role within the organization into their social identity.

Perceived supervisor support (PSS): employees’ general belief that their supervisor values their contribution and cares about their well-being.

Signalling: theory: job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals about unknown characteristics of a job and an organization and what it will be like to work in an organization.

Contrast effects: previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer’s perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants.

Leniency: the tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially good.

Harshness: the tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially ineffective.

Central tendency: the tendency to assign most ratees to middle-range job performance categories.

Halo effect: the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic tends to colour ratings on other traits or characteristics.

Similar-to-me effect: a rater gives more favourable evaluations to people who are similar to the rater in terms of background or attitudes.

Behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS): a rating scale with specific behavioural examples of good, average, and poor customer service.

Frame-of-reference (FOR): a training method to improve rating accuracy that involves providing raters with a common frame of reference to use when rating individuals.

Chapter 4

Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Values are motivational, since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we and the unattractive aspects that we try to avoid or change. They also signal how we believe we should and should not behave. The words “broad tendency” mean that values are very general and that they do not predict behaviour in specific situations very well.

Power distance: the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members.

Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations.

Individualism vs. Collectivism: individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan.

Masculinity/femininity: more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic performance. More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life.

Long-term/short-term orientation: cultures with a long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences. Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties.

Cultural distance: the extent to which cultures differ in values.

Cultural intelligence: the capability to function and manage well in culturally diverse environments. It encompasses knowledge, motivation, and behaviour that contribute to good cross-cultural functioning, and people with high cultural intelligence tend to score high on intercultural adjustment, global leadership, and performance in intercultural settings.

Attitude: a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel. That is, attitudes are the product of a related belief and value (Belief + Value = Attitude).

Job satisfaction: a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. A popular measure job satisfaction is Job Descriptive Index (JDI).

Factors that determines job satisfaction:

Discrepancy:

Discrepancy theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained.

Fairness:

Distributive fairness (distributive justice): fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think deserve from their jobs; that is, it involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources.

Equity theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group.

Equity ratio:

Inputs: anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes.

Outcomes: factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs.

Procedural fairness: fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is reasonable.

Interactional fairness: fairness that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome. Respectful communication is sincere and polite and treats the individual with dignity; informative communication is candid, timely, and thorough. Interactional fairness is important because it is possible for fair outcomes or procedures to be perceived as unfair when they are inadequately or uncaringly explained.

Disposition

Mood and emotion

Emotions: intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular event.

Moods: less intense, longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings.

Emotional contagion: tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group.

Emotional regulation: requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in their job behaviour despite their true mood or emotions.

Key contributors to job satisfaction:

Mentally challenging work: a work that test employees’ skills and abilities and allows them to set their own working pace. Employees usually perceive such work as personally involving and important.

Adequate compensation

Career opportunities: opportunity for promotion is an important contributor to job satisfaction because promotions contain many valued signals about a person’s self-worth. Thus, the availability of career opportunities contributes to job satisfaction.

People: friendly, considerate, good-natured superiors and co-workers contribute to job satisfaction.

Organizational citizenship behaviour: voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness.

Organizational commitment: an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization. The following are three types of organizational commitment:

Affective commitment: commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization.

Continuance commitment: commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization.

Normative commitment: commitment based on ideology or a feeling of obligation to an organization.

Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation

Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.

Basic characteristics of motivation: 1. Effort – the first aspect of motivation is the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job. 2. Persistence – the second characteristic of motivation is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks. 3. Direction – effort and persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces. 4. Goals

Intrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied.

Extrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others.

Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization.

General cognitive ability: a person’s basic information-processing capacities and cognitive resources. It reflects an individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing information, and it includes a number of cognitive abilities, such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities, that are required to perform mental tasks. General cognitive ability is an even better predictor of performance for more complex and high-level jobs that require the use of more cognitive skills and involve more information processing.

Emotional intelligence (EI): the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions. It involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself and others. Individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action.

Four-branch model of EI:

Need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential.

Physiological needs: these include the needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such as food, water, oxygen, and shelter.

Safety needs: these include needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and ordered environment. Organizational conditions that might meet these needs include safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, a comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, and pay above the minimum needed for survival.

Belongingness needs: these include needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, and friendship. Organizational factors that might meet these needs include the opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork, and opportunity to develop new social relationships.

Esteem needs: these include needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others. Organizational factors that might satisfy these needs include the opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility.

Self-actualization needs: these involve the desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Maslow suggests that self-actualizing people have clear perceptions of reality, accept themselves and others, and are independent, creative, and appreciative of the world around them.

Alderfer’s ERG theory: a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy.

McClelland’s theory of needs: a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation.

Need for achievement: a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well.

