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Directions Read the full case study in the textbook: Case 13.2 Answer all case study discussion questions. Submit your

Read the full case study in the textbook: Case 13.2
Answer all case study discussion questions.
Submit your work for review.
Case Study Requirements
Full points will be earned if the case study(s):
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the book introduction to leadership by peter northouse

Running head: MODULE 4 1 MODULE 4 9 Module 4 Student Institutional

Running head: MODULE 4 1


Module 4


Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Number



Table of Contents

Module 4 3

Chapter 13 3

Chapter 14 4

Chapter 15 5

Chapter 16 6

Reflection 8

Reference 9

Module 4

Chapter 13

This chapter addresses the selection and management of entry modes. From this, I have learned how organizations use countertrade, import, and export, the different approaches for export/import financing, the forms of export/import financing, and the aspects to consider while choosing an entry mode. The chapter is important in helping one understand how a business can go global. Thus, one can easily adapt the suggested approaches to ensure that their companies can successfully become global. Chapter 13 also made me aware of the factors and challenges that can influence exports, imports, and countertrades.

I learned and understood the four-step model, which outlines the steps for export strategy. According to Wild and Wild (2019), the steps involved in the export strategy include “identify a potential market, match needs to abilities, initiate meetings, and commit resources” (317). Through these steps, one comprehends how to start exporting their products and ensure the process is successful. There is also a differentiation between direct and indirect exporting. Direct exporting involves the direct selling of products to customers, while indirect exporting involves the use of intermediaries to sell products to customers (Wild and Wild, 2019). Other important concepts that I learned in this chapter include the contractual entry modes, which refer to the different contracts an organization can use to enter the market. Thus, a company can enter the market through modes such as licensing, turnkey projects, management contracts, and franchising.

In this chapter, I also engaged in the warm-up, where I scored 50%, the video assignment with a score of 50%, and lastly, the try it Mini Sim on managing in a global environment with a score of 43.5%. The warm-up involved answering ten questions from which I correctly answered all. The video assignment involved watching a particular video related to selecting and managing entry modes and answering the provided questions. The Mini Sims assignments were influential. They placed me in a professional business role and enabled me to use the concepts learned to make decisions in real-world business encounters.

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 focused on the development and the marketing of products. It also offered insightful knowledge on aspects to deliberate in creating international product strategies, the benefits of strategy for international promotion, what organizations must reflect when formulating plans for international distribution, and the two major global price appraisal approaches and the elements to be considered. This chapter helps one recognize the variables that must be deliberated in product formulation, promotion, distribution, and pricing. One must be well familiarized with the strategies and skills for them to create, promote, distribute or price a product successfully.

The chapter also addressed the approaches to developing product strategies. In this section, I learned about the factors that impact the standardised-versus-adapt decision. They include laws and regulations, cultural variances, and the names of the brand and the product. Most importantly, the brand name will assist customers in determining where the product is from and if the clients will most likely purchase it. Thus, a product’s name determines the personality and the image it portrays to the customers (Wild and Wild, 2019). The other importance learned is that the brand name also prevents the production of copycat products which fail to meet the standards of the original products.

In this chapter, I also participated in the warm-up, video assignment, try it Mini Sim on global marketing, and the quiz, all of which I scored 50%, except for the chapter’s quiz, whereby the score was 0%. The overall engagement in this chapter has equipped me with the necessary skills and knowledge for determining the factors that influence the formulation of products.

Chapter 15

Managing international operations was the central element addressed in this chapter. The chapter further addressed the features to think through when creating production approaches, those to consider when obtaining physical assets, the main production issues that worry managers, and the best approaches to finance business procedures. Thus, after reading and understanding the chapter, I understood how organizations launch and take care of their international production struggles.

The chapter was influential as it helped me understand how organizations attain products and materials needed in the formulation of products. I understood the strategies also used by organizations to finance their organizations. The factors that influence the formulation of production approaches include capacity planning, facilities location planning, the production procedures to be applied, and the facilities layout. Therefore, all these factors will enable an organization to determine the production strategies that it can use.

