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Distance From Mainland, Habitat Type, And Species Types History Essay Help

Island size, distance from mainland, habitat type, and species types

Island biogeography has a long history. Lomolino & Brown (2009) revisits the historical advancement of the island biogeography model over the 20th century by outlining the consistent patterns that identify through four sets of contributions by critical figures, including those of Wilson and MacArthur (Lomolino & Brown, 2009). Based on the trends studies by the authors, the suggests that an integrative theory of island biogeography should be multi-scale, species and process-based, and inclusive of system feedback (Lomolino & Brown, 2009).

Island biogeography explores how levels of genetic diversity intersect with four island characteristics, including island area, distance to the mainland, distance to the nearest island and plant diversity. In their study, McGlaughlin and colleagues (2014) widen MacArthur and Wilson’s theory to study how the extent of genetic diversity is related to the “four island characteristics in the endemic perennial taxa of Acmispon (Fabaceae) on the California Channel Islands” (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). The researchers created a sample of two island species of Acmispon, A. argophyllus, and A. dendroidal. These samples were obtained from all islands as well as mainland sister taxa (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). The researchers discovered that a single measure of diversity from one genetic area was associated with the island area (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). Also, the researchers found that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and distance to the mainland. Similarly, the study found that distance to the closest island was a projector of flow-copy nuclear genetic diversity (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). This study is essential to the present topic because it illustrates that Channel Island Acmispondo does not align with MacArthur and Wilson’s equilibrium theory of biogeography when determining the relationship between diversity and the two key island characteristics, namely area, and distance to the mainland.

How levels of genetic diversity intersect help me with my history homework: help me with my history homework

Island biogeography explores how levels of genetic diversity intersect with four island characteristics, including island area, distance to the mainland, distance to the nearest island and plant diversity. In their study, McGlaughlin and colleagues (2014) widen MacArthur and Wilson’s theory to study how the extent of genetic diversity is related to the “four island characteristics in the endemic perennial taxa of Acmispon (Fabaceae) on the California Channel Islands” (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). The researchers created a sample of two island species of Acmispon, A. argophyllus, and A. dendroidal. These samples were obtained from all islands as well as mainland sister taxa (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). The researchers discovered that a single measure of diversity from one genetic area was associated with the island area (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). Also, the researchers found that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and distance to the mainland. Similarly, the study found that distance to the closest island was a projector of flow-copy nuclear genetic diversity (McGlaughlin et al., 2014). This study is essential to the present topic because it illustrates that Channel Island Acmispondo does not align with MacArthur and Wilson’s equilibrium theory of biogeography when determining the relationship between diversity and the two key island characteristics, namely area, and distance to the mainland.

Do island populations have less genetic diversity apus history essay help

A similar study titled “Do island populations have less genetic diversity than mainland populations?” uses a literature review to determine whether island populations are much more prone to extinction than mainland populations (Frankham, 1997). A majority of the existing literature examined by Frankham (1997) shows that a vast majority of island populations have lower levels of genetic variation than parallel mainland populations (Frankham, 1997). The study also found that insular endemic species exhibit relatively lower genetic variation than nonendemic species (Frankham, 1997). The researcher further outlines four genetic elements that account for higher extinction levels on the island concerning the mainland population. These four factors include inbreeding depression, loss of genetic variation, and accrual of gently deleterious mutations as well as genetic adaptations to island environments (Frankham, 1997). This study is vital to the present research because it demonstrates that island populations have lower genetic variation than the corresponding mainland population.

The small island effect (SIE) debate Summary history assignment help: history assignment help

A related study on the topic by researchers Triantis & Sfenthourakis (2012) investigates the small island effect (SIE) debate (Triantis & Sfenthourakis, 2012). The authors define small island effect as the evident ecological disparity between faunas and populations of Small Island and those of close-by more significant landmasses (Triantis & Sfenthourakis, 2012). Authors explain that small island effect is a term that has been integrated into the present model of biogeography in terms of an ‘anomalous’ trait of species richness on smaller islands paralleled to larger islands (Triantis & Sfenthourakis, 2012). However, the authors find that the present study on SIE and its nature with island biogeography remains inconclusive. This study is critical because it demonstrates that island biogeography should not be restricted to a single variable, area, but rather, other significant variables with significant influence should be integrated into the study.

Triantis & Sfenthourakis (2012) argument that “island biogeography is not a single-variable discipline” is supported by another study titled “Island biogeography: Shaped by sea-level shifts.” This study argues that sea-level change has impacted the present biodiversity of oceanic islands (Fernández-Palacios, 2016). Fernández-Palacios argues that the equilibrium theory of island biogeography has revolutionized biogeography from a predominantly descriptive discipline to a quantitative and predictive discipline island (Fernández-Palacios, 2016). Similarly, the author argues that there has been a move from the concept of equilibrium in island biogeography to the idea of disequilibrium islands (Fernández-Palacios, 2016).

Experimental zoogeography of islands history assignment help online

In “Experimental zoogeography of islands: The colonization of empty islands,” Simberloff & Wilson (1969) argues that whereas the island biogeography theory explains the relationship between immigration and extinction curve illustrated as a function of the available number of species and the forms of these curves as well as the implications for changing both island area and distance from the source, the authors argue that this model fails to describe present taxonomic distributions and the inherent colonization processes for most islands (Simberloff & Wilson, 1969). Simberloff & Wilson further affirm that the island biogeography model overlooks the short-term, including day-to-day occurrences that significantly influence the parameters of colonization on many islands (Simberloff & Wilson, 1969). They argue that these occurrences emerge definitively more critical than evolution since the distance of the island from source area declines (Simberloff & Wilson, 1969). Nonetheless, the researchers’ experiment is critical to the present study because the defaunation experiments conducted by the researchers provide evidence of the existence of equilibria and are consistent with the critical elements of the MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model.