Need for affiliation (n Aff): a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships. People who are high in need for affiliation have an ability to learn social networking quickly and a tendency to communicate frequently with others, either face to face, by telephone, or in writing. Also, they prefer to avoid conflict and competition with others, and they sometimes exhibit strong conformity to the wishes of their friends.

Need for power (n Pow): a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression. People who are high in need for power show a strong concern for personal prestige.

Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled.

Autonomous motivation: self-motivation or intrinsic motivation that occurs when people feel they are in control of their motivation. Thus, when motivation is autonomous, individuals are engaged in a task because they have made a choice to do the task and their actions are internally rather than externally regulated.

Controlled motivation: motivation that is externally controlled, such as when one is motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward. When motivation is controlled, individuals feel they are pressured and have no choice but to engage in a task. Thus, their motivation is externally rather than internally regulated.

Autonomy support: providing employees with choice and encouragement for personal initiative. Managers provide employees with autonomy support when they give a meaningful rationale for performing an activity or task, they emphasize and enable some choice rather than control, and they understand and acknowledge employees’ feelings and perspectives. They also encourage employees to take initiative and convey confidence in employees’ abilities.

Process theories: motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs.

Expectancy theory: a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job. Expectancy theory is very effective when applied cross-culturally due to its flexibility.

Outcomes: consequences that follow work behaviour. Of particular interest to the organization are first-level outcomes, such as high productivity versus average productivity. Second-level outcomes are consequences that follow the attainment of a particular first-level outcome, second-level outcomes are most personally relevant to the individual worker and might involve amount of pay, sense of accomplishment, acceptance by peers, fatigue, and so on.

Instrumentality: the probability that a particular first-level outcome (such as high productivity) will be followed by a particular second-level outcome.

Valence: the expected value of work outcomes; the extent to which they are attractive or unattractive.

Expectancy: the probability that a particular first-level outcome can be achieved.

Force: the effort directed toward a first-level outcome (Force = First-level valence x Expectancy).

It is extremely important to understand that expectancy theory is based on the perceptions of the individual worker. Thus, expectancies, valences, instrumentalities, and relevant second-level outcomes depend on the perceptual system of the person whose motivation we are analyzing.

Equity theory: a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group.

Goal: the object or aim of an action.

Goal setting theory: a process theory that states that goals are motivational when they are specific and challenging, when organizational members are committed to them, and when feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided.

The positive effects of goals are due to four mechanisms:

They direct attention toward goal-relevant activities.

They lead to greater effort.

They increase and prolong persistence.

They lead to the discovery and use of task-relevant strategies for goal attainment.

Important attributes for goals to be motivational:

Goal specificity: specific goals are goals that specify an exact level of achievement for people to accomplish in a particular time frame.

Goal challenge: goal challenge is a much more personal matter than goal specificity, since it depends on the experience and basic skills of the organizational member. When goals become so difficult that they are perceived as impossible to achieve, they will lose their potential to motivate.

Goal commitment: individuals must be committed to specific, challenging goals if the goals are to have effective motivational properties. The effect of goals on performance is strongest when individuals have high goal commitment

Goal feedback: specific and challenging goals have the most beneficial effect when they are accompanied by ongoing feedback that enables the person to compare current performance with the goal.

Enhancing goal commitment

Participation: it seems reasonable that organizational members should be more committed to goals that are set with their participation than to those simply handed down by their superior.

Rewards: goal setting should be compatible with any system to tie pay to performance that already exists for the job in question.

Management support: for goal setting work properly, supervisors must demonstrate a desire to assist employees in goal accomplishment and behave supportively if failure occurs, even adjusting the goal downward if it proves to be unrealistically high. Threat and punishment in response to failure will be extremely counterproductive.

Goal orientation: an individual’s goal preferences in achievement situations

Learning goal orientation: a preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations.

Performance-prove goal orientation: a preference to obtain favourable judgements about the outcome of one’s performance.

Performance-avoid goal orientation: a preference to avoid negative judgements about the outcome of one’s performance.

Distal goal: long-term or end goal, such as achieving a certain level of sales performance.

Proximal goal: short-term goal or sub-goal that is instrumental for achieving a distal goal. Proximal goals involve breaking down a distal goal into smaller, more attainable sub-goals. Proximal goals provide clear markers of progress toward a distal goal because they result in more frequent feedback. Proximal goals should be set in conjunction with distal goals when employees are learning a new task or performing a complex one.

Chapter 6: motivation in practice

Money as a motivator: the money that employees receive in exchange for organizational membership is in reality a package made up of pay and various fringe benefits that have dollar values, such as insurance plans, sick leave, and vacation time—or what is sometimes referred to as “total rewards”. According to Maslow and Alderfer, pay should prove especially motivational to people who have strong lower-level needs. For these people, pay can be exchanged for food, shelter, and other necessities of life. The motivational effects of pay but also suggests that pay may well be the most important and effective motivator of performance.