I have thus gained adequate knowledge of the necessary resources required to have a successful international business. Also, one must consider certain aspects while looking for physical resources to set up a business. These factors include fixed assets, raw materials, and the make-or-buy decision (Wild and Wild, 2019). The make-or-buy decision refers to the decision made by an organization on whether to make the raw materials required for the production or to purchase them from another organization. I learned that considering such an aspect will assist the organization in determining what physical resources are essential and needed for the organization. The availability of raw materials also influences the quality of the product that an organization is likely to make.

The concept of production concerns was significant in understanding the manufacturing process of a product. The key issues that concern managers include quality development determinations, reinvestment versus divestment, and shipping and inventory costs. A manager must be concerned about the improvement efforts of a product. A quality product reduces production costs while it also pleases a customer. Therefore, the manager must ensure that the quality of a product is achieved. In conclusion to reading and understanding this chapter, I also participated in the warm-up, video assignment, and quiz in this section, scoring 100% in each.

Chapter 16

The last chapter focused on hiring and managing employees. The chapter also helped comprehend the various staffing policies organizations use, the issues facing recruitment and selection of human resources, the programs used by organizations to train and develop, organizations’ approaches to reward workers and managers, and lastly, the significance of labour-management affairs. This chapter taught me how organizations attain and manage their employees. It focuses on recruitment and selection and the staffing policies of organizations.

There are different staffing policies, including ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric staffing. According to Wild and Wild (2019), ethnocentric staffing refers to employees from the home country managing the organisation’s operations from abroad. Thus, organizations applying such a strategy usually ensure that they formulate policies acceptable to all countries. In polycentric staffing, the organisation’s operations are managed abroad by employees from the host country (Wild and Wild, 2019). Lastly, geocentric staffing refers to the staffing policy whereby well-qualified employees manage operations abroad despite their nationality. Understanding these three policies is important in determining the staffing policies to adopt. However, these three forms of policies also have their advantages and disadvantages. This makes it vital for a manager to be aware of the type of the business size and how well each policy can apply in the company. They should select the policy likely to bring more profits into the organization than losses.

The chapter also addressed the major issues that face the recruitment and selection of human resources. Before recruiting and selecting employees, an organization needs to evaluate the issues likely to affect the process. These issues include human resource planning, recruitment, selection, culture shock, and reverse culture shock (Wild and Wild, 2019). All these factors influence how an organization will hire employees. For instance, if the recruitment and selection criteria are challenging, thus, only a few employees are likely to get the position. Also, managers must ensure that the selection criteria are favorable to individuals living in the organization’s area.

The other aspect addressed in this chapter is the training and development of employees. The various approaches used by different organizations include “environmental briefings, cultural orientations, cultural assimilation, sensitivity training, language training, and field experience” (Wild and Wild, 2019, p. 389). Also, I learned that the compilation of a cultural profile assists in deciding whether an organization and its employee can operate internationally. Lastly, employee compensation involves the various ways organizations compensate their employees. Some popular modes of compensation include bonuses and tax incentives and paid holidays. Lastly, I participated in the various assignments assigned for this chapter. Thus, I engaged in the warm-up exercise, the video assignment, and the quiz, all of which I attained 100%. The good performance in this chapter indicates how much I had understood the subject and that I could easily apply knowledge gained in real-world scenarios.


As the person in charge of the global expansion of Dollar Tree, I would recommend its expansion in India, Germany, and Switzerland. I would pick to expand in these countries since Dollar Tree is not popular there. Thus, expanding the operation will ensure that people have easy access to a wide variety of products, hence increasing the organisation’s profits. These countries also have friendly political policies that will ensure the organization succeeds. According to Wild and Wild (2019), democratic countries uphold stable business environments by adopting laws that protect people’s property rights. Since Germany, Switzerland, and India all have democratic governments, it is expected that the business will flourish. The expansion to these countries will also be successful due to the availability of qualified personnel who can run the business. It will also be easier to acquire employees who will surely understand clients’ needs and work towards ensuring they receive the products necessary to satisfy their needs.

