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Directions:Read the PowerPoint 1 and PowerPoint 2 and write a reply after reading . Respond to the PowerPoint with Essay

Directions:Read the PowerPoint 1 and PowerPoint 2 and write a reply after reading . Respond to the PowerPoint with 2 paragraph each. Include reference when responding to PowerPoint 1 and PowerPoint 2 posts. Use APA format for reference and include page numbers when citing information.

I will email the PowerPoint1 Plea Bargaining and Pretrial Detention and Powder point 2 Connection to moral Disengagement And critical thinking

Summary The main purpose of this report is to explore the promotion


The main purpose of this report is to explore the promotion of Coca-Cola on three different social media, including Instagram, Facebook, and Weibo. To help customers better understand Coca-Cola. . . . . .


Founded in 1892, the Coca-Cola Company is the world’s first cola brand. Originally sold mainly for Coca-Cola, it has become a giant in the production and sales of more than 500 brands of non-alcoholic beverages in more than 200 countries and regions over 100 years of expansion. Recognized as one of the most valuable brands, with a market capitalization of more than $200 billion and daily sales of more than $1.5 billion. Is the world’s largest beverage company

Social media has become an indispensable part of our lives. Its functions are no longer limited to the everyday social activities of ordinary people. More and more companies are joining social media as a platform to promote their products. They use social media with little or no cost to promote consumers and understand their brand. Consumer awareness of the brand is no longer limited to traditional propaganda. This report is to explore how Coca-Cola uses social media to promote itself, focusing on three popular social platforms including Facebook, Instagram and Weibo. This report will also provide three suggestions to help promote Coca-Cola and attract more A wide range of consumer groups. In addition, it also helps the customer community to better understand the Coca-Cola Company.


The purpose of this report is to provide advice for Coca-Cola on social media to give customers a deeper understanding of Coca-Cola.


Motivational Gaps at Skyline International Introduction A press release (No. 41) by

Directions:Read the PowerPoint 1 and PowerPoint 2 and write a reply after reading . Respond to the PowerPoint with Essay Writing Assignment Help Motivational Gaps at Skyline International


A press release (No. 41) by the International Air Transport Association (IATA, 2008) cautioned that a weak, post-global financial crisis, economic outlook characterized by high fuel costs and falling demand was toxic to the aviation industry. IATA estimated substantial loses in excess of US $ 5.2 billion. In an uncertain business environment; the three primary concerns for most organizations are low levels of staff motivation, ineffective HRM practises that fail to enhance productivity and management’s lethargy in instituting efficient organizational behaviour (OB) (Pfeffer, 2007). This essay report provides an overview assessment of existing theories on OB, negative factors on employee motivation and possible corrective measures.

Existent Motivational Gaps between Management and Staff

OB is a characterization of observed human behaviour, their action and attitudinal inclinations within an organization (Kondalkar, 2007). OB draws insights from other behavioural sciences to investigate the impact that persons, teams and organizational bureaucracy have on human behaviour. OB then applies these insights to performance in the organizations. OB has three primary elements: a) People, b) Structure, which encompass the bureaucratic controls (coercive or enabling) meant to standardize performance, and c) Technology which constitutes all the transferable knowledge that the organization can leverage on for a competitive edge. In addressing staff motivation; Kondalkar averred that it critical for an organization to establish its employees’ individual needs spectrum, their relationships as colleagues and functionality in work groups.

Traditionally; human behaviour was presumed to be motivation-driven. This premise laid foundation for the advancement of several motivation theories covering job satisfaction, intrinsic values and incentives. Intristic theories include the reown Maslow’s hierachy of needs theorem, Herzberg’s two-factor model that observes the satisfies of staff morale including the career, its associated responsibilities, potential for advancement as well as workplace achievement and related recognition, and McGregor’s theories X and Y. Theory X calls for management to institute coercive bureaucracies to guide OB and performance whereas theory Y calls sfor establishment of an enabling workplace environment (Aithal & Kumar, 2016). The equity and expectancy theories drive the incentives hypothesis by advancing arguments that correlate effort and reward, more so in a ‘social comparison’ context (Badubi, 2017).