Piece-rate: a pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit of production completed.

Wage incentive plans: various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs.

Problems with wage incentives:

Lowered quality

Differential opportunity

Reduced cooperation

Incompatible job design

Restriction of productivity—the artificial limitation of work output that can occur under wage incentive plans.

Merit pay plans: systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs.

Potential problems with merit pay plans:

Low discrimination—one reason that many merit pay plans fail to achieve their intended effect is that managers might be unable or unwilling to discriminate between good performers and poor performers.

Small increases—a second threat to the effectiveness of merit pay plans exists when merit increases are simply too small to be effective motivators. In this case, even if rewards are carefully tied to performance and managers do a good job of discriminating between more and less effective performers, the intended motivational effects of pay increases may not be realized.

Pay secrecy—a final threat to the effectiveness of merit pay plans is the extreme secrecy that surrounds salaries in most organizations. It has long been a principle of human resource management that salaries are confidential information, and management frequently implores employees who receive merit increases not to discuss these increases with their co-workers.

Using Pay to Motivate Teamwork

Profit sharing: the return of some company profit to employees in the form of a cash bonus or a retirement supplement.

Employee stock ownership plans: incentive plans that allow employees to own a set amount of a company’s shares and provide employees with a stake in the company’s future earnings and success.

Skill-based pay: a system in which people are paid according to the number of job skills the have acquired.

Job design: the structure, content, and configuration of a person’s work tasks and roles.

Job scope: the breadth and depth of a job.

Breadth: the number of different activities performed on a job.

Depth: the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are performed.

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MGT262 Psychology at Work My Learning Experience Essay Last name Date: First

MGT262 Psychology at Work

My Learning Experience Essay

Last name

Date:

First name

Section: 0101 ( ) 0102 ( ) 0103 ( )

Student #

Instructions:

Please follow the suggested template, don’t alter the order or the questions in any form.

You can research all course material, including your personal notes, Learning Canvas, and self-awareness questionnaires to write your essay.

When citing, please make sure you use the APA citing style as stated in the guidelines document.

Use first person when writing your essay.

Keep your writing within the word count limit described in each question.

Remember: this essay must be uploaded to Blackboard in Word format.

DON’T use bullet point format. Your answers must be written in essay form.

Remember that your answers MUST relate to the MGT262 course.

Section 1 – Self-awareness essay

What have you learned about yourself while taking the MGT262 Course? (300-500 words)

Using all the suggested self-assessment questionnaires, please describe your profile (who you are). Make sure to describe your numerical scores and use them to write your answer. (400-600 words)

*Remember to cite the correct sources

Describe which skills you have developed throughout this course and how they might help you in your professional life. (300-500 words)

*You can browse a list of skills here if you want.

What are your three major weaknesses as a learner? (200-400 words)

Section 2 – Goal setting and personal strategy essay

2.1. What essential factors did you learn about the human behaviour at work? What were the key takeaways for you? (300-600 words)

*Remember to cite the correct sources

2.2. Using your answer of item 1.4 (what are your three major weaknesses as a learner), create and action plan to develop and improve yourself as a learner using the following template:

*There is no word minimum or maximum for this part. But make sure your answers are concise and objective.

Describe your weakness (succinct and objectively)

Describe a situation (or situations) where this weakness becomes more apparent

Describe how that situation (or situations) makes you feel

List alternative strategies to cope with that situation (or situations) that you would like to try in the future (what could you do to deal with it?)

List the personal gains you could gather by adopting the described strategies

What factors could prevent you from adopting the alternative strategies?

On a scale of 1 to 10, being 1 very unlikely and 10 very likely, how do you feel about adopting the alternative strategies in the near future?

Describe your weakness (succinct and objectively)

Describe a situation (or situations) where this weakness becomes more apparent

Describe how that situation (or situations) makes you feel

List alternative strategies to cope with that situation (or situations) that you would like to try in the future (what could you do to deal with it?)

List the personal gains you could gather by adopting the described strategies

What factors could prevent you from adopting the alternative strategies?

On a scale of 1 to 10, being 1 very unlikely and 10 very likely, how do you feel about adopting the alternative strategies in the near future?

Describe your weakness (succinct and objectively)

Describe a situation (or situations) where this weakness becomes more apparent

Describe how that situation (or situations) makes you feel

List alternative strategies to cope with that situation (or situations) that you would like to try in the future (what could you do to deal with it?)

List the personal gains you could gather by adopting the described strategies

What factors could prevent you from adopting the alternative strategies?

On a scale of 1 to 10, being 1 very unlikely and 10 very likely, how do you feel about adopting the alternative strategies in the near future?

Section 3 – Conclusion

Write 2-3 paragraphs with your final thoughts regarding the MGT262 – Psychology at Work course and your experience as a learner. (200-400 words).

MGT262 – Psychology at work 1

Dr. Rafael Chiuzi