I would also want to expand the business to my country India. India is a country with an increased population; thus, the company will be a huge success due to the frequent needs of the people. They will easily access products from the Dollar Tree organization in their region. The business will be expanded in almost all the major cities in India. Thus, most customers will save a lot and avoid unnecessary transportation fees and shipping of commodities from other regions.


Wild, J. J., & Wild, K. L. (2019). International business: The challenges of globalization (9th ed.). NY: Pearson.

Introduction This study is intended to demonstrate how ethical leadership is a

Directions Read the full case study in the textbook: Case 13.2 Answer all case study discussion questions. Submit your Management Assignment Help Introduction

This study is intended to demonstrate how ethical leadership is a crucial ingredient in achieving a sustainable organisation. Sustainable leadership entails mindful actions and behaviours that embrace the global perspective to recognise the link between the earth and humanity. A leader can positively affect environmental and social changes through personal and organisational changes. This study illustrates that nurturing ethical leadership is essential and determines the transformation speed in the overall development of an organisation

Ethical Leadership and Organizational Sustainability

Ethical leadership play a vital role in developing a sustainable environment for an organisation. According to Mihelic et al., ethical leadership demonstrates normatively appropriate conduct through actions and interpersonal relationships and promotes such conduct to followers through two-way communication, decision making, and enforcement (2010, p.32). Ethical leadership is a construct that enables people to do the right thing by living up to principles of conduct and universal standards of moral behaviour. This definition proposes that ethical leaders should serve as role models, communicate and justify their actions to followers, continually behave according to ethics, and incorporate ethical dimensions in decision-making (Mihelic et al., 2010).

Organisation sustainability means enhancing societal environmental and economic systems necessary to rise to the challenges facing an organisation today without compromising the need of the future (Wales, 2013, p.39). Sustainability means having leadership strategies and talent that will meet the needs of a present customer while considering the needs of the future generation. This means that a sustainable organisation creates value consistent with its long-term preservation, environmental, financial and social capital enhancement (Wales, 2013). Thus, the organisation sustainability concept can be summarised as including all the organisation’s compulsory economic, legal, social, and ethical responsibilities.

Ethical leadership’s key principles include personal integrity, building on trust with employees, customers, and the community, and fairness (Levine & Boaks, 2014). Integrity is a virtue that helps in creating a long-term relationship. On this account, the integrity of leaders is instrumentally valuable as it offers grounds for an implied relationship between the leader and ethics (Levine & Boaks, 2014, p.235). Ethical leaders should inspire high levels of trust among followers by ensuring that their external ethical behaviours match their internal views or character to make the leadership impactful. A good corporate leader should be effective on justice and fairness issues as clashing matters of well-being and morality come (Levine & Boaks, 2014). Organisation sustainability key principles include management system, leadership and stakeholders. The management system facilitates the delivery of agreed targets through performance. A sustainable organisation require a management system that improves all aspects of sustainability and integrates elements such as CSR (Wales, 2013, p.41). Leadership is essential for directing and motivating subordinates in implementing sustainability throughout the organisation. Stakeholders establish achievable targets by scaling the short and long-term targets and implementing the objectives agreed upon to promote sustainability,

There is so much evidence of the importance of adopting ethical leadership for the survival of organisations. A leader should be very concerned about matters of fairness and justice. Leaders should want to treat every subordinate and the community as a whole equally. The leader should protect employees and customers from unjust inequalities and take part in providing desired decisions (Tushar, 2017). Ethical actions require that you treat all human beings equally or value based on defensible standards. The concern with issues of fairness is necessary when distributing resources and rewards or punishment. It is also important for ethical leaders to display honesty and trust. A leader should be truthful and honest in their duty for their followers to have a clear understanding. Dishonesty brings a lot of objectionable outcomes that create distrust and loss of faith in their subordinates (Tushar, 2017). For instance, an ethical leader should not promise what they cannot deliver, evade accountability, or favour coalition with partners who offer personal benefits.