Motivational gaps are organizational shortcomings that have an adverse effect on staff morale and motivation. Some of the motivational gaps at Skyline include:

Uncompetitive remuneration packages

The employees are concerned that their take home in salary and other benefits including bonuses is neither commensurate with the levels of effort, loyalty and commitment put into the job at Skyline nor competitive in comparison with benefits offered by competition. In response; Skyline should devise transparent KPI processes that adequately compensate for actual work done, reward overall best performance and increase pay accountability consistent with the expectancy theory which models a relationship as shown (see diagram 1).

Diagram 1: Process flow in the creation of job satisfaction at the organization

Source: Re-enacted from Badubi (2017)

Uneven employees’ welfare development

Skyline international has been accused by its employees of holding such a long-term growth view that most of its net income is reserved as retained earnings for future reinvestment. While this is not entirely a bad thing, employees argue that it has substantially reduced the resources committed towards staff welfare and development including training on newer, more competitive work skills. This would create an enabling environment for employees to pursue high levels of productivity.

Conflicting organizational objectives

The management at Skyline is pursuing austerity measures to trim down on under-utilized Jumbo jets in favour of smaller, more efficient aircrafts in order to increase competitiveness and eliminate undue costs. On the other hand; the employees are seeking salary increments and better terms of employment. The looming staff lay-offs thus puts the management and its employees on a conflict path thus impairing productivity. The management ought to orient its staff in line with the organizational strategy. This increases the sense of individual, and collective, responsibility and accountability towards the organization’s goals (Becker, Huselid, & Ulrich, 2001)

Inefficient communication

Effective communication must show clarity, empathy, open-mindedness, non-verbal ques and two-way open channels. The management should communicate sensitive matters such as staff layoffs and voluntary retirement in a clear and empathetic manner, providing as much information and support as possible. These effective communication practises reduce incidences of distrust of leadership, internal sabotage, and disaffection for the job (Pfeffer, 2007).

Conclusion and recommendations

Decreasing staff motivation can be characterized by increased depression at the workplace, staff turnover in favour of competition, burnout and individual/ teams’ inefficiency The primary factors that contibute to low morale levels at the workplace touch on perceived uncompetitive remuneration, miscommuncation and conflicting objectives.

It is recommended that the management establishes an efficient two-way traffic channel for effective communication. Remuneration packages should be commensurate with job functions, productivity levels and competitive against peers. Lastly; the management and staff should be aligned to the core objectives of the organization to improve individual, and group, performance.


Aithal, S. P., & Kumar, S. P. (2016). Organizational Behaviour in 21 st Century – ‘Theory A’ for Managing People for Performance. Pandeshwar (MA), India: Munich Personal RePEc Archive.

Badubi, R. M. (2017). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis, 3 (3). International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 44-50.

Becker, B. E., Huselid, M., & Ulrich, D. (2001). Making HR a Strategic Asset. Buffalo, New York: State University of New York .

IATA. (2008, September 08). Retrieved from Airlines to lose US $5.2 billion in 2008 – Slowing demand and high oil prices to blame:

Kondalkar, V. G. ( 2007). Organization Behaviour. New Delhi, India: New Age International (P) Ltd.

Pfeffer, J. (2007). Human Resources from an Organizational Behavior Perspective: Some Paradoxes Explained. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (4), 115–134.


Human Resource Management at Skyline International Introduction The building blocks of an

Human Resource Management at Skyline International


The building blocks of an organization’s competitive advantage can be observed from three perspectives – Structure (from system processes to financial strength), Technology (enterprise knowledge) and human resource. Consequently; there is need for appreciation of human resource management (HRM) as a critical success factor in an organization (Wright & Nishii, 2006). Furthermore; these HRM practises can be applied as signalling mechanisms to guide acceptable human behaviours. However; different HRM practises have varied impact and outcomes on individuals and OB. It is therefore, in the best interest of an organization like Skyline international, to identify an optimal practise that minimizes HRM related challenges and maximizes groups’ synergies. The essence of this report is to assess the HRM practises at Skyline, and propose a more effective and efficient practise

The Efficient Management of Human Resource

Organizational productivity is a function of the people, systems and processes (Becker, Huselid, & Ulrich, 2001). In light of the people; the fundamentals of effective HRM should cover staffing, development of human resource through skills-upgrade, training and work exposure, competitive compensation for higher skill-retention and increased productivity, and management of employee relations to improve job satisfaction index, reduce management-staff conflicts and realign the workforce to the organization’s core objectives (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). Becker, Huselid, & Ulrich opined that modern-day HRM practises ought to break out of the traditional construct of HR as an administrative or cost centre, but as more of a strategic asset. The development of human resource into a source of competitive advantage, is what demonstrates its rise to a valuable strategic asset. In her Master’s thesis; Catherin concluded that the causal relationship between HRM and organizational performance cannot be observed solely from quantitative measures, but also from qualitative elements (Byremo, 2015). These qualitative aspects include HRM initiatives that affect system process and human capital development.