Leadership and management facilitate the responsive part of organisational sustainability. Sustainability management practices help a company prevent risks, build a sustainable profile, and identify opportunities (Silva et al., 2020). It is more associated with communication and promotion of operational perspectives with sustainable practices to maintain superficial and short-term stakeholder satisfaction. Improving the management system enhances performance. Main stakeholders’ involvement enhances sustainable development through environmental, social, and economic perspectives (Silva et al., 2020). Stakeholders have a direct and indirect influence on the operation of the company. Their involvement and feedback provide credibility for the organisation’s economic, environmental, and social responsibility.

Leadership and financial performance have an indirect relationship. Ethical leadership links to financial performance through procedural justice, ethical climate and organisational behaviour. The sustainable ties between ethical leaders and contribute to a positive outcome for society and the environment are based on financial, social and environmental performance (Dey et al., 2022). Ethical leadership promotes employee environmental behaviours. For instance, a spiritual leader affects environmental behaviours by creating a spiritual work climate and moral values. The behaviours of a leader catalyse the environmental, behavioural employees, thereby ethically directing and shaping their values, beliefs, attitudes, and the moral behaviour of their subordinates (Dey et al., 2022). An ethical leader who conforms to environmental ethics and laws facilitates the achievement of organisation sustainability by imposing moral obligation in conserving the ecological environment. A strong sense of ecological succession morality stimulates the leader’s followers to display vivid voluntary environmental behaviours that protect the environment and humankind’s conservatory.

Ethical leaders attribute to honesty and trustworthiness and formulate policies and practices coherent with the ideologies. An ethical leader enhances a vigorous organisation ethical environment by demonstrating ethical and dutiful conduct. According to the social learning theory, employees can learn the behaviours and attitudes of their role models in the workplace (Dey et al., 2022). Therefore, a leader who conforms to the code of ethics will have their followers also excitedly behaving in the same fashion, crafting an ethical climate. The ethical climate has an unwritten set of rules on fairness and unfairness that guide members’ actions and behaviour, thus positively leading to organisation sustainability (Dey et al., 2022). Sustainability is achieved in regard to the stakeholders’ three main areas; economic, social, and environmental performance. Sustainable initiatives are fostered by ethical behaviours derived from a leadership style that pays attention to sustainable performance.

From these perspectives, the efficiency of leadership has repercussions on the organisation’s sustainability. The environmental behaviours that stimulate and improve holistic performance leverage from voluntary initiatives, which are a behaviour shift adopted by ethical leadership (Dey et al., 2022). For example, when an organisation is faced with pressure from the stakeholders in terms of revenues, growing market share and competitive industry, there will be an increasing disconnect between the leader and employees; thereby, it is easy to see how the lines of ethical behaviours and reasoning become tattered. When there is an ethical vacuum in pursuit of goals at all costs, it affects profits, and the financial behaviours can even be sacrificed for a potential monetary fine. Thus, unethical behaviour creeps in and becomes rationalised as normal. Thereby it is important to establish clear boundaries of ethical leadership to recognise that it creates a climate within the organisation that is mindful of the ramification of actions and functions to respect individuals, foster camaraderie among workers and enhance the firm’s sustainability over the long term.


I have learned many things throughout this module and encountered diverse, exciting and challenging experiences. It was a great moment to develop my knowledge and understanding in different course areas. I have gained valuable skills and developed capabilities to work as a professional. The module enabled me to explore further my strength and work on improving and enhancing my overall performance. The model has helped me understand the significance of all aspects of communication, management, teamwork and leadership skills. I now recognise my communication skill as essential as it plays a crucial part in people’s daily lives when communicating with different people. I have learned the importance of verbal and written communication that reduces the chances of misconception. Additionally, I have learned appropriate communication skills that increase the growth of productivity, which entails the use of language on the receiving end and feedback on people’s concerns. Communication and leadership go hand in hand. Through taking roles as a group leader among my peers have learned leadership skills that maintain camaraderie between team members and reduce misunderstanding. We worked as a group to develop a project, and I must say that those who are able to develop good management skills, mainly time management for accomplishing deadlines on tasks. I was also allowed to develop my teamwork skills by interacting with the students who pose a mixture of personality types.

I enjoyed my interaction where my team-working and interpersonal skills led me to gain valuable work experience roles. I approached group work with confidence and an open mind. As part of my personality development, I worked in a team that required me to use my problem-solving skills to develop an idea. My passion for meditation and mindfulness drove my group’s idea. Using my interpersonal skills, I focused on vision in order to inspire other members of the group on board. I took my problem-solving and interpersonal skills as a strength in the role. Moreover, my confidence allowed me to communicate with other students comfortable. As we began to multitask and rapidly switch between tasks, my enthusiasm caused me to delve straight into a broad range of ideas such that my verbal skills failed and I felt judged by my classmates. My confidence was shattered, and my self-esteem was ruined, hindering my ability to answer questions due to anxiety. The feedback indicated unnecessary information and a confusing message. As I reflect on this experience, I realise that I had to pay more attention to my personality type and avoid these mistakes. My attention to detail was negatively influenced by my inability to stay focused, and I got caught up in my ideas that drifted away from the main idea. I discovered an action plan to aid self-development by engaging in meditation to improve my concentration ability and manage my stress level.

If I were to engage in group work again, I would pay more attention to my attributes to be an effective group member. I would improve my communication skills by paying attention to my intellectual and emotional levels. I would encourage my group members to work together and demonstrate a sense of cohesion through openness, support, trust and self-disclosure. If my group members are open to diverse viewpoints and listen to each other, then there can be a balance as everyone gets the opportunity for individual expression. I would also encourage my group to support each other to accomplish the goal. I would exemplify the sense of team loyalty and helping each other when experiencing difficulties and view each other as a collaborator rather than a competitor. Lastly, I would encourage group members to trust one another to share their own ideas and feelings. A sense of mutual trust enhances accountability for tasks.


In conclusion, ethical leadership is crucial in achieving a sustainable organisation. Ethical leadership is built on personal integrity, trust, and fairness, while organisational sustainability is based on management, leadership, and stakeholders. These concepts are important for the survival of an organisation. Ethical actions facilitate organisational sustainability by ensuring procedural justice, ethical climate and organisational behaviour to conform to the organisation’s objective. Ethical leaders directly shape their subordinates’ values, beliefs, and attitudes. I have learned the importance of effective communication, teamwork, and management skills in ensuring group performance from this perspective. In a workplace, we encounter people with a mixture of personality types that require ethical leadership to sustain the environment.


Dey, M., Bhattacharjee, S., Mahmood, M., Uddin, M.A. and Biswas, S.R., 2022. Ethical leadership for better sustainable performance: Role employee values, behavior and ethical climate. Journal of Cleaner Production, p.130527.

Levine, M.P. and Boaks, J., 2014. What does ethics have to do with leadership?. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), pp.225-242.

Mihelic, K.K., Lipicnik, B. and Tekavcic, M., 2010. Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS), 14(5).

Silva, C., Magano, J., Moskalenko, A., Nogueira, T., Dinis, M.A.P. and Pedrosa e Sousa, H.F., 2020. Sustainable management systems standards (SMSS): Structures, roles, and practices in corporate sustainability. Sustainability, 12(15), p.5892.

Tushar, H., 2017. The role of ethical leadership in developing sustainable organisation. Tushar, H.(2017). The role of ethical leadership in developing sustainable organisation. Australasian Journal of Law, Ethics, and Governance (AJLEG), 2(2), pp.83-95.

Wales, T., 2013. Organisational sustainability: What is it, and why does it matter. Review of enterprise and management studies, 1(1), pp.38-49.

Surname 2 Student Professor Course Date Does the Movie Moonlight highlight that

Surname 2





Does the Movie Moonlight highlight that Sexuality in Mainstream Culture depicts Women as Inferior to Males and More focused on Sexual Attraction?