In light of this; the workforce should therefore be aligned with the organizational strategy, in what scholars have characterized as employees’ strategic focus (ESF). In the case of Skyline International; there are observable incidences where the management failed to engage, and align, its workforce to its austerity program that involves trimming down on the aircraft fleet, as well as affected personnel (layoffs). The effect of this was increased anxiety, frustration and mistrust, all element which negatively impact human behaviour, and consequently reduce their productivity.

In the 1960s; Douglas McGregor advanced the theories X and Y that highlighted employees’ motivation and behaviour management in organizations. Theory X postulates that the individual is self-centred, dislikes change and generally lacks ambition. This calls for their guidance through coercive organizational bureaucracies. Alternatively; theory Y suggests that the individual is proactive and ambitious enough to grow their skill set and assume more responsibility, and only needs a conducive and enabling environment (Aithal & Kumar, 2016). In 1969; Dr. William Ouchi advanced theory Z which underscored the need to enhance internal customers’ (employees) loyalty to the organization’s products, its values, leadership and brand. Ouchi opined that this could be achieved organizations’ initiatives to promote a holistic work-life balance approach for their employees. In return this would boost individuals’ productivity, morale and job satisfaction (Ouchi, 1981). Most recently; Aithal & Kumar hypothesized a theory A that emphasizes on the need for individual and organizational accountability which increases the degree of responsibility in shaping organizational objectives and outcomes.

Kondalkar (2007) affrimed that the organization, and its leadership, must be able to describe, understand, predict and control its human capital for meaningful productivity to be realized. In context; Skyline international, more so through its HR office, should develop holistic key performance indicators able to address the four aspects raised by Kondalkar. Describing will help Skyline identify characteristic attititude and behaviour consistent with the organization’s values and culture. Understanding will provide for oversight of staff morale and motivation satisfiers and their enhancement. Predicting behaviour will be essential in task assignment, as the management will have a character profile of individual employees. These information can be scientifically utilized to predict behaviour in different workplace setting, and hence selection of the optimal peersonnel behaviours. Skills development, job productivity and improvement of individual behaviour all call for adequate checks and balances. Control will provide the organization with choices on where to apply coercive or enabling bureacracy to guide desired employee behaviour.

Conclusion and recommendations

The human resource at Skyline International has portrayed a genuine concern to better the work environment, and return to desired levels of productivity and efficiency. However, there has been notable de-motivating factors including stalled remunerations, coercive KPI implementation, uncertainity over looming layoffs and general miscommunication.

It is recommended that Skyline International adopts an enabling bureaucracy that will increase staff engagement across all cadres, promote productivity and overall job satisfaction. Strategic HRM should strive to establish an OB of shared responsibilities, and accountability, for strategic drivers of performance. This should underpin the concept of HR as assets to be developed through training and exposure to grow their value and contribution to the overall organization startegy, and not as costs to be minimized.


Aithal, S. P., & Kumar, S. P. (2016). Organizational Behaviour in 21 st Century – ‘Theory A’ for Managing People for Performance. Pandeshwar (MA), India: Munich Personal RePEc Archive.

Becker, B. E., Huselid, M., & Ulrich, D. (2001). Making HR a Strategic Asset. Buffalo, New York: State University of New York .

Byremo, C. (2015). Human Resource Management and Organisational Performance: Does HRM lead to improved organisational performance? Oslo: University of Oslo.

Kondalkar, V. G. ( 2007). Organization Behaviour. New Delhi, India: New Age International (P) Ltd.

Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H. (2008). Human Resource Management, (12thed.). Mason, Ohio (US): Thompson South-Western.

Ouchi, W. (1981). Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. New York: Avon Books.

Wright, P., & Nishii, L. H. (2006). Strategic HRM and Organizational Behaviour: Integrating Multiple Levels of Analysis. Ithaca, NY: Centre for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS) Working Paper Series.