Moonlight movie has been hailed for its incredible representation of sexual orientation and the intersectionality of race and gender. The film only uses two main female characters to explain the social issues experienced globally. Paula represents a dysfunctional family and sexual-related issues such as prostitution, while Teresa is used as a mother figure in the film. Sexuality orientation and male domination are noticed in almost all the scenes in the movie. The paper researches how the movie Moonlight uses sexuality to depict women as inferior to males by focusing on their sexual representation.

The film begins its first scene by showing how Chiron’s classmates mention that Chiron had forgotten to change his tampons. It shows how female sexuality is used as a joke to criticize sexual orientation. Chiron’s sexual identity is continuously compared to the female sex and indicates that feminism is a less favorable aspect for advancing narratives male characters share. When Chiron does not show interest in sports, his classmates claim he has women’s problems. Women’s sexually related processes are considered problems among the male characters in the Moonlight movie.

Moonlight uses the characters’ conversations to devalue women in society. Kevin narrates to Chiron how he was detained for publicly having sexual contact with a lady in the hallway at school. The conversation shows Kevin reducing the girl to a sexual object by the terms he uses. As he recalls the events, he uses the term ‘trick’ to refer to the girl. The term is an urban slang word used to describe prostitutes or women who tease or make men involved in sexual acts for money (Johnson, 3). His description of the events portrays the female gender as a sexual tool that passively participates in the acts to get certain benefits other than pleasure. Kevin further narrates his sexual prowess, thus degrading women’s position in society since he symbolizes powerful and egoistic aspects that dominate the masculine populations. Arguably, the incidents that Kevin narrates about may be why the other boys refrain from bullying him even though he shares the same sexuality as Chiron. The conversation that the group of boys makes when they encounter a female in the neighborhood shows the position of women in society. The boys’ question if the woman is as cheap as Paula, Chiron’s mother, indicates that women are considered low-life individuals who can only participate in the sexual business.

The character Paula is used in the Moonlight movie to show how women operate in an environment of limited opportunities. Paula is the biological mother of the protagonist Chiron and a single mother trying to manage social problems in the neighborhood. Paula is shown to hold the sexualized drug business within the bay to help keep her family away from it. She even tells her son that she does everything to keep him safe. The events of the scene tend to limit the potential of women in the economy for sexual activities (Kanjere, 75). However, men such as Juana are shown to control the drug business as women perform sexual acts within the bay.

Over time, the scenes in the movie begin to dominate a sexual nature in Paula’s domestic space. Men visit Paula at her own house, making her tell his only son Chiron to leave the house for her for the night. Women are shown to give themselves to men, signifying that men have power over female lives. The only way Paula can get money, and drugs are to have sexual contact with men. Men are therefore depicted as superior because they control the drug business, making them have control over female populations. The sexual drug business makes women have little sexual rights and power since they are set by men who control the drug business. Women are mandated subordinate roles within the system since they are not given powerful duties that may make them access to money or cash. Gender-based violence is further shown among women when Paula is labeled an object by other men (Zeng, 448). Chiron’s classmates consider Paula a low-life and cheap because she offers sexual needs to other men at a low price. The males compare another woman in the neighborhood to be as cheap as Paula because of the declining value of the business. The sexual drug acts that Paula involves in take away her purity and innocence in society, thus tainting and interfering with her motherhood respect as her son claims to hate her.

Teresa takes the motherly responsibility from Paula when Juan brings Chiron home. Viewers are likely to conclude that Paula was a bad mother and that Teresa is a good mother because of how she treats Chiron. Paula becomes a drug addict and often shouts at his son, unlike Teresa, who offers Chiron a place to stay and protection. When Chiron returns to meet Kevin in Miami, he narrates his involvement with a woman with whom she got a child. He continues to say that he had done his part to take care of the child, which puts Paula on the spot also as a bad woman since she only notices her duties as a parent when it is too late. Teresa is shown to play the role of a mother to Chiron and romantic sexual duties to Juan, the drug lord. Women’s roles are limited to motherhood duties and sexual satisfaction (Watkins, 4). Moonlight taints women even more when it shows Paula demands money given to Chiron for her personal use. The movie does not provide details about Teresa at the end after Juan dies. She is likely drawn and carried away by drugs due to sorrow or involved in the sexual business to manage life.

Moonlight also uses human bonding to show male supremacy over females. Juan becomes the father figure to Chiron and even provides him with a place to stay. Juan confronts Paula about being an irresponsible mother and not being there for her son but deeply addicted to drugs (Reznik, 3). However, Teresa has not made any move to help Paula with her addiction. Men seem to show more support for other males when encountering problems than females. Also, this shows that there is hardly any attraction between females and other females than among men. Kevin’s relationship with Chiron brings out aspects of sexuality, relationships, and emotions. Kevin and Chiron’s relationship begins with a piece of advice on how to avoid being bullied. It shows how male characters easily conform to other males explaining the hegemonic masculinity bonds. Moonlight attempts to normalize the sexual experience between the male teenagers without any personal needs as it portrays females making bonds for money or drugs. Their relationship shows their withdrawal from intimate feelings for the females. Chiron has not had any sexual encounter with anyone since the last time he was with Kevin showing how he values males over females.

Works Cited

Johnson, E. Patrick. “In the Quare Light of the Moon: Poverty, Sexuality and Makeshift Masculinity in Moonlight.” Western Journal of Black Studies 43 (2019).

Kanjere, Anastasia. “You and I… We’re the Same: Men and Women outside the Romance Pact.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies 29.2 (2020): 75-96.

Reznik, Alexandra. “Music, Pain, and Healing in Moonlight.” Western Journal of Black Studies 43 (2019).

Watkins-Hayes, Celeste, Rikki Byrd, and Candice Merritt. “Eclipsed: Darkness, Light, and Motherhood in the Sexualized Drug Economy of Moonlight.” Western Journal of Black Studies 43 (2019).

Zeng, Hong. “Contemporary flâneuses in late capitalism: the representation of urban space in two Hong Kong women artists’ works.” Continuum 34.3 (2020): 448-467.

5 Movie Review Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Name and Code Instructor’s


Movie Review

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Code

Instructor’s Name


Movie Analysis

Racism and impossible division are racking the world, which reduces the hope for individuals who don’t see the possibility of love prevailing. The thematic presentation in “The West Side Story,” including bigotry and racism, links well with leadership theories since the film introduces the audience to the Jets’ leader, Riff, and George Chakiris, the leader of the Sharks. If good leadership persists in society, instances of hatred and intolerance will not emerge, making the two young lovers separate in the film. Leadership theories will be essential in this film review since they will assist in interpreting how the characters make essential decisions on particular issues. Generally, the film “The West Side Story” emphasizes the need for having appropriate leadership in its motives for enabling the leaders to solve the issues, especially in how it ends with the shooting of one of the characters due to love issues. Therefore, the paper will discuss key themes from the film and illustrate how they relate to the leadership theories covered during this semester.

The film depicts the affection exchange theory through its characters through the emotional expressions of the two lovers who separate for a certain period. In affection exchange theory, Floyd illustrates the importance of having affectionate communication among individuals, particularly the leaders, since it will assist in the evolution of human ideas for promoting adaptive behaviors (Floyd et al., 2008). Social behaviors are instrumental for all leaders since they determine the kind of relationships that will enhance the benefits for the entire group. Suppose there exists more affection among the members of a particular group. In that case, it will be possible to improve their bond and development using available resources. Floyd’s contention is applicable in the film since the kind of relationship that individuals who have bonded possess in the current period will determine how their future associations will be with other individuals. In addition, another example emanating from the film that reinforces the affection exchange theory is when hatred escalates between two feuding families; that is, the white Jets and Latino Sharks, led by Riff and Bernardo, respectively. Later on, these two families develop characters similar to those of the gangs. Affection exchange theory also depicts itself when Maria feels the loss of Tony, who dies out of a gunshot from Chino. In addition, if people are affectionate enough, there will be minimal chances of experiencing casualties like the ones emerging from the film. Therefore, affection and social exchange are important aspects for individuals, especially those in leadership positions.

In addition, we have also discussed the attraction theory, which has vast applications in the film. According to Blake et al. (2020), attraction theory assists individuals in understanding the mechanisms that we can use in choosing friends and why we get to be attracted and become affiliated with certain persons. The global community benefits from the interconnectedness of the individuals, which can only happen whenever they have the best communication. For individuals to communicate about certain life issues, they must be attracted to each other due to specific attributes possessed by the other party. The film illustrates how two gangs are fighting for social spaces and other institutions due to the attractive attributes of the groups. Individuals who have joined the white Jets or the Latino Sharks gangs base their affiliation on some attractive aspects, which can only be attained through assistance from the two leaders, Riff, and Bernardo, respectively. The two young lovers, Tony and Maria, also explains the attraction theory through their deepest affections and love that makes them fight for each other’s love. Therefore, it will be essential for individuals to wisely choose the kind of groups that can advocate for their welfare, which can only happen if they have the appropriate leaders.

Social exchange theory has also been explored in the semester, and the film review associates it with the character traits of the actors in the film. The primary purpose of the social exchange theory is to explain how individuals will develop specific social characteristics due to the exchange process. At the basic level, social exchange theory occurs through the interaction between two or more individuals who gain some rewards through the interactions (Porter, 2018). The film has several instances whereby social exchange theory is applicable. An exchange through interaction occurs when the two gangs comprising the Jets and the Sharks recruit their members, who later on become a unified group after subscribing to similar doctrines. Therefore, every member will be required to identify with the title of the gang. The members of the Jets have considered Bernardo to be the Shark in the film, which Bernardo confirms as the leader. Social exchange theory is also seen as interaction and exchange between Tony and Maria, who maintains secrecy about their love. The criminal activities in the film occur through the murder of some characters like Tony, which is usually against the ethical considerations of a particular group. Therefore, the film perfectly represents how social exchange theory can be applied through the perfect representation of its characters and the two gangs.

During the semester, we also covered the social penetration theory applicable to the film “West Side Story.” The key focus of this theory is on how individuals can develop relationships and enhance the communication patterns among themselves from relatively shallow backgrounds towards the deeper non-intimate relationship levels. Communication among people who are new to each other will begin from shallow levels that are not too close and develop gradually into more advanced levels. An illustration is that communication is the key to enhancing relationships among certain people (Lei et al., 2022). The film “West Side Story” depicts various sociological terms that label the social penetration theory to illustrate how the various characters can meet and begin communicating among themselves. Some characters, such as Bernardo, object to any socialization forms between his sister with the “gringos.” In addition, Bernardo is against attempts at Tony to socialize with the Jets. However, both Tony and Bernardo’s sister defy Bernardo’s stance as they create their communication with the two groups, which begins from the non-intimate levels towards the deep levels characterized by strong membership to those particular groups. In such cases, it implies that the film perfectly represents the social penetration theory.

In conclusion, the various leadership theories essential in business and psychology are described in the paper with the assistance of the film “West Side Story.” The paper has focused on affection exchange, attraction, social exchange, and social penetration theories. The relationship between these theories and the film is shown by using the characteristics of various actors. The issues such as bigotry, racism, and affiliation to particular gangs have also been shown through the traits of the major characters. In addition, the paper has shown the importance of communication that creates solid relationships that are the basis for interaction. Finally, I consider that watching the film has been important for my profession and enhancing my leadership skills. I can now approach life appropriately, which implies that I will be watching the episodes of this film now and then.


Blake, K. R., Brooks, R., Arthur, L. C., & Denson, T. F. (2020). In the context of romantic attraction, beautification can increase assertiveness in women. PloS one, 15(3), e0229162.

Floyd, K., Judd, J., & Hesse, C. (2008). Affection exchange theory. Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: Multiple perspectives, 285-293.

Lei, X., Wu, H., Deng, Z., & Ye, Q. (2022). Self-disclosure, social support and postpartum depressive mood in online social networks: a social penetration theory perspective. Information Technology & People.

Porter, C. M. (2018). Long live social exchange theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 11(3), 498-504.